Heat and cold - 949 entries found
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O'Leary C., Parsons K.C.
The role of the IREQ index in the design of working practices for cold environments
For any cold environment a calculation can be made of the minimum clothing insulation required by workers (IREQ). Two studies are reported which investigated the role of the IREQ index in the design of working practices for cold indoor environments. The two studies suggest that the use of the IREQ index alone as a working practice may not be adequate to provide thermal comfort. The IREQ index was suggested as adequate initial protection against the strain induced on a worker in a cold environment. The design tool included the IREQ index as an initial indicator of cold stress; subsequent application of local clothing adjustment, followed by suitable general working practices were then required to achieve thermal comfort.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1994, Vol.38, No.5, p.705-719. Illus. 10 ref.
Ramsey J.D., Bernard T.E., Dukes-Dobos F.N.
Evaluation and control of hot working environments: Part I - Guidelines for the practitioner; Part II - The scientific (knowledge base) for the guide
The guideline includes information on the way the human body stores heat, on potential illnesses caused by heat overexposure, methods for measuring and estimating the various components of exposure, limiting values of thermal exposure and work times in the heat, how these limits are affected by levels of acclimatization and clothing, and means of controlling heat exposure and heat stress. The second part of the paper provides the rationale for evaluation of heat stress and for interventions to reduce the risk of heat-related disorders. An overview of heat-related disorders is provided first to help the practitioner understand common causes and the rationale for most heat stress hygiene practices. The successful evaluation of heat stress requires a quantitative basis to make decisions about the level of heat stress present. The empirical basis of a scheme based on wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is presented.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.14, No.1-2, p.119-138. Illus. 39 ref.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social
Official Standard concerning occupational exposure to high and low temperatures at the workplace [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana relativa a la exposición laboral de las condiciones térmicas elevadas o abatidas en los centros de trabajo [México] [in Spanish]
Standard issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains general provisions, as well as provisions relating to: temperature measurement methods; hazard recognition, evaluation and control; limits of exposure to high ambient temperatures, in function of the nature of the work and the length of the rest periods provided; estimates of energy metabolism for a 70kg man, depending on the nature of the work (without periods of rest). In annex: information note used to determine the acceptability of work under high-temperature conditions; determination of high-temperature conditions, based on wet-bulb temperature measurements. Directive No.15 of 1991 (CIS 94-1118) is repealed.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 30 May 1994, Vol.488, No.20, p.54-73. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Moran D., Epshtayin Y., Shapira Y.
Mathematical models for predicting the physiological response to work under warm weather conditions
Dgamim matematiim lechizuy tguvot fiziologiot leavoda betnaei aklim cham [in Hebrew]
A review of mathematical models for evaluating the effect of work in warm weather on physiological parameters: metabolic rate, body-core temperature, sweat rate and heart rate. The application of different models under actual field working conditions is analyzed.
Harefuah, Nov. 1994, Vol.127, No.9, p.312-317. Illus. 23 ref.
Air velocities in rooms with cooling ceilings
Luftgeschwindigkeiten in Räumen mit Kühldecken [in German]
Cooling ceilings consist of a network of cooling ducts suspended from the ceiling and covered with ceiling panels. The air velocities account for much of the comfort in an air conditioned room. Air velocities were measured in model rooms where the cooling ducts covered 90% of the ceiling. The heaters were either arranged in one corner or evenly distributed throughout the room. Lacquered and unlacquered ceiling panels used to cover the cooling ducts were tested. Results are presented in diagrams and a table. It is concluded that comfortable air velocities below 15cm/s are produced in rooms cooled from the ceiling at the level occupied by people.
HLH - Zeitschrift für Heizung, Lüftung, Klimatechnik, Haustechnik, Dec. 1994, Vol.45, No.12, p.605-608. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Workroom temperatures in places where food is handled
This information sheet explains how the requirements of both food hygiene laws and health and safety laws can be achieved with respect to workroom temperatures. Health and safety requirements can be met by: maintaining a reasonable temperature (at least 16°C) and chilling the food locally; providing a warm workstation within a room where the overall temperature may be lower; or keeping the individual warm by means of suitable clothing, heated rest facilities or minimizing length of time of exposure to uncomfortable temperatures.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 1994. 4p. 3 ref.
Aptel M., Didry G., Moreau D.
