Hours of work - 251 entries found
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Beckers D.G.J., van der Linden D., Smulders P.G.W., Kompier M.A.J., Taris T.W., Geurts S.E.A.
Voluntary or involuntary? Control over overtime and rewards for overtime in relation to fatigue and work satisfaction
This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between overtime and well-being is influenced by the voluntary vs. involuntary (i.e. compulsory) nature of overtime work and by the presence or absence of rewards for overtime. It also explored the prevalence of these types of overtime and how they were related to work and personal characteristics. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of 1612 full-time employees in the Netherlands. Variance analysis was used to compare rewarded and unrewarded, voluntary and involuntary overtime workers on personal and work characteristics, fatigue and work satisfaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that control over overtime and rewards for overtime are important for well-being. Moderate overtime work may not be a problem if it is done voluntarily. Moreover, the negative effects of compulsory overtime work may be partly offset by fair compensation.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 2008, Vol.22, No.1, p.33-50. Illus. 47 ref.
Saijo Y., Ueno T., Hashimoto Y.
Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between specific workload items and job stress among firefighters engaged in 24h shift work. The subjects were 1301 firefighters who answered a questionnaire covering age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, CES-D depression scale and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that workload, workload variance, conflicts, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2008, Vol.51, No.5, p.380-391. 53 ref.
Yoshioka E., Saijo Y., Fukui T., Kawaharada M., Kishi R.
Association between duration of daily visual display terminal work and insomnia among local government clerks in Japan
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between the duration of daily visual display terminal work and sleep disturbances. A total of 2417 Japanese local government office workers (2030 men and 387 women) were investigated. Sleep disturbances were evaluated using the Athens Insomnia Scale. Visual display terminal work of 6h or more per day was significantly associated with insomnia (odds ratio 1.62) and in particular, caused problems with total sleep duration and sleepiness during the day, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, n°2, p.148-156. 25 ref.
Pukkala E., Härmä M.
Does shift work cause cancer?
This editorial discusses some of the evidence linking shift work to the risk of cancer. Topics addressed include: critical review of a long-term population-based study in Sweden suggesting no effect of shift work in cancer risk; circadian rhythm; melatonin; exposure to artificial daylight.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2007, Vol.33, No.5, p.321-323. 18 ref.
Does_shift_work_cause_cancer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Gander P., Purnell H., Garden A., Woodward A.
Work patterns and fatigue-related risk among junior doctors
To evaluate the work patterns of New Zealand junior hospital interns, relationships between different aspects of work and fatigue-related outcomes were examined. A questionnaire dealing with demographics, work patterns, sleepiness, fatigue-related clinical errors, and support for coping with work demands was mailed to junior interns. The response rate was 63% (1366 questionnaires from interns working ≥40 hours a week). On fatigue measures, 30% of participants scored as excessively sleepy, 24% reported falling asleep driving home since becoming a doctor, 66% had felt close to falling asleep at the wheel in the past 12 months, and 42% recalled a fatigue-related clinical error in the past 6 months. Night work and schedule instability were independently associated with more fatigue measures than was total hours worked. Regular access to adequate supervision and support at work reduced the risk of fatigue.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.733-738. Illus. 34 ref.
Hughes E.L., Parkes K.R.
Work hours and well-being: The roles of work-time control and work-family interference
This study examined the relationship between work hours and well-being. Questionnaire data from 292 female employees in two United Kingdom public sector organizations were analysed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for demographic variables, neuroticism and job demands, work-family interference mediated the effect of work hours on family satisfaction. It was also found that work-time control moderated the relationship between work hours and work-family interference. These findings show that longer work hours are not necessarily associated with higher work-family interference, and hence with poor recovery and impaired well-being. Instead, having a degree of control over work hours moderates the first causal link in this process. Thus, the provision by employers of some flexibility and control over work hours may help to reduce the potential negative impact of long work hours on employees.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2007, Vol.21, No.3, p.264-278. Illus. 49 ref.
Farbos B., Imbeau D
Shift work and its effects on safety and health at work - Incidence of working hour systems
Le travail posté et ses effets sur la santé et la sécurité au travail - Incidence des systèmes horaires [in French]
Shift work is a form of work organization that is favoured by many enterprises. It is flexible and cost efficient, relying on the recurrent use of morning, evening and night shifts. However, the layout, the repetitiveness or the long hours of work associated with shift workplaces are often the cause of adaptation difficulties among the workers. This article reviews the characteristics of unusual working hours. It describes the existing models of work-time schedules, their advantages and disadvantages and the measures to be implemented to mitigate their negative effects on workers' health.
