Biological hazards - 589 entries found
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Jones R.B., Kacergis J.B., MacDonald M.R., McKnight F.T., Turner W.A., Ohman J.L., Paigen B.
The effect of relative humidity on mouse allergen levels in an environmentally controlled mouse room
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.398-401. Illus. 12 ref. ###
Biofouling and biocorrosion - Effects of undesired biofilms
Biofouling und Biokorrosion - die Folgen unerwünschter Biofilme [in German]
Microorganisms are capable of growing on the surface of various kinds of equipment and materials. For example, microbial layers called biofilms have been found on heat exchanger surfaces, in dental equipment, on electronic controls and in water conduits. They may interfere with processes such as heat exchange and filtering processes and be the cause of infections such as legionellosis. They can contribute to corrosion. About 20% of all corrosion damage to metals and building materials is attributed to biofilms. The mechanism of microbial corrosion is explained.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Nov. 1995, Vol.67, No.11, p.1425-1430. Illus. 12 ref.
96-1088.pdf [in German]
Hüsing B., Knorr C., Menrad K., Strauss E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Survey of the state of technology involved in the unintended use of certain biological agents in the context of occupational safety
Erhebung des Standes der Technik beim nicht beabsichtigten Umgang mit bestimmten biologischen Arbeitsstoffen aus der Sicht des Arbeitsschutzes [in German]
Survey of the unintended uses of biological organisms and agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, endoparasites, cell cultures, genetically modified microorganisms presenting possible health hazards to man) in agriculture, forestry, the food industry, work involving contact with animals and animal products, microbiological laboratories, health care institutions, waste water treatment plants and contaminated site recovery plants. For each of these economic sectors, the following information is surveyed: biological substances present in the workplace, biological hazards for exposed workers (infections, allergies, toxic syndromes), type and level of exposure, measures of protection and prevention. In addition, the shortcomings of exposure evaluation methods are shown. As a result of the survey, proposals are made for improving safety conditions in the use of these substances. Short summaries in German, English and French. Detailed summaries in German and English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. xxiii, 428p. Bibl.ref.
96-1098.pdf [in German]
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of biological agents according to hazard and containment categories
The new edition of this guide (see CIS 91-1019 for previous edition) reflects the need to implement two European Community Directives concerning biological agents (90/679/EEC and 93/88/EEC). Contents: background information on the categorization of biological agents; guidance list of bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi in four hazard groups; guidance on the selection of appropriate containment measures; requirements for each of four levels of containment for laboratories and for work with experimental animals inoculated with biological agents. Appendices provide further guidance on the control of specific biological agents. Includes an Approved List of biological agents. Sections of the guide having legal status are highlighted.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 4th ed., 1995. viii, 152p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
96-1100.pdf [in English]
Control of infection in clinical laboratories
The infection risks to workers in clinical pathology laboratories are described. Common routes of exposure to microorganisms found in clinical samples and artificially grown cultures are by absorption ('sharps' injuries), inhalation and ingestion. Good laboratory practice and the appropriate use of containment and local exhaust ventilation can reduce these risks. An effective clinical waste disposal strategy is also outlined. The role of the safety practitioner is described along with legislative requirements.
Safety and Health Practitioner, July 1995, Vol.13, No.7, p.23-25. Illus. 8 ref.
96-0369.pdf [in English]
Abraham J.L., Greenfield L.J.
Hazard to pathologists and anatomists from vena-caval (Greenfield) filters
This brief communication highlights the hazard of skin puncture injury for pathologists and anatomists handling an autopsy patient with a metal wire filter inserted into the inferior vena cava. The filter contains sharp anchoring hooks and grasping of the device during organ removal may result in skin puncture wounds. Screening before autopsy and education of pathologists is recommended.
Lancet, 21 Oct. 1995, Vol.346, No.8982, p.1100. Illus. 1 ref.
96-0346.pdf [in English]
Mihajlova A., Zaprjanov Z., Antov G., Hristeva V., Muhtarova M., Černeva P., Hinkova L., Ivanovič E., Enev S., Todorova L., Izrael M., Georgieva R., Peneva V.