Hot-entry suits - Efficiency of three models tested in the field
Scaphandres de protection contre la chaleur - Trois modèles testés in situ [in French]
The efficiency of three models of hot-entry suits was tested in a paper-mill drying shop by three subjects for a maximum duration of 30min in an enclosure with a dry air temperature of 75°C. Rectal and mean skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured, and the subjects filled in questionnaires for each suit. While wearing hot-entry suits does not significantly modify the subjects' thermoregulation, it does cause a significant increase in heart rate, depending on the type of equipment tested and the physical condition of the wearer. None of the suits tested provided fully satisfactory heat insulation according to the test criteria; duration limits for each exposure case seem to be needed. Guidance on risk prevention when working in hot environments is proposed. Annex: self-assessment questionnaire.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.156, Note No.1966-156-94, p.307-314. Illus. 16 ref.
Payne W.R., Portier B., Fairweather I., Zhou S., Snow R.
Thermoregulatory response to wearing encapsulated protective clothing during simulated work in various thermal environments
This investigation assessed the thermoregulatory impact of performing simulated tasks normally encountered during chemical accident clean-up while wearing chemical protection clothing under various representative thermal loads. Three different types of suits were compared under three different temperatures. Non significant differences were observed for both the average heart rate and sweat rate. Significant differences were found for mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, and temperature within the suit cavity. Suit type did not significantly affect rectal temperature, which also failed to exceed the American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' standard of 38.0°C.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.529-536. Illus. 29 ref.
Bernard T.E., Kenney W.L.
Rationale for a personal monitor for heat strain
Description of a surface-mounted temperature sensor developed to indicate when rectal temperature reaches a given temperature. Protective criteria were established for temperature sensor alert limits. A fixed threshold for heart rate may cause premature alerts during bursts of activity and miss lower, but sustained, heart rates that represent significant physiological strain. For these reasons, heart rate criteria based on seven moving-time averages also were developed. The criteria are based on a relationship between heart rate and endurance time. The temperature sensor and heart rate criteria form the basis of a real-time personal monitor for heat strain.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.505-514. Illus. 29 ref.
Hafkesbrink S., Schecker H.G., Hermann K.
Application of jet condensers in a blow-down system
Einsatz von Strahlkondensatoren in einem Blow-down System [in German]
A blow-down system for the prevention of explosion propagation in chemical reactors comprises separate cooling systems for the liquid and vapour phases. A cooling system for the vapour phase was tested in model experiments with 2 mixtures of methanol, nitrogen, and water or refrigerant R113, nitrogen and water at different conditions. The vapour phase carried the cooling agent on its way to a mixing nozzle where intense heat exchange caused the gas to condense. Installation of the condensation vessel inside the blow-down system renders the method suitable for a wide variety of conditions.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, June 1994, Vol.66, No.6, p.871-873. Illus. 3 ref.
Workplace Exposure Standards [New Zealand] - Effective from 1994
Recommended guidelines for New Zealand, the role of which is further defined in the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (CIS 93-701). Part 1: Workplace Exposure Standards (WESs): These exposure standards (approx. 600 substances, with CAS no., TWA and - sometimes - STEL values given) generally (but not always) follow those set by the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), themselves derived for the most part from ACGIH TLVs in the US. Special commentary on: notice of intended changes and additions; definitions of WESs; sampling for assessment against WESs; units of measurement; mixed exposure; aerosols; carcinogens; skin absorption; work load; sensitizers; simple asphyxiants. List of approx. 70 intended changes in WESs. Appendices: inspirable and respirable dust (criteria, sampling); TWA calculation guide; calculations of mixed exposure; rubber fume and rubber process dust; lead biological exposure indices; standards proposed by other organizations (NIOSH, OSHA, MAK, NOHSC, Sweden) when different from New Zealand WESs. Part 2: Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) for 27 substances (with assay, sample and sample time provided in addition to the BEI); sample collection; result reporting and interpretation. Part 3: Workplace Exposure Standards for noise and hot environments.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1994. 92p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Chen F., Nilsson H., Holmér I.
Cooling responses of finger in contact with an aluminum surface
Skin temperature (T) changes and subjective sensations of bare fingers touching a cold aluminum surface were determined in 25 subjects (12 female and 13 male). Exposure lasted until T reached 0°C or was voluntarily ended by the subject. Regression equations with two exponential components were used to describe the relationship between T and exposure time. Sex and surface temperature had no significant effect on cooling time. Thermal and pain sensation lacked a good correlation with temperatures and temperature changes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1994, Vol.55, No.3, p.218-222. Illus. 11 ref.
