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Electricity - 651 entries found

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  • Electricity

1973

CIS 74-1521 Šafran L.M., Davydova E.A., Plisov G.A., Golubkov P.E.
Industrial hygiene evaluation of the static electricity accumulation potential of plastics used on board ships
Gigieničeskaja ocenka polimernyh materialov na sudah, kak istočnikov statičeskogo ėlektričestva [in Russian]
The electrostatic field on the surface of plastics used for the interior fittings of ships depends on microclimatic conditions (relative atmospheric humidity), the duration of previous use of the ship, the degree of saturation of premises with plastics and their arrangement. Measurements carried out showed that this charge is often 2 to 3 times greater than the 200V/cm established by existing provisional standards. It is possible to reduce the electrostatic charge by using wood and metals together with plastic. The mounting of plastic strips by means of metal laths has proved most efficacious.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1973, No.12, p.31-34. 7 ref.

CIS 74-1520 Potapov V.A., Švecov N.N.
The insulation of mercury electrolysis cells and electrical safety
Izoljacija ustanovok ėlektroliza rasplavov i ėlektrobezopasnost' [in Russian]
Mathematical calculation of the insulation resistance required to protect a person against electric shock if he is accidentally in contact with the mercury cell and the ground, with the mercury cell and the chlorine collector, or with the chlorine collector and the ground. It is concluded that the total ground insulation should be at least 500Ω for each volt of operating voltage. The basic measures recommended are to provide insulated floors and to insulate the cell and ground collectors, as well as the collectors themselves.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Nov. 1973, No.11, p.48-50. Illus.

CIS 74-1225 Ščuckij V.I., Kajmakov A.A., Židkov V.O.
Improvement of protection against electric shock in coal mine networks with maximum voltage 10kV
O soveršenstvovanii zaščity ot ėlektrotravm v setjah naprjaženiem do 10 kV na ugol'nyh razrezah i šahtah [in Russian]
Description of a new system for protection against direct contact with conductors carrying voltages of 3 to 10kV: when a person is in contact with one phase, the amplitude of this phase is disturbed, which enables it to be detected and earthed, while the current is cut on the line where the contact occurred. The contact duration is limited to 10ms at most, and the current through the body does not exceed 10mA.
Ugol', Nov. 1973, No.11, p.66-68. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 74-1223 Commentary on the Decree of 14 November 1962 relating to the protection of workers in undertakings using electricity
Commentaires sur le décret du 14 novembre 1962 concernant la protection des travailleurs dans les établissements qui mettent en oeuvre des courants électriques. [in French]
This study, an offprint of which is also published as No.E 200 bis, follows the order of the sections of the Decree (see CIS 228-1963, Buz Hfiz (609)) and comments on each section, with reference if necessary to the schedules published up to 1972 by the Ministry of Labour and the Union technique de l'électricité (UTE): general provisions; conditions to be met by electrical installations; protection of workers against the dangers of accidental contact with live conductors or live parts.
APAVE, July-Aug.-Sep. 1973, Vol.54, No.183, p.109-115; Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1973, No.184, p.45-51; Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1974, No.185, p.59-75.

CIS 74-934 Kollen H.
Electrical accidents - Study of some specific cases
Les accidents d'origine électrique - Etude de quelques cas concrets. [in French]
A review of the physiological effects of electric current is followed by an analysis of 4 accidents, emphasising faults in the equipment concerned or wrong actions of operators. The analysis shows that the chief cause is direct contact with a non-insulated live part.
Promotion de la prévention, 1st quarter 1974, No.29, p.29-37. Illus.

CIS 74-933
ČSN 34-3109, Bureau of Standards (Úřad pro normalizaci), Praha.
Safety rules for carrying out work on catenary systems and in their vicinity
Bezpečnostní předpisy pro činnost na trakčním vedení a v jeho blízkosti [in Czech]
This standard, approved on 13 Sep. 1972 and entered into force on 1 Oct. 1973, comprises general provisions followed by sections on the control, maintenance and repair of pre-heating and heating systems of trains; work on overhead contact lines (live or dead); work on the infrastructure and overhead structure; work in the vicinity of catenaries; protection against accidents due to mechanical factors.
Vydavatelství ÚNM, Hostivař, Praha 10, Czechoslovakia, 1973. 34p. Price: Kcs.9,00.

