Hours of work - 251 entries found
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Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [European Union]
Directive 2003/88/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 4 novembre 2003 concernant certains aspects de l'aménagement du temps de travail [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2003/88/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 4 de noviembre de 2003, relativa a determinados aspectos de la ordenación del tiempo de trabajo [in Spanish]
This Directive replaces Council Directive 93/104/EC of 23 November 1993 (CIS 94-1807) on the same subject, as modified by Dir. 2000/34/EC. It regulates minimum periods of daily and weekly rest and annual leave, as well as breaks, maximum weekly working time, and certain aspects of night work, shift work and patterns of work. It applies to all workers with the exception of seafarers. Contents: definitions; minimum rest periods (11 consecutive hours per 24h period; a rest break if the working day >6h; 24h + daily rest per each 7-day period; average maximum weekly working time: 48h; 4 weeks annual leave); provisions relating to night and shift work (incl. appropriate safety and health protection); right of Member States to introduce more favourable legislation; reference periods; derogations and exemptions (incl. by collective agreements); special provisions for mobile workers, offshore work and workers on board seagoing fishing vessels.
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 18 Nov. 2003, 46th Year, No.L 299, p.9-19.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_299/l_29920031118en00090019.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2003/l_299/l_29920031118fr00090019.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2003/l_299/l_29920031118es00090019.pdf [in Spanish]
Lilley R., Feyer A.M., Kirk P., Gander P.
A survey of forest workers in New Zealand - Do hours of work, rest and recovery play a role in accidents and injury?
This study explored the relationship between fatigue and accidents in a group of 367 forestry industry workers in New Zealand. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Fatigue was commonly experienced at work, with 78% of workers reporting that they experienced fatigue at least "sometimes." Certain groups of workers reported long working hours, reduced sleep, compromised recovery time, and intensely paced work. Logistic regression analysis showed that recent sleep, number of breaks taken during the workday, and specific tasks were independently associated with reporting of high fatigue levels at work. Near-miss events were significantly more common among those reporting a high level of fatigue at work. Accidents and lost-time injury were associated with length of time at work, ethnicity, and having had near-miss injury events. These results suggest that fatigue is associated with compromised safety for forest workers.
Journal of Safety Research, 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.53-71. Illus. 44 ref.
Nakazawa T., Okubo Y., Suwazono Y., Kobayashi E., Komine S., Kato N., Nogawa K.
Association between duration of daily VDT use and subjective symptoms
Although visual display unit (VDU) work has become a common task among office workers, surveys which would help to determine the allowable duration of daily VDU use are limited. In this study, more than 25,000 workers were investigated three times over a three-year period using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical symptoms score increased with increasing duration of daily VDU use without a threshold effect. Mental and sleep-related symptom scores of the workers using VDUs for more than five hours per day were significantly higher than those of the groups using VDUs for shorter periods. In this case, the relationship was non-linear with a threshold effect at five hours per day.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.42, No.5, p.421-426. 25 ref.
Mohren D.C.L., Jansen N.W.H., Kant I., Galama J.M.D., van den Brandt P.A., Swaen G.M.H.
Prevalence of common infections among employees in different work schedules
This study examined the prevalence of common infections among employees in different work schedules. Self-administered questionnaire data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "Fatigue at Work" (n=12,140) were used. Job title was used as a matching variable between day and shift workers. Multilevel analysis of a two-level structure was carried out, in which the individual employees (level 1) were nested within job titles (level 2), adjusted for demographics, chronic disease, health behaviour, work-related factors, fatigue and sleep quality. Results from the multilevel analyses showed that, compared to day work, shift work was associated with a higher risk for common infections, with the highest risk in three-shift workers. Compared to day work, shift work was further associated with differences in health, health behaviour, sleep, fatigue and perceived job characteristics, factors that may influence the occurrence of infections.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.1003-1011. 62 ref.
Nagaya T., Yoshida H., Takahashi H., Kawai M.
