Electricity - 651 entries found
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European Committee of Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colours Manufacturers' Associations
Safe powder coating
Sécurité des revêtements en poudre [in French]
Safety recommendations on the electrostatic application of powder coatings: explosion hazard of powder/air mixtures; precautions to prevent accidental powder ignition; health hazards. Safety measures for the construction of plant and equipment: spray booths, tunnels, stores, high-voltage equipment, ventilation and waste-powder extraction installations. Recommendation on appliance control and maintenance, and for personal protection.
Kupfer J., Bastek R., Eggert S.
Limit values for the prevention of fatal electrical accidents
Grenzwerte zur Vermeidung von Unfällen durch elektrischen Strom mit tödlichem Ausgang [in German]
Amperage threshold limits for cardiac fibrillation were determined on pigs. Mathematical formulae for the calculation of the fibrillation threshold, description of the mechanism involved and proposal of a curve of the amperage limit as a function of time. Comparison of the results with those of other authors.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1981, Vol.27, No.1, p.9-12. Illus. 24 ref.
Hawkinson T.E., Barber D.E.
The industrial hygiene significance of small air ions
An ion mobility discriminator and analyser was used to survey small air ion levels at an electronic assembly production facility in response to symptoms of unknown origin which were common both to psychogenic and ion imbalance illnesses. The positive to negative charge ratio was 1.35 in outside air, 1.21 in office areas and 1.06 in problem production areas. The ion concentration was increased by 10-40% above outside levels in areas where electrostatic precipitators or ion sources were present. Reductions in ion levels were found in areas with relative humidity ≤5%. Ion concentrations were also lower in a laminar flow room, which had high-efficiency particulate filters, and the charge ratio changed to 0.55. No clear-cut association between ion concentration or charge ratio and illness was found.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1981, Vol.42, No.10, p.759-762. Illus. 16 ref.
Vincent J.H., Johnston W.B., Jones A.D., Johnston A.M.
Static electrification of airborne asbestos: A study of its causes, assessment and effects on deposition in the lungs of rats
The electrostatic charging of asb estos particles, as they become airborne, the magnitude and polarity of the charge, and the effect of the charge on fibre deposition in rat lungs were experimentally determined. Measurements of fibre penetration through an electrostatic elutriator were used to determine that a typical amosite fibre carried a net charge equivalent to 60 electrons. The charge distribution was bimodal. The charge was attributed to contact of the fibres with materials in the dust dispenser during dispersal. The magnitude of the charge could be reduced by introduction of ions from an a.c. corona discharge ioniser. The deposition of asbestos dust into the slowest clearing part of the respiratory tract of rats increased by 40% as a result of the electrostatic charge on the fibres.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1981, Vol.42, No.10, p.711-721. Illus. 33 ref.
Electrostatic transition phenomena
Prehodni pojavi pri statični elektrini [in Slovenian]
Considerations on the principles of the build-up of electrostatic charges in the human body, its conductivity, the time required for building up a charge and on the electric fiels around a charged body. A simple electric circuit is used as a model to facilitate calculations. Correlations between the charge retaining time and the humidity of the air and between the charge density of the human body and earth are given. Recommendations for the electric resistance of shoes (at less 4.400Ω, the optimum being between 104 and 108Ω), ionising and wetting the air and earthing the human body are also given.
Delo in varnost, 1981, Vol.26, No.4, p.154-156. Illus. 6 ref.
The effect of fault currents with d.c. components on the trip characteristics of differential circuit breakers
Die Beeinflussung des Auslöseverhaltens von Fehlerstromschutzschaltern durch Fehlerströme mit Gleichstromkomponenten [in German]
The use of semiconductors in electronic asemblies is the cause of fault currents with d.c. components; these d.c. components are caused, in particular, by the phase adjustment. The effects on the human body of direct current and of alternating current with d.c. components are studied, and conclusions are drawn as to the trip characteristics of differential circuit breakers for protection against fault current with d.c. components. Review of the principles of differential circuit breaker protection agaisnt direct and indirect contact in earthed and earthed-to-neutral nerworks.
Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau, Dec 1981, Vol.98, No.12, p.504-510. Illus. 13 ref.
Heitz F., Meyer F.
