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Heat and cold - 949 entries found

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CIS 01-219 Prisby R., Glickman-Weiss E.L., Nelson A.G., Caine N.
Thermal and metabolic responses of high and low fat women to cold water immersion
The purpose of the present investigation was to find out if women with high levels of body fat (30±3%) had a different reaction to being immersed in cold water from those having low levels of body fat (20.5±2%). The thermal and metabolic responses of six women in each category were monitored during acute exposure to 17°C water for 120min. The following variables were measured: rectal temperature, mean skin temperature, oxygen consumption and tissue insulation. Unexpectedly, only one of the variables demonstrated a main effect for fat. Rectal temperature demonstrated a significant group by time interaction. However, mean skin temperature demonstrated a main effect for time. While oxygen consumption demonstrated an increase across time, these changes were non-significant. It appears that the high-fat (HF) group demonstrated a similar thermal and metabolic response as their low-fat (LF) counterparts. However, the LF groups maintained a lower rectal temperature as compared with the HF subjects. Perhaps leaner subjects or colder water temperatures would elucidate the value of body fat in females, and demonstrate a differential response with respect to females varying in percent body fat.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.70, No.9, p.887-891. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 01-218 Daanen H.A.M., Ducharme M.B.
Finger cold-induced vasodilation during mild hypothermia, hyperthermia and at thermoneutrality
Exposure of the fingers to severe cold leads to cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD). To investigate the influence of body thermal status on the CIVD response, eight subjects immersed their right hand in 5°C water for 40min during mild hypothermia (C), thermoneutrality (N) and hyperthermia (W). The mean skin temperature of the body (Tsk), the oesophageal temperature (Tes), the temperature of the volar side of the distal phalanx of each immersed finger (Tfi) and the skin perfusion of the immersed middle finger (Qsk) were continuously measured. During the W condition the body temperatures were higher than during N and during C. Tfi and Qsk were higher during the W condition than during N and during C. The onset time of CIVD was significantly prolonged in condition C as compared with N .It was concluded that the CIVD response is significantly affected by body-core and skin temperatures.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.70, No.12, p.1206-1210. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-1135 Weber L.W.
Protection of the hands from wetness and temperature during work in a cold water aquarium
Nässe- und Wärmeschutz für die Hand bei Arbeiten im Kaltwasseraquarium [in German]
A search for gloves that provides better protection of the hands and arms of a female worker from getting wet and cold hands led to latex gloves with long fibre-reinforced polyvinyl chloride cuffs worn over a knitted hollow fibre glove for heat insulation. The gloves protect the entire arm to the axillary. A polyethylene foil attached to the new types of gloves keep the cloth from getting wet. The woman has to regularly clean a 70cm deep cold water aquarium with a temperature below 15°C. She complained of rheumatic problems in her hands because of insufficient hand protection in the past.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, 1999, Vol.49, No.2, p.54-57. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 00-770 González Ferradás E., Mińana Aznar A., Baeza Caracena A., Morales Mateo F., Marzal Martínez F.J.
Ventilation systems used in industrial hygiene
Los sistemas de ventilación utilizados en el ámbito de la higiene industrial [in Spanish]
A normal ventilation system that dilutes the concentrations of dangerous substances in the zones of work does not apply to industries that generate emissions of heat or harmful substances. In such conditions, other methods must be used, namely a localized aspiration and an adequate design of workplaces in order to capture the emissions.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.76, p.13-19. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 00-474 Reneau P.D., Bishop P.A., Ashley C.D.