Markers of insulin resistance in day and shift workers aged 30-59 years
To examine relationships between shift work and markers of insulin resistance (IR), a cross-sectional study was carried out, involving 2,824 day and 826 shift workers. All the subjects were male blue-collar workers aged 30-59 years. Four IR markers were checked. Data concerning the specifics of the job, work schedules and lifestyles were based on self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of each IR marker was compared between the two worker groups, after adjusting for age, body mass index, job, drinking, smoking and exercise. It was found that the IR syndrome was associated with shift work in workers younger than 50 years. Furthermore, these relations may be underestimated due to broad definitions of shift work and healthy-worker effects.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.562-568. 40 ref.
Liu Y., Tanaka H.
Overtime work, insufficient sleep, and risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in Japanese men
The objective of this case-control study was to examine the relation between working hours and hours of sleep on one hand, and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the other. Cases consisted of 260 Japanese men aged 40-79 admitted to hospitals with AMI during 1996-8. Controls consisted of 445 men free from AMI, matched for age and place of residence. It was found that hours worked per week were related to progressively increased odds ratios of AMI in the past year as well as in the past month, with a twofold increased risk for overtime work (weekly working hours ≥61) compared with working hours ≤40. Short time sleep (daily hours of sleep ≤5) and frequent lack of sleep (two or more days/week with less than five hours of sleep) were associated with a two to threefold increased risk. Frequent lack of sleep and few days off in the recent past showed greater odds ratios than those in the past year. It is concluded that overtime work and insufficient sleep may be related to increased risk of AMI.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.447-451. 33 ref.
Working hours spent on repeated activities and prevalence of back pain
To evaluate the association between working hours spent on repeated activities and back pain, data gathered through the 1988 National Health Interview Survey in the United States were analysed. 30,074 workers had participated in the survey. They were asked to provide information on their job, including the time spent on repeated strenuous physical activities (RSPA) and the time spent on repeated bending, twisting or reaching (RBTR) on a typical job, and where applicable to report the cause of their back pain. The prevalence of back pain increased as the number of working hours spent on RSPA or RBTR increased. The prevalence of back pain due to repeated activities was 8.9% among male workers and 5.9% among female workers. Carpenters had the highest prevalence (19.2%) among men, and health care personnel had the highest prevalence (15.2%) among women.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.59, No.10, p.680-688. 45 ref.
The evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry
L'évolution de l'emploi, du temps de travail et de la formation dans les industries extractives [in French]
The aim of this report was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for delegates attending a tripartite meeting on the evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry held at the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, 7-11 October 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange views on the evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry, the social and labour implications of these developments for the parties concerned and the role of social dialogue in addressing them, and to adopt conclusions that include proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level and by the ILO. Contents of this report: evolution of employment in the mining industry; evolution of working time; evolution of training; the AIDS/HIV issue; mining and sustainable development; summary and suggested points for discussion.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. vi, 83p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Espino C.M., Sundstrom S.M., Frick H.L., Jacobs M., Peters M.
International business travel: Impact on families and travellers
To assess the impact of international business travel on travellers and their families, a questionnaire survey was conducted among spouses and staff of the World Bank. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. The survey also allowed the gaining of further insight into how business travel affects families, and how families cope. Lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates affect many spouses and children (particularly young children) negatively and the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve stress.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.59, No.5, p.309-322. 20 ref.
Pickshaus K., Schmitthenner H., Urban H.J.
Endless work - New working conditions and trade union policy
Arbeiten ohne Ende - Neue Arbeitsverhältnisse und gewerkschaftliche Arbeitspolitik [in German]
In this publication, sociologists, occupational psychologists and labour union members analyse and comment on "endless work" (flexible work without limits). Articles are grouped under the following headings: reasons behind the adoption of endless work and health hazards; duration of work and performance levels required; practical experiences and action support tools; policy strategies. A CD-ROM by IG Metall containing guidance, practical help, presentations, legislation, addresses and useful links is also included.
VSA-Verlag, St. Georgs Kirchhof 6, 20099 Hamburg, Germany, 2001. 256p. Illus.Bibl.ref. Includes CD-ROM. Price: EUR 17.80.
Beermann B., Klenner C.