Constable S.H., Bishop P.A., Nunneley S.A., Chen T.
Intermittent microclimate cooling during rest increases work capacity and reduces heat stress
Eight subjects performed treadmill walking alternating with rest periods under three conditions: control, light clothing only; chemical protective ensemble (CPE); and CPE plus a personal cooling vest to allow for intermittent cooling by circulation of chilled liquid. Under the control condition, relatively modest changes in rectal temperature were observed. CPE wear resulted in a progressive rise in temperature and early fatigue. The addition of intermittent cooling during each rest cycle significantly attenuated heat storage and work capacity was at least doubled. Intermittent personal cooling provides a useful means of enhancing work productivity during heavy work in hot environments.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37, No.2, p.277-285. Illus. 10 ref.
Haslam R.A., Parsons K.C.
Using computer-based models for predicting human thermal responses to hot and cold environments
Four models capable of predicting human responses to hot and cold environments were evaluated by comparing their predictions with previously published human data. The experimental data were grouped into environment categories to allow examination of the effects of variables (wind, clothing) on the accuracy of the models' predictions. Usually at least one of the models was able to give predictions with an accuracy comparable with the degree of variation found in the experimental data. The evaluation suggests that it is possible to make useful predictions of deep-body and mean skin temperature responses to cool, neutral, warm and hot environmental conditions.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1994, Vol.37, No.3, p.399-416. Illus. 26 ref.
Turmo Sierra E.
Heat radiation in liquid and gas fires
Radiación térmica en incendios de líquidos y gases [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; fire resistance; fire; mathematical analysis; radiant heat; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 7p. Illus. 3 ref.
Luna Mendaza P.
Heat stress estimation: WBGT index
Valoración del riesgo de estrés térmico: índice WBGT [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; health hazards; heat load; heat stress assessment; Spain; stress factors; thermal environment; WBGT index.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 4p. 6 ref.
A guide to heat stress in agriculture
This guide outlines the nature and causes of heat stress and describes a programme for protecting agricultural workers from heat illness. The programme involves: assigning responsibility for heat stress problems; training workers and supervisors; acclimatization of workers; evaluating work assignments and the risk of heat illness; managing work activities and rest breaks; establishing a drinking water programme; provision of cooling garments and shade; and first aid to workers who become ill. Includes a summary chart in Spanish.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, Washington, DC 20460, USA, 1993. v, 44p. Illus. 76 ref.
Charuel C., Mercier-Gallay M., Stoklov M., Romazini S., Perdrix A.
Environmental stresses and strains in an extreme situation - The repair of electrometallurgy furnaces
During the replacement of an electrode element from a 20MW continuous casting furnace, excessive temperatures and CO levels were found. The wet bulb globe temperature in the furnace centre was 55°C. In the furnace periphery the WBGT measured 34°C. These temperatures did not change significantly during the 6h of replacement work. The mean CO levels of 110 to 145ppm in the furnace centre exceeded the exposure limit. The average pulse rate was measured at 150/min. It reached 65 to 83% of the maximum theoretical rate. The protective clothing worn by the workers was found to provide no protection against radiant heat and did not allow evaporation. It is recommended that this kind of repair work be limited to 2h and that an insulated floor be used to limit thermal radiation. Recommendations for periodical medical examinations are presented.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.4, p.253-258. Illus. 24 ref.
Human thermal environments: The effects of hot, moderate and cold environments on human health, comfort and performance - The principles and the practice
Contents of this manual: basic parameters affecting human response to thermal environments (human heat balance equation); human thermal physiology and thermoregulation; psychological responses; measurement methods and assessment techniques; metabolic heat production; thermal properties of clothing; thermal comfort; heat stress; cold stress; interference with activities, performance and productivity; human skin contact with hot surfaces; international standards; thermal models and computer aided design. In appendix: computer program listings for the assessment of heat stress, thermal comfort and cold stress.
Taylor & Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1993. xviii, 359p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 24.50.
Intaranont K., Vanwonterghem K.
Study of the exposure limits in constraining climatic conditions for strenuous tasks: An ergonomic approach
Final report of a 1990-93 research project sponsored by Directorate General XII-G of the Commission of the European Communities and implemented by Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, and CERGO International, Belgium. Anthropometric and work capacity data were collected in an air-conditioned laboratory, after which physiological and environmental measurements were made under real working conditions in five industries (steel, ceramics, agriculture, glass and building construction). Thai workers, both men and women, showed higher heart rates at a given level of oxygen consumption than published values for Europeans. As this is a criterion used to relate wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT) readings to the risk of fatigue and heat stress, a set of curves relating WBGT to workload for various work-rest schedules was developed to fit the Thai situation. The field observations revealed ergonomic problems other than those related to temperature (e.g., repetitive work in ceramics packing).