Assessing occupational hazards for workers in electric steel manufacture
Ocenka na profesionalnija risk na rabotnicite ot elektrostomanodobiva [in Bulgarian]
These studies involved 105 workers in eight job groups, with an average age of 45 years and 5-10 years of special occupational experience at the "Electrosteel" works. Measurement of various factors in the work environment showed unfavorable microclimatic conditions, elevated equivalent levels of noise, excessive general and local vibration, and exposure to manganese aerosols, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides; some of the subjects had hepatic status and connective tissue abnormalities. Job groups found to be at risk were those of steel founders, crane workers and pourers. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.122-128. 12 ref.
Fédération unifiée des industries chimiques CFDT
Biological hazards: Prevention, safety, health
Risque biologique - Prévention, Sécurité, Santé [in French]
This manual, useful as a training brochure, surveys the provisions of the French Decree of 4 May 1994 concerning biological hazards (see CIS 95-36). Step-by-step instruction is provided on the application of this Decree in the workplace. Many true-life examples are given.
Institut pour l'amélioration des conditions de travail (IN.PACT), 4 Blvd. de la Villette, 75019 Paris, France, 1995. 40p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: FRF 40.00.
Nielsen B.H., Breum N.O.
Exposure to air contaminants in chicken catching
The job of a chicken catcher in the modern poultry industry is to catch the chickens (raised in chicken houses housing up to 50,000 birds) by hand and place them in cages for transportation by truck to a processing plant. Two methods are used for loading birds into cages: the drawer method (DM) (loading birds into cages mounted in a rack standing on the floor) and the truck method (TM) (loading birds into cages on a trailer truck parked inside the chicken house). According to this Danish study, DM catchers are exposed to higher concentrations of hazardous substances (endotoxins, viable bacteria, viable fungi) than TM catchers, except for ammonia. Full-shift dust exposure exceeded the Danish occupational exposure limit of 3mg/m3 by at least a factor of 2 (the concentration of respirable dust ranged from 18% to 28% of the total dust concentration). Bacterial endotoxin concentrations in total dust were also 4-8 times higher than the 10ng/m3 limit recommended for poultry processing workers in the US. Exposure to microorganisms was also very high. In light of the high levels of exposure to airborne contaminants, the development of preventive measures is recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.804-808. Illus. 12 ref.
Environmental Protection - The Genetically Modified Organisms (Deliberate Release) Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations amend SI 1992 No.3280 (see CIS 93-1073) which give effect in Great Britain to Council Directive 90/220/EEC. Amendments relate to applications for consent to release genetically modified organisms into the environment, requirements for advertising applications for consent to release, cases and circumstances in which a marketing consent is required and provisions relating to the keeping of the register.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1995. 12p. Price: GBP 2.80.
Health and Safety Commission
General COSHH ACOP (Control of substances hazardous to health), Carcinogens ACOP (Control of carcinogenic substances), Biological agents ACOP (Control of biological agents) - Approved Codes of Practice
This document contains three Approved Codes of Practice (ACOPs) related to the Control of Substances to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH) (see CIS 95-19). The General ACOP includes the text of COSHH and guidance on compliance: responsibilities; assessment of health risks; prevention or control of exposure; maintenance, examination and test of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; personnel training. It includes special provisions relating to biological agents resulting from the requirement to implement Directive 90/679/EEC (Protection of Workers from Risks Related to Exposure to Biological Agents at Work). The Carcinogens ACOP and the Biological Agents ACOP provide supplementary practical guidance on work with these substances.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 74p. Illus. Price: GBP 6.75.
Jost M., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A., Reber E.
Occupational disease prevention in clinical laboratories
Verhütung von Berufskrankheiten in diagnostisch-mikrobiologischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les laboratoires de microbiologie diagnostique [in French]
Contents of this brochure on the prevention of occupational diseases in clinical laboratories: health risks for personnel; technical preventive measures of infectious diseases; work organization procedures to prevent infectious diseases; medical measures concerning clinical laboratories personnel; disposal of contaminated material; prevention of other occupational diseases; insurance legislation. Appendices: distribution of work procedures and of microorganisms according to risk; safety enclosures.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1995. 50p. Illus. 54 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 7-14 June 1994, concerning the cancer risks of helminths (parasitic worms), schistosoma and Heliobacter pylori. Of the seven agents reviewed, three were rated 1 (carcinogenic to humans), one was rated 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), one was rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and two were classified 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). For each agent, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1994. 270p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 70.00.