We need teams that are ready for the Olympics - Flexible work schedules and occupational safety and health
Olympiareife Mannschaften gesucht? Flexible Arbeitszeiten und Arbeitsschutz [in German]
Proceedings of a workshop on flexible work schedules and their effects on health held in Dortmund, Germany, 22 September 1999. Increasing work schedule flexibility generally entails longer workdays (10-hour days or 6-day weeks), and requires greater levels of performance and flexibility on the part of workers. The workshop addressed health hazards as well as the positive effects of health that may be expected from these types of work schedules. Risks and opportunities for workers were discussed and gaps in research were highlighted. Examples of flexible work schedules suited to older workers and to workers with dependants were also presented.
Hans Böckler Stiftung, Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz 1, 40227 Düsseldorf, Germany, 2001. 101p. Price: DEM 20.00.
Härmä M., Kandolin I.
Shiftwork, age and well-being: Recent developments and future perspectives
The working population is aging fast in most European countries. The health and well-being of elderly shift workers depend on the interaction of several individual, medical, psychosocial and job-related factors. These factors are related to the biological aging process, but also to changes in one's individual life situation and the needs of the aging shift worker. Data on age-specific solutions in working hours are limited, but the few published intervention studies support the use of individual flexibility, rapid forward-rotating shift systems and earlier shift start-end times in three-shift work. In addition to the development of shift schedules, other measures to improve the health and well-being of aging shift workers should be focused on the improvement of occupational health care and the promotion of appropriate sleep and circadian rhythm coping mechanisms.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.287-293. Illus. 33 ref.
Sato S., Taoda K., Kawamura M., Wakaba K., Fukuchi Y., Nishiyama K.
Heart rate variability during long truck driving work
Ambulatory electrocardiograms of six long-distance truck drivers were recoded during their work period in order to observe the autonomic nervous function and symptoms during work. The RR50 (the number of cycles with R-R interval >50ms) and the low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LFP/HFP) ratio were calculated every two minutes. During naps, RR50 was significantly higher than during other periods of the work shift, while the LFP/HFP ratio was significantly lower. RRRR50 was also significantly higher in the morning than in the afternoon, while again the LFP/HFP ratio was lower. These results show that the parasympathetic nervous activities were more dominant than sympathetic nervous activities in the morning. Driving during high parasympathetic nervous activity levels may add to cardiovascular stress and lead to drowsiness.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.235-240. Illus. 17 ref.
Rodrigues V.F., Fischer F.M., Brito M.J.
Shift work at a modern offshore drilling rig
The objective of this study was to evaluate how offshore drilling workers perceived shift work and its impact on their living and working conditions. Comprehensive interviews were conducted among 51 shift workers employed in the studied offshore unit. The main features of offshore shift work schedules are long time on board (14 to 28 days), extended shifts (12 hours or more per day), slow rotation (7 to 14 days in the same shift), long sequence of days on the night shift (7 to 14 days in a row) and the extra-long extended journey (18 hours) on shift change and landing days. Interviews revealed a wide range of stressors caused by the offshore shift work, as well as difficulties to conciliate work with family life. The major stressors for the offshore drilling workers were role conflicts and social isolation resulting from changes of the family model, work in hazardous environments, poor sleep when working at night and the imbalance between the expected and actual rewards.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.167-172. 14 ref.
Bourdouxhe M., Toulouse G.
Health and safety among film technicians working extended shifts
This study of film technicians' work schedules and occupational hazards was based on 650 responses to a questionnaire given to film technicians, interviews with producers and technicians and a review of the literature on freelancers, on the effects of intermittent work and on risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries. Work schedules showed a tendency to extremely long work shifts (14 hours per day on average, and up to 19 hours in some cases). Occupational constraints and work schedules were found to relate to an increased risk of work-related injuries. Technicians identified fatigue associated with work schedules as the principal risk of accidents and one of the factors responsible for causing or aggravating their many musculoskeletal injuries. In addition to work schedules, stress and physical workload were also an important risk factors, particularly when demanding tasks had to be performed under severe time constraints.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.113-118. 18 ref.
Kecklund G., Ekstedt M., Åkerstedt T., Dahlgren A., Samuelson B.