A comparison of physiological responses to two types of particle barrier, vapor permeable clothing ensembles
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on worker productivity of particle barrier, vapour permeable suits based on polyethylene (PE) and on polypropylene (PP). Fifteen male subjects performed four work tests consisting of a walk/arm curl combination, two in a wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of 26°C and two in a WBGT of 18°C, with subjects wearing each suit once in each environment. No significant difference was observed between the suits at 18°C WBGT, but a significant difference was found between the suits, with the PP having a lower Tre in the WBGT=26°C at the 80th, 100th and 120th min. A significant difference was also seen in the 26°C WBGT with the PP resulting in a lower heart rate (HR) at the 40th, 60th, 80th, 100th and 120th min and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at the 75th, 90th and 120th min. Additionally, a significant difference was seen between PE and PP for Tre, delta Tre, mean skin temp (mTsk), delta mTsk and HR, each regressed against time in the 26°C WBGT. Twelve of the 15 subjects also reported feeling cooler in the PP versus the PE in either WBGT environment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.60, No.4, p.495-501. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 00-259 Hayashi C., Tokura H.
The effects of different materials of protective gloves on the thermoregulatory responses
Two kinds of protective glove materials used in pesticide spraying were studied to determine the effects on thermoregulatory response during exercise at ambient temperature of 28°C and relative humidity of 60%. One kind of glove was made of polyurethane (A) and the other of Goretex (B) with cotton lining in each glove. All subjects took part in two sessions of sequences of step exercises, gripping, turning a small screw, and handgrip exercises. Main results can be summarized as follows: (1) during exercise an increase of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in B than in A; (2) skin temperature of the hand was significantly lower in B than in A; (3) absolute humidity and temperature inside the gloves were significantly lower during the period from the gripping bar exercise to the end of the experiment (4) the number of contractions by the handgrip exercise performed immediately after the second turning of the screw was significantly smaller in A than in B. Findings suggest that the gloves made of Goretex material could reduce thermal strain during intermittent work in warm environmental conditions.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.253-261. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 99-2034 Nash J.L.
Protecting workers in cold conditions
Topics: Alaska; body temperature; cold; extreme temperatures; frostbite; impermeable fabrics; outdoor work; polar climate; protection against cold; protection against humidity; risk factors; snow; USA; weather protective clothing; wind; winter.
Occupational Hazards, Oct. 1999, Vol.61, No.10, p.133-136. Illus.

CIS 99-1976 Muir I.H., Bishop P.A., Ray P.
Effects of a novel ice-cooling technique on work in protective clothing at 28°C, 23°C and 18°C WBGTs
A new ice cooling suit was tested that permits recharge of the ice cooling system without removal of protective clothing and thus risk of contamination of the wearer. The suit allows for frozen gel packets to be worn in pockets on the outside of the suit. At 28°C and 23°C, mean work times with the cooling system were significantly increased over work times without the cooling system. Mean work times at 18°C were not significantly different. During rest, mean reductions in rectal temperature were greater with the cooling system. Mean heart rate calculated at the same point in both treatments was lower with the cooling system. This new design seemed to provide comparable cooling to conventional vests and also provides greater practicality for field use. Even in experimental form, the suit demonstrated increased productivity due to extended tolerance time. Topics: body-core temperature; chemical protective clothing; comfort criteria; evaluation of equipment; exercise tests; human experiments; protective clothing; thermal comfort.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.96-104. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 99-1975 Caretti D.M., Gardner P.D.
Respirator fit factor performance while sweating
Data on respirator fit factors were obtained while 14 subjects completed 30min of treadmill walking at an intensity of 75% of age-predicted maximal heart rate in an aerosol test chamber under ambient environmental conditions. Facial and whole body sweat production were also measured. Respirator fit was significantly degraded after 14min of exercise. Sweat accumulation inside the respirator facepiece averaged 30.9±15.5g. However, no significant correlation of facial sweat production with overall fit factor values measured during exercise was found. Results indicate that respirator fit factors degrade significantly over time under moderate exercise and environmental conditions and suggest that facial sweat accumulation alone does not account for the reduced fit factor levels. Topics: dehydration; exercise tests; human experiments; leakage testing; respirators; sweat rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.84-88. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 99-2039 Barker D.W., Kini S., Bernard T.E.