01-1535.pdf [in English]
Order of 18 July 1994 establishing the list of pathogenic biological agents [France]
Arrêté du 18 juil. 1994 fixant la liste des agents biologiques pathogènes [France] [in French]
Amended by Order of 17 Apr. 1997 (CIS 99-31). Topics: biological hazards; classification; France; fungi; law; list; microorganisms; parasitic diseases; pathogenic bacteria; viruses.
Journal officiel de la République française, 30 July 1994, p.11078-11081.
99-383.pdf [in French]
Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Airborne mycotoxins (aflatoxins and trichothecenes) in work environments
Micotoxinas (aflatoxinas y tricotecenos) en ambientes laborales [in Spanish]
Topics: aflatoxins; airborne dust; biological hazards; carcinogenic effects; data sheet; determination in air; fungi; immunotoxic effects; inhalation toxicity; mycotoxins; neurotoxic effects; Spain; toxic effects.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 4p. 16 ref.
98-1725.pdf [in Spanish]
Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung
Hazardous substances - TRGS 616 on the substitution and limitation of the use of polychlorinated biphenyls
Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe TRGS 616 Ersatzstoffe, Ersatzverfahren und Verwendungsbeschränkungen für Polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB) [in German]
This directive provides information on the physicochemical properties of the polychlorinated biphenyls, their health and environmental hazards, and their applications in capacitors, transformers and hydraulic fluids used in underground mining equipment. It lists possible replacement substances and groups of replacement substances and evaluates their suitability for the applications mentioned.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, May 1994, No.5, p.43-49. Illus.
96-2261.pdf [in German]
Legislative Decree No.626 of 19 Sep. 1994 - Implementation of eight EEC Directives concerning the improvement of workers' safety and health at the workplace [Italy]
Decreto Legislativo 19 sett. 1994, n. 626 - Attuazione delle direttive ... CEE riguardanti il miglioramento della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori sul luogo di lavoro [in Italian]
This decree was adopted by the Council of Ministers on 16 Sep. 1994. It introduces into Italian legislation the provisions of the following EEC Directives: 89/391 (general improvements in OSH, CIS 89-1401), 89/654 (minimum OSH requirements for the workplace, CIS 90-356), 89/655 (minimum OSH requirements for work equipment, CIS 90-357), 89/656 (minimum requirements for PPE, CIS 90-385), 90/269 (manual handling, CIS 90-1101), 90/270 (VDU work, CIS 90-1069), 90/394 (exposure to carcinogens, CIS 90-1758) and 90/679 (exposure to biological agents, CIS 91-29). The main headings of the decree are: general provisions; workplaces; use of work equipment; use of personal protective equipment (PPE); manual handling of loads; protection against carcinogens; protection against biological agents; penalties for non-compliance. In annex (among others): table of PPE requirements depending on the hazards present in the workplace; non-exhaustive list of activities and sectors where PPE has to be worn; list and classification of hazardous biological agents.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 12 Nov. 1994, No.265, Part I, Ordinary supplement, 60p. Illus.
96-1531.pdf [in Italian]
Stalder K., Verkoyen C.
Health hazards in municipal waste disposal
Gesundheitsrisiken bei der Entsorgung kommunaler Abfälle [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on the biological hazards of garbage composting (held in Göttingen, Germany, 28-29 June 1993). Subjects covered: composting methods applied today; emission of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli during garbage composting; viruses such as Herpes simplex and Coxsackie-B in the air of garbage composting plants; emission of moulds and thermophilic actinomycetes by garbage composting plants; frequently occurring fungi in garbage composting plants; health hazards such as infection and sensitization by allergens in garbage composting plants.
Verlag Die Werkstatt, Lotzestrasse 24a, 37083 Göttingen, Germany, Apr. 1994. 217p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 30.00.
96-1099.pdf [in German]
Lavoie J., Lazure L.
