Electricity - 651 entries found
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(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Screening devices for protection from industrial-frequency electric fields - General technical requirements, basic parameters and dimensions
Ustrojstva ėkranirujuščie dlja zaščity ot electričeskih polej promyšlennoj častoty - Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija, osnovnye parametry i razmery [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1986) applies to screening devices for protection of workers from industrial-frequency electric fields when they are engaged in work with open distribution equipment and overhead high-voltage lines operating at 330-750 kV. The standard establishes types, general technical requirements, basic parameters and sizes of the screening devices. Terms and definitions used in the standard are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 10p. Price: Rbl.0.03.
Direct buried utility cables
Aspects covered in this data sheet: technical requirements for electrical cables and burying equipment; safe working methods; trenching practices; handling of cables and wires.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 6p. Illus. 3 ref.
Flexible insulating protective equipment for electrical workers
This data sheet is a guide to the selection, care, inspection, testing, storage and use of flexible electrical insulating equipment for electrical workers. This includes rubber gloves and sleeves, rubber insulating blankets, line hoses and covers.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1985. 19p. Illus. 1 ref.
A special session on static electrification of airborne dusts: occupational and industrial hygiene considerations
Papers presented at the Special Plenary Session held during the 1984 Annual Conference of the British Occupational Hygiene Society (York, United Kingdom, April 1984). The papers were: theories of electrostatic lung deposition of inhaled aerosols (a literature review); electrostatic lung deposition experiments with humans and animals; measurement methods for electric charges on aerosols (using electrostatic elutriators or electrical mobility spectrometers); electrostatic effects in aerosol sampling and filtration; measurements of electric charge for workplace aerosols; static electrification of workplace aerosols (perspectives).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2nd quarter 1985, Vol.29, No.2, p.217-288. Illus. Bibl.
Explosive atmospheres: what zones to determine in a refinery
Atmosphères explosives: quelles zones déterminer dans une raffinerie [in French]
Analysis of the international and French regulations on the identification of danger zones for the location of electrical equipment in refineries.
Journal de l'équipement électrique et électronique, 14 Oct. 1985, No.530, p.23 and 25. Illus.
Safety of electrically energized office machines
Sécurité des machines de bureau alimentées par l'énergie électrique [in French]
This international standard applies to electric machines designed to be used in offices or shops (e.g. typewriters, calculating machines, accounting machines, cash registers, staplers, duplicators, pencil sharpeners, document shredding machines, drawing machines, motor-operated files, dictation equipment, etc.). It does not apply to data processing equipment. The standard covers safety for the operator and the service personnel and contains definitions of terms used and requirements for: test, rating, marking and instructions, protection against electric shock, heating, leakage current, moisture resistance, insulation resistance, endurance, abnormal operation and fault conditions, stability and mechanical hazards, construction, internal wiring, supply connection and external flexible cables, earthing, creepage distances, ionising radiation, ozone. Replaces the 1972 version (CIS 72-2105).
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1985. 219p. Illus. Price: SF.239.00.
Faulty behaviour as a factor in electrical accidents
Fehler im Verhalten als Ursachen für Unfälle durch elektrischen Strom [in German]
Analysis of 30,000 electrical accidents at work (of which 724 were fatal) reported between 1971 and 1981, with 90% of the accidents occurring while using low-voltage equipment. The neglect of the 5 main rules of electrical safety was the main cause of accidents in 45% of the cases, while faulty behaviour in general was the main cause in 33% of the cases. Detailed analysis of these 2 groups of causes follows, with an attempt at explaining faulty behaviour, very often a result of inappropriate work organisation. In most cases electrical safety rules are respected during work, with unsafe behaviour occurring particularly after work and after work interruptions. Technicians tend to ignore safety instructions. Other influencing factors are age and seniority.
Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. Information 1/85. 11p. Illus. 3 ref. (Published as well: Sicherheitsingenieur, No.5, 6 and 12. 1984).
Electrical installations on underground construction sites
Les installations électriques en chantier de travaux souterrains [in French]
Recommendations made by the French Association for Underground Work. Continuation of the article analysed under CIS 85-1219. General safety rules to apply to low-voltage surface installations and to 2 types of underground work (large and small cross-sections). Safety rules to follow in large cross-section work to do with distributing panels, cables and connection points and safety equipment. Electrical supply of special equipment; lighting of the site and safety lighting. Power supply for tunnelling machines: mounting of high-voltage cables on the walls, choice of transformer, low-voltage distribution, emergency stop devices, locking devices. Testing, supervision and maintenance.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1985, No.2, p.26-32. Illus.