CIS 74-1114
ČSN 34-1556, Bureau of Standards (Úřad pro normalizaci), Praha.
Rules for contact systems for mine railways
Predpisy pre trakčné vedenia banských elektrických dráh [in Slovak]
This standard, approved on 3 Jan. 1973 and entered into force on 1 Jan. 1974, lays down safety rules for the study, installation and maintenance of contact systems in underground work sites, as well as for the running of mine cars on the surface.
Vydavatelství ÚNM, Hostivař, Praha 10, Czechoslovakia, 1973, 23p. Price: Kcs.6.00.

CIS 74-926
Ministry of Social Affairs (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken), 's-Gravenhage.
Accidents due to electricity during 1971 and 1972
Ongevallen door elektriciteit gedurende 1971 en 1972 [in Dutch]
A brief survey of the activities of the Netherlands Labour Inspectorate with regard to the implementation of the Electrical Safety Decree is followed by statistical data on electrical accidents (fatalities in manufacturing industries, on building sites, in agriculture, etc.) and by descriptions of fatal accidents due to low and high voltages. Some cases of fire or explosion of electrical origin are also discussed.
Staatsuitgeverij, Christoffel Plantijnstraat, 's-Gravenhage, Netherlands, 1973. 43p. Illus.

CIS 74-924 National electrical safety code.
This edition supersedes all former editions of the National Electrical Code and covers in 4 chapters basic provisions and work rules for the safeguarding of persons from hazards arising out of the installation, operation and maintenance of conductors and equipment in electrical supply stations as well as overhead and underground electrical supply and communication lines. It is applicable to systems and equipment operated by utilities or by industrial establishments under the control of qualified persons. An extensive subject index is provided.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA, 1973. 352p. Illus. Price: US-$5.50.

CIS 74-923 Standard for leakage current for appliances.
This standard sponsored by Underwriters' Laboratories lays down the maximum levels of leakage currents from electrical appliances to which the user may be exposed during normal use of the appliance. The standard applies only to household and similar appliances having 2-wire (phase and neutral) or 3-wire (phase, neutral and earth) flexible cord connections. The maximum leakage currents permitted are 0.5 mA for 2-wire connected appliances and 3-wire connected portable appliances, and 0.75 mA for 3-wire connected stationary or fixed appliances. The test method and instrumentation for the measurement of leakage current is laid down.
ANSI C101.1-1973, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 16 Aug. 1973. 8p. Illus. Price: US-$3.00.

CIS 74-616 Kupfer J., Stieglitz R.
Accidents caused by electric current
Unfälle durch elektrischen Strom [in German]
A review of the most frequent causes of electrical accidents is followed by a discussion, based on the authors' work and that of other authors, of the prevention of electrical accidents, of topics related to electrophysiology and electropathology and of assistance to the injured, from first aid to rehabilitation. In accordance with actual needs, the questions of permissible contact voltages and of action to be taken in case of ventricular fibrillation and severe burns occupy an important place in the study. Suggestions are given for the technical analysis of electrical accidents and the medical assessment of the consequences of an electrocution.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1973. 367p. Illus. 256 ref. Price: M.14.40.

CIS 74-615 Electrical testing installations.
Information is given on the installation, operation and maintenance of electrical testing equipment. Particular attention is paid to the layout and protection of tests areas, the insulation of cables, connectors and other current-carrying parts, the earthing of metal enclosures, the handling and storage of measuring instruments, and the selection and training of test personnel.
Data Sheet 641, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1973. 6p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: US-$0.50.

CIS 74-332
Ministry of Social Affairs (Ministère des affaires sociales), Paris, France.
Circular TE 41/72 dated 20 December 1972 on the application of the Order of 19 October 1972 concerning the protection of workers against the hazards of indirect contact due to earthing to neutral
Circulaire TE 41/72 du 20 décembre 1972 relative à l'application de l'arrêté du 19 octobre 1972 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques de contacts indirects par la mise des masses au neutre. [in French]
This circular supplements French Standard NF 15-100 and explanatory note 15-S-140 of the Order of 19 Oct. 1972 (see CIS 1215-1973, Buz Hfiz Sjh (609)).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1973, Vol.28, No.2, p.82-83.

