ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Heat and cold - 949 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Heat and cold


CIS 74-1438 Andrjuščenko V.N.
Complex assessment and regulation of the microclimatic conditions of work in underground mines
Kompleksnaja ocenka i reglamentirovanie teplovyh uslovij truda v šahtah [in Russian]
Results of research into microclimatic conditions at depths of 700-1,100m : temperature and air speed are not sufficient to characterise subjective heat load. A mathematical model is proposed to express the individual's thermal balance in the conditions studied and an account is given of a procedure for the complex assessment of thermal conditions in a mine workings (with a description of a wet-bulb electrothermometer which responds simultaneously to temperature, air speed and humidity and to thermal radiation from surrounding surfaces). Graphs indicate the work capacity (in kgm) as a function of temperature and humidity and the acceptable limits of the microclimate for mine work at great depth.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Nov. 1973, No.11, p.35-37. Illus.

CIS 74-1249 Frolov N.A., Solodovnikov A.M., Romenskij L.P., Šišackij A.P.
Control of airborne dust in foundries by means of physical air foam
Obespylivanie vozduha v litejnyh cehah s pomošč'ju vozdušno-mehaničeskoj peny [in Russian]
Description of a new method of dust suppression by the application of air foam at the source. This method, which was successfully tested in iron and steel foundries, simultaneously helps to eliminate harmful gases and heat.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.49-50. Illus.

CIS 74-1285 Capodaglio E., Maugeri U.
MACs for work at high temperatures
I MAC nel lavoro ad alte temperature [in Italian]
The term MAC is inappropriate here. Permissible limits for work at high temperatures are expressed using parameters (calorific data, environmental indices) which are defined and are established by laboratory examinations of subjects selected as normal, trained and acclimatised. However, in practice, some workers in hot plants (coking plants, foundries, glassworks) may have a lower resistance and suffer from chronic lung or cardiovascular disorders, obesity, etc. The value of current limits, calculated using theoretical populations, is thus restricted. Data should be collected on a larger scale in order to establish limits which would facilitate the immediate adoption of corrective measures at the workplace.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1973, Vol.64, No.5-6, p.198-205. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 74-1229 Work in cold-storage rooms
Arbete i frysrum [in Swedish]
These directives apply to work in temperatures from -18°C to -40°C. Subjects dealt with include: exposure to draughts; lighting; stacking of goods; protection against being locked in; personal protective equipment; thermal insulation of working equipment; work breaks; medical supervision; planning of new cold-storage depots. Considerations on suitable work clothing for cold-storage workers are appended (thermal insulation capacity, transport of humidity and excess heat, etc.).
Anvisningar nr.95, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, May 1973. Svenska Reproduktions AB, Fack, 16210 Vällingby 1, Sweden. 11p.

CIS 74-1281 Melino C., Pascone A.
The use of saline-vitamin powders for the prevention of disorders due to working at high temperatures
Le polveri salino-vitaminiche nella prevenzione del lavoro ad alte temperature [in Italian]
Measures for preventive occupational diseases caused by high ambient temperatures are of 2 types: (1) measures acting on the environment (altering the microclimate, air conditioning, screens, protective clothing, periodic rests, etc.); (2) compensating water losses by ingestion of liquids containing the required electrolytes. The article stresses the good results obtained with Italian railway workers exposed to high temperatures, by using saline-vitamin tablets containing 500mg NaCl, 0.25mg vitamin B1, 0.125mg vitamin B2 and 0.125mg vitamin B6.
Folia medica, Jan.-Feb. 1973, Vol.56, No.1-2, p.53-67. 14 ref.

CIS 74-1280 Strollo G., Maggio M., Todaro A.
The contribution of subjective assessment in the evaluation of excessive heat load
Il contributo soggetivo nella valutazione del sovraccarico calorico [in Italian]
Study to establish to what extent the subjective assessment of groups of workers tested in climatic chambers corroborates objective physical and biological experimental data. 3 tests of 1/4 and 1/2 h were carried out under heat conditions defined as producing "average stress" by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). It is concluded that, in the error margin inherent in any subjective assessment, this can nevertheless be used to define a work environment from the viewpoint of overheating, in conjunction with objective physical and biological parameters. Subjective impressions concerning heat strain and stress have the advantage of being able to be defined in ordinary language.
Securitas, 1973, No.2-3, p.235-259. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 74-1448 Gutermuth R.
Construction work carried out in winter
Bauen im Winter [in German]
Preparations (structural plan, timetable, cost, work organisation, materials and equipment); characteristics of air and water heating equipment and steam generators; use of antifreeze products and hardening accelerators.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, 1193 , 1973. 54p. Illus. Price: M.2.20.