Guide to the prevention of microbial proliferation in ventilation systems
Guide de prévention contre la prolifération microbienne dans les systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this safety guide aimed at designers of ventilation systems and at all those potentially affected by the biological contamination of such systems: microorganisms in general (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, antigens); air treatment systems (air conditioning system components and processes); biological contaminants of system components; inspection procedures (visual methods and biological sampling); maintenance and cleaning; preventive measures and legislation applicable to various components of ventilation systems. In annex: diagrammatic presentation of biological contamination of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; sample estimate form for the cleaning of ventilation ducts; sample check-list for the inspection of ventilation systems.
IRSST - Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail au Québec, Direction des communications, 505, Blvd. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 1994. 1 loose-leaf binder. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 25.00.
Wald P.H., Stave G.M.
Physical and biological hazards of the workplace
University-level manual providing very detailed up-to-date information on physical and biological hazards, with emphasis on those affecting workers and workplaces in the United States. For each hazard or condition, diagnosis, treatment, medical surveillance and prevention are addressed at length. Contents: Physical hazards - Worker-material interfaces (ergonomic hazards and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, manual materials handling, vibration, mechanical energy); the physical work environment (hot and cold environments, high- and low-pressure environments, shift work); energy and electromagnetic radiation (ionizing, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, laser, microwave, radiofrequency and ELF radiation; noise; electricity, including lightning injury). Biological hazards - General principles of microbiology and infectious disease; clinical recognition and health consequences of occupational exposure; prevention of illness from biological hazards; viruses; bacteria; mycobacteria; fungi; Rickettsiae and Chlamydiae; parasites; envenomations (arthropods, marine animals, snakes); allergens; malignant cells; recombinant organisms; endotoxins; wood dust.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003, USA and International Thomson Publishing, Berkshire House, 168-173 High Holborn, London WC1V 7AA, United Kingdom, 1994. xxi, 511p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price (UK): GBP 59.00.
Laitinen S., Kangas J., Kotimaa M., Liesivuori J., Martikainen P.J., Nevalainen A., Sarantila R., Husman K.
Workers' exposure to airborne bacteria and endotoxins at industrial wastewater treatment plants
A study of sewage workers' exposure to airborne culturable bacteria and inhaled endotoxins was performed at nine wastewater treatment plants that treat mainly industrial effluents. Concentrations of airborne endotoxin in different departments varied from below 0.01 to 250ng/m3, and the concentration of airborne bacteria varied from below 1 to 105 colony-forming units/m3. High levels of exposure were related to certain phases of the treatment process; microbiological air contamination was highest near the inlets where incoming wastewater entered the basins, in the sludge treatment area and in the biofilter tower. Measures for reducing exposure are suggested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1994, Vol.55, No.11, p.1055-1060. Illus. 20 ref.
Lot F., Abiteboul D.
Workplace infections with HIV virus in France as of 31 December 1993
Infections professionnelles par le VIH en France - Le point au 31 décembre 1993 [in French]
Since 1984, 65 cases of proven seroconversion (117 presumed contaminations) following occupational exposure have been reported by health care professionals in industrialized countries. In the USA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recognized 39 cases of seroconversion among health care personnel following occupational exposure; in Europe (outside France), 14 cases have been reported; in France 8 proven seroconversions (and 20 presumed contaminations) have been reported. In prospective studies, the assessed risk reaches an average of 0.37% (0.21%-0.54% ) following percutaneous exposure. In these cohort studies, only one case of seroconversion has been reported following splashes on wounded skin or mucosa (average risk 0.01%-0.25%). Other workers outside the medical or paramedical profession could be occupationally exposed to HIV.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.289-293. 15 ref.
Modeling respirator penetration values with the Beta distribution: An application to occupational tuberculosis transmission
Even workers wearing respirators may be infected following inhalation of respirable particles, termed droplet nuclei, that carry viable mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. Based on the expected number of infectious doses inhaled, the Poisson probability model is used traditionally to predict an individual's risk of infection. This article synthesizes the beta distribution, as applied to average penetration values among a respirator-wearing population, and the Poisson distribution, as applied to an individual's infection risk, to describe the population risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.515-524. Illus. 31 ref.