CIS 74-29 Challande R., Bertein H., Henry P., Hours R., Imbert R., Lamouche R.
Measurement and elimination of hazardous static electricity
Mesure et élimination de l'électricité statique nuisible. [in French]
Published under the auspices of the French National Association for Technical Research, individual sections of this technical manual are devoted to: occurrence and effects of static electricity and methods of elimination (particularly by ionisation); design of electrostatic measuring apparatus and methods; spontaneous and provoked elimination of static electricity from insulating solids due to ionisation of the atmosphere; detailed account of radioactive static eliminators; elimination of static electricity in hydrocarbons; general information.
Eyrolles, 61 Boulevard St-Germain, 75005 Paris, France, 1973. 216p. Illus. 84 ref. Price: FF.96.00.

CIS 74-28 Bellamy A., Pajot M.
Conditions for hot work on low-voltage distribution lines
Les conditions d'exécution du travail sous tension sur les réseaux BT de distribution. [in French]
This article is a continuation of the one abstracted on CIS 1269-1972, Buz Hfiz Siy (609). The rules laid down concern the organisation of work sites and the manner in which the work is performed. Leaving more initiative to the person in charge of the work site than the previous "work method descriptions", they define the relations between the various factors and persons involved: supervisor, foreman, fitter, etc. Each relation is treated in connection with one main idea: work-in-progress situation, organisation of the work, electrical hazard, etc. Most are of a general nature, others depend on the nature of the installation. The article describes how work would be done on 3 different sites (overhead lines, underground cables, indoor connections) and reproduces a certain number of rules.
Vigilance, May 1973, No.46, p.17-36. Illus.

CIS 74-23 Balemans A.W.M., Bezemer J., Van Elburg B.
Report on the causes of the explosion in a gunpowder factory at Muiden, 8 December 1972
Rapport over oorzaak explosie kruitfabriek te Muiden, 8 december 1972 [in Dutch]
Results of the inquiry carried out by the Netherlands Labour Inspectorate into the causes of an explosion at the Muiden gunpowder factory which resulted in 2 deaths and a large number of persons injured. The explosion was very probably due to wrong operation in uncoupling an air drier filled with porous hunting powder: an ungrounded conductor (the cover of the drier) was elctrostatically charged by the powder and caused ignition.
Arbeidsinspectie, Wittevrouwensingel 27, Utrecht, Netherlands, June 1973. 51p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 74-21 Static electricity - Fire and explosion hazards in the presence of inflammable liquids and dust
L'électricité statique - Risques d'incendie et d'explosion en présence de liquides et de poussières inflammables. [in French]
Introductory remarks on static electricity and ways of eliminating it are followed by a brief study of the electrical properties of flammable liquids and in particular the electrical hazards of hydrocarbons. Hazards occur in the clearing of reservoir piping. The best preventive measure is the lowering of the resistivity to approximately 1010 ohms/cm2/cm by the introduction of very small amounts of antistatic additives. A final section deals with the ignition of dust by static electricity. A table shows the minimum ignition energy of dusts of metals, metalloids and industrial and natural organic products.
Travail et sécurité, June 1973, No.6, p.338-343. Illus.

CIS 73-1410 Witteveen W.J.
Electrical installations on large building sites
Elektrische voorzieningen op grote bouwplaatsen [in Dutch]
Taking as an example the provisional electric power and lighting supply installation on the construction site of a thermal station, this article shows how the supply of electricity to large construction sites should be planned and carried out. Aspects dealt with include: hazards of contact with hot wires, earthing and similar methods, distribution circuits, systems for connecting mobile transformers, electric motors, machinery and equipment, switchgear and switchboards; safety devices for electric hand tools, cables and their accessories. Reference is made to the pertinent provisions of Netherlands standard NEN 1010 (CIS 69-111).
Elektrotechniek, 15 Mar. 1973, Vol.51, No.4, p.183-190. Illus.