The effects of double-shifts (15.5 hours) on sleep, fatigue and health
The aim of this study was to investigate how "double-shifts" (15.5h) affect sleep, fatigue and self-rated health. The study involved 48 male construction workers working during two work periods, with each work period consisting of two consecutive double shifts. The subjects filled in a sleep/wake diary and responded to a questionnaire on several occasions during the course of a year. The results showed that sleepiness, and to a certain extent, mental fatigue, increased during double shifts and accumulated across days. The short rest time (8.5h) between days allowed an insufficient sleep period of approximately 5.5h. Questionnaire data showed that complaints of insufficient sleep, exhaustion on awakening and pain symptoms increased across the year. It was concluded that a shift system involving double shifts has a negative effect on fatigue, recovery and well-being.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.53-58. Illus. 14 ref.
Kandolin I., Härmä M., Toivanen M.
Flexible working hours and well-being in Finland
According to a survey of 1790 Finnish employees during 2000, a majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees usually worked overtime and/or were subject to irregular working hours every month. Individual latitude of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees being able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and difficulties in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.35-40. Illus. 8 ref.
Van der Hulst M., Geurts S.
Associations between overtime and psychological health in high and low reward jobs
This study focused on the relationship between overtime and psychological health as a function of reward and pressure to work overtime. Data were collected for 535 full-time employees of the Dutch Postal Service. Logistic regression analyses showed that employees reporting low psychological rewards had elevated risks of burnout, negative work-home interference and slow recovery. A second analysis was conducted separately for employees who worked overtime. In this subgroup, low psychological rewards were associated with elevated risks of health complaints, emotional exhaustion and negative home-work interference. Employees who worked overtime and reported a high pressure to work overtime in combination with low psychological rewards had elevated risks of poor recovery, cynicism, and negative work-home interference. The results suggest that even a limited number of hours of involuntary overtime in low psychological reward situations is associated with adverse mental health.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.15, No.3, p.227-240. 40 ref.
Bøggild H., Burr H., Tüchsen F., Jeppesen H.J.
Work environment of Danish shift and day workers
Data on 5940 Danish employees in a cohort study from 1990 were reanalysed in order to study whether shift work is associated with other work factors related to heart disease. Beside work schedules, length of the work week, physical factors, psychosocial factors and age of workers were considered. Conflicts at work were higher among all the groups of shift workers and all-day walking or standing work were more often found among females. The analysed shift work was found to be associated with other work environment factors suspected to be involved in heart disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.97-105. 51 ref.
Professional drivers' working time as a factor of flexibility and competitiveness in road haulage
Summary of a report on professional road-transport drivers, analysing working time and conditions, accident risks and occupational illnesses, and taking into account competitive conditions and European legislation on weekly working hours.
Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Feb. 2001, No. 15-16, p.39-47. Illus. 19 ref.
Modelling and analysis of CAD expert behaviour in using manual input devices
An analysis illustrated the variety of resources and visual tasks required with the use of computer aided design (CAD) due to the manipulation of input devices, perceptual matching and error corrections. The productivity of CAD output might be enhanced by complementary use of speech input devices.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.79-92. Illus. 21 ref.
Nylén L., Voss M., Floderus B.
Mortality among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work: A study based on data from the Swedish twin registry
A subcohort of the Swedish twin registry born between 1926-58 was studied. Data were based on a postal questionnaire of 1973 and on information from the Swedish Causes of Death Registry. All subjects reporting a main occupation were selected, 9500 women and 11,132 men, and mortality from all causes during 1973-96 was analysed. Unemployment in 1973 among both women and men showed an association with increased mortality. The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 1.98 for women and 1.43 for men. For the first 5 years of follow up, a threefold increase in risk was found for men (RR 3.29). The RR declined by time, but remained increased throughout the 24 year study period. In women, overtime work of more than 5 hours a week was followed by an increased mortality rate (RR 1.92). A protective effect of moderate overtime work of a maximum 5 hours a week was shown for men (RR 0.58), whereas an increased mortality was indicated for part time work (RR 1.58) and extra work (work outside employment) of more than 5 hours a week (RR 1.29).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.52-57. Illus. 27 ref.