CIS 74-1020 Ramanathan N.L., Belding H.S.
Physiological evaluation of the WBGT index for occupational heat stress.
The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological equivalence of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index readings under carefully controlled combinations of environmental conditions (humidity, radiant heat load and air speed) and work rate. 3 subjects were exposed for 2 h at WBGT levels of 29.4 and 31.7°C, air temperature and metabolic work level being kept constant at 35.6°C and 290 kcal/h, respectively. Inconsistencies were found as regards the physiological significance of WBGT, ET (effective temperature) and CET (corrected effective temperature) indexes, which do not predict strain uniformly. The Belding-Hatch heat stress index (HSI) values and the observed Botsford wet-globe readings were better indicators of relative strain. The authors conclude that the WBGT index has limited value as a predictor of physiological strain at the higher heat stress levels encountered in industry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1973, Vol.34, No.9, p.375-383. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 74-1096 Veghte J.H.
Human exposure to high radiant environments.
An account of laboratory and field experiments to assess the protection afforded against intense radiant heat by 7 different types of fire fighters' protective clothing. In conclusion: prototype coats were found to be too short-waisted; reflective overboots provided adequate foot protection; gloves should have reflective material extended around thumb and index fingers; reflective visors require vertical extension for better visibility; polyvinyl chloride and Kynol materials were found to be inadequate. Graphs showing energy flux at the clothing surface, skin and rectal temperature change, clothing and helmet air temperatures and reflectance values of various articles of proximity clothing are presented.
Aerospace Medicine, Oct. 1973, Vol.44, No.10, p.1147-1151. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 74-1087 Roszkowski W.
Assessment of the properties of materials to be used in manufacturing personal protective equipment against sparks, flame and high temperatures
Ocena właściwości materiałów przeznaczonych do produkcji sprzętu ochronnego, zabezpieczającego przed działaniem iskier, płomienia i wysokich temperatur [in Polish]
Study of the properties of plastics used for the production of hard hats, protective screens and shields. Tests carried out include a determination of resistance to flames, water and thermal radiation, as well as for shock and puncturing. From the results, reproduced in many tables and amply discussed, the author proposes using, for the production of hard hats for workers exposed to high temperatures in industry and in coal mines, new self-extinguishing polyester resins and polycarbonates which possess not only good mechanical properties, but also a strong resistance to combustion and very good dielectric properties. He recommends utilising polyester resins reinforced by glass fibres for the production of screens and shields to be used by arc-welders.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.78, p.277-288. 16 ref.

CIS 74-877 Raven P.B., Colwell M.O., Drinkwater B.L., Horvath S.M.
Indirect calorimetric estimation of specific tasks of aluminium smelter workers.
Submaximal work tests were carried out on 11 aluminium smelter workers. Maximal oxygen uptake was predicted from the nomogram of Åstrand and Rhyming, with a correction for age as suggested by Åstrand. Further tests were carried out on 8 workers, 5 of whom had participated in the maximal capacity tests, to obtain actual job energy requirements. Spot samples of expired gases were taken during the performance of various jobs in different environments in the plant. The study documents anticipated variability of workloads and relates them to a percentage of the individual's maximal capacity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1973, Vol.15, No.11, p.894-898. 12 ref.