Travail et santé, June 2007, Vol.23, No.2, p.18-21. Illus. 19 ref.
Changes to drivers' work time limits in 2007
Zmiany w czasie pracy kierowców w 2007 r. [in Polish]
EU and Polish regulations governing the maximum working hours of drivers are presented, together with amendments introduced as of 1 April 2007 relative to driving time, breaks and rest. The provisions of Polish regulations are commented in light of Regulation 561/2006/EC on the harmonization of certain types of social legislation relating to road transport.
Monitor Prawa Pracy, May 2007, No.5, p.241-246.
Time escapes me: Workaholics and time perception
Based on data from the 2005 General Social Survey on time use, this study examines self-reported workaholics and asks if this self-identification affects their quality of life as measured by the balance between work and family time, time pressure and general life satisfaction. Results indicate that almost one-third of employed Canadians aged 19 to 64 identify themselves as workaholics. They devote more effort to work than do non-workaholics, but they derive no more satisfaction or pleasure from it. Workaholics are dissatisfied with their work-life balance and wish they could spend more time with family and friends or alone. Perceived lack of time is a bigger stressor in their everyday lives than it is for non-workaholics.
Canadian Social Trends, May 2007, p.28-32.Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/11-008-XIE/2007001/pdf/11-008-XIE20070019629.pdf [in English]
Drexler H., Baumeister T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Vocational training in a shift system
Berufsausbildung im Schichtsystem [in German]
In this study, apprentices at a large German automobile manufacturer were examined for potential negative health effects of a newly established shift work system. Over a period of two years, the first batch of 124 apprentices trained within the new system (study group) was compared with the last batch of 77 apprentices trained within the conventional system (control group). Participants were subjected to medical examinations at baseline and after 12 and 24 months. Findings are discussed. Overall, the new shift system did not seem to have any negative health effect.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 68p. Illus. 54 ref. Index. Price: EUR 10.50.
Trinkoff A.M., Le R., Geiger-Brown J., Lipscomb J., Lang G.
Longitudinal relationship of work hours, mandatory overtime, and on-call to musculoskeletal problems in nurses
Nurses are at high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) with low back pain being the most frequently occurring MSD. Nurses are also likely to work extended schedules (long hours, on-call, mandatory overtime, working on days off). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between extended work schedules and MSDs among nurses. It was carried out in the form of a longitudinal survey of 2,617 nurses. Schedule characteristics increasing MSD risk included workdays of 13h or more, off-shifts, weekend work, work during time off (while sick or on days off), overtime or on-call. These increases in risk were not explained by psychological demands, but were largely explained by physical demands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.49, No.11, p.964-971. 40 ref.
Ayas N.T., Barger L.K., Cade B.E., Hashimoto D.M., Rosner B., Cronin J.W., Speizer F.E., Czeisler C.A.
Extended work duration and the risk of self-reported percutaneous injuries in interns
The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between extended work duration and rates of percutaneous injuries among interns in the United States. 2737 of the 18447 interns in the United States were surveyed each month between July 2002 and May 2003 on their work schedules and the possible occurrence of percutaneous injuries. A total of 498 percutaneous injuries were reported (0.029/intern-month). Lapse in concentration and fatigue were the two most commonly reported contributing factors (64% and 31% of injuries, respectively). Percutaneous injuries were more frequent during extended work compared with non-extended work (1.31/1000 opportunities vs. 0.76/1000 opportunities, respectively; odds ratio [OR] 1.61). Injuries were more frequent during the night-time than during the daytime (1.48/1000 opportunities vs. 0.70/1000 opportunities, respectively; OR, 2.04).
Journal of the American Medical Association, Sep. 2006, Vol.296, No.9, p.1055-1062. 21 ref.
Iwasaki K., Takahashi M., Nakata A.
Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: Working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures
There is serious concern in Japan over health problems due to long working hours. National statistics show that more than six million people worked for 60h or more per week during years 2000 to 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of cerebrovascular or ischaemic heart diseases were recognized as being related to overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork-related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of working hours. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.537-540. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_4_537.pdf [in English]
Possible broad impacts of long work hours
This literature survey summarizes research linking long working hours to a wide range of risks to workers, families, employers and the community. The risks are theorized to stem from less time to recover from work, longer exposure to workplace hazards, and less time to attend to non-work responsibilities. Risks to workers include sleep deprivation, poor recovery from work, decrements in neuro-cognitive and physiological functioning, illnesses, adverse reproductive outcomes and injuries. Risks to families include delayed marriages and child bearing and obesity in children. Risks to employers include reduced productivity and increases in worker errors. Errors by fatigued workers have broad-reaching impacts to the community, including medical errors, automobile accidents and major industrial accidents that cause damage to the environment.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.531-536. 78 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_4_531.pdf [in English]
Wadsworth E.J.K., Allen P.H., Wellens B.T., McNamara R.L., Smith A.P.