Accidents dus à l'électricité [in French]
Analysis of the parameters that determine the biological effects of an electric current passing through the human body: current intensity; resistance of body; duration of passage of current; shape of current wave; frequency. Review of clinical signs and symptoms: immediate clinical effects of low, medium and high voltage; secondary effects and sequelae (cardiovascular, neurological, adrenal lesions, after-effects of burns); lightning stroke. Action to be taken in the presence of apparent death in order to reinstate normal heart rhythm; removing the victim from electrical contact, onsite first-aid, evaluation of the victim.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1981, Vol.9, No.2, p.107-112. Illus.
Zalesskij P.S., Rassolov N.I.
Reducing the electrostatic charge in miners' working clothes and footwear
Sniženie ėlektrizacii specodeždy i specobuvi gornorabočih [in Russian]
Results of tests to determine the minimum energy level required to explode a methane-air mixture or to fire an electric detonator, and the maximum electric charge that can build up on the body of a miner with normal clothing and equipment. Taking into account a safety factor of 2.5, this charge can be maintained within the limits of safety by adopting maximum dielectric strengths of 5 x 108Ohm for footwear and 1 x 109Ohm for clothing fabrics. Fabrics made of cotton, linen and fibres containing less than 50% synthetics meet these requirements.
Ugol' Ukrainy, Jan. 1981, No.1, p.30.
Muscat F., Vacheret J.M.
Electrical stimulation of carcasses
Stimulation électrique des carcasses [in French]
In electrical carcas stimulation, an electrical current is used to produce muscular contractions and accelerate the biochemical conversion of muscle to meat ("tenderising") so that boning and refrigeration can be carried out more rapidly, whilst at the same time improving meat quality. The various electrical stimulation techniques are presented: the "high-voltage" technique in a booth or tunnel, and the "low-voltage" technique; and safety measures are given to deal with electrical hazards or with the violent movements of the carcass: installation of sensor mats, doors or electronic guards on "high-voltage" electrical stimulation booths; locating control panels at a distance from "low-voltage" electrical stimulation units. Appendices give diagrams showing the principle of electrical circuits for booths protected by sensor mats and doors or electronic guards. English translation may be obtained from the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8N 1H6.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1981, No.105, Note No.1346-105-81, p.521-534. Illus. 8 ref.
Model code of safety regulations for grade 0 and grade 1 workers
Modèle de recueil de prescriptions de sécurité destiné au personnel habilité d'indices 0 et 1 [in French]
Regulations for the construction, operation and maintenance of electrical installations and equipment in undertakings subject to the requirements of the French Decree of 4 Nov. 1962. The regulations apply to the following workers: non-electricians (grade 0) and installing electricians (grade 1). Sections deal with: general requirements; job-grading of workers; general requirements for various types of work on electrical equipment; measures to be taken before starting work on de-energised equipment; requirements for work in the area or immediate vicinity of accessible, bare, live conductors; repairs on low-voltage equipment; requirements for live work; special jobs; personal and group protection; measures to be taken in the event of an electrical accident. An appendix illustrates first aid for an electrocuted person.
Union technique de l'électricité, 12 place des Etats-Unis, 75783 Paris Cedex 16, France, Feb. 1981. 78p. Illus.
Safe maintenance work on high-voltage transformers
Suurmuuntajien huoltotöiden turvallisuus [in Finnish]
Säkerheten vid servicearbeten på stortransformatorer [in Swedish]
Abridged text of an information sheet dealing with: work in the vicinity of live conductors (safe distances depending on the voltage, marking out of the work zone); safety in inspection and maintenance work (checking atmospheric humidity and renewal of the dessicant material, checking oil level, oil sampling); work on de-energised transformers (de-energising); safety equipment and devices (installation of special pipes for taking gas and oil samples, installation of a pipe to the expansion tank to allow oil to be topped up from ground level, installation of a service platform with a guard rail).
Teollisuusvakuutus - Industriförsäkring, 1981, No.2, p.38-41. Illus.
Lindén V., Rolfsen S.
Video computer terminals and occupational dermatitis
Case studies have shown that a pricking sensation, itching and dermatitis on the face, after prolonged exposure to video display terminals, are probably due to electrostatic discharge between the skin of the worker and the screen. The effect is more pronounced in some individuals than others. The symptoms were reduced by using carpeting with antistatic qualities, increased air humidity, and grounded water or metal thread screens.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.62-64. 2 ref.