Chulalongkorn University, Laboratory for Ergonomics Research, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Jan. 1994. ix, 183p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Climate and air quality in the workplace
This revised directive describes the physical factors that determine indoor air quality (previous ed. under CIS 94-691). Main subjects covered: effects of the indoor environment on health, well-being and work capacity; air quality; selection of construction materials; ventilation; energy conservation, heat recovery and recirculated air; indoor thermal environments; adjustment of air flow rates, measurement and documentation; specifications. A brief survey of relevant Norwegian legislation is included. Replaces previous edition (CIS 94-691).
Directorate of Labour Inspection, PO Box 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, Nov. 1993. 44p. 27 ref. Index. Available from: Tiden Norsk Forlag A/S, PO Box 8813 Youngstoret, 0028 Oslo, Norway.
Babaev A. B., Lamihov B. Ju., Sergeev D. Ju.
Contemporary problems of the occupational safety and health of workers in the building materials industry under hot climatic conditions
Sovremennye problemy ohrany truda rabočih promyšlennosti stroitel'nyh materialov v uslovijah žarkogo klimata [in Russian]
The construction materials sector employs more than 10,000 persons in Tajikistan. Basic information on working conditions in the hot continental climate of the country is lacking, which impedes the establishment of guidelines for the improvement of those conditions. Observations and measurements were made at all seasons of the year at each stage in the production and use of ferro-concrete panels, from the quarrying of the aggregate to the assembly of the panels on a building site. Stressful extremes of temperature were recorded. Concentrations of siliceous and metallic dusts, welding fume and carbon monoxide frequently exceeded official exposure limits, as did levels of noise and (occasionally) local vibration. In addition, certain operations, such as the assembly of the reinforcing armature of ferro-concrete panels, involve heavy physical effort. The net result is premature exhaustion of many workers. Average values and ranges are given for temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, concentrations, noise, vibration and illumination levels, heart rate and blood pressure.
Medicina truda i promyšlennaja ėkologija, Nov.-Dec. 1993, No.11-12, p.6-9. 4 ref.
Work in the cold
The methods for evaluating whole-body cooling, extremity cooling, convective cooling due to wind chill, cooling by contact with frozen products and respiratory cooling are reviewed. The effects of cold exposure, such as frostbite, are discussed and the recommendations concerning the lowest permissible temperatures presented in the literature are reiterated. For example, for handling frozen products, a temperature of -1°C is the limit below which protection by gloves is needed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.3, p.147-155. Illus. 89 ref.
Ohnaka T., Tochihara Y., Muramatsu T.
Physiological strains in hot-humid conditions while wearing disposable protective clothing commonly used by the asbestos removal industry
Seven subjects wearing impermeable protective clothing and air masks were exposed to hot-humid conditions, cool conditions and hot/cool conditions (working in hot conditions and resting in cool conditions). Work was performed on an ergometer according to a work/rest schedule and rectal temperature, heart rate, sweat rate and discomfort sensation were recorded. Thermal stress was linked to work in protective clothing in hot-humid environments, although the physiological strains were significantly reduced by resting between work periods in a cool environment. The idea of a 'cool room' inside the workplace, so as to reduce thermal stress, is proposed.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1993, Vol.36, No.10, p.1241-1250. Illus. 27 ref.
Fox S.H., DuBois A.B.
The effect of evaporative cooling of respiratory protective devices on skin temperature, thermal sensation, and comfort
Theoretical considerations of thermal exchange between the face and the environment with and without a mask are discussed to elucidate factors that may improve the design of masks to increase their acceptability. Evaporative cooling of a dummy mask and a modified Scott respirator was tested in resting and exercising subjects. Skin temperature was significantly reduced when wet felt covered the outer surface of both masks. At rest the masks were rated by subjects as significantly more comfortable than dry felt on the outer surface.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1993, Vol.54, No.12, p.705-710. Illus. 10 ref.
Tochihara Y., Ohnaka T., Nagai Y., Muramatsu T.