Patterns of fatigue among seafarers during a tour of duty
The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of day to day fatigue among seafarers. Participants from the offshore support, coastal fishing and deep sea sectors of the United Kingdom completed daily diaries. Information on sleep and fatigue were collected each day on waking and retiring. Fatigue on waking was found to be a more sensitive measure of cumulative occupational fatigue than fatigue on retiring. Fatigue on waking increased between the start and end of the time spent on board. This increase took place in particular during the first week at sea and was most apparent among those on shorter tours of duty. Other findings are discussed. The diary method was found useful to identify times and activities associated with the greatest risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.49, No.10, p.836-844. Illus. 53 ref.
Teixeira L.R., Fischer F.M., Lowden A.
Sleep deprivation of working adolescents - A hidden work hazard
This review article discusses the sleep deprivation of adolescents and young workers, and its impact on their work and learning. Several studies have shown that working adolescents wake up earlier, have shorter nocturnal sleep duration and higher levels of sleepiness during wake time during the week than nonworking students do. These studies indicate that working students may have their learning ability negatively affected by being tired and sleepy. Therefore, on the basis of these results, it is recommended that educational programmes geared to sleep hygiene should be one of the priorities of the curriculum. At the same time, the hours of work of teenagers should be shortened in order to allow them to work and study during daytime and to have enough time at night for leisure and rest. These recommendations would improve the quality of life of the population that already is or will soon be participating in the job market.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.32, No.4, p.328-330. 15 ref.
Jensen O.C., Stage S., Noer P.
Injury and time studies of working processes in fishing
The purpose of this study was to relate the length of the working time to the number of injuries for specific work processes in fishing in Denmark. Time measurements were performed during participation in fishing trips with four different kinds of vessels. The risk index for each work process was calculated by dividing the number of injuries within a five-year period by the total minutes used for each working process. The highest risk index values were found for embarking and disembarking the vessel, which however only take minimum time for the fishermen. High index values were also found for other work processes, especially working with the gear and nets. This approach can be used as a supplemental tool for injury prevention to highlight work processes that need high attention for prevention. The method can also be applied to other industries.
Safety Science, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.349-358. Illus. 13 ref.
Working conditions of employees after a reduction in their hours of work
Les conditions de travail des salariés après la réduction de leur temps de travail [in French]
The aim of the SUMER 2003 survey was to describe the current situation with respect to occupational exposures to the main risk factors in France. It was carried out by means of questionnaires administered by occupational physicians during routine medical examinations. This article describes the results of the SUMER 2003 survey concerning the effects of the reduction in working hours. In 2002-2003, the work schedules of employees that benefited from a reduction in working hours were both more flexible and predictable than those of other employees. Half estimated that the lighter work schedule had improved their situation, while one third considered that there was no change and one in seven believed that their situation had worsened.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.195-201. 8 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20149/$File/TF149.pdf [in French]
Sobeih T.M., Davis K.G., Succop P.A., Jetter W.A., Bhattacharya A.
Postural balance changes in on-duty firefighters: Effect of gear and long work shifts
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of long work shifts and turnout gear, including the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), on firefighters' postural stability. The postural stability of sixteen firefighters was assessed at the fire station using a portable forceplate system allowing the recording of the variations of the point at which the subject's weight is applied. Postural sway parameters were recorded at the beginning of the work shift and repeated until the work shift ended. Work tasks had the greatest impact on postural stability for all sway parameters. Turnout gear, with and without SCBA, improved postural stability. Postural stability decreased as firefighters spent more time on duty. Prolonged work shifts may be an important contributor to the high prevalence of slips and falls among firefighters. Overall, the results indicate that many aspects of the firefighters' job may adversely impact their postural stability thereby increasing their risk of falling.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.48, No.1, p.68-75. Illus. 28 ref.
Boulin J.Y., Lallement M., Messenger J.C., Michon F.
Decent working time: New trends, new issues
Selection of papers from the Ninth International Symposium on Working Time held in Paris, France, 26-28 February 2004. Papers examine changes in the nature of working time and the nature of employment itself in the industrialized world. Includes discussions of the effects of hours of work and working time flexibility on workers' health.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. xxii, 464p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CHF 50.00.