Electrical installations: effect of modifying overcurrent safety devices on the hazard of indirect contacts
Installations électriques: influence de la modification des dispositifs de protection contre les surintensités sur les dangers de contacts indirects [in French]
Study on the consequences of increasing the nominal current of a safety device, or of modifying the device, on the overcurrent hazard (as defined in the French legislation - "Section V of the Decree of 14 Nov. 1962") and on the hazard of accidentally energising the frame, in particular in the event of an accidental insulation fault. Basic definitions, checks to counter these hazards, example of how the procedures can be applied.
Revue de la sécurité, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.17, No.181, p.23-27. Illus.
Electrostatic discharge tests on models
Elektrostatische Entladungen im Modellversuch [in German]
Assessment of the ignition power of electrostatic discharges between insulators and conductors depends on several internal and external factors which are not evident to the casual observer, and which can be determined only by tests on models. The model tests described were designed to analyse the influence of these factors on the quantity of transmitted charge, the surface affected, and the type of charge between sheets of charged polystyrene and spherical steel electrodes. In the charge density range studied (between ± 46 and ± 118nC/cm2), discharges capable of igniting stoichiometric (low boiling point) hydrocarbon vapour mixtures were observed.
Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau, Apr. 1981, Vol.98, No.4, p.113-117. Illus. 13 ref.
Santos Reis J., De Freitas R.
Segurança em electricidade [in Portuguese]
Contents of this training manual: general considerations on electricity; electrical hazards (electrocution, burns, electromagnetic fields); precautions (earthing; contact voltage prevention, insulation, double insulation, extra low voltage, electrical installations for potentially explosive atmsopheres); static electricity; power stations; substations; transformers; switchgear; portable electric lamps; temporary electrical installations; electrically powered hand tools.
FUNDACENTRO, 539 Alameda Barão de Limeira, Caixa Postal 30291, São Paulo, Brazil, 1980. 103p. Illus. 56 réf.
Hazards of static electricity and their elimination
Staattisen sähkön aiheuttamat vaarat ja niiden torjunta [in Finnish]
The phenomenon of static electricity and its generation are reviewed. The hazards of static electricity are considered especially in relation to the handling of flammable liquids, gases, dusts or explosive substances. Fire and explosion hazards can be reduced by avoiding ignitable materials and mixtures, using materials which do not accumulate charge, or by dissipating or limiting the charge. Where these measures are not possible, measures must be taken to make the charge harmless by earthing, using antistatic substances, increasing the relative humidity of the air or using ionisation.
Työsuojeluhallitus, Tampere, Finland, 1980. 115p. Illus. 75 ref.
Types of fixed and portable electric equipment that must be earthed; hazardous locations; reference to NFPA National Electrical Code (CIS 81-918); types of earthing conductors; earthing to neutral; plugs and adapters; earthing of portable electric tools and equipment; current leakage; fault current protection; electrical resistance of body; employee training.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1980. 5p. Illus. 8 ref.
Bakonyi T., Czabai I.
Electrostatic charging in the course of high pressure, airless spraying and prevention of the probable accidents
Measurements were made, in the laboratory and at work sites, of the degree of charging of paint mist, the maximum spark discharge energy and the safety of working conditions during high-pressure airless paint spraying. Charge build-up and separation occurred in the space between the spray gun and the workplace, and on the workpiece. The differences in charge potential and static accumulation were great enough that the energy of a probable spark discharge could exceed the minimum ignition energy of the paint mist. Charge accumulation and spark discharge can be prevented by grounding of the workpiece and charge drainage through an eliminator. Dangers of personal charging are minimised by conductive clothing, footwear and flooring.
Published in "Elöadások, kutatások, publikációk" 2. szám, SZOT, Munkavédelmi Tudományos Kutato Intézet, Budapest, Hungary, 1981, p.65-75. Illus.