Survey of physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer
Kaki ni okeru asubesuto bōgo fuku chakuyō sagyō no rōdō futan ni kansuru chōsa kenkyū [in Japanese]
Asbestos abatement projects in schools are planned during summer vacation. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing. Physiological strains in 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatement work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. The workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoe covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6°C and 28.8°C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was the result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces with vinyl sheets, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working periods were 46 and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were 217-605g/h. These values were greater than estimated values for similar work done wearing light clothing. Heart rates did not exceed 150 beats/min where the temperature was 25°C-27°C, but where the temperature was 28°C-29°C one worker's heart rate increased to 170 beats/min. During this work (136 minutes), rectal temperature increased 2.3°C; body weight loss was 1,300g. There is a high risk of suffering from heat illness in asbestos abatement work during the summer.
Annals of Physiological Anthropology, 1 Jan. 1993, Vol.12, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Purkayastha S.S., Ilavazhagan G., Ray U.S., Selvamurthy W.
Responses of arctic and tropical men to a standard cold test and peripheral vascular responses to local cold stress in the Arctic
Thermoregulatory, metabolic and peripheral vascular responses to cold were studied in two groups of men during exposure to the natural cold environment of the Arctic. One group comprised two Arctic natives and four temporary residents originating in a temperate zone of Russia, the other group comprised six men from a tropical region (India). The physiological responses to general cold exposure as well as peripheral vascular response to local arctic cold stress were similar in both groups. The observation suggests that cold acclimatization in tropical men is similar to that of people originating in a temperate zone.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.64, No.12, p.1113-1119. Illus. 27 ref.
Christensen V.R., Eastes W., Hamilton R.D., Struss A.W.
Fiber diameter distributions in typical MMVF wool insulation products
In order to make available a consistent set of information about the fibre diameter distribution in man-made vitreous fibre (MMVF) products, the length-weighted fibre diameter distribution in 22 samples of glass wool, rock and slag wool, refractory ceramic fibre, and special purpose fibre insulation, from 11 different manufacturers, was measured. All of the samples were measured by the same procedures using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gas adsorption (the BET method). The diameters were neither approximately normally nor log normally distributed, with arithmetic standard deviations typically 50-100% of the arithmetic mean. The geometric mean diameter was usually significantly smaller than the arithmetic mean diameter (1-8µm for glass and 2-5µm for rock and slag); the length-weighted median diameter lay between these two means. There was good agreement between the various means and standard deviations measured by LM and by SEM. The BET-measured fibre specific surface area agreed well with that calculated from the microscopically measured diameters.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.232-238. Illus. 5 ref.
Lusa S., Louhevaara V., Smolander J., Kivimäki M., Korhonen O.
Physiological responses of firefighting students during simulated smoke-diving in the heat
While wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and fire-protective clothing, 35 healthy firefighting students aged 19-27 years performed smoke-diving (entry into a smoke-filled room) during a simulated shipboard fire. Neither ability to tolerate stress (as determined by the instructors) nor previous experience in smoke-diving tasks seemed to influence the heart rate or estimated oxygen consumption during the experiment. Smoke-diving was physically very demanding even for young and fit subjects, showing the importance of regular evaluation of the health and physical fitness of every firefighter who has to carry out smoke-diving tasks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.228-231. 19 ref.
Kenney W.L., Hyde D.E., Bernard T.E.
Physiological evaluation of liquid-barrier, vapor-permeable protective clothing ensembles for work in hot environments
Two vapour-transmitting ensembles were compared with other clothing ensembles previously tested. The evaluation was based on an established experimental protocol that determines the critical values of air temperature and water-vapour pressure. There were no differences between the two vapour-transmitting garments in their effects on worker heat stress. When compared with the results of other studies, the two vapour-transmitting garments had critical environmental characteristics similar to two layers of cotton coveralls and they performed better from a heat stress standpoint than a disposable vapour-barrier suit worn over cloth coveralls.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.397-402. Illus. 15 ref.
Aptel M., Horwat F., Klein D.
Heat load and physical workload of a confectioner
Charge thermique et physique de travail d'un confiseur [in French]
Following complaints from two employees of a small confectioner in France regarding the temperature of their workplace and their heavy physical workload, an occupational hygiene survey was conducted to assess the heat load imposed by the jobs in terms of the "required sweat rate", and to determine the heat stress and physical workload of one of the workers. Heat stress was estimated on the basis of oral temperature, water balance and calculation of "extra heartbeats" from electrocardiograms. Physical workload was measured in terms of heart rate and metabolic rate.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.47-49. Illus. 4 ref.