Health and Safety - The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (effective 16.1.1995) replace the 1988 COSHH Regulations (CIS 89-1092), as amended in 1991 and 1992 (CIS 92-369, 93-1077). They also implement the provisions of Directive 90/679/EEC (CIS 91-29) concerning biological hazards, while revoking The Health and Safety (Dangerous Pathogens) Regulations 1981. They impose duties on employers to protect employees and other persons who may be exposed to substances hazardous to health. These duties relate to: prohibition of importation (except from another EU state) of certain substances (2-naphthylamine, benzidine, 4-aminodiphenyl, 4-nitrodiphenyl, salts of these chemicals, matches made with white phosphorus); assessment of health risks; prevention and control of exposure; control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; provisions on fumigation; exemption certificates. In the appendix: exposure limits for 42 substances; prohibition of certain substances for certain purposes; examination and testing frequency of local exhaust ventilation plant used in certain processes; specific substances for which monitoring or medical surveillance is required; fumigation exemptions and notifications; definition of carcinogens; special provisions relating to biological agents (including containment measures).
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. 27p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.70.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Exposure limit list 1994. Safety and health protection at work
Grenzwertliste 1994. Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
An unofficial collection of exposure limits for chemical, biological and physical agents drawn from German and international sources for the benefit of small and medium-sized enterprises. The classification and labelling information found in BIA-Report 1/94 on chemicals (see CIS 95-246) is not included. The biological agents considered are microorganisms, microbial products and pollen. The physical agents are noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, radiation and loads (lifting and carrying).
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, Postfach 2052, 53757 Sankt Augustin 2, Germany, Aug. 1994. 182p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation professionnelle
Decree No.94-352 of 4 May 1994 relating to the protection of workers against risks resulting from their exposure to biological agents and amending the French Labour Code (second part: Decrees by the Council of State) [France]
Décret n°94-352 du 4 mai 1994 relatif à la protection des travailleurs contre les risques résultant de leur exposition à des agents biologiques et modifiant le Code du travail (deuxième partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France] [in French]
This Decree implements into French legislation the provisions of Directive 90/679/EEC (as modified) (see CIS 91-29) and it introduces new measures into the French Labour Code (articles R.231-60 to R.231-65-3). These particular safety and health measures apply to establishments where there is a risk of exposure to biological agents. The measures cover: general rules for the evaluation and prevention of biological hazards (in particular: provision of workers with equipment adapted to the risk; introduction of collective and personal protection measures; implementation of hygiene measures designed to eliminate or reduce the risk of propagation of infection; etc.); training and information; measures for special activities (those involving contact with patients, or with live or dead animals, in hospitals, laboratories etc.); medical supervision of workers potentially exposed to biological agents. This Decree shall be implemented according to modalities to be defined by Government orders to be issued in the future.
Journal officiel de la République française, 6 May 1994, p.6620-6623.
Pasanen A.L., Nikulin M., Berg S., Hintikka E.L.
Stachybotrys atra corda may produce mycotoxins in respirator filters in humid environments
This study examines the growth and toxin production of Stachybotrys atra, a cellulose-decomposing fungus, in two respirator filters with different ratios of cellulose and fibreglass at 78-100% relative humidities of air for 86 days. S. atra grew only in filter material of high cellulose content. It grew slightly at relative humidity 84-89%, but did not produce toxins. Under saturated conditions, it grew and produced satratoxin H regardless of variation in temperature.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.62-65. 19 ref.
Buick J.B., Lowry R.C., Magee T.R.A.
Isolation, enumeration, and identification of gram negative bacteria from flax dust with reference to endotoxin concentration
To investigate the microbial contamination of flax dust in the linen industry, particularly the gram negative bacteria, (GNB) content and associated endotoxin level, standard bacteriological techniques were used. The results were contrasted with studies in the cotton industry. The microbial flora of cotton and flax is similar but greater GNB contamination, with consequently higher endotoxin levels, was found in flax. Flax byssinosis and cotton byssinosis may share a common microbial aetiology.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.59-61. 14 ref.
Zejda J.E., Barber E., Dosman J.A., Olenchock S.A., McDuffie H.H., Rhodes C., Hurst T.