ISSA, International Committee for the prevention of occupational risks due to electricity
6th International Colloquium on the Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity - Electric and magnetic fields, electric arcs and atmospheric electricity - Effects, hazards and protective measures
6e Colloque international sur la prévention des risques professionnels dus à l'électricité - Champs électriques et magnétiques, arcs électriques et électricité atmosphérique - Effets, dangers et mesures de protection [in French]
Texts, in the original language, of the reports and papers presented at this Symposium (Vienna, Austria, 30 Sep.-2 Oct. 1980) held under the auspices of the International Social Security Association (ISSA), Geneva, Switzerland, its International Section for the Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity (Cologne, Fed. Rep. of Germany) and the Austrian General Accident Insurance Fund, Vienna, Austria. Effects of high-intensity a.c. fields; effects of low-frequency fields; effects of electric and magnetic fields; distribution electric fields around outdoor and indoor high-voltage installations and overhead lines; electric radiation effects on man; protection against non-ionising radiation; methods of measuring electromagnetic fields and practical experience in the measurement of field intensities; short-circuit arcing in low-voltage installations; electric arcing accidents; atmospheric electricity as an occupational risk; protecting electronic equipment from atmospheric electricity.
Allgemeine Versicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1980. 368p. Illus.
Direct buried utility cables
Guidelines and directives for buried cables; earthed shielding for cables carrying a voltage above 600V; clearance between buried cables and sewers and water and fuel lines; trenching; trench bottom; burial depth of cable as determined by voltage range; precautions before excavation; sloping and shoring of trench sides; minimum separation of power cables or conductors carrying different voltages, telephone lines, etc.; inspection for underground obstacles before excavation; handling of cables and wires.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1980. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.
German Electrotechnical Commission (Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission)
Appliances for testing protective devices in electrical installations - Insulation meters
Geräte zum Prüfen der Schutzmassnahmen in elektrischen Anlagen; Isolations-Messgeräte [in German]
This DIN standard has been adopted by the Association of German Electrical Engineers (Verband deutscher Elektrotechniker, VDE) and also forms part of the VDE Code. It applies to instruments for measuring, in switched-off installations, the insulation resistance of materials and electrical equipment for rated voltages ≤1,000V (AC) or ≤1,500V (DC). The provisions relate to technical data on electrical requirements, marking, instructions for use, and testing.
Teil 1, Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstrasse 4-7, D-1000 Berlin 30, Sep. 1980. 11p. Price: DM.12.70.
The effect of electromagnetic fields
Umwelteinflüsse durch elektromagnetische Felder [in German]
The effects of 50Hz electromagnetic fields on man are studied (painful discharges, biological effects) and the contradictory results of other research are compared. This study under well defined conditions did not indicate any health effects. Examination of persons exposed for over 20 years to high intensity fields in the vicinity of high-voltage lines (380kV) did not reveal any harmful or sentisiting effects of electromagnetic fields. The electric and magnetic fields produced by electricity distribution networks of 420kV or even 800kV should not constitute a health hazard.
Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1980, Vol.101, No.24, p.1310-1312. Illus. 26 ref.
Petrović M.V., Nikolić N.Lj.
Electrical hazards and electrical safety in industry
Opasnosti i zaštita od električne struje u industriji [in Serbocroatian]
Pocket manual illustrated with humorous drawings, intended for plant electricians. Contents: man and electricity; direct contact hazards and protective measures; contact voltage hazards (indirect contact) and protective measures; rules for work on electrical installations (disconnection, tagging of disconnecting switches, checking for no voltage, earthing or short circuiting).
Institut za dokumentaciju zaštite na radu, Višegradska bb, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1980. 63p. Illus.
Federation of Electrical Equipment Manufacturers (Groupement syndical des industries de matériels d'équipement électrique
Electrical safety of tertiary and industrial electrical installations
La sécurité électrique des installations tertiaires et industrielles [in French]
Proceedings of a Symposium held in Strasbourg (France) on 11-12 June 1980. Subjects: combinations of protective equipment (research on compatibility between series-connected switchgear); protection of low- and medium-voltage electrical machines and motors; current position of regulations (French regulations and international standards); safety and economic advantages of prefabricated and modular electricity distribution equipment in buildings; differential protection in buildings and in industry; future prospects for electrical safety.
Fédération des industries électriques et électroniques, 11 rue Hamelin, 75783 Paris Cedex 16, France. 55p. Illus.
Protection against direct contact with electrical installations and equipment
Berührungsschutz bei elektrischen Anlagen und Betriebsmitteln [in German]
Review of the state of the art; presentation of practical solutions complying with the requirements of the VBG safety regulations concerning electrical installations and equipment, in force in the Federal Republic of Germany. Considerations on the necessity for more stringent protection against contacts; definition of the basic principles for 2- and 3-dimensional protective measures in >1kV installations; practical examples of protective measures (illustrated) especially in power supply and distribution installations; evaluation of protective measures; future trends.