Lin R.S., Patricia P.H., Dischinger P.C., Conde J., Farrell K.P.
Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors
Epidemiologic study based on death certificates of 951 white male Maryland (USA) residents who died of brain tumour in the period 1969-1982. Compared with the controls, the men employed in electricity-related occupations were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumours. An increase in the odd's ratio for brain tumours was found to be positively related to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EMF exposure group. These findings suggest that EMF exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumours, particularly in the promoting stage.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1985, Vol.27, No.6, p.413-419. 41 ref.
Broadbent D.E., Broadbent M.P.H., Male J.C., Jones M.R.L.
Health of workers exposed to electric fields
There were no statistically significant correlations of health with measured or estimated exposure to electric fields by 390 electrical power transmission workers. The study involved health questionnaire interviews, long-term estimates of their exposures to 50Hz electric fields and short-term measurements of actual exposure for 287 of the workers (averaging approx. 30kVm-1h over a 2-week exposure period). Significant correlations were found between health measures and job categories, geographical regions, overtime, working alone, and frequently changing shifts.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1985, Vol.42, No.2, p.75-84. 14 ref.
Underground electrical installations
Les installations électriques en chantier de travaux souterrains [in French]
Recommendations of the French Association for Underground Work. They apply to all underground work sites and are intended to help the professional design an appropriate, reliable and safe electrical installation. They conform to French regulations and standards, but do not replace them. The 1st of 2 parts deals with design: studies of the site conditions (dust, wetness, mechanical shocks, extreme temperatures, fire hazards, dangerous gases); installation of equipment; choice of earthing system; switchgear; wiring diagrams. The 2nd part deals with high-voltage installations: above-ground and underground installations; operation and operating instructions.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1985, No.1, p.26-32. Illus.
Bohne J.E., Cohen B.S.
Aerosol resuspension from fabric: Implications for personal monitoring in the beryllium industry
Aerosol deposition and resuspension of beryllium dust was evaluated on cotton and Nomex aramid fabrics. Electrostatically charged cotton collected more beryllium than neutral controls, but electronegative Nomex did not. Moving fabrics collected more beryllium than did stationary controls. Agitation of contaminated fabrics showed that cotton resuspended a larger fraction of its contaminant than Nomex did.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1985, Vol.46, No.2, p.73-79. Illus. 21 ref.
Occupational hazards from non-ionising electromagnetic radiation
A survey of the occupational hazards of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation (wavelengths from 100nm to 3km). Each chapter covers a different radiation range and covers its physical characteristics, occupational sources, biological effects, instrumentation and measurement, protection measures, exposure limits and monitoring. Radiation types covered: microwave and radiofrequency radiation (sources: communications and broadcasting, microwave ovens, dielectric heaters, CRTs, welding, diathermy); power frequencies and extremely low frequencies (sources: electric appliances, high-voltage transmission lines); ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation (sources: arc lighting, light emitted by heated substances, lasers, to which a separate chapter is devoted, and natural sources).
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. 133p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.17.50.
Gamberale F., Hallne U., Högström R.M., Knave B., Menckel E., Törnqvist S.
Health hazards of work in the production and distribution of electricity - Interim report 1: An in thetroduction to the "ELMILJÖ" in thevestigation
Hälsorisker i arbete vid elproduktion och eldistribution - Delrapport 1: En introduktion till ELMILJÖ-undersökningen [in Swedish]
Presentation of a new Swedish research project concerning possible health effects of electromagnetic fields and spark discharges on exposed workers. Ca. 900 newly employed workers at different electrical powerplants will undergo health examinations, with particular attention paid to fertility and reproduction, the nervous system, subjective symptoms and haematology. The examinations will be carried out at different times over a 10 year period. A systematic measurement of the electric and magnetic fields and spark discharges will be carried out as well as an evaluation of relevant chemical factors. The work environment as a whole will be evaluated under controlled conditions. Results will be reported continuously over the period. The questionnaire forms which will be used in the study are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 69p. Illus. 44 ref.
Gamberale F., Knave B., Menckel E., Törnqvist S.