CIS 74-711 Kloetzel K., De Andrade A.E., Falleiros J., Cota Pacheco J.
Relationship between hypertension and prolonged exposure to heat.
A preliminary study of employees at a metallurgical plant in Brazil revealed that hypertension is strikingly frequent among workers exposed to high levels of heat, unrelated to age, race and salt ingestion factors but related to duration of exposure. The mechanisms responsible for heat-induced hypertension are unknown and require further investigation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1973, Vol.15, No.11, p.878-880. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 74-710 Grether W.F.
Human performance at elevated environmental temperatures.
A review of research on human performance at elevated temperatures is presented. The findings are analysed in terms of 5 categories of performance measurements: time estimation; reaction time; vigilance and monitoring; tracking; and cognitive tasks. A consistent finding in the studies is the lack of reliable performance decrements in the range of temperature between the comfort zone and the effective temperature (ET) of 29.4°C. At environmental temperatures higher than this, significant performance decrements were found in most studies. It is possible that an ET of 29.4°C is the upper limit for physiological compensation to maintain normal body temperature.
Aerospace Medicine, July 1973, Vol.44, No.7, p.747-755. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 74-709 Shvartz E., Magazanik A.
Tolerance to heat following cold stress.
An investigation to ascertain the effects of precooling on performance in heat. The results of the study show that short exposures (30 min) to cold stress do not improve subsequent performance in severe heat. The reasons for this are related to the rise of rectal temperature in the cold, which does not result in a decreased heat storage in subsequent exposure to heat as compared with no precooling.
Aerospace Medicine, July 1973, Vol.44, No.7, p.725-729. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 74-708 Siebert G.W., Fraser D.A.
Exhaust ventilation for hot processes.
Industrial processes involving molten metal, furnaces, ovens, etc. present different ventilation problems than cold processes by reason of the thermal draft created above the source. Laboratory investigations were carried out on a small model of a hot process with a low-canopy exhaust hood. It was found that the exhaust airflow rate calculated by means of Hemeon's empirical formula is approximately twice that found in the present controlled laboratory conditions. However, the values predicted from Hemeon's equation appear to be a safe approximation for industrial environments. Minimum exhaust airflow rates vary with the temperature and surface area of the process.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.34, No.11, p.481-486. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 74-876 Mortagy A.K., Ramsey J.D.
Monitoring performance as a function of work/rest schedule and thermal stress.
The performance of 108 subjects carrying out a visual vigilance task was investigated under 6 work/rest schedules and 3 levels of heat stress (23, 28 and 32°C effective temperature). The work periods were 20, 40 and 60 min, and the work/rest ratios 2/1 and 3/1. Although increasing ambient temperature caused some decline in performance, it was found that effective temperature, work period and work/rest ratios of the levels used did not, by themselves, affect vigilance to a high degree. When acting in combination, however, these factors resulted in a disproportionate decrease in performance. It is recommended that vigilance tasks should not be performed as a rule at effective temperatures exceeding 28°C.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.34, No.11, p.474-480. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 74-705 Fanger P.O.
Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice.
A review is given of conclusive new evidence which has come to light on man's comfort conditions, as a results of extensive research carried out during recent years. The conditions for man's thermal comfort are discussed as well as the thermal environments which should be aimed at and the methods which should be employed to evaluate the quality of given thermal environments. German translation may be obtained from Arbetsmarknadsdepartementet, 103 33 Stockholm, Sweden.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1973, Vol.30, No.4, p.313-324. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 74-843 Kimura K.
Some problems concerning the environmental conditions in office rooms.
Even in modern well-equipped buildings where environmental conditions are within the range of health and comfort standards, complaints are made concerning temperature, air cleanliness, noise and lighting. An investigation was carried out among office workers to compare the opinions of the workers on their environment with actual measured conditions. Points discussed include: comparison of opinions between smokers and non-smokers; relation between evaluation of the work environment and sleep on the previous night; relation between evaluation and stress of work; relation between comfort evaluation and actual health condition of workers.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Aug. 1973, Vol.49, No.8, p.425-447. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 74-587 Givoni B., Goldman R.F.
Predicting heart rate response to work, environment and clothing.
Formulae are derived from rectal temperature responses to predict the dynamic response pattern of heart rate with time of heat exposure, not only for a constant activity and environment but also with varying activity, environment and clothing during an exposure. The accuracy of the prediction has been checked by comparison with experimental results from several studies at different laboratories under a wide range of conditions.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Feb. 1973. Vol.34, No.2, p.201-204. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 74-421 Kovarik M.
Radiation penetrance of protective covers.
Solar heat load on men or animals depends on the radiant heat properties of their protective covers (clothing, fur). The concept of radiation penetrance is analysed and related to the radiometric parameters of the cover. A method of measurement of penetrance, suitable for field application, is suggested.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Oct. 1973, Vol.35, No.4, p.562-563. 3 ref.