Sicherheitsingenieur, June 1980, Vol.11, No.6, p.16-29. Illus.
Šihov V.N., Lineckaja F.E.
Quantitative evaluation of electrostatic charges in fluidised-bed equipment
Količestvennaja ocenka ėlektrizacii psevdoožižennogo sloja [in Russian]
The accumulation of static electricity charges in a fluidised bed may ignite matter in suspension in the bed. An equation is presented which enables the electrostatic potential to be evaluated, taking into account: particle dimension; fluidising gas flowrate; dielectric constants of the materials of which the enclosure is constructed, and those of the fluidised matter; particle density; kinematic viscosity of the fluidising gas; bulk height of bed filling; a geometric factor; and diameter of the enclosure.
Himičeskaja promyšlennost', Apr. 1980, No.4, p.45-47. Illus. 9 ref.
U.S. National Safety Council
Flexible insulating protective equipment for electrical workers.
Data sheet: guide to the care, inspection, testing, storage, and use of flexible insulating equipment for protecting electrical workers. Definitions (cutting action of ozone, produced by corona effect on rubber under mechanical stress, corona-resistant material); storerooms and toolrooms (rubber gloves; linesmen's rubber sleeves); truck storage; field use, wrong practices; acceptance testing. Classification of insulating covers; rubber insulating blankets; care of rubber equipment; visual inspection; low voltage equipment.
National Safety News, July 1980, Vol.122, No.1, p.59-76. Illus. 8 ref.
De Queiroz A.L.
Evaluation of dangerous electric currents for man
Avaliação e controle das correntes perigosas à vida humana [in Portuguese]
Aspects dealt with: effects of electric current on a healthy body (physiology, sensitivity of the body to alternating and direct current, experience in 50 cases); electrical accidents; effect of current strength; effect of exposure time and current path; effect of frequency; recommended safety measures (fault current protection).
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.8, No.32, p.57-63. Illus. 4 ref.
Biegelmeier G., Miksch J.
Influence of the skin on the impedance of the human body
Über den Einfluss der Haut auf die Körperimpedanz des Menschen [in German]
The problems associated with this question and electrical safety are reviewed. Subjects dealt with: present state of knowledge; influence of the contact surface in the event of an electrical accident and question of the high specific capacitance of the skin. Study of the structure and electrophysiology of the human skin suggested the analogy of a brush for the arrangement of the ducts of the sweat glands beneath the skin. This model can explain how the characteristics of the skin affect the behaviour of the body impedance in the event of passage of an electric current. Above 200V skin impedance and the contact area are of only secondary importance, and only the internal impedance of the body has a decisive influence on the severity of accidents.
Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau, Sep. 1980, Vol.97, No.9, p.369-378. Illus. 24 ref.
Influence of 50Hz electric fields of high strength on the human body
Einfluss elektrischer 50-Hz-Felder hoher Feldstärke auf den menschlichen Organismus [in German]
Laboratory studies are described using currents of 19 and 20kV/m as found in the vicinity of overhead and electrical equipment at 380 and 1300kV: state of the art, design of tests and experimental layout, configuration of fields in the test booths, measuring equipment (critical optic flicker fusion frequency, reaction time, ECG, EEG), study method, evaluation methods and results. Even at field strengths of 20kV/m the test subjects had no ill effects, in contrast to the results of Russian studies. Field strengths of 10 and 20kV/m do not appear to have harmful effects on the human body.
Medizinisch-technischer Bericht 1980. Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle, Oberländer Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1980. 76p. Illus. 69 ref.
Les dangers de l'électricité. [in French]
Contents: hazard factors (passage of current through body, effect of current strength, voltage, body resistance, duration of passage); causes of electrical accidents (contact with several electric conductors or with one conductor and a live frame); effects of current on the human body (mascular contraction, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest, burns); rules for prevention of electrical accidents (intervention on electric installations by qualified personnel only, use of safety circuit-breakers sensitive to fault current).
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Case postale, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Nov. 1980. 12p. Illus.
National electrical safety code - 1981 edition.