Respiratory health status in swine producers relates to endotoxin exposure in the presence of low dust levels
The respiratory health status of 54 male swine producers was assessed through questionnaires and spirographic measurements. The producers were between 25 and 48 years old and had worked an average 10.7 years in the industry, with an average of 4.7 h/day in the swine barns. Atmospheric contaminants were measured including carbon dioxide, ammonia, total dust, respirable dust, and airborne endotoxin. Endotoxin related to forced vital capacity and endotoxin times h/day was related to forced vital capacity and to forced respiratory volume in 1 second. Respiratory symptoms and lung function did not relate to categories of low, medium and high exposure to respirable dust. However, categories of endotoxin exposure related to respiratory symptoms. Thus, respiratory health status relates to endotoxin level but not to dust level at low dust levels. Control measures should aim to reduce the levels of endotoxins as well as those of dust.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.49-56. Illus. 31 ref.
Causative agents for organic dust related disease
This special issue is devoted in its entirety to the proceedings of an International Workshop on Causative Agents for Organic Dust Related Disease held in Skokloster, Sweden, 6-9 April 1992. It includes scientific papers presented during the Workshop, workgroup reports as well as short communications on epidemiology and experiments concerning the research conducted in this field.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Special issue, Jan. 1994, Vol.25, No.1, viii, p.1-148. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
Indoor air quality: Microbiological hazards in air conditioning and ventilation systems
Calidad del aire interior: riesgos microbiológicos en los sistemas de ventilación/climatización [in Spanish]
Topics: air conditioning; air humidification; allergies; biological hazards; data sheet; infectious diseases; legionellosis; microclimate; Monday fever; Spain; ventilation systems.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. Illus. 9 ref.
98-310.pdf [in Spanish]
Microbiological decontamination of ventilation systems
La décontamination microbienne des systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this article: origin of bioaerosols in indoor air; contribution of bioaerosols to indoor air quality; effects on health; decontamination techniques; case study of an industrial-scale laundry serving about 30 Quebec hospitals.
Objectif prévention, Winter 1993, Vol.16, No.4, p.30-32. 15 ref.
96-1080.pdf [in French]
Collins C.H., Kennedy D.A.
The treatment and disposal of clinical waste
Contents of this handbook: clinical waste as a public health concern; perceived and actual hazards (microbial content of clinical waste, the potential for infection, the problem of sharps, release of dioxins and furans); definitions and classification of clinical waste; segregation, collection, storage and transport; waste minimization; final disposal of clinical waste (incineration, landfill, steam sterilization, novel methods); clinical laboratory waste; supervision, education and training. In appendices: United Kingdom legislation; European Community Directives.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd, P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1993. ix, 114p. Illus. 179 réf. Index. Price: GBP 22.00.
96-1102.pdf [in English]
Jost M., Rüegger M., Reber E., Liechti B., Wolf R.
Occupational disease prevention in pathology and histology laboratories
Verhütung von Berufskrankheiten in pathologisch-anatomischen Instituten und histologischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les instituts d'anatomie pathologique et dans les laboratoires d'histologie [in French]
This brochure reviews the exposure hazards to chemicals used in medical laboratories as well as the risk of infectious diseases transmitted by blood or air. The results of a systematic measurements campaign carried out through Switzerland to evaluate formaldehyde and organic solvent concentrations in the air of such laboratories are given. Technical, organizational and behavioural preventive measures are described.
Schweizerische Unfallverhütungsanstalt, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Dec. 1993. 50p. Illus. 31 ref.
Biological agents [Sweden]
Biologiska ämnen [in Swedish]
This notification modifies notification AFS 1992:8 (CIS 94-1475), bringing it into conformity with EU directive 90/679/EEC (CIS 91-29). It requires employers to keep a record of workers who have been exposed to biological agents.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 25 Nov. 1993. 3p.
Occupational and environmental reproductive hazards - A guide for clinicians
This manual is in four parts: 1. Background information on the physiology of reproduction and development and how toxicants exert their effects. 2. Overview of toxicological and epidemiological research methods used to assess the effects of toxicants. 3. Clinical evaluation and management of patients. 4. Information on specific reproductive and developmental hazards (radiation, video display terminals, ergonomic factors, noise and vibration, metals, asphyxiants, organic solvents, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, polyhalogenated biphenyls, viral infections, home and community exposures). An appendix lists exposure limits for some hazardous chemicals.