Health hazards of work in the production and distribution of electricity - Interim report 2: Work tasks and the work environment
Hälsorisker i arbete vid elproduktion och eldistribution - Delrapport 2: Arbetsuppgifter och arbetsmiljö [in Swedish]
The second part of the Swedish research project concerning the possible health effects of exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields and spark discharges. In an initial assessment of the work environment in the production and distribution of electricity, the different work tasks of this sector were analysed and described in detail and divided into 15 types of work. Thereafter, potential health risk factors were identified. For each of the 15 types of work, an exposure profile describing exposure frequency was created for these health risks. Similar exposure profiles were created for each potential health risk for all types of work. Detailed descriptions for the 15 types of work as well as the exposure profiles are appended.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 78p. Illus.
Statistics on occupational accidents (electricity and natural gas industries)
Statistiques des accidents de travail 1984 (Secteur Electricité et Gaz) [in French]
Statistics covering all occupational accidents during 1984 within the National Electricity and Gas Company (Algeria). Breakdown is by geographical region, cause, age and professional qualification of the victim, fatal and non-fatal accidents, accident frequency and seriousness. Trends during the previous 10 years are presented. In general, the causes of fatal accidents remained the same during the previous 5 years: electricity, falls, handling of objects, commuting accidents.
Société Nationale de l'Electricité et du Gaz, Prévention et Sécurité (Départ), Bd. Salah Bouakouir, Alger, Algeria, 1984. 117p. Illus.
Electricity, construction and civil engineering - Electric power generation and distribution facilities - Document No.172
Electricité, bâtiment et travaux publics - Installations de production et de distribution d'énergie électrique - Document n°172 [in French]
Texts of French regulations pertaining to electric power installations: design criteria; safety of workers during construction, operation and maintenance of electric power distribution facilities; safety in power plants.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Tour Amboise, 204 Rond-Point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne Billancourt Cedex, France, July 1984. 63p.
Electricity, construction and civil engineering - General principles - Document No.171
Electricité, bâtiment et travaux publics - Généralités - Document n°171 [in French]
Compendium of French regulations pertaining to construction workers who work with electricity or who work in the vicinity of electrical equipment and telecommunication lines.
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Tour Amboise, 204 Rond-Point du Pont-de-Sèvres, 92516 Boulogne Billancourt Cedex, France, July 1984. 199p.
Fire hazards presented by wiring in cases of electrical malfunctions
Požarnaja opasnost' ėlektroprovodok pri avarijnyh režimah [in Russian]
Aspects covered in this guide for engineers, technicians and fire-protection specialists: theoretical and experimental data on overloads and short circuits; fire hazards due to metal particles formed in short-circuit arcs; probability and statistical methods of assessment of the hazardousness of electrical equipment; determining the contribution of electrical malfunctions to fires; fire hazards presented by lead-in-wires.
Izdatel'stvo Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab. 10, 113114 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 184p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: Rbl.0.55.
Ovčinnikov N.J., Homjakov M.V.
Testing and repair of safety devices in electrical equipment
Ispytanija i remont sredstv zaščity v ėlektroustanovkah [in Russian]
Contents of this manual for repair workers: terms and definitions; choice and installation of safety devices; integration of electrical equipment and safety devices; requirements to be met by personnel engaged in the testing of safety equipment, and general safety requirements of testing and measurement; requirements on the design of laboratories and test branches; testing equipment; general rules for the electrical testing of safety devices; units for testing poles, insulators, voltage detectors and clip-on instruments for measurements above 1000V; units for testing insulating equipment made of polymeric materials (rubbers); units for testing rubber insulating caps; units for mechanical testing devices; testing shielded garments; repair of safety devices.
Ėnergoatomizdat, šljuzovaja nab.10, 113114 Moskva M114, USSR, 1984. 96p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Rbl.0.25.
Critical review of epidemiological studies on the relationship between various electromagnetic parameters and the incidence of cancer
This report reviews 10 papers addressing the existence of a relationship between exposure to very-low-frequency electromagnetic fields and the incidence of cancer. Although some of the studies had to be rejected because of methodological weaknesses, there was sufficient evidence of a possible link between leukaemia and exposure to electrical and magnetic fields to warrant further research.
Health and Safety Department of Hydro-Québec, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, May 1984. 27p.
Effects of current passing through the human body
Effets du courant passant par le corps humain [in French]
This report provides basic information on the effects of shock currents on the human body, to be used as guidance in the establishment of electrical safety requirements. The data given are mainly based on animal experiments and on information from clinical observations. An introduction on general aspects is followed by 3 chapters on: electrical impedance of the human body (as a function of the touch voltage, the frequency, the degree of moisture of the skin and the current path); effects of alternating current in the range of 15Hz to 100Hz; effects of direct current.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1984. 36p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: SF.48.00.