This revised edition was adopted as American National Standard ANSI C2-1981 on Aug. 1980. It covers in 4 main parts basic provisions and work rules for the safeguarding of persons from hazards arising out of the installation, operation and maintenance of conductors and equipment in electrical supply stations as well as overhead and underground electrical supply and communications lines. It is applicable to systems and equipment operated by utilities or by industrial establishments under the control of qualified persons. An extensive subject index is provided.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 5 Sep. 1980. 366p. Illus.
Occupational safety and health aspects of the use of electricity - Awareness of hazards: physiopathology of electric shock
Prévention et sécurité dans les utilisations de l'électricité - La connaissance des risques: physiothérapie des électrisations. [in French]
Profusely illustrated article clearly describing the nature of electrical hazards. Contents: mechanism of electric shock (as distinct from electrocution); points in the human body particularly sensitive to the effects of electric current (skeletal muscle, diaphragm, foetus, heart); explanation of fibrillation; resuscitation of electric shock victims.
Journal de l'équipement électrique et électronique, Aug.-Sep. 1980, No.462, p.37-44. Illus.
Work on or near electrical installations
Werkzaamheden aan of in de nabijheid van elektrische installaties [in Dutch]
Article giving a roundup of this question, covering the following aspects: Belgian regulations for live work; types of live work; safe working methods; standardisation of insulating tools and insulating personal protective equipment; work near live electrical installations or switched-off installations; rules for HV and LV installations; switching on after completion of work; training, skills and qualifications; supervision of the work; proposal for more realistic regulations.
Veiligheidsnieuws, 1980, No.47, p.15-21, and No.48, p.17-20. Illus.
Low-voltage high-performance circuit-breakers
Niederspannungs-Hochleistungs-Sicherungen (NH-Sicherungen) [in German]
The accident hazards and the appropriate safety measures to be taken when fuse circuit-breakers are replaced in heavy current installations are set out: qualified personnel, technical measures (use of disconnectors to prevent contact, partitions, shrouding of live elements, arrangement of similar phases), personal protective equipment and clothing (handle with lower-arm protection, helmet with visor, work clothes).
Unfallverhütungsdienst der Allgemeinen Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, A-1200 Wien, Austria, 9p. Illus.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Guidelines concerning prevention of ignition hazards due to static electricity - Static Electricity Guidelines
Richtlinien für die Vermeidung von Zündgefahren infolge elektrostatischer Aufladungen - Richtlinien "Statische Elektrizität" [in German]
These guidelines are concerned with the evaluation and prevention of ignition hazards due to the accumulation of electrostatic charges in premises where there is an explosion hazard, or when explosives are being used. Definitions; basic data on electrostatic charges and discharges and on flammability of an explosive atmosphere; general protective measures (classification of hazard areas, earthing, electric resistance of floors, clothing). The greater part of the guidelines are devoted to detailed safety provisions concerning: objects made of solid non-conducting materials; non-conducting liquids; aerosols and dust (e.g. conveyor or transmission belts, liquid transfer, spray painting, printing, dry cleaning). Appended are tables giving pertinent data on: liquids; gases and vapours; dust (ignition energy); floors, stockings worn (electrical resistance).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1980. 78p. Price: DM.5.40.
Electricity - What is it? - Origin of electrical hazards - Prevention of electrical accidents
L'électricité - Qu'est-ce que l'électricité ? Origine du risque électrique - Prévention des accidents dus à l'utilisation de l'énergie électrique. [in French]
Profusely illustrated publication. Contents: origin of electricity and electric circuits (definitions, basic theory); origin of electrical hazards; injury due to electric current (electrical resistance of the human body; burns, effects on the respiratory and circulatory systems; muscular contraction); sources of electrical hazards (electric power distribution; electrical installations and receivers; hazards peculiar to certain premises or locations; hazardous behaviour of personnel); prevention of electrical hazards (French regulations and standards; protection of persons; work near electrical installations; safety measures; personnel information); general safety rules for staff other than electricians.
INRS n°596, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1980. 94p. Illus.
Tagging and work on disconnected lines
Consignation et travaux hors tension. [in French]
Safety considerations for a training and information programme for workers operating on disconnected electrical installations: necessity to use clear terminology intelligible to all; clear demarcation of responsibilities; major principles of shut-down procedures; teaching aids.
Vigilance, Apr. 1980, No.61, p.12-17. Illus.
The stored energy needed to ignite methane by discharges from a charged person.