Lilja R., Hämäläinen U.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Working time preferences at different phases of life
During 1998, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out a major survey on Employment Options of the Future across the 15 EU Member States and Norway. It involved over 30,000 telephone interviews with people aged between 16 and 64 years. The survey examined the questions of persons wanting to work, when and why. This leaflet summarizes the main findings of the survey concerning age-related preferences with respect to weekly hours of work. Contents: employment patterns at different phases of life; young people and employment; transition from school to employment; factors affecting young people's employment prospects; combining family and work; satisfaction with working hours; working time regulations; reaping the benefits of work; choices of older women; preparing for life after work; gradual retirement; discussion of results.
Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus.
Fagan C., Warren T.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Gender, employment and working time preferences in Europe
During 1998, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out a major survey on Employment Options of the Future across the 15 EU Member States and Norway. It involved over 30,000 telephone interviews with people aged between 16 and 64 years. The survey examined the questions of persons wanting to work, when and why. This leaflet summarizes the main findings of the survey concerning men's and women's preferences with respect to the number of hours they work per week. Contents: adjustments to weekly working hours; children and care responsibilities; country differences; occupational and professional status; overtime, sabbaticals and part-time work; discussion of results.
Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus.
Bielenski H., Bosch G., Wagner A.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Employment and working time in Europe
During 1998, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out a major survey on Employment Options of the Future across the 15 EU Member States and Norway. It involved over 30,000 telephone interviews with people aged between 16 and 64 years. The survey examined the questions of persons wanting to work, when and why. This leaflet summarizes the main findings of the survey on the subject of hours of work. Contents: actual and preferred working hours; factors determining working hours; working time in the household; actual and preferred volume of work; conclusions and social policy implications.
Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus.
Work time schedule models - Modern work organization in the health care sector
Arbeitszeitmodelle - Moderne Arbeitsorganisation im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
This document reports on current practice in the area of work time schedules in the health care sector in one of the Länder (States) of Germany. It reviews various work time models and discusses regulations with respect to work time, work breaks, rest time, night work and work on Sundays and public holidays. It also presents the case of a clinic where a new model of work time organization was developed in quality circles and implemented successfully.
Ministerium für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, 40190 Düsseldorf, Germany, 2000. 67p. Illus. 46 ref.
http://www.arbeitszeiten.nrw.de/pdf/AZMODELL.PDF [in German]
Adjustment of occupational exposure limits for unusual work schedules
During the past two decades, unusual work schedules have become widespread in many industries, particularly in the mining and petrochemical sectors, and to a lesser extent in other industries. Workers in such situations no longer work the traditional 8h shifts five days per week that are the basic assumptions of the occupational exposure limit setting process. This article consists of a review of literature relating to the issue of adjustments of exposure limits during unusual work schedules. Various adjustment models are presented and discussed, and a number of conclusions are drawn. Tables of adjustment factors for 34 specific contaminants for two unusual schedules are given, and a simple approach for use by industrial hygienists is proposed.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.367-374. Illus. 25 ref.
Bundesmann-Jansen J., Gross H., Munz E.
Hours of work '99
Arbeitszeit '99 [in German]
A questionnaire survey of 4024 employees aged 18 to 65 conducted in Germany in 1999 revealed that only 15% had the standard 9 to 5, five days a week work time schedule. The majority of 85% worked under some form of flexible arrangement. Of those with flexible work time schedules, more worked under pressure with regard to speed of work and performance as compared to those working according to the standard work time schedule. The majority of those questioned (56%) said they regularly worked overtime. More men (63%) claimed to work overtime than women (47%), which represents an increase of 13% for men and 10% for women compared to an earlier survey in 1995. Part-time work was performed by 20%, which represents an increase of 2% over 1995. The employees who regularly worked shifts and at night rose by 5% from 1995 to reach 18% in 1999. More than half of the shift and night workers (54%) claimed to have work time schedules which suit their individual preferences.
Gemeinnützige Werkstätten Neuss GmbH, Am Krausenbaum 11, 41464 Neuss, Germany, 2000. 205p. 64 ref.