Possibility of dangerous voltage build-up in secondary circuits of welders' power supplies
O vozmožnosti opasnogo summirovanija naprjaženij vo vtoričnyh cepah svaročnyh istočnikov [in Russian]
When two welders use different power supplies (one AC, one DC), or when two power supplies of the same type are connected in opposite polarity, the use of a common ground by the two welders yields a voltage between the two electrodes that is twice the voltage between either electrode and the workpiece; the voltage can be as much as 180V. Where two or more welders are at work on a project that provides a common ground, special instruction and inspection should be provided to make sure that all power supplies are of the same type and are connected with the same polarity.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.37. Illus.
Santos Reis J.
Electricidade [in Portuguese]
This series of articles on the basics of electrical safety covers: hazardous situations; effects of shock by current of various intensities; safety limits; protection against direct and indirect contact; general characteristics of electric installations; influence of outside factors (temperature, humidity, water, solids and dust, corrosive or polluting substances, etc.); compatibility and maintenance of electrical equipment.
FUNDACENTRO - Atualidades em prevenção de acidentes, June-Oct. 1984, Vol.15, No.174-178, p.6-8 (No.174), p.8-11 (No.175), p.9-11 (No.176), p.6-8 (No.177), p.9-12 (No.178). Illus.
Increasing electrical safety in the use of flexible excavator cables
Povyšenie urovnija ėlektrobezopasnosti pri ėkspluatacii gibkih ėkskavatornyh kabelej [in Russian]
26.4% of all high-voltage electrical accidents in excavations during the period 1969-1981 involved cables. The most common cause of injury from current or arcing was erroneous supply of power to a disconnected but ungrounded cable. Injuries occurred most often during the disconnection and reconnection of cables during normal operation of equipment. (Percentages of other causes and circumstances are listed.) 70% of the injuries were attributable to failure to use safety devices (insulating gloves, portable grounding systems, voltage detectors, etc.). The safety situation can be improved by: assuring the supply and use of safety equipment; using plug-type connectors instead of junction boxes; introducing improved shielded cables and circuit breakers.
Ugol', Apr. 1984, No.4, p.51-52.
Harvey S.M., Starecky L.
Survey of electric and magnetic fields at Ontario hydro VDU work stations
This research report describes the methodology and instrumentation used in measuring electric and magnetic fields produced by VDTs at 54 different workstations. The frequency range investigated went from d.c. to a.c. beyond 1MHz. At 30cm from the VDT, the maximum equivalent environmental d.c. field was 1500V/m and the electric and magnetic fields at 17kHz were respectively 2.7V/m rms and 0.16A/m rms. These levels are thought to be too low to present a biological risk to the operators.
Ontario Hydro Research Division, 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5S4, Canada, 1 Mar. 1984. 18p. Illus. 6 ref. Appendices.
Regulation made under the Power Corporation Act: Electrical safety code
This code covers all safety requirements to be met by electrical installations in Ontario.
Ontario Gazette - Gazette de l'Ontario, 21 Apr. 1984, Vol.117, No.16, p.487-781. Illus.
Live line tools
This data sheet describes the tools designed for work on live electrical power lines and the safe procedures to be followed when using them.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 4p. Illus. Bibl.
van Norren D.
Contact lenses: no extra risk for welders
Contactlenzen geen extra gevaar bij lassen [in Dutch]
In 1983 arc welders and industrial physicians were alarmed by statements on accidents resulting in blindness in contact-lens wearers who looked at electric arcs. These statements were totally unfounded as were similar stories that had been published on several occasions since 1971. The results of recent research on the effects of welding arcs on rabbit eyes covered with contact lenses provide no contraindication for contact-lens wearers.
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg, 29 Aug. 1984, Vol.62, No.17, p.663-664. 8 ref.
Safety principles to follow during work on 1,500V d.c. railway overhead contact wires
Principes de sécurité à respecter lors des travaux sur installations caténaires en 1500V continu [in French]
These principles apply to the installation, modification and maintenance of 1,500V d.c. overhead contact wires in the French railways. Description and electrical characteristics of contact-wire installations: "live" parts, neutral parts, earthing. Preventive measures to be taken by maintenance and installation workers who (1) work at earth potential, or (2) work on conducting "live" parts. Illustrations and examples.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 1984, No.4, p.5-9. Illus.