CIS 74-416 Wyndham C.H., Strydom N.B., Benade A.J.S., Van Rensburg A.J.
Limiting rates of work for acclimatization at high wet bulb temperatures.
6 groups of new recruits to gold mines were each acclimatised for 9 successive days at different combinations of work rate (light, moderate and hard) and wet bulb temperature (the air was saturated with water vapour and the air velocity was 0.4 m/s). Each group was exposed to 2 test conditions after acclimatisation. The study showed that men are better protected for hard work in high wet-bulb temperatures by an acclimatisation regime of hard work and moderate environmental heat stress than by light work and severe environmental heat stress.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Oct. 1973, Vol.35, No.4, p.454-458. 9 ref.

CIS 74-365 Kociba R.J., Sparschu G.L., Leong B.K.J., Gehring P.J.
Tissue response to ceramic foam dust following intratracheal and intraperitoneal administration.
The pathological response following intratracheal or intraperitoneal administration of 40 mg of ceramic foam (CF) dust was characterised in rats killed serially up to 177-187 days after administration. CF dust did not alter the pulmonary architecture and was rapidly cleared from the lungs; it can thus be classified as a non-fibrogenic nuisance dust. In contrast to CF, either intraperitoneal or intratracheal administration of silica induced a progressive inflammatory response.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1973, Vol.25, No.1, p.145-151. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 74-583 Allnutt M.F., Allan J.R.
The effects of core temperature elevation and thermal sensation on performance.
A liquid-condition suit was used to obtain a state of raised body temperature in conjunction with skin temperatures compatible with sensations of thermal comfort. This condition produced a similar increase in speed of performance on a high-level reasoning test which has been found in previous experiments, but no decrement in score. Head cooling was included as a separate variable but appeared to have no additional effects on the speed or level of performance. It is suggested that deep body temperature may determine the speed of performance and comfort the level of performance, and that the technique of differentially heating body core and skin should prove a useful tool for further research.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1973, Vol.16, No.2, p.189-196. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 74-415 Stiharev A.A.
Changes in blood circulation due to wearing clothing with low thermal insulation properties while remaining in a cold environment
Izmenenie v sisteme krovoobraščenija pri prebyvanii na holode v odežde s nizkimi teplozaščitnymi svojstvami [in Russian]
Results of climatic-chamber tests carried out on 5 volunteers at a temperature of -20°C and an air current velocity of 0.2 m/s. The thermal insulation afforded by the clothing worn in the climatic chamber was approximately 1.5 clo. It was found that whole-body cooling leads to an increase in systolic, diastolic and mean dynamic pressures, a greater resistance in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in pulse rate and cardiac output (minute volume). The functional capacity of the cardiovascular system to bear an orthostatic load is increased. It was observed that the reserve capacity of the cardiovascular system tended to be exhausted when the heat deficiency reached 1.85 kcal/kg.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1973, No.6, p.10-15. 13 ref.