A person insulated from earth can become electrostatically charged and may ignite a flammable vapour when earthed. Estimations of the amount of electrical energy required to produce a spark capable of igniting methane vary widely. An experimental setup is described in which methane was ignited with discharges from a person with a stored energy of as little as 1.1mJ. It is suggested that the much larger values quoted by other authors are due mainly to the quenching effects of the electrode systems used.
Journal of Electrostatics, 1980. p.289-293. Illus. 3 ref.
Lövstrand K.G., Bergström S.
Exposure to electric fields - Mapping of the electrophysical working environment in substations
Exposition för elektriska fält - En kartläggning av den elektrofysikaliska arbetsmiljön i ställverk [in Swedish]
Electrophysical factors such as corona and electric and magnetic fields were studied. Three measuring instruments were developed: a field meter which measures the undisturbed field strength; a dosemeter to measure exposure at different work operations; and a full-size instrumented dummy to determine the distribution and strength of induced currents in a man exposed to electric fields. Exposure of workers at 20 substations in Sweden was <5kV/m for more than half the working day. Working time in field strengths >10kV/m was normally less than a few percent of the working day.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1980:4, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1980. 39p. Illus. 41 ref.
Work near overhead electric lines and underground cables
Travaux à proximité des lignes électriques aériennes et des câbles souterrains [in French]
These safety rules apply to construction work everywhere. Contents: general comments; possibilities of contact with live wires (direct contact with parts of the body, indirect contact through tools, building materials, or tall machinery); safety measures near overhead electric lines (organisation, safe distance, cutting off the current, institution of barriers, work zone limits, temporary insulation, beaconing and warning signs); safety measures near underground electric cables; what to do in the case of an accident.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 204, Rond-point du Pont-de-Sèvres, Tour Amboise, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt Cedex, France, reprint 1984. 32p. Illus.
Contents of this profusely illustrated booklet, dealing principally with electrical hazards on construction sites: introduction (electrical hazards and electrical shock, effects of electricity on the human body) protection (insulation, ground wires, fuses and circuit breakers, double insulation of tools, ground fault circuit interrupter, recognition of hazardous situations, preventive maintenance); hazards of temporary power distribution lines (overhead lines, temporary and large equipment feeder cables, underground lines); temporary lighting hazards; electric tools and machines (portable electric hand tools, transportable and bench-mounted power tools, terrazzo grinders and concrete floor finishers, other electric machines, extension cords). Appendices: mouth-to-mouth resuscitation; suggested standard for temporary wiring on construction sites.
Construction Site Planning Manual No.3. Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5C 2A5, Canada, 1979. 48p. Illus. Available also from Alan Osborne and Associates, Unit 5, Seager Buildings, Brookmill Road, London SE8, United Kingdom. Price: £1.75.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennij komitet SSSR po standartam)
Static electricity - Prevention of hazards from sparks - General rules
Statičeskoe ėlektričestvo. Iskrobezopasnost'. Obščie trebovanija [in Russian]
Contents of this standard (effective 1 July 1980): general provisions (spark protection and how to achieve it; classification of equipment to be protected, according to the electrostatic and dielectric properties of their constituent materials, geometric configuration, electrostatic charge, etc.); prescribed limit values for each spark protection class; review of administrative measures (safety training in this field, drafting of instruments). Appended: definitions; classification criteria and methods; method for determining the ignition capability of an electrostatic discharge.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 21 Aug. 1979. 16p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.05.
Łucaszczyk M., Majczyński H.
A safe method and an instrument for measuring current intensity in low-voltage cables
Bepieczna metoda i przyrząd do pomiaru natężenia prądu w nieopancerzonych przewodach energetycznych niskiego napięcia [in Polish]
The method described involves the use of a new instrument which can determine the peak load at a transformer station and monitor continuity of current supply. The instrument, which consists of a probe and a millivoltmeter, can be connected to a recorder, and can be used to measure current intensity in cables of any section. The design and operation of this low-cost system (which enhances electrical safety and prevents energy losses) are illustrated by circuits and diagrams.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1979, Vol.29, No.103, p.331-342. Illus. 1 ref.