Thermal characteristics of clothing ensembles for use in heat stress analysis
The thermal characteristics of a variety of protective clothing ensembles were determined for application in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for required sweat rate, used for the assessment of occupational heat stress. Experiments were carried out using five subjects in four environmental conditions for each ensemble. Metabolic rate, average skin temperature and the environmental conditions were noted at the critical conditions in which subjects were just able to maintain thermal equilibrium. The total insulation was estimated for each ensemble. From these values, the total evaporative resistance and the clothing factors for dry heat exchange and for evaporative cooling were determined. It is suggested that these clothing coefficients can be used in the ISO standard for these clothing ensembles and thus increase the utility of the standard. Topics: comment on standard; energy metabolism; heat load; heat transfer; microclimate; protective clothing; skin temperature; sweat rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.32-37. 13 ref.

CIS 99-2033 Bernard T.E., Cross R.R.
Heat stress management: Case study in an aluminum smelter
Environmental data were collected in an aluminium smelter and used to develop a prediction model for WBGT levels at target locations in potrooms based on the temperature and humidity of air entering the potrooms at a representative (reference) location. The WBGT prediction in combination with metabolic rate and a task analysis was implemented in a spreadsheet scheme for heat stress evaluation of different jobs. Heat stress guidelines were developed to manage the risk of heat-related disorders. The guidelines mapped out policy, responsibilities and activities, and included environmental thresholds at the reference location for administrative controls and personal protection. The current level of heat stress was broadcast through the potrooms so that appropriate actions could be taken. The success of the guidelines was seen in the reduction of heat-related disorders and overall injuries. Topics: aluminium industry; climatic measurement; exposure evaluation; heat load; heat stress assessment; heat stress indices; heat transfer; hot workplaces; humidity measurement; mathematical models; prediction formulae; refining; smelting plants; threshold limit values; WBGT index.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.609-620. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 99-2050 Kuklane K., Geng Q., Holmér I.
Thermal effects of steel toe caps in footgear
The possible thermal effects of steel toe caps in footwear were investigated. Two models of boots were used, each manufactured in two variants - with and without steel toe caps. Boot insulation was measured with an artificial, heated foot (AHF). Cold exposure consisted of sitting for 60min at -10°C. There were no differences between insulation levels of boots with and without steel cap for one boot model, but the differences were statistically significant for the second model, showing slightly higher insulation values for the boot without steel cap. Significant differences were found for both models regarding the rate of change of heat loss from AHF when its location was changed from warm to cold and back to warm. The rise and decrease of heat loss from AHF depended on the rate of temperature change of the boots. The results showed that a faster change in heat loss from AHF occurred for boots without steel toe caps. The effect may be attributed to the higher mass and heat contents of the boots with steel toe cap. Topics: cold workplaces; exposure evaluation; foot; safety footwear; skin temperature; thermal comfort; toe caps.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.431-438. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 99-2032 Forsthoff A., Neffgen H.
The assessment of heat radiation
Climatic chamber experiments were performed with male subjects to study the thermal stress at climates involving increased heat radiation. Based on the reactions of heart rate, rectal temperature and sweat rate, a heat stress index was developed for the assessment of climates with effective heat radiation intensities up to 1400W/m2. The index considers different combinations of dry air temperature, globe temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, clothing, physical work load and directions of radiation and air flow. The index integrates combinations of the variables producing the same degree of thermal strain into a single value. This value indicates the temperature of the physiologically equivalent climate in which air and radiant temperature are equal. It can be determined from a simple formula or from correspondent graphs. In comparison, the international recommended heat stress indices are less able to evaluate heat radiation correctly. The incorporation of the new partial index into indices in use may substantially improve their physiological validity in the assessment of climates with radiant heat stress. Topics: body-core temperature; climate chamber studies; heat acclimatization; heat load; heat stress assessment; heat stress indices; human experiments; physical workload; pulse rate; radiant heat; simulation facilities; skin temperature; sweat rate.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.407-414. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 99-2031 Moran D.S., Pandolf K.B.
Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) - To what extent is GT essential?