Strenuous work - Statistical evaluation
Pénibilité du travail - Evaluation statistique [in French]
The objective of this study was to develop quantitative estimates of the number of workers affected by strenuous work, by means of surveys including in particular the SUMER 2002/2003 survey. This report proposes various estimates of the number of workers exposed to strenuous work according to their levels of exposure. Two main criteria were used: duration of exposure over a period of one week and cumulative strenuousness. Contents of the report: the issue of strenuous work; data used; methodology; presentation of the main results and comments; list of detailed tables (44 detailed tables concerning various types of exposure).
Centre d'études de l'emploi, "Le Descartes I", 29 promenade Michel Simon, 93166 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex, France, 2006. 84p. Illus. 11 ref. PDF document.
http://www.cee-recherche.fr/fr/doctrav/penibilite_travail_evaluation_statistique_55.pdf [in French]
Nachreiner F., Schomann C., Stapel W., Nickel P., Eden J., Grzech-Sukalo H., Hänecke K., Albrecht N.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Computer-assisted work schedule organization using BASS 4
Softwaregestützte Arbeitszeitgestaltung mit BASS 4 [in German]
This document presents the BASS software, which consists of a computer application designed to help human resource managers in planning and evaluating work schedule systems. It fills a need, while at the same time complies with ergonomic and social requirements. When planning work time schedules, the tool can also take into account workloads related to the job according to its nature, intensity, conditions and duration. Furthermore, several modules are available which enable evaluations of the physical, mental and emotional workloads, evaluations aimed at optimizing costs and evaluations of flexible work schedules.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 160p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: EUR 16.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.baua.de/nn_8514/de/Publikationen/Forschungsberichte/2005/Fb1064,xv=vt.pdf [in German]
Jones C.B., Dorrian J., Rajaratnam S.M.W., Dawson D.
Working hours regulations and fatigue in transportation: A comparative analysis
Fatigue is recognized as one of the most important safety issues in transportation. This article identifies and compares the laws and regulations of four English speaking nations that limit working hours for safety purposes, and evaluates them against eight fatigue-related criteria. In addition, International and European Union law are considered where relevant. Two different styles of regulation were utilized by the countries surveyed: a prescriptive "hours of service" approach, and a non-prescriptive "outcomes" approach. The advantages and disadvantages of these two models are discussed. A proposal for a hybrid approach between the prescriptive and non-prescriptive systems is presented.
Safety Science, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.225-252. Illus. 42 ref.
Armstrong T.W., Caldwell D.J., Verma D.K.
Occupational exposure limits: An approach and calculation aid for extended work schedule adjustments
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) need to be adjusted to ensure adequate protection of workers on extended or unusual work shifts. This article briefly reviews OEL adjustment approaches and focuses on a single-compartment toxicokinetic (TK) calculation. The main aim is to provide a convenient calculation aid for a TK model. A key parameter of the TK models is the biologic half-life of the toxicant, but reliable data for the half-life are not available for all substances of concern. A spreadsheet is presented which enables TK calculations in situations where the toxicant's half-life is unknown or uncertain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2005, Vol.2, No.11, p.600-607. Illus. 16 ref.
Long workhours, work scheduling and work-related injuries among construction workers in the United States
The objective of this study was to establish whether there was a connection between working hours and occupational accidents among construction workers. The "National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979" cohort was used for the data analysis. Odds ratios were used to measure the risk of occupational accidents in different worker groups. Findings showed that construction workers started work earlier, worked longer days and fewer weeks a year, and were more likely to hold multiple jobs and change jobs than their non-construction counterparts. Long working hours and irregular work schedules were significantly associated with a higher rate of occupational accidents after control for possible confounders. The results provide evidence that overtime and irregular work scheduling have an adverse effect on worker safety.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.31, No.5, p.329-335. Illus. 37 ref.
Nishikitani M., Nakao M, Karita K., Nomura K., Yano E.
Influence of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on the physical and mental status of software engineers
To investigate the impact of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on physical and mental status, this cross-sectional survey was conducted among 377 workers in an information-technology company. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, including the Job Content Questionnaire, and interviews with occupational physicians and subjected to statistical evaluation. Findings are discussed. Although overtime work was associated with physical and mental complaints, sleep duration and the job strain index seemed to be better indicators for physical and mental distress in overloaded workers.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.623-629. 27 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-4-2.pdf [in English]
Sallinen M., Härmä M., Mutanen P., Ranta R., Virkkala J., Müller K.