1972

CIS 74-1826 Irresberger G.
Protective roof in glass-fibre reinforced plastic as a protection against accidental contacts during maintenance work on concrete pylons for 60 kV lines
Toit protecteur en résine synthétique avec fibres de verre comme protection contre les contacts fortuits lors de travaux d'entretien sous tension aux pylônes en béton de lignes à 60 kV [in German]
Toit protecteur en résine synthétique avec fibres de verre comme protection contre les contacts fortuits lors de travaux d'entretien sous tension aux pylônes en béton de lignes à 60kV. [in French]
A protective roof made of glass-fibre reinforced resin, used for the first time for maintenance work on concrete pylons carrying a 60kV aerial line, provides linemen with the necessary protection against accidental contacts. This roof has proved its worth, and the work, which lasted for 8 weeks, was completed without incident. The following aspects are dealt with in particular: type of work, selection of material, type of support, testing of the equipment before leaving the factory, and work organisation.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 9 Dec. 1972, Vol.63, No.25, p.1515-1521. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 74-1522 Electrical switching practices.
This data sheet discusses the more common types of electrical disconnecting switches that use air as the insulating medium. It covers the general precautions to be taken and outlines how, and by whom, disconnection should be made. It describes various types of disconnections and the methods to be used in making and breaking circuits. Included is the use of switch sticks, as well as recommended personal protective equipment.
Data Sheet 544, Revision A (extensive), National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1972. 6p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: US-$0.50.

CIS 74-1210 Zborovszky Z., Cotugno L.A.
Denver Research Institute, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80210, USA, Mar. 1972. 113p. Illus. 29 ref.
A comprehensive study of intrinsic safety criteria.
The present status of standardisation in "intrinsic safety" approvals is examined in this survey prepared for the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the supporting data are evaluated. Theoretical considerations on capacitive-resistive circuits, historical review and comparison of standards and rules on intrinsic safety, comparison of minimum igniting curves (inductive, capacitive and resistive circuits), steady-state computer programme for the prediction of hazardous branches in a circuit, experimental system (cadmium disc test apparatus). The survey showed that there are great differences between the test methods, test apparatus, and consequently between the intrinsic safety curves recommended by different countries and organisations.
Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA. Accession No. PB 219 799.

CIS 74-329 Altmann S.
Safety problems relating to the live cleaning of 15-kV insulators in the power line network of the German Railways
Probleme der Arbeitssicherheit beim Reinigen von unter Spannung stehenden 15-kV-Isolatoren im Fahrleitungsnetz der Deutschen Reichsbahn [in German]
Description of trials on the replacement of laborious manual cleaning of insulators by a water hosing procedure. The programme of trials and the results obtained are described. The shape and diameter of the hose nozzle have the most effect on the critical length of the hose stream. Proposals are made for the design of a hose vehicle and for modification to insulator design.
Informationen für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitshygiene, 1972, Vol.8, No.4, p.102-112. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 74-31 Long J.C.
Cataract due to electric shock or arc.
Electric shock can definitely cause cataracts, but only under specific conditions; the latter are described.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 14 Aug. 1972, Vol.221, No.7, p.721. 6 ref.

CIS 72-2150 Djuževa A.Ja.
Effects of static electricity in industry
K voprosu o dejstvii statičeskogo ėlektričestva v proizvodstvennyh uslovijah [in Russian]
The effects of static electricity on the body were studied in the manufacture of paper/plastics laminates, linoleum, tyre cord, and polystyrene film. Clinical and physiological examination of workers showed no specific pathological changes but an asthenoneurotic syndrome and vegetative vascular dysfunction phenomena. The authors make the following recommendations for plants subject to electrostatic charging: grounding of machines and plant; elimination of surface charges; increasing surface conductivity of dielectric materials.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1972, Vol.16, No.2, p.36-39. 8 ref.

CIS 72-2611 Greenhouse N.A., Peterson G.C.
An evaluation of radiation hazards from high-voltage vacuum interrupters
High-voltage vacuum interrupters (solenoid-actuated relays used to control dc, ac and rf currents of potentials up to 100kV) can be potent X-ray sources. X-ray production was investigated in 18 devices of this type and correlated with electrode condition and alignment, gap width, and envelope pressure. X-ray fields of the order of tens of roentgens per hour at 1m were found in interrupters operated within their maximum voltage rating. The magnitude of these intensities and the unpredictable radiation production characteristics warrant an increased awareness of the hazard and the use of protective measures (shielding, personnel monitoring and training) to prevent insidious exposures.
Health Physics, July 1972, Vol.23, No.1, p.85-88. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 72-2502 Meny H.
Double insulation for the prevention of contact voltages
Schutzisolierung - Die Schutzmassnahme zur Verhinderung des Auftretens einer Berührungsspannung [in German]
Double insulation without a protective conductor is effective at all times and not just when the fault occurs. Consequently, it may be considered an "active" safety measure and thus suitable for eliminating the fatal electrical accidents caused by the fault current passing through the protective conductor. Double insulation is not only the safest but also the cheapest safety precaution. Its effectiveness is not reduced by time and it is easy to manufacture. Designers and testing engineers have only 2 basic points to take into consideration, and both these are related to voltage leakage out of the circuit. Similarly mistakes in assembly are also virtually impossible. Double insulation is validly considered to be today's best and safest electrical safety system.
Technica, 9 June 1972, Vol.21, No.12, p.1077-1082. Illus. 4 bibl.