(Office général du bâtiment et des travaux publics)
Directive defining safety provisions applicable to worksite electrical installations
Directive définissant les prescriptions de sécurité relatives aux installations électriques de chantier [in French]
Safety rules for worksite electrical installations, to supplement existing regulations. Points covered: scope; earthing; connections to mains; central circuit breakers; protective devices; specific provisions for construction of the fabric of a building and for interior finishing; inspection and testing. In annexes: safety rules of the French electricity authority (EDF).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 1984, No.3, p.28-34. Illus.
Safety in electroheat installations - Part I: General requirements
Sécurité dans les installations électrothermiques - Première partie: Règles générales [in French]
This standard is applicable to industrial electroheat installations (arc furnaces, induction melting furnaces, arc or induction or resistance heating equipment, laser equipment, etc.) and contains general safety requirements, especially for the protection of persons against dangers of electrical origin. Definitions of terms used in electroheating are followed by requirements on classification of electroheat equipment, design and installation, static charges and electromagnetic fields, prohibition of the use of earth as part of an active circuit, marking and circuit diagrams, isolation and switching, connections, protection against electric shock, protection against thermal influences, inspection, use, and maintenance.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1984. 39p. Price: SF.51.00.
International Section of the ISSA for the Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity
Prevention of electrical accidents by influencing human behaviour - Colloquium
La prévention des accidents électriques par les actions sur les comportements - Colloque [in French]
Proceedings of a colloquium on the prevention of occupational risks due to electricity (4-6 Oct. 1983, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany). The 16 reports presented are given in their entirety in their original language: faulty behaviour as a cause of electrical accidents; the possibility of corrective action on behaviour; design of regulations and principles of behaviour; design of electrical equipment for safe operation; mistakes in the handling of electrical equipment, wrong identification of circuitry, errors in the use of measuring instruments; monitoring and control for the prevention of faulty behaviour in industry and training.
Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Electrotechnik, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984. 357p. Illus.
Mañas Lahoz J.L.
Static electricity in the solvent and flammable products industry
La electricidad estática en la industria de productos inflamables y disolventes [in Spanish]
Explosion and fire hazards from static discharge sparks are identified and preventive measures proposed. Aspects covered: generation of static electricity; dangers and uses; instruments for the detection of static electricity; conditions favouring eplosions or fires and prevention of ignition sparks; classification of work areas in refineries; general preventive measures (earthing, improvement of materials and equipment conductivity, control of ambient humidity, neutralising of static charges); conductive clothing and shoes. Ignition energy and specific conductivity are given for 60 compounds commonly used or produced at refineries.
Salud y trabajo, Jan.-Feb. 1984, No.41, p.38-47; Mar.-Apr. 1984, No.42, p.61-70. Illus. 12 ref.
Legislative and regulatory texts: conditions of work, occupational safety and health; prevention of technical hazards, fire, environmental protection, list of safety equipment suppliers
Textes législatifs et réglementaires: conditions de travail, sécurité, hygiène; prévention des risques techniques, incendie, protection de l'environnement, répertoire des fournisseurs de la sécurité [in French]
This special issue follows that of July-Aug. 1983 (CIS 83-2093). It provides a consolidation of OSH laws and regulations published in France between June 1983 and June 1984. The texts are grouped into: (A) Conditions of work, safety and health: occupational accidents, the workplace air, noise, OSH committees, lighting, training, institutions representing employees, rights of workers, occupational diseases, industrial medicne; (B) prevention of technical risks; agriculture, pressure vessels, construction, electricity, building site machinery, gas installations, lifting and handling, machines, radioactive substances, mines and quarries; ionising radiation, dangerous substances, aerial ropeways and cables, agricultural and forestry tractors; (c) fires; (D) protection of the environment; (E) measuring instruments, standardisation; safety equipment suppliers.
Revue de la sécurité, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.20, No.213, p.6-181. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety on the farm
This programme on electrical safety considers the four most common causes of electrical accidents: lack of maintenance, bad installation, unprofessional repair and carelessness.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1983. Videotape. Length: 13min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Recommended safety rules for working in areas where flammable atmospheres and static electricity may be encountered
Recomendaciones de seguridad para el personal que ejecuta labores en lugares donde se puedan existir atmosferas inflamables y electricidad estática [in Spanish]
This illustrated booklet intended for use by employees of PEMEX, the Mexican national petroleum corporation, describes procedures for preventing the accumulation of flammable vapours and static electricity during the handling and transfer of flammable liquids. A second booklet using the comic strip format to popularise the information is included.