Industrial and military safety personnel often require an easy, quick and accurate assessment of heat stress as a potential risk. The widely used WBGT index to evaluate heat stress is cumbersome and suited for a fixed site station rather than a mobile situation. Recently, a modified discomfort index (MDI) compiled from ambient temperature and wet bulb temperature was suggested to evaluate heat stress. Validation of the simple and easy-to-operate MDI on an independent database can determine whether this index is able to serve as a reliable and valid alternative to WBGT. Four separate database sets obtained from a Marine Corps training site served to validate this index. Hourly weather measurements were collected daily during four years, representing a wide range of environmental conditions. The MDI validity was tested vs. the WBGT index. A highly significant correlation coefficient greater than 0.95 was found in each of the four database sets. The simply constructed and user friendly MDI is easier to calculate and use than WBGT, and it has the potential to serve as an attractive alternative to the WBGT index in assessing heat stress. Topics: climatic measurement; heat stress assessment; heat stress indices; hot workplaces; mathematical models; temperature measurement; thermal discomfort; thermal environment; WBGT index.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.70, No.5, p.480-484. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 99-1659 Cattermole T.J.
The epidemiology of cold injury in Antarctica
A retrospective study was performed of 10 years of medical records to determine the type, severity, aetiological factors and treatment of cold injury experienced by members of the British Antarctic Survey between 1986-96. There were 61 new consultations for cold injury. Cold injuries seen were frostbite, hypothermia and trench foot. Superficial frostbite was the most common injury with the face the most frequently affected area. No cases of frostbite severe enough to cause permanent tissue loss were seen. The prevalence of cold injury increased with falling temperature to a maximum between 25 and 35°C. The relationship with windchill is not as clear cut, with frequency of injury tending to follow the frequency of windchill values except at higher values. Neither temperature nor windchill significantly influenced the severity of frostbite. Prior cold injury was significantly associated with further cold injury. Most injuries occurred during recreation; skiing and snowmobile driving were often implicated. Topics: air temperature; antarctic; cold workplaces; epidemiologic study; face injuries; foot injuries; frostbite; injuries; wind.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.70, No.2, p.135-140. Illus. 35 ref.


CIS 01-231 Working in artificial cold
Le travail dans le froid artificiel [in French]
Werken in kunstmatige koude [in Dutch]
Topics: alarm systems; arthritis; Belgium; cardiovascular disorders; cold storage; cold stress; cold workplaces; cooling systems; data sheet; food industry; frostbite; fruit processing and storing; insulating clothing; legal aspects; manual dexterity; meat industry; poisson distribution; Raynaud's phenomenon; responsibilities of employers; retail trade; wholesale trade; work-rest schedules.
Ministčre fédéral de l'emploi et du travail, rue Belliard 51, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1998. 36p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1735 Hernández Calleja A.
The thermal environment: Local thermal discomfort
Ambiente térmico: inconfort térmico local [in Spanish]
This information note defines the factors leading to local thermal discomfort (draughts, asymmetric thermal radiation, vertical air temperature gradients or contact with warm or cold floors) and describes experimental studies which have led to recommended limits for avoiding discomfort.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 6p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 99-1820 Malchaire J., Piette A., Cock N.
Thermal working environments - Strategy for the assessment and control of hazards
Ambiances thermiques de travail - Stratégie d'évaluation et de prévention des risques [in French]
Thermisch omgevingsfactoren - Stategie voor evaluatie en preventie van risico's [in Dutch]
Topics: air temperature; Belgium; check lists; description of technique; exposure evaluation; hot workplaces; humidity; legislation; length of exposure; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; natural ventilation; occupational hygiene; physical workload; radiant heat; temperature measurement; thermal comfort; thermal environment; training manuals; training material; WBGT index; work clothing.
Federaal Ministerie van Tewekstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, 1040 Brussels, Belgium, 1998. 83p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-2040 Wästerlund D.S.