CIS 72-2753 Fundamental dynamic curves of intrinsic safety
Dynamische Grundkurven der Eigensicherheit [in German]
The fundamental dynamic curves of intrinsic safety are oscillograms of ohmic, inductive and capacitive circuits. Description of voltage-amperage diagrams of an electrical contact in an explosion-hazard zone which may produce a dangerous spark. After an explanation of the concepts of intrinsic safety and minimum ignition energy of sparks, the article reproduces, with the aid of voltage-amperage curves showing spark ignition capacity, the results of oscillographic recordings of an ohmic circuit, a condenser and a coil. Diagrams of the experimental set-up are given.
Industrie-Elektrik und Elektronik, May 1972, Vol.17, No.10, p.237-239. Illus.

CIS 73-655
Ministry for Mines and Main Road, Brisbane, Australia
The Underground Coal Mines Electrical Rules of 1971
Individual sections of these rules are devoted to: observance; general requirements and workmanship; appointment and duties of electricians; testing and reports; miscellaneous (fire buckets and extinguishers, apparatus containing flammable liquid, use of blow lamps, welding and vulcanising equipment, etc.); cables and conductors; control and protection; control equipment and devices; switchboards; earthing; high voltage installations; consuming devices; motor and portable machines; locomotives, charging stations, etc.; signalling; requirements in gassy mines or places; the use of high-voltage machinery at the coal face.
Queensland Government Gazette, 16 Oct. 1971, Vol.238, No.22, p.549-586.

CIS 73-830 Abramov V.F., Emekeev V.I., Šelehov P.Ju.
The accumulation of static electricity in the pneumatic charging of boreholes with granular explosives
Statičeskaja ėlektrizacija pri pnevmozarjažanii vzryvnyh polostej rossypnymi VV [in Russian]
The transport of granular explosives and the placing of these explosives in boreholes may give rise, under certain conditions, to the accumulation of electrostatic charges, the extent of which is dependent on the type of contact (impact or friction) with the inside wall of the piping. The highest level of static charging was encountered following impacts. Experiments have shown that the conductivity of plastics or rubber piping varies in relation to the atmospheric humidity; the highest variation having been found in rubber, and the lowest in PVC. As for rock conductivity, the authors found that at their normal levels electrostatic charge is dissipated immediately.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, June 1972, No.6, p.35-37. Illus.

CIS 73-450 Explosion in an electricity room
Explosion in einem E-Betriebsraum [in German]
A large explosion occurred in an enclosed electricity distributor located in an electrical switch room containing uncontaminated air; the explosion disintegrated a number of the cast-iron distributor box lids and bases. The conditions preceding the accident and the accident investigation are described. It is assumed that due to heating in the cable, impregnating liquid was vapourised and produced and explosive vapour/air mixture. Conclusions are drawn concerning the employment of persons in such rooms, locking of the doors, inspection and emergency procedures in the event of a fire.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Sep. 1972, Vol.3, No.9, p.427. Illus.

CIS 73-490 Pazdro K.
Attention: electric current
Uwaga - prąd elektryczny [in Polish]
The essential effects of electricity on the human body are presented in simple terms for workers, gangers and foremen, together with the causes of electric shock in industry, shipbuilding, offices, laboratories, and fire-fighting on electrical installations. Safety measures and first-aid procedures for cases of electric shock are reviewed.
Instytut wydawniczy CRZZ, Warszawa, Poland, 1972. 96p. Illus.