CIS 74-283 Gisolfi C.V.
Work-heat tolerance derived from interval training.
The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal heat tolerance that healthy men can derive from participating in a cool-environment physical training programme, and how long they must train to achieve such tolerance. Healthy college students performed strenuous exercise in hot environment on several occasions during 11 weeks; in the intervals, they had daily half-hour training periods in a cool environment (21°C). It was found that 8 weeks of interval training in a cool environment produced 50% of the total adjustment resulting from heat acclimatisation.
Journal of Applied Physiology, Sep. 1973, Vol.35, No.3, p.349-354. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 74-187 Krafft R., Zagula J.
Heat cramps
Crampes de chaleur. [in French]
After reviewing previous research and recent experience, this article gives a detailed description of heat cramps, some of which required hospitalisation. It then considers the mechanism of this type of cramp, which the authors believe to be caused not so much by loss of salt as by the time lag taken by the interstitial fluid in bringing NaCl blood levels and amount of water back to normal. Heat cramps are now recognised as occupational diseases by French legislation. Preventive measures consist mainly in increased ventilation of the workplace.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Apr.-May 1973, Vol.34, No.4-5, p.205-217. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 74-151 Grigorowa R., Binnewies S., Gohlke R.
Combined action of organophosphorus pesticides and increased environmental temperature in short-term inhalation studies in the rat
Über die kombinierte Wirkung von phosphororganischen Pestiziden und erhöhter Umgebungstemperatur in inhalatorischen Kurzversuchen an Ratten [in German]
The combined action of 3 different organophosphate pesticides and increased environmental temperature (35°C, 50% relative humidity) was investigated in subacute (8 days) inhalation experiments with male rats. In the first part of the study, toxicological aspects are discussed in relation to the following parameters: relative weight of organs, cholinesterase activity, total protein and protein fractions in serum, cell respiration in homogenised liver tissue, ACTH activity of the pituitary gland, body weight and body temperature. Most of the parameters examined revealed an increase in toxicity due to combined exposure. In the second part of the study, the results of histological, histochemical and morphologic studies are described: histology in lung, liver and thyroid, enzyme histochemistry in the liver, morphometry and storage of 131I in the thyroid. The results confirmed in general the increased effect of these pesticides at high environmental temperature.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Aug. 1973, Vol.31, No.4, p.295-327. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 74-122 Duhamel J., Roques J.C., Dervillée E., Kadiri A., Rolland A.M., Marc Y.
Statistical study of some physiological and biological variables in workers exposed to heat
Etude statistique de quelques variables physiologiques et biologiques chez des sujets exposés à la chaleur. [in French]
A study of various clinical and biological parameters in 75 persons employed in a glassworks. Evaluation of temperature curves, pulse rate and blood pressure during work at high temperature; evaluation of absorption and elimination; determination of levels of urinary electrolytes and steroids; statistical analysis of the data obtained. The authors emphasise the importance of clinical supervision and the systematic determination of urinary chlorides and potassium.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.321-334. Illus.

CIS 74-118 Cox R.N., Clark R.P.
The natural convection flow about the human body.
This study arose as a result of work by the British National Institute for Medical Research on man's acclimatisation to extremes of cold. The natural convection flow of air about the human body was investigated and it was shown that a boundary layer several centimetres thick, with a maximum velocity of 50 cm/s is established over a naked human for an ambient temperature of 15°C. This layer acts as a transport path for small particles such as pollens and skin scales. The convective flow is considered to play a part in the transmission of airborne infection. The results of these studies find applications in the design of operating theatres and protective clothing.
Revue générale de thermique, Jan. 1973, Vol.12, No.133, p.11-19. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 74-117 McIntyre D.
A guide to thermal comfort.
A simple design procedure is provided for dealing with the requirements for a comfortable thermal environment. From the expected activity level and clothing insulation of the people concerned, a subjective temperature is calculated which will provide thermal comfort and which is a combination of air and mean radiant temperatures and air speed. These parameters must be combined by heating systems to give the optimum subjective temperature. This guide also considers other possible sources of thermal discomfort and suggests acceptable limits for them.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1973, Vol.4, No.2, p.66-72. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 75-84 Tzaneva N., Stoyanova N.
Adrenal system reaction to additional stress in the state of fatigue and limited motor activity.
Results of animal experiments carried out to determine the response of the adrenal system to a heat stress applied after a 25-day period of motor activity restriction. During this period, the epinephrine level in the adrenal glands and the plasma fell by 10%, while the norepinephrine level remained constant. The heat stress response of the immobilised animals hardly differed from that of the controls, the only difference being a slight delay in response of the former, which is considered to be a consequence of the hyporeactivity developed during motor activity restriction.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.11-17. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 74-948 Repin G.N.
Occupational hygiene and accident prevention in cold storage plants
Gigiena truda i mery zaščity pri rabote na holodil'nikah [in Russian]
This manual covers the following subjects: occupational health in cold storage plants (microclimate, lighting, sanitary and accommodation facilities, health hazards); state of health and morbidity of cold storage workers; particular physiological reactions in cold storage workers (regulation of body temperature, reactions of cardiovascular system); prevention of body temperature loss (statutory rest pauses for warming up, recommendations for the design and equipment of rest rooms, warm showers at the end of the shift, recommendations for protective clothing and personal hygiene).
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, Moskva, USSR, 1972. 96p. Illus. 104 ref. Price: Rbl.0.53.