A review of heat stress research with application to forestry
Heat is a work factor faced by many forest workers all over the world, and yet grossly neglected by ergonomic research in forestry. This review of heat stress research which focusses on its applicability in forestry concluded that (a) the accuracy of the two ISO heat stress indices has to be considered in the light of the suggested work load determination methods, (b) dehydration studies are highly desirable for forestry, and (c) a standard research method to determine comfort of protective clothing is required. Further areas reviewed were heat stress studies on self-pacing, work/rest schedules and performance. Topics: conditions of work; dehydration; forestry; heat load; hot workplaces; ISO; literature survey; personal protective equipment; physical performance; thermal comfort; WBGT index; work capacity; work efficiency.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1998, Vol.29, No.3, p.179-183. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 99-2042 Holmér I., Kuklane K.
Problems with cold work
Topics: body temperature; cold storage; cold stress; cold workplaces; cold; conference; extreme temperatures; falls on the level; frostbite; insulating footwear; manual dexterity; mining industry; mortality; offshore oil extraction; protective clothing; skin temperature; weather protective clothing; work on ice.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1998. 271p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1658 Hassi J., Holmér I., Chashchin V., Meigal A., Rintamäki H., Vlassova, E., Chernouss S., Vinogradov A., Anttonen E., Hiltunen E.
Work in the cold
Rabota v uslovijah holoda [in Russian]
Topics: bronchial diseases; cold stress; cold workplaces; Finland; frostbite; hazard evaluation; hypersensitivity; musculoskeletal diseases; Norway; outdoor work; physical performance; pulse rate; regulation of body temperature; Russian Federation; Sweden; vascular diseases; weather protective clothing; whole-body cooling; wind.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1998, Vol.1, No.3, p.74-107 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1257 Albin M., Engholm G., Hallin N., Hagmar L.
Impact of exposure to insulation wool on lung function and cough in Swedish construction workers
Data from health checks of male construction workers were used to investigate cross sectional and longitudinal associations between lung volumes, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure to insulation wool by combining a job exposure matrix and self reported exposure. Data on 12 month prevalence of persistent cough not associated with the common cold was available for the period 1989-92. High exposure to insulation wool, asbestos or silica during the 12 months preceding the check up was associated with increased odds ratios for persistent cough of the same magnitude as current smoking. The results indicate no effects on VC or FEV from exposure to insulation wool. Recent exposure to insulation wool, asbestos and silica was associated with an increased prevalence of persistent cough. Topics: building industry; asbestos; silica; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; long-term exposure; mineral wool; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; respiratory impairment; smoking; thermal insulation.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.661-667. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1327 Ha M.A., Tokura H., Yoden K., Holmér I.
A comparison of skin temperatures and clothing microclimate during moderate intermittent exercise in the cold between one and two layers of cotton and polypropylene underwear
Topics: body temperature; cold workplaces; cotton; fabrics for protective clothing; microclimate; polypropylene; protection against cold; protective underwear; skin temperature; sweat rate; thermal comfort.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.3, p.347-362. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 99-987 Nag P.K., Pradhan C.K., Nag A., Ashtekar S.P., Desai H.
Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat
The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket was examined under a simulated hot environment. The jacket comprised a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Tests on four subjects in an environmental chamber showed that the jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain. Topics: body-core temperature; evaluation of equipment; heat load; heat protective clothing; hot workplaces; liquid-cooled suits; microclimate; skin temperature; whole-body cooling.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1998, Vol.41, No.2, p.179-187. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 99-1036 Hancock P.A., Vasmatzidis I.
Human occupational and performance limits under stress: The thermal environment as a prototypical example
This literature survey on contemporary stress limits for workers exposed to adverse thermal conditions shows that change in behavioural performance efficiency is the most sensitive reflection of human response to stress and such responses are superior as indices of incipient damaging effects compared to the traditional measurement of physiological function. Continuing exposure after work performance efficiency begins to fail, but before current physiological limits are reached, is inappropriate for both safety and productivity of the individual worker, colleagues, and the systems in which they operate. Behavioural performance assessment should therefore supercede physiological assessment as the primary exposure criterion. A new description of such performance thresholds for heat stress is presented, together with its substantive theoretical foundation. Topics: cognitive performance; heat load; heat stress indices; heat tolerance; human behaviour; literature survey; mental work capacity; neuropsychic stress; perceptual-motor performance; work capacity.