Sleepiness in various shift combinations of irregular shift systems
This study examined the prevalence of sleepiness in various shift systems ending with a night or morning shift. Sleep and work shift diary data were collected for three weeks from 126 train drivers and 104 rail traffic controllers. The prevalence of severe sleepiness varied between 25% and 62% in the schedules ending with a night shift and between 12% and 27% in the those ending with a morning shift. Factors that affect a risk for sleepiness at work include having a child, shift length and starting time, and individual sleep need.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.114-122. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-1-17.pdf [in English]
Boivin D.V., James F.O.
Light treatment and circadian adaptation to shift work
Work at unconventional times can have both long and short-term consequences for workers. Shift workers are often required to perform their duties at times that are not favoured by the body's endogenous clock. Night shift workers often report reductions in alertness and performance at work or difficulty in attaining recuperative sleep during the day. This article explains how shift work can affect the body's circadian rhythm and discusses how bright light technology may be used to manage shift work problems.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.34-48. Illus. 168 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-1-6.pdf [in English]
Dembe A.E., Erickson J.B., Delbos R.G., Banks S.M.
The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: New evidence from the United States
The impact of overtime and extended working hours on the risk of occupational injuries and illnesses was investigated among a representative sample of working adults in the USA. Responses from 10,793 participants in a national survey were used to evaluate workers' job histories, work schedules, and occurrence of occupational injury and illness between 1987 and 2000. Statistical analysis revealed that after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, industry and region, working in jobs with overtime schedules was associated with a 61% higher injury hazard rate compared to jobs without overtime. Working at least 12 hours per day was associated with a 37% increased hazard rate and working at least 60 hours per week was associated with a 23% increased hazard rate. A strong dose-response effect was observed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.588-597. Illus. 82 ref.
Reconciling work and family responsibilities: Practical ideas from global experience
This book presents examples of what is being done in countries, communities and enterprises around the world to help workers reconcile work and family responsibilities such as caring for children and the elderly. It provides ideas for action by governments, employers' and workers' organizations and concerned civil society organizations. Includes a chapter on the implications of work schedules (effects of long hours, asocial hours, part-time work, flexibility of working time) and work location (home work, telework). Comments on relevant ILO Conventions and Recommendations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xv, 207p. Illus. 219 ref. Price: CHF 35.00.
Karlsson B., Alfredsson L., Knutsson A., Andersson E., Torén K.
Total mortality and cause-specific mortality of Swedish shift- and day workers in the pulp and paper industry in 1952-2001
This study investigated the relationship between shift work and mortality, (total mortality and cause-specific mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes) in a cohort of 2354 shift workers and 3088 day workers in two pulp and paper manufacturing plants. The mortality of the cohort was monitored from 1 January 1952 to 31 December 2001 by linkage to the national Cause of Death Register. Groups of workers defined by different durations of shift work exposure were compared with day workers. Death due to any cause (total mortality) was not higher among the shift workers than among the day workers (standardized relative rate (SRR) 1.02). A longer duration of shift work was associated with an increased risk of CHD, and shift workers with >30 years of shift work had the highest risk of CHD (SRR 1.24). Diabetes was more common as the number of shift years of exposure increased. Compared with day workers, shift workers had a greater risk of death due to stroke (SRR 1.56).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.31, No.1, p.30-35. 15 ref.
Hours of work - From fixed to flexible?
Durée du travail - Vers plus de flexibilité? [in French]
Horas de trabajo - ¿De lo fijo a lo flexible? [in Spanish]
Hours of work have always been a prime focus and a topic of vital importance for standard setting in the ILO. This is reflected by the fact that it is the subject of the first Convention of the ILO and has subsequently been the topic of a number of Conventions, General Surveys and discussions over the years. This survey discusses in turn the content of the Conventions, methods of application (by reference to legislation, arbitration awards, collective agreements and individual bargaining), statistical information on national practices, current trends in working-time schedules and impediments to ratification of the Conventions. Includes a summary of conclusions and recommendations. This document is to be presented in the framework of the 93rd International Labour Conference in 2005.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. ix, 139p. Price: CHF 25.00
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/standards/relm/ilc/ilc93/pdf/rep-iii-1b.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc93/pdf/rep-iii-1b.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/standards/relm/ilc/ilc93/pdf/rep-iii-1b.pdf [in French]
Starting work time an hour earlier than the day before - Comments
Rozpoczynanie pracy o godzinie wcześniejszej niż w dniu poprzednim - uwagi [in Polish]
The problem of restarting work during the same 24h period is discussed. The conditions for this kind of scheduling are presented. The contemporary demand for flexible work time practices is explained. It is emphasized that legislation concerning working hours and the individual needs of the employers should be both taken into consideration.