Surviving the elements - Outdoor workers' safety
The hazards associated with work in Australia's extreme climatic conditions are examined along with an outline of the legal responsibilities of employers and safety precautions. Government guidelines have established a clear recognition of the hazards of solar radiation and the risk of skin cancer and the precautions necessary. While no specific regulations exist with regard to climatic heat, an employer's basic obligations are usually encapsulated under relevant state occupational safety and health legislation. Policies adopted for both hot and cold conditions should be based on common sense and education of personnel along with proper protective equipment.
Australian Safety News, Dec. 1993, Vol.64, No.11, p.28-39. Illus. 14 ref.
Froom P., Caine Y., Shochat I., Ribak J.
Heat stress and helicopter pilot errors
Helicopter pilots are subjected to degrees of heat stress that under laboratory conditions results in decreased performance. However, the effect of heat stress on the frequency of helicopter pilot errors is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between ambient heat stress and pilot error. A dose-response relationship was found between ambient heat stress and pilot error in Israel military helicopter pilots. This is the first study outside the laboratory showing a connection between heat stress and accidents due to human error. Further studies are required to substantiate these findings and to determine whether extrapolation to other settings is warranted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1993, Vol.35, No.7, p.720-724. 40 ref.
Messing K., Saurel-Cubizolles M.J., Bourgine M., Kaminski M.
Factors associated with dysmenorrhea among workers in French poultry slaughterhouses and canneries
The food and agriculture industry employs 15% of the female industrial workforce in France. Workers in this industry are exposed to a variety of environmental and organizational constraints: cold temperatures, uncomfortable postures, assembly-line work, irregular schedules. In 1987 to 1988, a medical examination and questionnaire were administered to 726 menstruating women who had not been pregnant during the two previous years, as part of a study of French workers in 17 poultry slaughterhouses and six canning factories. Dysmenorrhoea during the previous year was more prevalent among younger women and smokers, and less prevalent among users of oral contraceptives. After adjustment for non-occupational variables, dysmenorrhoea was significantly related to several parameters expressing cold exposure and physical workload. Other parameters such as job satisfaction and hours of domestic work were not associated with dysmenorrhoea.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.35, No.5, p.493-500. 38 ref.
Luftbefeuchtung [in German]
Umidificazione dell'aria [in Italian]
Humidification de l'air [in French]
Some enterprises require the installation of humidification equipment because constant relative humidity is necessary in the production process. However, poorly or infrequently cleaned humidifiers can cause diseases, such as "humidifier fever" or "humidifier lung". This booklet describes measures for preventing these diseases.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1993. 8p. Illus. 3 ref.
Comparison and error analysis of instrumentation and methods for assessment of neutral and hot environment on the basis of ISO standards
Thesis. Nine ISO standards (some still at the stage of drafts) concern instrumentation and methods for measuring and evaluating the thermal environment. Their practical value was determined in climate chamber experiments and in field studies in Finland and Tanzania. Worker complaints about microclimatic conditions were common even when measured values of parameters were within the comfort range defined by standards; subjects systematically underestimated air temperatures. The failure of some temperature-measuring devices to attain the accuracy required by the relevant standards suggests that the latter should include more details on the construction of the instruments. The range of conditions under which the ISO required sweat rate standard is applicable proved to be too narrow. Variations in estimates of metabolic rate and of the insulation value of clothing were high. Direct physiological measurements (e.g., skin temperature) are simple enough to be preferable to estimated heat stress indices.
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, 1993. 120p. Illus. 106 ref.
Evaluation of thermal strain by physiological measurements
Evaluation de l'astreinte thermique par mesures physiologiques [in French]
This International Standard describes methods for measuring and interpreting the following physiological parameters: (a) body core temperature; (b) skin temperature; (c) heart rate; (d) body mass loss. The choice of variables to be measured and techniques to be used is at the discretion of those responsible for the health of the employees. This International Standard defines the conditions which are to be met in order to ensure the accuracy of the data gathered from the different methods. Annex B presents a description of the measurement methods and limit values are proposed in Annex C.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1992. iii, 14p. Illus. 1 ref.