Gauderer P.C., Knauth P.
Participatory design of work schedules in public local transport through "personalized duty rotas"
Partizipative Gestaltung der Arbeitszeit im Fahrdienst von Betrieben des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV) durch "individualisierte Dienstpläne" [in German]
A system of flexible, customized shift schedules for public transport divers which takes into account the driver's preferences is presented. A computer software application was developed for this purpose and successfully pilot-tested for one year in a public transport company. Drivers' satisfaction as well as improvements in service quality have been observed.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.311-317. Illus. 8.ref.
Kundi M., Wöckinger G.
Psychosocial aspects of flexible shift work organization among hospital nurses
Psychosoziale Aspekte flexibler Diensteinteilung für das Pflegepersonal in Krankenanstalten [in German]
The influence of the shift work schedule on sleep duration and social life was determined by conducting a questionnaire survey among 134 nurses in various hospitals in Austria. The aim of the study was to assess possible benefits of flexible shift schedule arrangements compared to traditional 12-hour day or night shift and 8-hour 3-shift schedules. Nurses with flexible shift schedule reported less interference with family obligations and leisure time activities and higher sleep duration and quality. They were on average also more satisfied with their schedule. In both groups with fixed schedules, a significant correlation between interference with family and leisure activities and sleep was observed.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.306-310. Illus. 8 ref.
Macowiec-Dąbrowska T., Krawczyk-Adamus P., Sprunsińska E., Jóźwiak Z.W.
Can nurses be employed in 12-hours shift systems?
Nurses are often obliged to work in 12-hr shifts. To check whether working such long hours constitutes an excessive load for nurses, a questionnaire survey was conducted among nurses working in an 8hr daytime shift system (169 nurses) and in a 12-hr shift (536 nurses). The amounts of physical workload, work stress, and after-work activities were compared. Data analysis shows that a 12-hr shift system is characterized by less significant physical workload but greater mental load. The nurses working in a 2-shift system were more tired after work, but could spend more time on leisure activities and housework. The data suggest that there are no significant contraindications for nurses to work in a 2-shift system.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.393-403. 12 ref.
Goudswaard A, de Nanteuil M.
Flexibility and working conditions - A qualitative and comparative study in seven EU Member States
Flexibility is a heterogeneous concept linking quantitative, qualitative, external and internal variables. This study, based on research carried out in seven European Union Member States, aims at defining working conditions and examines their reliance on various forms of flexibility. Main topics covered: flexibility strategies at the corporate level; impact of flexibility on conditions of work and of employment; role of national industrial relations system (legislation, labour relation system); areas of future investigation and action.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughlinstown, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 2000. viii, 142p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 22.00.
Mitchell R.J., Williamson A.M.
Evaluation of an 8 hour versus a 12 hour shift roster on employees at a power station
The objective of this study was to examine the changeover from an 8h roster to a 12h roster in a power station. On-shift performance, general health and well-being, sleep and mood behaviour, as well as absenteeism and accident data were examined. Results suggest that the domestic and social life of workers was markedly improved under the 12h roster. Improvements in physical health, sleeping behaviour and mood state of employees were also documented On-shift performance measures showed an increase in error rates at the end of a 12h shift.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.83-93. Illus. 37 ref.
Trott H., Menzler-Trott E.
"Flexible work" schedules in call centres
"Flexible Arbeitszeit" im Call-Center [in German]
This article reviews the work organization problems encountered in call centres where the work schedules are mostly flexible (shift work, part time work, seasonal work, "stand-by"). In order to ensure acceptable work schedules and workloads, managers need to estimate the call flow as precisely as possible, which is done with the help of simulation software. Main topics covered: productivity, quality, absenteeism, workload, attitude towards the customer, rapid turn-over of personnel.
Computer Fachwissen für Betriebs- und Personalräte, Jan. 1999, Vol.8, No.1, p.12-20. Illus. 8 ref.