CIS 73-721 Kollen H.
Safety in high-voltage installations
La sécurité dans les installations de haute tension [in French]
This study is limited to safety in industrial high-voltage installations and covers safety regulations on maintenance work, the prevention of contact with live bare conductors, voltage transfers, prevention of contact with accidentally energised conductors, and fire prevention. The study constitutes a commentary on French Decree N 62-1454 of 14 Nov. 1962 concerning the protection of workers in undertakings using electricity. (See CIS 63-228).
Promotion de la prévention, July 1972, p.34-45. Illus.

CIS 73-625 Electricity - Building and civil engineering
Electricité - Bâtiment et travaux publics [in French]
A compilation of the French legislative texts, as at 31 Mar. 1971, concerning the use of electricity in building and civil engineering. Extracts from the French Labour Code (chapter 1). Prevention of contact with live conductors, insulation, separation of circuits, automatic breaking (chapter 2). Inspection of electrical installation (chapter 3). Safety requirements for electricity generation and distribution installations (chapter 4). Safety mesures for work in the vicinity of electricity lines (overhead, underground, etc.) (chapter 5). Electricity in underground work (chapter 6). Miscellaneous matters (chapter 7).
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 2 bis rue Michelet, 92 Issy-les-Moulineaux, 1972. 1st edition. 356p.

CIS 73-1023 Najfel'd M.R.
Earthing and other safety measures against electrical hazards
Zazemlenie, zaščitnye mery ėlektrobezopasnosti [in Russian]
This book deals with: basic principles (effects of electric current; contact with one phase in a.c. network, contact voltage, step voltage, etc.); safety rules on a.c. transmission lines; safety measures on different types of grid; circuit breakers; step-down transformers and distribution transformers; precautions to be taken in special circumstances; neutral and protective conductors; earthing devices; methods for calculating earthing devices; testing and measuring insulation, earth resistance, etc.
Izdatel'stvo "Ėnergija", šluzovaja nab. 10, Moskva M-114, USSR, 1972. 311p. Illus. 129 ref.

CIS 73-416 Knjazevskij B.A.
Occupational safety
Ohrana truda [in Russian]
A handbook on occupational safety in work on the electrical equipment of power statics and electricity-distribution networks. The first part contains chapters on work organisation, conditions of work (lighting, protection against electromagnetic, thermal and ionising radiation, etc.), fundamentals of electrical safety, accident prevention measures in electrical plant and electrical safety equipment. The second part is devoted in plant and the line erection and similar work and to organisational accident prevention measures. The third part deals with fire protection and fire fighting in electrical plant.
Izdatel'stvo "Vysšaja škola", Neglinnaja ul. 29/14, Moskva K-51, USSR, 1972. 332p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 73-593 Moine C., Planche G.
Remote handling working techniques for live high-voltage lines
Technique des travaux sous tension à distance sur les réseaux R.T. de distribution [in French]
The need for live-line work has led to the adoption of no-touch techniques using insulated poles or with sleeves fitted over the live lines to ensure that there is no possibility of the lineman touching a live line or of two lines at different potentials coming into contact with each other. The work procedure is described and an example is given of trouble-shooting on a mechanically operated overhead breaker in the closed position.
Vigilance, May 1972, No.43, p.13-28. Illus.

CIS 73-570 Lauerer F.
The use of fault-current breakers for accident prevention in electricity consumer installations
Unfallverhütung bei Stromverbraucheranlagen durch empfindliche Fehlerstrom-Schutzschalter [in German]
Following general considerations on the optimal level of safety, and on electrical accident statistics, the author considers various possible ways of protection against contact hazards. He then considers fault-current sensitive circuit breakers (tripping limit: 30mA): historical review, operation, medical aspects, protection applications, conditions for use, possible effects. The problem of protective conductors has not yet been fully resolved. It is concluded that widespread use of the fault-current circuit breaker would reduce by 80% the number of fatal electric accidents (around 160 fatalities per year in the Federal Republic of Germany).
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Aussenstelle, Postfach 166, 54 Köln, Federal Republic of Germany, 1972. 157p. Illus. 79 ref.