Replacement of fluid lost due to sweating in a hot working environment
Kōon sagyō genba de no suibun hokyū kōka [in Japanese]
Weight loss and fluid intake during a working day were measured in a group of 14 workers performing maintenance and repair on blast furnaces at WBGT temperatures of 27.9-42.6°C. On days when the workers had free access to tap water and green tea as beverages, they consumed an average of 0.75L and rehydrated 47%. When a commercial isotonic beverage (a flavoured glucose-electrolyte solution) was offered as a third choice, fluid intake was 1.03L and rehydration was 61%. This indicates that such beverages have value in the maintenance of workers' fluid and electrolyte balance in hot environments.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1 Sep. 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.468-471. 12 ref.
Kähkönen E., Swai D., Dyauli E., Monyo R.
Estimation of heat stress in Tanzania by using ISO heat stress indices
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the ISO heat stress standards in estimating the heat stress and strain in workplaces in Tanzania. Another aim was to select and to develop simplified methods for measuring physiological parameters in developing countries. The methods were tested in four hot factories and at a construction site. It seems that in tropical working environments the climatic conditions for which the ISO 7933 standard is applicable are too narrow. For instance, the mean skin temperature was incorrectly estimated by ISO 7933. An approximate analysis of the working situation can nevertheless be carried out by assuming the mean skin temperature to be 34.5°C. During the study, heat stress and strain were not as high as expected: deep body temperatures were usually lower than 38°C, sweat rates lower than 400g/h and heart rates below 100 beats/min for about 72% of the measuring time. This is due to the job rotation of the workers and the long rest periods, because the number of workers is large in the factories, and the weather was not at its hottest during the survey.
Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.95-100. 17 ref.
Brunk M.F., Dittes W., Pfeiffer W.
Design of industrial ventilation systems
RLT - Anlagenauslegung für Produktionshallen [in German]
A method for the design of industrial ventilation systems is presented which departs from the use of empirical air exchange rates as is recommended in many directives. Instead, it takes into account the amount of harmful substances which will be used and the heat generated by all sources including the people, illumination, and solar radiation. The process of cleaning plastic bumpers for motor cars with isopropyl alcohol is used as an example to explain the method.
HLH - Heizung Lüftung/Klima Haustechnik, Mar. 1992, Vol.43, No.3, p.118-126. Illus. 38 ref.
Ramsey J.D., Kwon Y.G.
Recommended alert limits for perceptual motor loss in hot environments
Research concerning the effects of heat on task performance has been extensive and contradictory. This paper summarizes more than 150 studies where performance has been reported as a function of temperature, exposure time and type of tasks. It suggests that prediction of performance loss first requires categorizing the type of tasks since mental or very simple tasks typically show little decrement in the heat and are frequently enhanced during brief exposures. Other perceptual motor tasks collectively depict a pattern of onset of performance decrement in the 30°C-33°C WBGT temperature range, and the decrement appears to be relatively independent of exposure time. This is the same temperature range as that associated with the onset of physiological heat stress for the worker performing sedentary or very light work. It appears that performance decrement may be better explained by body temperatures, as indicated by the head or blood temperature, than by the deep body temperature.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May 1992, Vol.9, No.3, p.245-257. Illus. 78 ref.
Sullivan P.J., Mekjavić I.B.
Temperature and humidity within the clothing microenvironment
Five subjects wearing different types of helicopter personnel suits were exposed to a linear increase in ambient temperature from 20-40°C over a 90-min period, and then remained at 40°C for an additional 90min. Results showed that although clothing microenvironment temperatures were similar among suits and slightly lower than that of the environment, the microenvironment relative humidity and vapour pressure were much greater than that of the ambient air. The study demonstrates the need to discern between ambient conditions and conditions next to the skin when protective clothing is worn.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.63, No.3, p.186-192. Illus. 23 ref.
A correlation of the wet-bulb globe temperature and Botsball heat stress indexes for industry
A heat transfer analysis of the instruments used for the measurement of the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the Botsball temperature (BBT) was made. By using the analysis, both heat stress indexes were calculated over wide ranges of air temperature, humidity, air speed, and radiant heat flux, thereby simulating different industrial environments. The calculated results were in agreement with measurements taken in industry and the laboratory. The equation which correlates the heat stress indexes reconciles the divergence of published correlations for industrial environments. The WBGT may be predicted from the BBT with a precision of ±1.18°C if the water vapour pressure of the ambient air is known. In some industries, the water vapour pressure is the same at different work sites and a single measurement with a psychrometer would be sufficient.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1992, Vol.53, No.3, p.169-174. Illus. 26 ref.
Antuñano M.J., Nunneley S.A.