Employees that travel frequently for work purposes have significantly higher medical insurance claim rates than their non-travelling colleagues, not only for physical morbidity, but also for psychological illnesses. The article proposes that organizations develop travel health policies, including aims, responsibilities, fitness to travel guidelines, pre-travel preparation, experience of medical service providers, pre-travel education, medical services abroad, post-travel health assessments and the reporting of travel-related diseases.
Occupational Health, Dec. 1999, Vol.52, No.12, p.22-26. Illus. 15 ref.
Sasaki T., Iwasaki K., Oka T., Hisanaga N.
Association of working hours with biological indices related to the cardiovascular system among engineers in a machinery manufacturing company
A field survey of 278 engineers (20-59 years) in a machinery manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the association of working hours with biological indices related to the cardiovascular system (heart rate variability, blood pressure and serum levels of magnesium, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cholesterol). Average working hours (defined as hours at workplace plus half of the commuting time) and sleeping hours in this study were 60.2 ± 6.3hr/week and 6.6 ± 0.8hr/day respectively. There was no significant relationship between working hours and biological indices related to the cardiovascular system, but sleeping hours had a strong negative correlation with working hours. Furthermore, the serum DHEA-S level was significantly related to sleeping hours positively. These two results indicate that long working hours might lower the serum DHEA-S level due to the reduction of sleeping hours.
Industrial Health, Oct. 1999, Vol.37, No.4, p.457-463. 17 ref.
Changing inequality in work injuries and work timing
This paper analyses the changes in the distribution of work timing and injury incidence in the U.S. working population since 1973. The burdens of working at undesirable times, during evenings and at night, and the risk of occupational injury have increasingly been borne by lower-wage workers. Inequality in earnings has also widened.
Monthly Labor Review, Oct. 1999, Vol.122, No.10, p.22-30. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Working time is also a matter of health
Le temps de travail, c'est aussi la santé... [in French]
Topics: ageing; cardiovascular disorders; circadian rhythm; functional digestive disorders; functional nervous disorders; health hazards; hours of work; nervous fatigue; shift work; sickness absenteeism; stress factors; work organization; work time schedules; work-rest schedules.
Travail et sécurité, May 1999, No.584, p.32-42. Illus. 8 ref.
Ideura Y., Kawakami T., Sakai K., Itani T.
Time budget of rough terrain crane operators
Rafu teren kurēn operēta no seikatsu jikan chōsa [in Japanese]
Rough terrain crane operators working for a heavy construction hoisting company were surveyed by questionnaire to obtain basic data regarding their needs for safe and comfortable crane operation. Results revealed that nighttime shift operations often resulted in insufficient sleeping periods. Since drowsiness at work can be very dangerous, the lack of sleeping time should be addressed by rotating assigned operators on the nighttime shift. Half of the operators skipped breakfast or had it in the car on the way to work, thus posing the problem of an unbalanced diet. Regarding physical fatigue, stiff shoulders, probably resulting from operating the crane, were commonly reported. This may suggest that the right-side lever requires precise control and should be improved. 12 of the 16 operators surveyed reported mental fatigue due primarily to heavy traffic and working with other workers at the job site.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Sep. 1999, Vol.75, No.9, p.331-341. Illus. 7 ref.
Sokejima S., Kagamimori S.
Working hours as a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction in Japan: Case-control study
The extent to which working hours affect the risk of acute myocardial infarction was investigated in 195 men aged 30-69 years with acute myocardial infarction and in 331 controls. There was a U shaped relation between the mean working hours and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. There also seemed to be a trend for the risk of infarction to increase with greater increases in mean working hours. Topics: case-control study; hazard evaluation; hours of work; male workers; myocardial infarction; risk factors.
British Medical Journal, 19 Sep. 1998, Vol.317, No.7161, p.775-780. Illus. 32 ref.
Work/rest: Part I - Guidelines for the practitioner; Part II - The scientific basis (knowledge base) for the guide
Topics: arousal; biological effects; cardiovascular system; circadian rhythm; fatigue; hours of work; motivation; muscular work; nervous fatigue; physical fatigue; shift work; sleep; vigilance; work organization; work-rest schedules; workbreaks.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 1998, Vol.22, No.1-2, p.67-99. Illus. 132 ref.