Ergonomics, Oct.-Dec. 1997, Vol.41, No.8, p.1169-1191. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 99-644 Ben Lellahom L., Akrout M., Sayadi A., Kraiem R., Zouiter I., Maaloul A., Hidri A., Keroai F.
Study of thermal and physical workload in small-scale brickyards in Tunisia
Etude des charges thermiques et physiques du travail dans les briqueteries artisanales en Tunisie [in French]
Topics: air temperature; brick and tile industry; handicrafts; heat load; heavy work; hot workplaces; humidity; physical workload; pulse rate; questionnaire survey; sweat rate; sweat secretion during effort; thermal environment; WBGT index.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 1998, Vol.XXV, No.2, p.72-83. 19 ref.

CIS 99-282 Kuklane K., Geng Q., Holmér I.
Effect of footwear insulation on thermal responses in the cold
Topics: foot; insulating footwear; protection against cold; safety footwear; sensation tests; skin temperature; subjective assessment; thermal comfort; thermal insulation; toe caps.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.2, p.137-152. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 99-281 Kuklane K., Holmér I.
Effect of sweating on insulation of footwear
Topics: insulating footwear; protection against cold; safety footwear; tests on models; thermal insulation; toe caps.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.2, p.123-136. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-275 Miranda-Romero A., Navarro L., Pérez-Oliva N., González-López A., García-Muńoz M.
Occupational heat contact urticaria
Topics: bakery products industry; case study; erythema; heat; histamine release; urticaria.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1998, Vol.38, No.6, p.358-359. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 98-1503 Gavhed D.C.E., Holmér I.
Thermal responses at three low ambient temperatures: Validation of the duration limited exposure index
Topics: air temperature; body-core temperature; cold workplaces; comment on standard; energy metabolism; insulating clothing; isometric exercise; length of exposure; permissible levels; pulse rate; regulation of body temperature; skin temperature; thermal balance; thermal comfort.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 1998, Vol.21, No.6, p.465-474. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 01-232 Luna Mendaza P.
Cold stress: Occupational exposure evaluation
Estrés por frío: evaluación de las exposiciones laborales [in Spanish]
Topics: biological effects; cold stress; cold workplaces; data sheet; limitation of exposure; protection against cold; protective clothing; Spain; whole-body cooling.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 8p. 4 ref.

CIS 00-1728 Mörchen W.
The deep-frozen food distribution centre of the future: No workplace with sub-freezing temperatures evening shift
Das Tiefkühlkost-Distributionszentrum der Zukunft: kein Arbeitsplatz bei Minustemperaturen [in German]
Topics: air curtains; cold workplaces; cost-benefit analysis; design of equipment; ergonomics; food industry; handling and storage; job study; thermal comfort; work organization.
Logistik im Unternehmen, Mar. 1997, Vol.11, No.3, p.64-67. Illus.

CIS 99-1671 Payot L., Meyer J.P., Didry G.
Physical and thermal stress experienced by operators of paper mill drying units
Les contraintes physiques et thermiques des opérateurs en sécherie de papeterie [in French]
Topics: anthropometry; arterial blood pressure; drying; exposure evaluation; heat load; hot workplaces; medical supervision; paper and paper products industry; paper making machines; physical workload; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 1997. 46p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1332 Meyer J.P., Rapp R., Vogt J.J.
Comparison of the individual validity of the principal thermal stress indices
Campagne de comparaison de la validité respective des principaux indices de contraintes thermiques [in French]
Topics: body weight; comparative study; France; globe thermometer; heart rate monitoring; heat load; heat stress assessment; heat stress indices; hot workplaces; humidity measurement; job study; oxygen consumption monitoring; predicted 4-hour sweat rate; temperature measurement; WBGT index.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 1997. 88p. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 99-768 Cold weather workers safety guide
Replaces CIS 95-2033. Topics: Canada; cold; extreme temperatures; frostbite; legislation; outdoor work; personal protective equipment; protection against cold; safe working methods; safety guides; snow; training manuals; training material; winter; work during bad weather; work in isolation; work on ice.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1997. 104p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 99-979 Cirillo E., Fato I., Leonardis C., Fattorini E.