German Electrotechnical Commission (Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission)
Installation and operation of heavy current equipment in public buildings, and safety lighting in workplaces
Errichten und Betreiben von Starkstromanlagen in baulichen Anlagen für Menschenansammlungen sowie von Sicherheitsbeleuchtung in Arbeitsstätten [in German]
These VDE rules also constitute a DIN standard of the German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut für Normung). It applies to theatres, commercial buildings, hotels, hospitals etc., and covers mainly: circuits, electrical equipment (voltage above or below 1kV), layout of premises, battery-powered safety lighting, emergency electric power source, and, in particular, the electrical equipment of the above-mentioned buildings and workplaces. Appended: examples of circuits and commentaries.
VDE-Verlag GmbH, Bismarckstrasse 33, D-1000 Berlin 12, 1979. 71p. Illus. Price: DM.42.40.
The nature and incendiary behaviour of spark discharges from the body.
Experiments on the charge profiles of sparks passed from the finger to an earthed steel ball showed that a discharge consists of several discrete sparks, of which the only one likely to promote ignition is the first. The least energy on the body required to ignite mixtures of town or natural gas and air was determined.
Electrostatics 1979, Institute of Physics Conference Series 48, p.73-83. Illus. 7 ref. Institute of Physics, Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, 1979.
German Electrotechnical Commission (Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission), Berlin (West), Oct. 1979
Insulation co-ordination for electrical equipment for 3-phase AC equipment>1kV - Phase-to-earth insulation
Isolationskoordination für Betriebsmittel in Drehstromnetzen über 1kV - Isolation Leiter gegen Erde [in German]
These VDE rules are also a standard of the German Standards Institute (DIN). Contents: scope, definitions, principles for the co-ordination of insulations, standardised insulation levels for equipment under different voltage ranges, test conditions. Commentaries.
VDE-Verlag GmbH, Bismarckstrasse 33, D-1000 Berlin 12, 1979. 26p. Price: DM.21.20.
German Electrotechnical Commission (Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission)
Portable earthing and short-circuiting devices
Ortsveränderliche Geräte zum Erden und Kurzschliessen [in German]
These VDE rules are a DIN standard of the German Standards Institute (Deutsches Institut für Normung). They apply to earthing and short-circuiting devices for electrical installations, after prior disconnection, and lay down specifications and required technical data for this equipment and components (cables, tongs, insulating rods), operational modes and test conditions.
VDE-Verlag GmbH, Bismarckstrasse 33, D-1000 Berlin 12, June 1979. 34p. Illus. Price: DM.24.70.
Jacobsen J., Buntenkötter S.
Dangerous zones of industrial alternative current
Gefährdungsbereiche energietechnischer Wechselströme [in German]
Experimental studies are reported on the fibrillation hazard of sinusoidal currents with phase control and burst firing, above all in the vulnerable phases of the cardiac cycle in the ECG, and the relation between the hazard threshold and effective duration of the passage of current is determined. The possibilities of extrapolating experimental results to humans are discussed: measurement of the effects of the current on the heart, current strength limit. Diagrams and values to be included in IEC document No.479 are proposed: mean hazard threshold, safety limit, release current limit. Ranges of action of the current and accident classes are described.
ETZ-Archiv, 1979, No.9, p.275-281. Illus. 15 ref.
Lövsund P., Nilsson S.E.G., Lindh H., Öberg P.Å.
Temperature changes in contact lenses in connection with radiation from welding arcs.
Soft contact lenses were tested with manual metal arc (MMA), tungsten inert-gas and metal inert-gas welding, both free hanging and applied to rabbit eyes. There was a great increase in temperature, especially with MMA welding. At 0.4m distance the lens temperature on the rabbit eye rose from 35 to 50°C within 6min. Most of the lenses dried out during the experiment, and there is a risk that the lens might adhere to the cornea. A safety glass screen (DIN 10A) prevented the rise in temperature in the lens.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1979, Vol.5, No.3, p.271-279. 13 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften).
Guidelines for electrostatic coating with liquid paints
Richtlinien für elektrostatisches Versprühen von flüssigen Anstrichstoffen (elektrostatisches Lackieren) [in German]
These guidelines apply to manual equipment and fixed installations for electrostatic paint spraying. Definitions, general conditions, pertinent electrotechnical standards and regulations, explosion and fire protection, marking, technical data, checking before starting work, access to spray booths, electrical installations, conductivity of flooring, earthing, personal protective equipment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1979. 11p.
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