CIS 73-1298 Kramer M.
Electrical installations on work sites
Elektrische Anlagen auf Baustellen [in German]
In spite of their temporary nature, electrical installations on work sites should satisfy all safety requirements, especially as they are liable to the effects of dampness and accumulated dirt. Lines and cables should be protected against wear, and overhead transmission lines should not be used if possible. More stringent requirements should apply as regards peak load values for electrical equipment and appliances, switchgear and distribution equipment, and rolling stock. Safety rules should be observed strictly when shifting the position of movable cables and when working near electrical installations. Instructions for the use, maintenance and inspection of electrical equipment; first aid in case of accidents.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1972. 52p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 73-990
Ministry of Labour
Factories (electricity) Regulations, 1972 [Ireland]
These regulations prescribe the safety measures to be adopted in relation to the use of electricity and electrical equipment in factories and other places covered by the Irish Factories Act 1955.
Government Publications Sales Office, G.P.O. Arcade, Dublin 1, Ireland, 25 Jan. 1972. 16p.

CIS 73-1225 Irresberger G.
Hot-line work methods as seen through the technical and scientific literature - A survey of the literature from 1910 to 1970
La technique du travail sous tension à la lumière de la littérature technico-scientifique - Un aperçu bibliographique de 1910 à 1970 [in French]
A list of bibliographical references arranged chronologically under the following headings: work on hot lines (high tension; low tension); regulations and standards; films.
Bulletin des Schweizerischen elektrotechnischen Vereins - Bulletin de l'Association suisse des électriciens, 5 Aug. 1972, Vol.63, No.16, p.947-960. 377 ref.

CIS 73-1198 Nöbauer F.
Personal electrocution-protection methods - Releasing oneself from the live conductor
Methoden der persönlichen "Elektro-Abwehr" - Selbstbefreiung aus dem Stromkreis [in German]
Electrical accident victims might expect to survive in certain cases but there is usually nobody present to come to their aid. The author describes, with illustrations, various methods based on the acquisition by training of reflexes which activate the necessary defence or release movements. These methods apply only to voltages up to 220V and vary according to the current pathway through the body. A basic principle is, when holding a piece of metal-sheathed electric equipment in the right hand, to ensure that the left hand is free in order to prevent the flow of current from one hand to the other since this may prove fatal.
Betriebssicherheit, 1972, No.5, p.4-7. Illus.

CIS 73-779 Natural-rubber or synthetic-elastomer insulating mats [France]
Tapis isolants à base de caoutchouc naturel ou d'élastomère de synthèse [France] [in French]
This standard concerns insulating mats used by personnel working on live electrical plant and equipment or capable of being under tension. Lays down the standard specifications for these mats, as regards materials, dimensions and electrical and mechanical characteristics. Describes certain testing procedures to ascertain if standards are met. Regulations concerning marking.
Union tecnique de l'électricité, 20 rue Hamelin, 75783 Paris, France, 1972. 6p. Illus.

CIS 73-860 Stankevič K.I.
Influence of static electricity on the health of workers using construction materials made with polymers
Statičeskoe ėlektričestvo kak gigieničeskij faktor pri primenenii stroitel'nyh polimernyh materialov [in Russian]
Account of a series of tests to determine the tendency of plastic coverings to pick up static electricity charges, and the effects of static electricity on humans. Clinical observations of 83 subjects showed that the action of static electricity mainly took the form of functional changes in the nervous (71%) amd cardopvascular (44%) systems. In animals, certain significant effects of static electricity were noticeable as from 300V/cm; it was therefore proposed to fix the threshold limit value at 150V/cm. It was also noticed that static electricity had the side-effect of freeing harmful substances contained in the polymers and causing germ-carrying dust to accumulate on the plastic surface.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1972, Vol.50, No.8, p.31-34. 3 ref.

CIS 73-1316 Morley R., Carter A.O.
First aid treatment of electric shock
496 electrical accidents (183 of which were fatal) which occurred in the United Kingdom during the period 1962-1968 and were investigated by the Electrical Branch of the Factory Inspectorate are analysed as regards physiological response, mode of death, voltage, current pathway, electrical apparatus involved, resuscitation method used, and results of artificial respiration. In all electrical accidents, respiratory arrest is 3 times as frequent as cardiac involvement. However, when fatalities (electrocutions) only are considered, cardiac deaths are twice as frequent as deaths due to respiratory arrest. Mouth-to-mouth respiration compares very unfavourably with the older manual methods and should not be recommended.
Archives of Environmental Health, Oct. 1972, Vol.25, No.4, p.276-285. 32 ref.