Comparison of predictive and subjective evaluation of moderate thermal environments
Confronto tra valutazione predittiva e soggettiva degli ambienti termici moderati [in Italian]
Topics: air temperature; Italy; questionnaire survey; subjective temperature; temperature measurement; thermal discomfort; thermal environment.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Oct.-Dec. 1997, Vol.10, No.4, p.109-146. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 99-637 Shimazu M., Aruga T., Fukui M., Akita Y., Hiroshige J., Suzuki Y., Kato H., Miyakea Y., Sugita M.
Neurological manifestations in heat disorder
necchūshō ni okeru chūsuishinkeishōgai [in Japanese]
Summary in English. Five cases of occupational heat disorders (sun stroke, heat cramp, heat exhaustion and two cases of heat stroke) are described. Transient consciousness disturbance was the main neurological symptom in sun stroke and heat exhaustion. No neurological abnormalities were observed in heat cramp. Two patients in the acute stage of heat stroke manifested severe consciousness disturbances. Parkinsonism, mental disturbance, tremor, ataxic gait and dysarthria were observed as late neurological complications in heat stroke, but no cerebellum changes were detected in computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head. The neurological disorders may be due to hyperthermia and shock (systemic hypotension and dehydration). Cooling is essential for clinical management in the acute stage. Periodic rest breaks are important for the prevention of heat stroke when working in high temperatures. Topics: case study; heat cramps; heat exhaustion; heat stress disease; heat stroke; neurological effects; unconsciousness.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, 1997, Vol.45, No.8, p.505-511. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 98-1717 Bariod J., Théry B.
Medical effects of being suspended in harnesses
Medizinische Auswirkungen des Hängens in Sicherheitsgurten [in German]
Topics: arrhythmia; cold stress; experimental determination; France; harnesses; human experiments; protection against falls from heights; pulse rate; shock following injury; unconsciousness; vertigo.
Die BG, Jan. 1997, No.1, p.8-11. 16 ref.

CIS 98-899 Geng Q., Chen F., Holmér I.
The effect of protective gloves on manual dexterity in the cold environments
Topics: assessment of working capacity; cold workplaces; evaluation of equipment; manual dexterity; protection against cold; protective gloves; skin temperature.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1997, Vol.3, No.1-2, p.15-29. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 98-893 Le Scanff C., Larue J., Rosnet E.
How to measure human adaptation in extreme environments: The case of Antarctic wintering-over
Topics: Antarctic; cognitive performance; cold workplaces; extreme temperatures; perceptual-motor performance; winter; work capacity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.68, No.12, p.1144-1149. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 98-900 Kaminski M., Bourgine M., Zins M., Touranchet A., Verger C.
Risk factors for Raynaud's phenomenon among workers in poultry slaughterhouses and canning factories
Topics: canning industry; cold workplaces; France; individual susceptibility; questionnaire survey; Raynaud's phenomenon; repetitive work; risk factors; sex-linked differences; slaughtering; workbreaks.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1997, Vol.26, No.2, p.371-380. 35 ref.

CIS 98-1013 Pórszász J., Tasnádi J., Bechara B., Ludván M., Galgóczy G.
Physiological limits of exercise in full-body protective clothing
Topics: body temperature; endurance limit; exercise tests; heat load; protective clothing; pulmonary function; pulse rate.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.242-257. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 98-733 Kotseva K.O.
Prevalence of arterial hypertension in electric motor production workers
Topics: blood pressure; Bulgaria; toluene; case-control study; electrical industry; heat; hypertension; noise; organic solvents.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.224-230. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 98-982 Johnson A.T., Scott W.H., Coyne K.M., Sahota M.S., Benjamin M.B., Rhea P.L., Martel G.F., Dooly C.R.