Williams and Wilkins, 428 East Preston Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA, 1993. xvii, 426p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Available from: Waverly Europe Ltd., Broadway House, 2-6 Fulham Broadway, London SW6 1AA, United Kingdom. Price: GBP 75.00.
Gottlieb S.J., Garibaldi E., Hutcheson P.S., Slavin R.G.
Occupational asthma to the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum
Dictyostelium discoideum is a slime mould that exists in a unicellular amoeboid form under certain nutritional conditions. In this form it produces unique lysosomal enzymes that are valuable in studying cell-to-cell signalling systems. A research microbiologist developed rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma after release of the organism from a pressurized canister. Immediate skin-test reactivity to whole and lysed organisms was demonstrated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results revealed IgE antibody against whole organisms, lysed organisms, and lysosomal enzymes with the strongest response being directed toward lysosomal enzymes. Pulmonary function testing showed a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory flow after modified laboratory exposure to D. discoideum. This case represents the first report of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma from slime mould.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.12, p.1231-1235. Illus. 25 ref.
Lenhart S.W., Cole E.C.
Respiratory illness in workers of an indoor shiitake mushroom farm
An evaluation of an indoor shiitake mushroom farm was conducted following reports of respiratory illness symptoms among the workers. Predominant symptoms were dry cough, nasal discharge, sneezing, chest tightness, productive cough, and dyspnoea. Bioaerosol screening was conducted for mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria and fungal spores. Air concentrations of culturable fungal spores measured with the impactor exceeded 8.4 x 103 colony forming units/m3. The highest airborne fungal spore concentration measured was 2.4 x 106 spores/m3. Sampling results showed extensive airborne contamination with a variety of Penicillium species, which produce respirable-size spores that may function as potent allergens.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 1993, Vol.8, No.2, 112-119. Illus. 49 ref.
Jensen P.A., Todd W.F., Hart M.E., Mickelsen R.L., O'Brien D.M.
Evaluation and control of worker exposure to fungi in a beet sugar refinery
A study of worker exposure to airborne fungi was undertaken in a sugar beet refinery (Michigan, USA) to evaluate the level of exposure and to determine if controls could be implemented that would lower these exposures. Two field surveys were conducted, the first during the sugar production campaign (January) and the second during postproduction cleanup and maintenance (June). This study showed high exposure of pulp pellet loaders and pellet silo workers to various species of aspergillus. Other fungal species that might pose a health hazard were detected. Exposures to fungi during the postproduction cleanup and maintenance phase were much higher than those measured during the production campaign. Engineering controls that would reduce employee exposure are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1993, Vol.54, No.12, p.742-748. Illus. 27 ref.
Health protection in microbiological soil cleanup
Arbeitsschutz bei der mikrobiologischen Bodensanierung [in German]
Two main approaches are used in Germany for microbiological soil cleanup: conditions for microbial breakdown of soil pollutants are optimized by adding nutrients and by adjusting the pH-value and moisture content; microorganisms are added to the soil in large quantities. In both cases, personal protective equipment is commensurate with the hazards posed by the microorganisms, which are classified into four groups by German law.
Tiefbau, Dec. 1993, Vol.105, No.12, p.895-896, 898-899. Illus. 4 ref.
Woodruff B.A., Moyer L.A., O'Rourke K.M., Margolis H.S.
Blood exposure and the risk of hepatitis B virus infection in firefighters
This survey assessed personal and occupational risk factors among uniformed fire department employees by a self-administered questionnaire and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status by serological testing. Overall, 46 of 592 employees had past or current HBV infection. Employees reporting blood contact with skin had been infected more often than employees without this exposure. Prevalence of infection did not differ by age, years on the job, or job duties. The adjusted prevalence of HBV infection among male employees was not significantly different from its prevalence in American men.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1048-1054. 13 ref.
Garrett S.J., Robinson J.K.
Disposable protective eyewear devices for health care providers: How important are they and will available designs be used?