CIS 72-2151 Barannikov V.G.
Occupational health evaluation of the thermal insulation properties of potassium miners' working clothes
Gigieničeskaja ocenka teplozaščitnyh svojstv specodeždy šahterov kalijnyh rudnikov [in Russian]
Microclimate measurements were made in underground potassium mines at temperatures of 7-9°C and during cold-chamber experiments to determine the thermal insulation properties of working clothes under simulated working conditions. The thermal insulation of conventional miners' clothing was inadequate; tests were carried out with jackets lined with 5-6mm foam plastics; heat transfer resistance was virtually doubled.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1972, Vol.16, No.2, p.39-42. 5 ref.

CIS 72-2113 Aminoff S., Söderqvist A.
The prevention of chills in meat processing
Metoder att hindra kylan vid charkuteriarbete [in Swedish]
Air and skin temperature measurements in meat processing and packaging are compiled, and graphs show mean skin temperatures during a working day in ambient temperatures of +11°C and +4°C; hand temperature falls from 30°C to 20°C in 2h in an ambient temperature of 6-8°C. Subjective evaluation of the cooling of various parts of the body was studied, and experiments were carried out with rest rooms (22°C), heated hand-warmer panels and heated seats at the work point. Recommendations for improving the working environment (lower air speeds, avoidance of large temperature differentials between floors and ceilings, maximum space between workers and cold surfaces, insulation of handles, seats and footstools, etc.) and for adapting the worker to his job (correct clothing, medical supervision, etc.).
Arbetsmiljö, May 1972, No.5, p.16-17. Illus.

CIS 72-2141 Mihajlović R.
Radiant heat in industry and its prevention
Toplotno zračenje u industriji i zaštita radnika [in Serbocroatian]
Individual sections are devoted to: basic concepts of radiant heat at the workplace (physical laws, radiant-heat exchange, radiant-heat measurement, industrial radiant-heat sources); effects of radiant heat on the human body; protection from radiant heat (reduction of radiant heat by airtight enclosure, cooling and insulation, mechanisation, automation and remote control, ventilation, air cooling and humidification, air showers, protective screens, personal protective equipment); practical examples of radiant-heat protection devices (water curtains, air showers). Appendices contain: tables of standard air temperatures, relative humidity levels, and air speeds at the workplace, season-related guide values for air showers, and blackbody radiation of various materials.
Jugoslavenska i inostrana dokumentacija zaštite na radu, Appendix No.5 to Apr. 1972. 58p. Illus.

CIS 72-2151 Barannikov V.G.
Occupational health evaluation of the thermal insulation properties of potassium miners' working clothes
Gigieničeskaja ocenka teplozaščitnyh svojstv specodeždy šahterov kalijnyh rudnikov [in Russian]
Microclimate measurements were made in underground potassium mines at temperatures of 7-9°C and during cold-chamber experiments to determine the thermal insulation properties of working clothes under simulated working conditions. The thermal insulation of conventional miners' clothing was found inadequate and tests were therefore carried out with jackets lined with 5-6mm foam plastics; heat transfer resistance was virtually doubled.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1972, Vol.16, No.2, p.39-42. 5 ref.

CIS 72-2741 Behling K.
Thermoregulation input/output during rest and exercise
Antriebe und effektorische Massnahmen der Thermoregulation bei Ruhe und während körperlicher Arbeit [in German]
Part 1 deals with experimental data on human climatic chamber tests. Part 2 studies correlations between body and skin temperature and thermoregulation output on the basis of this data (sweat rate, internal thermal conductance, metabolic acceleration in cold environment). Part 3 describes studies on the effect of water balance on thermoregulation during work and rest. Part 4 gives a mathematical model of thermoregulation during rest and exercise based on the input/output correlations deduced in the earlier parts.
Internationale Zeitschrift für angewandte Physiologie einschliesslich Arbeitsphysiologie, 20 Mar. 1972, Vol.30, No.2, p.119-141, and May 1972, No.3, p.186-206. 58 ref.