1971

CIS 92-1768 Electricity Act 1971 [Australia - Australian Capital Territory]
This Act (No.30 of 1971) commenced on 1 Jan. 1972, and is presented with modifications till 1991. It provides for the licensing of electrical contractors and electricians, the control of safe electrical wiring work and other aspects of safe professional work with electricity.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera and Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.3, 26p. (pages numbered 92,161 - 92,264).

CIS 72-2091
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Guidelines for the prevention of ignition hazards from electrostatic charges
Richtlinien zur Vermeidung von Zündgefahren infolge elektrostatischer Aufladungen [in German]
Definitions are followed by a description of static charge accumulation and general safety measures. The major part of the guidelines describes precautionary measures for specific cases: drive belts; liquid flow; plant components in which electrostatic charges may accumulate; particulate solids and dusts; gas flow and spray painting; films; photogravure; dry cleaning with flammable solvents; explosive substances; hospitals. Appendices contain minimum ignition energy levels and electrical resistance figures.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1971. 64p. Price: DM.2.80.

CIS 72-2653 Safety in arc welding
A code of safe practice for use in the training of arc welders. Individual chapters are devoted to: basic principles of electricity and arc welding theory; arc welding equipment; key features of welding operations; welding techniques; accident prevention measures; terminology; Japanese legislation and regulations on arc-welding safety; and a number of typical arc-welding accidents.
Japan Industrial Safety Association, 35-4, 5-Chome, Shiba Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Oct. 1971. 91p. Illus.

CIS 72-2746
(Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Heidelberg)
Directives for the prevention of ignition hazards due to elecrostatic charges
Richtlinien zur Vermeidung von Zündgefahren infolge elektrostatischer Aufladungen [in German]
This revised edition maintains the basic layout of the 1967 edition (see CIS 68-1820) but the information contained has been brought into line with current knowledge. Following a general outline of basic safety measures and definitions, the directive describes the phenomenon of electrostatic charging, the related ignition hazards and the appropriate safety precautions. Special measures for specific situations are given: drive and conveyor belts, flowing gases, spray painting, foils, films, intaglio printing, dry cleaning, explosive substances and operating theatres. Tables indicate conductivity of liquids, minimum ignition energies for gases, vapours and dust/air mixtures and dielectric strength of floorcoverings, socks and stockings.
Verlag Chemie GmbH, Postfach 129/149, 694 Weinheim/Bergstrasse, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1971. 64p.

CIS 73-1076 Bib C.E.
Bibliography on live-line working and overhead line maintenance, 1957-1971
A bibliography of 97 items, each accompanied by a short abstract. The bibliography is preceded by the reproduction of an article by P.A. Smith: Live-line working in the Central Electricity Generating Board published in "Journal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Technician Engineer", London, United Kingdom, Mar. 1971, p.17-21 (Illus. 9 ref.).
150C, Central Electricity Generating Board Information Services, Sudbury House, 15 Newgate Street, London E.C.1, United Kingdom, 1971. 27p.

CIS 73-814 Rubber insulating mats for work on electrical plant [Czechoslovakia]
Gumové izolačné koberce pre elektrotechniku [in Czech]
The insulating mats covered by this standard are intended to supplement basic safety measures against hazardous contact voltages in normally dead parts of electrical plant under 1000V, and to provide better insulation, in the case of work on or around normally dead parts of electrical plant over 1000V, where contact voltages exceeding the safety limit may build up. The standard prescribes technical specifications, lays down guidelines for testing, and calls for 6-monthly inspections. Certain provisions concern the cleaning and disinfection of mats and precautions to be taken against their deterioration through harmful agents.
Úřad pro normalizaci (Standards Bureau), Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1971. 6p.

1959

CIS 03-853 Prevention of accidents due to electricity in underground in coal mines
Prévention des accidents causés par l'électricité dans les travaux souterrains des mines de charbon [in French]
Prevención de los accidentes causados por la electricidad en las labores subterráneas de las minas de carbón [in Spanish]
This code of practice on the prevention of accidents due to electricity underground in coal mines comprises two parts. Part 1 contains provisions applicable to all coal mines, including general provisions and provisions on installation, examination, testing, maintenance and repairs. Part 2 contains additional provisions applicable to gassy and dusty mines.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1959. v, 54p. Index.

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