Petróleos Mexicanos, Av. Marina Nacional No.329, Edif. A. Colonia Huasteca, México, D.F., C.P. 11311, Mexico, 1983. 30p. Illus.
Biological effects of high-voltage line electromagnetic fields
Biologiska effekter av högspänningsledningars elektromagnetiska fält [in Swedish]
Report prepared by a committee of experts who evaluated recent literature on the subject and undertook a study in the USA. Although it does not appear that there is a direct hazard to health from exposure to high-voltage line electromagnetic fields, the committee recommends that further research be undertaken to elucidate the question. In an appendix;: electric and magnetic fields round high-voltage lines; body currents induced by electric and magnetic fields; permissible leakage currents from electrical equipment.
Ingenjörsvetenskapsakademien, Box 5073, 102 42 Stockholm, Sweden, 1983. 30p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Swe.Cr.150.00.
Analysis of operator exposure to electric fields from video display units
This research report describes the methodology and instrumentation used in evaluating VDT operator exposure to electrical fields (DC, 60Hz, 16-18kHz and radiofrequency fields). Aspects covered: general considerations; estimation of occupational exposure to VDT electric fields; remarks on internal body fields; comparison between VDT electric fields, ambient fields and occupational exposure guidelines.
Ontario Hydro Research Division, 800 Kipling Ave., Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5S4, Canada, 13 Dec. 1984. 24p. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Electrical safety in schools
A review of the safety regulations and safe working practices in the United Kingdom relating to electricity in schools for pupils up to the age of 18. The special needs of science laboratories, other practical areas and the rules for working with live equipment are described. A checklist for typical routine electrical checks for portable apparatus is included.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, Sep. 1983. 4p. 7 ref. Price: £0.50.
Ščuckij V.I., Kamynin Ju.M., Kozlovskij V.V.
Electrical resistance of the human body
Ėlektričeskoe soprotivlenie organizma čeloveka [in Russian]
The effective total resistance of the human body as measured in the laboratory was shown to depend on the applied contact voltage, the duration of application, and the area and separation of the points of contact. A plot of the distribution of measured resistance values showed the most probable values to fall in the range 6-19kΩ for currents up to 25mA. A regression equation relating the effects of the aforementioned factors was derived.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, May 1983, No.5, p.37-38. Illus.
Static electricity. The invisible enemy
This illustrated pamphlet for workers describes the hazards associated with static electricity, how it occurs, and how fires and explosions can be avoided.
Industrial Training Systems Corporation, 311 New Albany Road, Moorestown, NJ 08057, USA, 1983. 4p. Illus.
Post L., Lüttgens G., Maurer B., Glor M.
Prevention of ignition hazards due to static electricity during the pressure-spraying of liquids
Vermeidung von Zündgefahren infolge elektrostatischer Aufladungen beim Versprühen von Flüssigkeiten unter hohem Druck [in German]
Spraying of liquids under high pressure results in a cloud of electrostatically charged droplets. The conditions under which discharges occur, and under which explosive vapour-air and gas-air mixtures ignite during cleaning operations inside containers, were studied. The liquids involved included water, xylene, and toluene. Safe container sizes, pressure levels and liquid flow-rates were established. The ignition risk increased when solid impurities were found in the liquids. (A French translation was published under No.INRS 40-83 by the Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France).
Die BG, 1983, No.7, p.370-374. Illus. 7 ref.
Butrous G.S., Bexton R.S., Barton D.G., Male J.C., Camm A.J.
Interference with the pacemakers of two workers at electricity substations
2 case studies of electrical engineers with pacemakers, who experienced pacemaker dysfunction (competitive rhythm in one case, inappropriately slow pacing in the other) when working near high-voltage electric lines (range 132-400kV). A protective suit that would prevent this kind of electromagnetic interference is described. In addition, there is a recent report of improved circuitry in pacemakers, which would lead to an electronic elimination of the interference.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1983, Vol.40, No.4, p.462-465. Illus. 10 ref.