CIS 72-2798 Grether W.F.
Further study of combined heat, noise and vibration stress
An earlier experiment (see CIS 72-1098), had failed to show any evidence of additive effects in the case of combined exposure to heat, noise and vibration stress. This result was confirmed in the present study, which also indicated that human performance was more impaired in vibration exposure alone than in combined exposure to all 3 stresses. An attempt is made to explain this apparently antagonistic stress interaction, which appears to be due to incrased motivation and application of effort by the subjects during the combined exposures rather than to any physiological effect.
Aerospace Medicine, June 1972, Vol.43, No.6, p.641-645. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 73-160 Todaro A., Strollo G.
The effect of thermal imbalance on pulse rate
La risposta della frequenza cardiaca allo squilibrio termico [in Italian]
The authors studied pulse rate as a function of the positive movement of the thermal balance equation (BT=M±C±R-E, in which M is metabolic heat, C convective heat absorption, R radiant heat absorption, and E evaporative heat dissipation). They deal with two climatic situations (19 and 33°C effective temperature) in which the thermal imbalance was checked in relation to M. It was found that pulse rate (y) increases proportionally to thermal imbalance (x) in accordance with a parabolic curve (y=-5.2.10-4x2 + 0.48x +84). For each subject there is a linear relationship between the difference in thermal imbalance and the increase in pulse rate. One can thus envisage the use of pulse rate as an index of thermal imbalance.
Securitas, Jan. 1972, Vol.57, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 72-2553 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to hot environments
Recommendations are made for the prevention of acute and chronic health disorders due to heat and heat-induced unsafe acts, and the control of harmful effects due to the combined action of excessive heat and physical and chemical agents. There are specific requirements as regards limits of exposure to heat, acclimatisation, environmental measurements, medical supervision, etc. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure to heat; environmental data and control; and development of the standard.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852, USA, 1972. 112p. Illus. 107 ref.

CIS 73-766 Miura T.
Effect of the ambient temperature ranging 5°-40°C with relative humidity of 50-60% on the physiological functions of men
An investigation into the effect of variations of thermal conditions on physiological functions showed that from the viewpoint of physiological function, thermal sensation and comfort, a temperature of 20°C with a relative humidity of 50-60% was relatively favourable for muscular work at a relative metabolic rate of 2.6 and that a temperature of 25°C was fairly suitable for mental work at a relative metabolic rate of 0.6.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 1972, Vol.48, No.3, p.103-136. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 73-1517 Noweir M.H., Pfitzer E.A., Hatch T.F.
Decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons: A review
A critical review of the literature relating to the decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The results are summarised in 6 tables; the conditions under which decomposition can occur include: heat; heat in the presence of an oxidising agent; heat in the presence of a catalyst; contact with a hot metallic surface; contact with a flame; exposure to ionising radiation; exposure to non-ionising radiation. The conclusions suggested by this extensive study are presented; it appears that carbon tetrachloride produces higher concentrations of phosgene, and that temperature and metal surface are prime factors in the production of phosgene, hydrogen chloride, chlorine and other decomposition products.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1972, Vol.33, No.7, p.454-460. 60 ref.

CIS 73-861 Miljaev M.N., Čerepanov G.I.
Water-cooled jackets for teeming pits
Primenenie vodoohlaždaemyh kessonov v razlivočnyh kanavah staleplavil'nyh cehov [in Russian]
To reduce thermal radiation and avoid risk of burns by accidental contact, the cast-iron lining plates of teeming pits in an older steel works were replaced by water-cooled jackets. The cooling water circulates under a pressure of 1.5-2kg/cm2; outlet water temperature is 30-40°C.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Aug. 1972, No.8, p.25-26. Illus.


CIS 74-1479 Mortagy A.K.
Center of Biotechnology and Human Performance, Texas Technical University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA, Aug. 1971. 155p. Illus. 94 ref.
Effects of work/rest schedules on monitoring performance in the heat.
Doctoral thesis. A visual monitoring task was used as the performance criterion and 2 performance parameters were measured (correct detection of a light signal and correct evaluation of its size). 108 subjects participated in the experiment. Temperatures of 24, 28 and 32°C, work periods of 20, 40 and 60 min and 2 work/rest ratios (2/1 and 3/1) were used. The higher temperatures (28 and 32°C) and the longer work periods had a significant detrimental effect on the performance of vigilance tasks.
Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. AD 729 829.