Monitor Prawa Pracy, Jan. 2005, No.1, p.347-349.
Metz A.M., Degener M., Pitack J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Assessing mental constraints in relation to location and time
Erfassung psychischer Fehlbelastung unter den Aspekten Ort und Zeit [in German]
German legislation requires that workplace hazard evaluations also take into account an evaluation of occupational mental stress. This study examines whether one of the methods of screening for occupational mental stress risk factors, namely the SPA method, also enables the assessment of mental stress factors for jobs with variable working hours or workplace locations. Findings indicate that the SPA method allows the determination of occupational stress risk factors with sufficient precision and reliability. As far as flexible work is concerned, the outcome is that the risk of mental stress depends more on the content of work than on working hours or workplace location.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 118p. 91 ref. Price: EUR 12.50.
http://www.baua.de/nn_28502/sid_AB32F0E9451CB62CB8EE4664D192E5E0/nsc_true/de/Publikationen/Forschungsberichte/2004/Fb1026,xv=vt.pdf [in German]
Wingen S., Hohmann T., Bensch U., Plum W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Work schedules based on trust - New development of social working time structures
Vertrauensarbeitszeit - Neue Entwicklung gesellschaftlicher Arbeitszeitstrukturen [in German]
This report discusses the concept of "work schedules based on trust", according to which working hours are neither fixed nor controlled, with the employee being given objectives to fulfil and freedom of action and decision. It defines the scope of the concept, examines its degree of adoption and how it has been implemented in enterprises, and analyses practical experiences, with emphasis on the effects on employees' health. A reference model has been developed which provides criteria and design requirements for the successful introduction of a trust-based work schedule system that improves productivity while taking into account the capacities and needs of the workers. Checklists aimed at facilitating the adoption of such a system within the enterprise are included.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 270p. Illus. 163 ref. Price: EUR 21.00.
Roth J.J., Schygulla M., Dürholt H., Nachreiner F., Pankonin C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Operating hours and work schedules in the freight and passenger transport sectors
Betriebs- und Arbeitszeiten beim Gütertransport und bei der Personenbeförderung [in German]
New demands in the transport sector have caused enterprises to change their service and working hours. This project examined the impact of working hours on the safety and health of workers in public transport and road haulage enterprises and evaluated different work schedules. The study highlighted ergonomic aspects likely to increase stress and in turn cause risks to health. Results indicate a large potential for improvements in working time arrangements at the company level, although improving working time conditions in this sector will also require efforts at the government level and in the area of standardization.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 184p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: EUR 16.00.
Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for unusual work schedules
The joint committee responsible for the revision of Annexe A of the Regulation Concerning the Quality of the Work Environment (Règlement québécois sur la qualité du milieu de travail - RQMT) mandated the IRSST to prepare a guide for the adjustment of time-weighted averages (TWAs) for non-traditional work schedules, using the Institute's research report of 1997 as a starting point and taking into account the committee's suggested modifications. This guide is a result of these efforts. It explains how to adjust the TWAs of each of the substances listed in the RQMT for work schedules other than the traditional one of eight hours per day, five days per week.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2nd rev. ed., 2004. 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 4.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/T-22.pdf [in English]
Ala-Mursula L., Vahtera J., Pentti J., Kivimäki M.
Effect of employee worktime control on health: A prospective cohort study
To investigate the health effects of employee worktime control, a prospective cohort study was carried out among 4218 permanent full time municipal employees linking questionnaire data from 1997 and 2000 with sickness absence records from 1997 and 2001. Self-rated health status, psychological distress, and medically certified periods of sickness absence were used as the health outcomes. Adjustments were made for age, baseline health status, occupational status, marital status, dependent children and behavioural health risks. In the follow up, women with a low level of worktime control had an odds ratio of 1.9 for poor self-rated health, 1.4 for psychological distress and 1.5 for medically certified sickness absences compared to women with a high level of worktime control. The health effects of worktime control were particularly evident among women with families. Among men, worktime control was not associated with self-rated health or distress, but it predicted sickness absences in two subgroups: those with dependent children and those with manual occupations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.61, No.3, p.254-261. Illus. 36 ref.
Rousseau C., Dornier G.