Heat stress in protective clothing - Validation of a computer model and the heat-humidity index (HHI)
To validate the suggestion that environmental heat load may be predicted by using the Heat-Humidity Index (HHI), nine men wearing chemical defence clothing were studied under a range of heat-humidity conditions with varying workloads. Physiological variables were recorded. Compared to the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, the HHI offered greater accuracy in predicting tolerance limits of heavily clothed subjects over a considerable range of environmental conditions and workloads.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.63, No.12, p.1087-1092. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The problems of asbestos removal at high temperatures
This guidance note provides practical advice on preventing heat stress when asbestos-containing insulation has to be stripped in hot environments. Contents: legal considerations; work planning to avoid or minimise work at high temperatures; control of body temperature and the thermal environment; special problems associated with asbestos removal at elevated temperatures; medical effects; prediction of heat stress; general precautions for work in hot conditions; temperature and environment control within the enclosure; provision of a cool rest area; respiratory protective equipment and protective clothing; medical monitoring; first aid treatment and emergency procedures.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Dec. 1992. 11p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.
Johnson A.T., Grove C.M., Weiss R.A.
Respirator performance rating tables for nontemperate environments
Respirator performance rating tables have been constructed for hot, humid (29°C, 95% RH); hot, dry (49°C, 30% RH); and cold, dry (-32°C, 70% RH) conditions. These tables convey expected wearer performance percentages compared to unmasked workers for various mask elements and work rates. The hot, humid condition was found to be the most severe overall. Many table entries approach 100%, thus leading to difficulties in correcting mask deficiencies.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1992, Vol.53, No.9, p.548-555. Illus. 9 ref.
Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Methods for the determination of possible damage to people and objects resulting from releases of hazardous materials
Translation of the document originally issued in Dutch and abstracted as CIS 91-1770. Contents: description of methods to be used for the determination of risks during the establishment of safety studies in which hazardous substances are involved. Main topics covered: methods for the determination of effects of thermal radiation (effects of thermal radiation on humans, statistical model, protective clothing, damage by flash fires); a method for the determination of the effects of blasts on constructions (interaction between blast and construction, determination of dynamic response, strength of window panels, calculation of a defined damage level); investigation of the effects of explosions on victims; formation of toxic products during fires (combustion, pyrolysis, reactions of combustion products); acute inhalation toxicity study: a model based on extrapolation from data on 25 substances; protection from outdoor pollution by being indoors: a mathematical model for calculation of the reduction of the indoor concentration and dose.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1992. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Pin N.T., Ling N.Y., Siang L.H.
Dehydration from outdoor work and urinary stones in a tropical environment
A questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of urinary stone disease among 406 male workers in several occupations in Singapore: quarry drilling and crusher workers, quarry truck and loader drivers, postal delivery men and hospital maintenance workers. The prevalence of urinary stone disease was found to be 5 times higher in outdoor workers compared to indoor workers, and contrary to expectation, no increased risk of urolithiasis was apparent in physically inactive workers. Chronic dehydration is likely to be the most important factor for increased risk of urolithiasis in outdoor workers in the tropics, and should be easily prevented by increased water intake.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.42, No.1, p.30-32. 9 ref.
Cornu J.C., Guélin J.C.
Thermal anemometers - Influence of air temperature on their sensitivity
Anémomètres thermiques portatifs - Influence de la température sur leur réponse [in French]
The purpose of this experiment was to assess measuring errors in portable thermal anemometer operations. Nine anemometers, chosen from the ones widely used, were tested in a wind tunnel operation at constant air velocity and with cyclically varying air temperatures. The errors in air velocity measurement caused by changes in air temperature were measured. No correlation was established between error magnitude and sensor type or size.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.146, Note No.1873-146-92, p.71-79. Illus. 5 ref.
Bestratén Belloví M., Turmo Sierra E.
BLEVE explosions (I): Assessment of thermal radiation
Explosiones BLEVE (I): evaluación de la radiación térmica [in Spanish]
This information note explains the physical phenomena involved in a BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion). It also lists the conditions under which BLEVEs occur and provides a mathematical treatment of their thermodynamics and of the thermal radiation they produce. The consequences of BLEVEs are described.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 6p. Illus. 12 ref.
Nogareda Cuixart S.
Thermal environment and dehydration
Ambiente térmico y deshidratación [in Spanish]
This information note on the thermal environment and dehydration covers water metabolism and requirements, as well as symptoms of dehydration, first aid and preventive measures. Tables are included.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 4p. Illus. 15 ref.
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