Reeve P., Walter S.
Striking a light on the new law on night workers
Provisions of the Working Time Regulations 1998 relating to night work are discussed. Factors highlighted include limits on working time, the existence of special hazards or heavy physical or mental strain, health assessments prior to undertaking night work and health problems connected with night work. Topics: comment on law; health hazards; hours of work; legislation; night work; responsibilities of employers; state of health; United Kingdom.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 1998, Vol.16, No.10, p.25-28. Illus.
Kageyama T., Nishikido N., Kobayashi T., Kurokawa Y., Kaneko T., Kabuto M.
Long commuting time, extensive overtime, and sympathodominant state assessed in terms of short-term heart rate variability among male white-collar workers in the Tokyo megalopolis
Topics: commuting; fatigue; heart diseases; hours of work; Japan; mental stress; neuropsychic stress; pulse rate; sleep deprivation; white-collar workers.
Industrial Health, July 1998, Vol.36, No.3, p.209-217. 48 ref.
Stoynev A.G., Minkova N.K.
Effect of forward rapidly rotating shift work on circadian rhythms of arterial pressure, heart rate and oral temperature in air traffic controllers
Topics: air traffic control; arterial blood pressure; biological rhythms; body temperature; Bulgaria; circadian rhythm; day-night variations; grip strength; mental work capacity; pulse rate; shift work; work capacity; work time schedules.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.48, No.2, p.75-79. 38 ref.
Rosa R.R., Bonnet M.H., Cole L.L.
Work schedule and task factors in upper-extremity fatigue
Topics: assembly-line work; fatigue; night work; shift work; upper extremity disorders; work time schedules; work-rest schedules.
Human Factors, Mar. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.150-158. Illus. 32 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Bell run and bell lock-out times, and bell run times in relation to habitats
Topics: data sheet; diving; hours of work; underwater construction; United Kingdom; work-rest schedules.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 2p. 6 ref.
Seafarer fatigue: Wake up to the dangers
Topics: dangerous occurrences; fatigue; hours of work; relaxed vigilance; responsibilities of employers; sea transport; survey; work-rest schedules.
International Transport Workers' Federation, ITF House, 49-60 Borough Road, London SE1 1DS, United Kingdom, 1998. 20p. Illus.
Kogi K., Kikuchi Y., Suzuki T.
Special issue: International symposium on future developments in human work systems
Proceedings of the International symposium on future developments in human work systems held in Yokohama, Japan, 27-28 June 1996. Main topics presented: flexible work systems (job sharing, telework, career breaks); work organization; migrant workers; sociocultural and psychological aspects; ergonomic aspects; human behaviour; ageing and efficacy of work; developing new skills for new tasks; older workers and new technologies.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1997, Vol.26, No.2, p.i-ii; p.89-192 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Spurgeon A., Harrington J.M., Cooper C.L.
Health and safety problems associated with long working hours: A review of the current position
Current evidence relating to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day is reviewed. Several gaps in the literature are identified. Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes (mental health, cardiovascular disorders). Other potential effects which are normally associated with stress (gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, depression of the immune system) have received little attention. Also there have been few systematic investigations of performance effects, and little consideration of the implications of a longer working day on occupational exposure limits. It is concluded that there is sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health and safety of long working hours. However, more work is required to define the level and nature of those risks. Topics: accidents and productivity; cardiovascular disorders; fatigue; health hazards; hours of work; literature survey; mental disorders; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; smoking; work capacity; work efficiency.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.54, No.6, p.367-375. 76 ref.
Fletcher A., Dawson D.
A predictive model of work-related fatigue based on hours of work
Topics: fatigue; hours of work; night work; shift work; sleep deprivation; work organization.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1997, Vol.13, No.5, p.471-485. Illus. 14 ref.
Arnold P.K., Hartley L.R., Corry A., Hochstadt D., Penna F., Feyer A.M.
Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers
Topics: Australia; dangerous occurrences; drivers; fatigue; hours of work; questionnaire survey; road transport; sleep deprivation; trucks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1997, Vol.29, No.4, p.471-477. 6 ref.
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