Unconventional work schedules
Horaires atypiques de travail [in French]
Unconventional work schedules consist of work time arrangements other than the regular working week, namely five days of work from Mondays to Fridays at times between 7 a.m and 8 p.m., with regular days and hours worked and regular time off and holidays. The most common forms of unconventional working schedules are night work, shift work and weekend work. Contents of this information sheet on unconventional working schedules: definitions; risks to humans (effects on occupational accidents, on physical health and on psychological health); prevention measures to be implemented.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2004. 4p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: EUR 1,50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/53FF58611F502D2FC1256EC3004DEE21/$FILE/ed5023.pdf [in French]
Guide for the correction of permissible levels of exposure (PLE) for non-conventional work schedules - 2nd revised and updated edition
Guide d'ajustement des valeurs d'exposition admissibles (VEA) pour les horaires de travail non conventionnels - 2e édition revue et mise à jour [in French]
This guide contains tables to enable the correction of permissible exposure levels for all substances included in the occupational safety and health regulations of the Canadian Province of Quebec (Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail - RSST) for work schedules other than five days a week, eight hours per day. The guide includes examples of calculations for different categories of substances as well as for different scenarios of non-conventional work schedules.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, 2nd rev. ed., Canada, 2004. 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 5.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/T-21.pdf [in French]
Psychosocial tensions of shift work: Pending issues
Les discordances psychosociales du travail posté: questions en suspens [in French]
Based on an analysis of the current understanding of the effects of shift work patterns on family and social life, several areas of focus for future development work are proposed, including: better characterization of relevant parameters of work schedule systems and time structuring of non-occupational activities, in particular by taking into account the occupational status of the spouse; direct surveys among spouses and children; analyses of coping strategies developed by shift workers; and taking better account of psychosocial theories concerning family life and life cycles.
Travail humain, Jan. 2004, Vol. 67, No.1, p.63-85. 60 ref.
Janßen D., Nachreiner F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Flexible working hours
Flexible Arbeitszeiten [in German]
Flexible work-time schedules currently represent essential elements of work organization. However until recently, they have not yet been sufficiently examined with regard to their effects on health and psychosocial well-being. There are indications based on shift-work literature, that besides the advantages of these types of work arrangements for both employers and employees, they may also have negative effects. This report presents two studies that were carried out to examine the effects of flexible work-time schedules on health and psychosocial well-being. Results of both studies consistently show that a high variability of working hours, particularly if this variability is company controlled, is correlated with increased impairments in health and well being. Based on these findings, recommendations are proposed for improvements in the design of flexible work-time schedules.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 200p. Illus. 90 ref. Price: EUR 17.00.
Overtime and extended work shifts: Recent findings on illnesses, injuries and health behaviors
This document presents an integrative review of the methods and findings from 52 studies that were published between 1995 and 2002 on the relationship between long work hours and selected health outcomes. The review indicates that the influence of long working hours on health and safety involves a complex interaction of a number of factors. Recommendations are made on issues and priorities to consider in future research.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Apr. 2004. x, 38p. Illus. 89 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-143/pdfs/2004-143.pdf [in English]
Are pilots at risk of accidents due to fatigue?
There is concern in the aviation community that pilot schedules can lead to fatigue and increased chance of an aviation accident. Yet despite this concern, there is little empirical analysis showing the relationship between pilot schedules and commercial aviation accidents. This study attempts to demonstrate an empirical relationship between pilot schedules and aviation accidents. Data for human factors-related accidents and pilot work patterns were identified. The distribution of pilot work schedule parameters for the accidents was compared to that for all pilots using a chi-square test to determine if the proportions of accidents and length of duty exposure were the same. It was found that there is a discernible pattern of increased probability of an accident as duty time increases for commercial aircraft pilots in the United States. The analysis suggests that establishing limits on duty time for commercial pilots would reduce risk.
Journal of Safety Research, 2003, Vol.34, No.3, p.309-313. Illus. 15 ref.
Husemann R., Duben K., Lauterbacher C., Vonken M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Employment-effective working time models for older employees
Beschäftigungswirksame Arbeitszeitmodelle für ältere Arbeitnehmer [in German]
The ageing and decreasing of the population as well as early retirement pose threats to the financing of the pension systems and to future employment policies, and will require the employment of workers older than is the case today. One answer to these questions lies in the development of employment-effective working time models for older employees. This report describes such models, based on empirical research, aimed at prolonging the individual working lifetime on a volume-neutral level by shortening the working hours or by interruptions such as sabbaticals. The model design includes measures concerning the rearrangement of work schedules and workload by reducing working hours or taking breaks for further vocational education for improving one's employability.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 375p. Illus. 158 ref. Price: EUR 28.00.
van der Hulst M.