CIS 72-2306 Kolanowski J., Hausman A., Crabbé J.
Effects of physical effort on water and electrolyte and hormone balance in relation to environmental temperature
Répercussions hydro-électrolytiques et hormonales de l'effort physique selon la température ambiante [in French]
Research carried out with the financial assistance of the Commission of the European Communities. 29 volunteer mine rescuers were subjected to 5 training sessions of equal length (105min) and intensity in 4 different climates: td 24° - tw 18°; td 37° - tw 32°; td 38° - tw 29°; td 40° - tw 31°C. At the latter 2 levels, weight loss was approx. 1500g and was still at 430g after 3h despite unrestricted liquid intake. Sodium loss was not compensated by intake of 120mEq. Slightly reduced endogenous creatinine clearance, increased renal acid elimination (during recuperation) and slightly stimulated adrenocortical activity were observed. Potassium loss was relatively small. The high-temperature effort required of volunteer rescuers results in thermal, circulatory and water and electrolyte balance effects which do not exceed physiological tolerance limits.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1971, Vol.26, No.4, p.159-180. 57 ref.

CIS 72-2336 Calculating heat flow into buildings for air-conditioning design purposes
Výpočet tepelné zátěže budov pro dimenzování klimatizačních zařízení [in Czech]
Papers read at a seminar in Prague, 29 June 1971: heat transmission through sun-exposed walls; measurement of heat transmission through glazed areas, and the properties of glass; lighting principles, and heat output from lighting installations; recommended criteria for calculating air-conditioning plant dimensions; evaluation of sunlight protection offered by glazing; interaction of building shadows; heat transmission through windows - heat accumulation.
Dům techniky ČVTS, Gorkého nám. 23, Praha 1, Czechoslovakia, 1971. 91p.

CIS 72-2390 Préstamo A.
Safety on a galvanising line
La seguridad en una línea de galvanizado [in Spanish]
A review of the safety measures taken at the design stage of a continuous Sendzimir galvanising line which the author divides into 3 sections for the sake of convenience: infeed section, production section and delivery section. Description of the hazards involved in each section (high temperatures, noise, chromic acid vapours, falling objects, etc.). Simple safety measures are described for 5 types of work station: in-feed operator and assistant, galvanising bath operator and assistant, stacker operator, guillotine operator, and looper and coiler operator.
Seguridad, Oct.-Dec. 1971, No.43, p.11-13. Illus.

CIS 72-1985 Directive No.1/1971 of the Federal Ministry of Metallurgy and Mechanical Engineering regulating the use of explosives in hot environments, in particular smelting and refining works [Czechoslovakia]
Směrnice federálního ministerstva hutnictví a strojírenství č.1/1971, kterými se vydáva základní technologický předpis pro trhací práce v teplém prostředí, zejména v hutních provozech [in Czech]
The use of explosives in a hot environment raises special safety problems. This directive lays down the responsibility of management, indicates suitable explosives, imposes detailed blasting procedures, and stipulates technical requirements. Hot environments are defined.
Zpravodaj federálního ministerstva hutnictví a strojírenství, 1971, No.5, p.4-6.

CIS 73-132 Kolanowski J., Hausman A., Crabbé J.
The effects of physical work on water-electrolyte and hormone metabolism in relation to ambient temperature
Répercussions hydro-électrolytiques et hormonales de l'effort physique selon la température ambiante [in French]
The cardiovascular, water-electrolyte, renal and hormonal effects of physical work in normal and hot environments were studied in 29 mine rescue team volunteers. Each person was subjected to 5 x 105min training sessions of the same intensity in 4 different climates: dry temperature (ts) 24°C - wet temperature (th) 18°C; ts 38°C - th 29°C; ts 37°C - td 32°C; and ts 40°C - th 31°C. The results indicate that work in the high temperatures employed produces thermal, cardiovascular and water-electrolyte balance effects which remain well within physiological tolerance limits.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1971, Vol.26, No.4, p.159-180. 57 ref.

< previous | 1... 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19