Terminology for tools and equipment to be used in live working
Terminologie pour l'outillage et le matériel à utiliser dans les travaux sous tension [in French]
This international standard is not intended to give detailed definitions of all the terms used in live working, but only the necessary details to permit identification of the tools and equipment and to standardise their names. Section titles: general terms, insulating poles (sticks), universal tool attachments (fittings), insulating covers, by-passing equipment, small individual hand tools, personal equipment, equipment for climbing or positioning a worker, handling and anchoring equipment, measuring and testing equipment, hydraulic equipment and miscellaneous accessories.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1983. 70p. Illus. Price: SF.80.00.
Ozone and leukaemia. Is there a causal relationship?
Evidence that ozone is radiomimetic and may be the cause of an excess of leukaemia found in certain occupational groups (electricians, electronic technicians, linemen, television and radio repairmen, and motion picture projectionists) is presented. These workers are all exposed to electrical or magnetic fields but they are also exposed to ozone originating from electrical discharges which occur in these working environments.
Chemistry in Britain, Nov. 1983, Vol.19, No.11, p.908. 8 ref.
Biological effects of 50Hz magnetic fields
Biologische Wirkungen magnetischer 50-Hz-Felder [in German]
Report on laboratory experiments with a magnetic field oscillating at 50Hz with a maximum flux density of 5mT, in continuation of experiments reported in CIS 81-412. Contents: present state of physical and physiological knowledge, methods and equipment, preliminary animal experiments, measuring techniques, clinical and neurophysiological studies, results and discussion. The experiments give no reason to expect any effects, let alone pathological ones, from magnetic fields with frequencies of 50Hz and flux densities of 5mT or less.
Institut zur Erforschung elektrischer Unfälle, Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130, 5000 Köln 51, Federal Republic of Germany; Medizinisch-technischer Bericht 1983. 68p. Illus. 72 ref.
Procedure to follow with victims of electric current
Conduite à tenir en présence d'une victime du courant électrique [in French]
Four-part review of essential aspects of electrical accidents: physiopathology of electrocution (definitions, case studies); the "PAS" concept (a French acronym for protection, notification/warning, and aid) - its methods and their rationales; emergency first aid (clearing the respiratory tract, artificial respiration); external cardiac massage (legislation, responsibilities, training).
Journal de l'équipement électrique et électronique, Jan.-May 1983, Nos.485-488, p.17-19, 19-22, 15-18, 23-27. Illus.
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres - Part 2: Electrical apparatus - type of protection "p"
Matériel électrique pour atmosphères explosives gazeuses - Deuxième partie: Matériel électrique à mode de protection "P" [in French]
This part give guidance on the design and use of electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres in which safety is achieved by à protective gas maintained at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere. In the 1st section, recommendations and protective measures are specified applying in general to each of the techniques of type of protection "p". Section 2 covers electrical apparatus having no internal source of flammable gas or vapour, section 3 electrical apparatus having an internal source of flammable gas or vapour.
International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1983. 53p. Illus. Price: SF.72.00.
The prevention of electrical accidents by influencing human behaviour: 7th International Colloquium on the Prevention of Occupational Risks due to Electricity
Prévention des accidents électriques par les actions sur les comportements: 7e Colloque international sur la prévention des risques professionnels dus à l'électricité [in French]
The 16 papers presented at this ISSA colloquium (4-6 Oct. 1983, Köln, Fed.Rep. of Germany) are summarised. Topics covered include: Human behaviour deficiencies as a cause of electrical accidents; possibilities and limitations of actions to influence behaviour; design and control for safe operation; behaviour deficiencies: faulty procedures when switching on load, mistaken identification of circuits, errors in operation of measuring instruments; electrical safety for the layman; faulty first-aid procedures; medical examinations of accident victims; control and supervision in power supply companies; work on building sites; instruction and training; safe procedures on electrical plant; information and safety promotion; safety campaigns.
International Social Security Association, 1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, 1983. 30p.
Higher risk? Lower voltage
Meer risico's? Minder spanning [in Dutch]
Data sheet for the information of all workers who may be called upon to use electric tools, hand lamps, etc., in highly conductive environments (damp locations, metal enclosures). Contents: elevated risks due to electrical faults in the equipment and/or contact with conducting surfaces (including damp clothing or skin); necessity of low voltage; protective value of an isolating transformer; possibility of welding with an isolating transformer having a relay which limits the voltage between the welding electrode and the grounded environment to 42V as soon as the arc is broken; suggestions for even lower voltages under dangerous conditions.
Veiligheidsinstituut, Postbus 5665, 1007 AR Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1983. 4p. Illus.
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