Long workhours and health
This meta-analysis examined the association between long working hours and the state of health, special attention being given the to physiological recovery and behavioural life-style mechanisms. A total of 27 recent empirical studies met the selection criteria. They indicate that long working hours are associated with adverse health as measured by several indicators (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, disability retirement, subjectively reported physical health, subjective fatigue). Furthermore, some evidence exists for an association between long working hours and physiological changes (cardiovascular and immunological parameters) as well as changes in health-related behaviour (reduced sleeping hours). Support for the physiological recovery mechanism seems stronger than support for the behavioural life-style mechanism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2003, Vol.29, No.3, p.171-188. 70 ref.
Fuchs T., Conrads R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Analysis of working conditions, work-related strain and health problems among employed persons in connection with flexible forms of work
Flexible Arbeitsformen - Arbeitsbedingungen, -belastungen und Beschwerden - eine Analyse empirischer Daten [in German]
On the basis of representative surveys conducted in Germany, this research report analyses the prevalence of job stain and health problems among employees, with an emphasis on flexible forms of work (temporary work, predefined duration employment, shift work, night work, weekend work). Based on an empirical approach, the report first compares workers' physical and psychological loads during the years 1985/1986 with those of the years 1998/1999, then briefly describes trends in flexible work methods. Finally, with the help of bivariate and multivariate methods, it analyses the influence of flexible forms of work on workers' health problems.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 310p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: EUR 24.00.
Bellmann L., Gewiese T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Structures of working time patterns in Germany
Betriebliche Arbeitszeitstrukturen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland [in German]
This document presents the results of a survey carried out between 1996 and 1999 by the German Institute for Labour Market and Employment Research (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt und Berufsforschung - IAB) among a representative sample of enterprises. The focus of the study was mainly on non-conventional working hours. The analysis of full-time and part-time work, of fixed and flexible working hours, of shift and weekend work and of overtime shows that full-time work remains the dominant form of work. However, the increasing trend towards flexibility in working hours is a means of preserving employment. Another form of work which is also increasingly being adopted consists of variable working hours, which has a positive impact on job security and increases workers' sense of responsibility.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 192p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 17.00.
Working conditions surveys - A comparative analysis
The general objective of this report is to awaken the interest of the research community in surveys of working conditions, and to illustrate how a variety of working conditions surveys are conducted in different European and other industrialized countries. In this case, priority has been given to a descriptive analysis of the surveys, and a value judgement has not been made on whether these procedures, tools or content are more or less suitable. The main interests lay in the frequency with which certain aspects or characteristics are repeated in the surveys analysed and in identifying the different strategies used to solve problems which are common to the different studies.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2003. 91p. (available only in electronic format).
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF0371EN.pdf [in English]
Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA)
Working time - Its impact on safety and health
This report analyses the effects of hours of work and the organization of working time on workers' safety and health. Main topics covered: current trends (number of hours, shift work, non-standard working hours); methodological issues; working time and health (mental health, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and reproductive disorders, effects in special work groups); working time and safety; individual differences (age, sex, circumstances, personality and behaviour, health status, job type); intervention strategies (work-schedule organization, modification of the work environment, modification of individual responses, training and education); practical recommendations for the management of working time (risk assessment, hazard identification, control measures, monitoring and adjustment of intervention measures; research needs).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. 143p. Illus. 220 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/condtrav/pdf/wtwo-as-03.pdf [in English]
Directive 2003/88/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time [European Union]
Directive 2003/88/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 4 novembre 2003 concernant certains aspects de l'aménagement du temps de travail [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2003/88/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 4 de noviembre de 2003, relativa a determinados aspectos de la ordenación del tiempo de trabajo [in Spanish]
This Directive replaces Council Directive 93/104/EC of 23 November 1993 (CIS 94-1807) on the same subject, as modified by Dir. 2000/34/EC. It regulates minimum periods of daily and weekly rest and annual leave, as well as breaks, maximum weekly working time, and certain aspects of night work, shift work and patterns of work. It applies to all workers with the exception of seafarers. Contents: definitions; minimum rest periods (11 consecutive hours per 24h period; a rest break if the working day >6h; 24h + daily rest per each 7-day period; average maximum weekly working time: 48h; 4 weeks annual leave); provisions relating to night and shift work (incl. appropriate safety and health protection); right of Member States to introduce more favourable legislation; reference periods; derogations and exemptions (incl. by collective agreements); special provisions for mobile workers, offshore work and workers on board seagoing fishing vessels.
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 18 Nov. 2003, 46th Year, No.L 299, p.9-19.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_299/l_29920031118en00090019.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2003/l_299/l_29920031118fr00090019.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2003/l_299/l_29920031118es00090019.pdf [in Spanish]
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