Sweat rate inside a full-facepiece respirator
Topics: comfort assessment; heat load; hot workplaces; respirators; skin temperature; sweat rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1997, Vol.58, No.12, p.881-884. 18 ref.

CIS 98-332 Brehier M., Robe V.
Contribution to the assessment of the working environment of swimming instructors and lifeguards
Contribution ŕ l'étude des ambiances de travail des maîtres nageurs sauveteurs [in French]
Topics: audiometric tests; conditions of work; data sheet; France; illumination levels; noise dosimetry; noise; swimming pools; temperature measurement; thermal comfort; visual comfort.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.3, p.301-310. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 98-329 Griefahn B., Forsthoff A.
Technical note: Comparison between estimated worn clothing insulation and required calculated clothing insulation in moderately cold environments (0°C≤ta≤+15°C)
Topics: body-core temperature; clothing; cold workplaces; comfort assessment; energy metabolism; food industry; pulse rate; skin temperature; thermal comfort; thermal insulation.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1997, Vol.28, No.4, p.295-299. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 97-2034 Kaminski M., et al.
Risk factors for Raynaud's phenomenon among workers in poultry slaughterhouses and canning factories
A survey of 1474 workers in 17 poultry slaughterhouses and six canning factories was carried out to identify risk factors of Raynaud's phenomenon among workers exposed to cold but not to vibration. A high prevalence of symptoms of finger sensitivity to cold was observed. After controlling for non-occupational factors, the following working conditions appeared as risk factors: use of plastic gloves, less than four rest breaks, breaks in an unheated place, continual repetition of the same series of operations and exertion of the hand or arm. Changes in working conditions might reduce the risk of this disorder.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1997, Vol.26, No.2, p.371-380. 35 ref.

CIS 97-2022 Spotlight on work in winter
Health hazards associated with outdoor work in winter are briefly reviewed. Environmental factors are discussed (temperature, wind chill factor) along with the effects of cold on the body (body heat regulation, impairment of manual and mental tasks). Specific cold injuries include frostbite, skin disorders, hypothermia and heart disease. Preventive measures include safe work practices, work breaks, provision of shelter and protective clothing.
Safety Review, Sep. 1997, No.62, insert p.i-vii. 8 ref.

CIS 97-1502 Protection
These five chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine selected issues in personal protection: review of personal protective equipment (PPE) (risk assessment and the selection and use of PPE, hearing protective equipment, respirators, safety helmets, protective footwear, fall protective equipment, eye protection, protective clothing); clothing for work in the cold; protective gloves; international approach to chemical safety; dangerous chemicals (health hazards, supply of risk information).
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.1, p.683-743. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-1320 Tipton M.J., et al.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Estimation of diver survival time in a lost bell
This report describes a study of diver survival time in a saturation diving bell which has become separated from its umbilical and left with only a limited amount of power for heating. Human experiments and computer modelling of thermoregulation were carried out. Results are discussed in relation to metabolic and thermal responses to cold exposure. It is concluded that even the most advanced mathematical models are poor at predicting the intensity of the metabolic response to cold. Predicted survival times for persons able to stabilize deep-body temperature were estimated to be in the range of 10h to more than a day. These predictions were based on the assumption that time to hypoglycaemia is the determinant of shivering endurance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. viii, 101p. 221 ref. Price: GBP 30.00.

CIS 97-1322 Rew P.J.
Health and Safety Executive
LD50 equivalent for the effect of thermal radiation on humans
This study extends a previous literature review undertaken to assess the current status of the modelling of the effects of thermal radiation from hydrocarbon fires. This review suggested that the 'Dangerous Dose' criterion of 1000(kW/m2)4/3s for an average population is a reasonable estimate of the thermal dose at which serious burns may be received or a small percentage of the population may die. The current study discusses the thermal dose level which would be suitable for use as a 'Lethal Dose' (LD50) equivalent and puts forward an estimated value of approximately 2000(kW/m2)4/3s. Assumptions and uncertainties in the estimation are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. iii, 25p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

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