To assess the efficacy of five types of disposable protective eye wear devices, to determine variables affecting the use of protective eye wear, and to determine the frequency of eye splatter, 100 volunteer health care providers were assigned to one of five groups and given a protective eye wear device to use for two weeks in an urban teaching referral centre. Questionnaires were used to survey eye wear habits and other variables before the study. The devices were 88% effective overall, and there was no statistically significant difference between groups. The incidence of splatter was 50%. Even though disposable eye wear providing full frontal and lateral eye coverage is effective in preventing eye splatter, health care providers working in nonsurgical areas may be more exposed to eye splatter than previously assumed because of the lack of recognition of splatter by the workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1043-1047. 21 ref.
Bloodborne pathogens in the workplace - Pocket guide
Pocket guide to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace, written for workers. Contents: major types of bloodborne pathogens and their transmission (HIV, hepatitis); exposure control plan (requirements of OSHA's Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens regulation); prevention of exposure (prevention of needlestick injuries, safe transport of biohazardous materials, decontamination of equipment, personal protective equipment, good housekeeping); immunization; emergency and post-exposure procedures; glossary.
Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 63p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders.
Hallauer J., Kane M., McCloy E.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
Eliminating hepatitis B as an occupational hazard
Proceedings of an international conference on hepatitis B as an occupational hazard held in Vienna, Austria, 10-12 March 1993. Papers are presented under the following headings: hepatitis B and occupational risk; prevention of hepatitis B in the workplace (safe work practices, vaccination, education and successful prevention programmes); economic implications of hepatitis B in the workplace; implementation of effective prevention programmes in various countries; current policies and the way forward. Summaries of regional workshops provide information on the current situation in a number of countries.
Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom, 1993. 114p. Bibl.ref.
Council Directive 93/88/EEC of 12 oct. 1993 amending Directive 90/679/EEC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (7th individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) [European Communities]
Directive du Conseil 93/88/CEE, du 12 oct. 1993, modifiant la directive 90/679/CEE concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'exposition à des agents biologiques au travail (7e dir. au sens de l'art. 16, par.1, de la dir. 89/391/CEE) [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive outlines amendments and replacements of parts of Directive 90/679/EEC (see CIS 91-29). An annex with a classification of biological agents is replaced by this directive. An annex with code a of practice on vaccination is added.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 29 Oct. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.268, p.71-82.
Muco-cutaneous candidosis and occupational exposure to enzymes - A case report
Candidosi mucocutanea nella esposizione ad agenti biologici - Un caso clinico [in Italian]
Candida albicans, a common yeast in the environment, has properties allowing it to colonize and invade host tissues, often resisting eradication. Acid proteinase is the virulence factor. Bacterial proteinases are widely used in the detergent industry and the role of occupational exposure to enzymes in the development of muco-cutaneous candidosis warrants investigation. A case of candidosis is reported in a worker employed in a detergent factory in whom there was no evidence of any kind of immuno-suppression. The relationship between occupational exposure and illness is analyzed.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1993, Vol.84, No.3, p.243-248. 25 réf.
Microorganisms: Bioaerosols in the food and beverage industry
Microorganismes - Les bioaérosols dans le secteur des aliments et des boissons [in French]
The hazards (allergies, infections) due to bioaerosols in the workplace are surveyed. In the food and beverage industry the principal sources of bioaerosols are meat (leptospirosis, brucellosis), grains and other vegetable matter (endotoxins, moulds), and ventilation systems (bacteria). A table summarizes the information on the main types of bioaerosols that may be present in indoor industrial environments.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1993, Vol.9, No.4, p.45-47. 17 ref.
Notification on biological agents and the work environment [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om biologiske agenser og arbejdsmiljø [in Danish]
This notification came into force on 20 Nov. 1993. It implements directive 90/679/EEC (CIS 91-29) and applies to all work involving risk of exposure to biological substances (microorganisms, cell cultures, human parasites). The principle of substitution is stated, meaning that whenever a harmful biological agent can be substituted by a less harmful one, the more harmful agent may not be used. Work must generally be planned in such a way that no hazards occur. If this is not possible, other safety measures must be taken by the employer. Safety instructions must be provided in writing. If employees are exposed to harmful biological agents, a record must be kept of this for 40 years. Employees have the right to medical examination before employment and regularly thereafter. Work with harmful agents must be reported to the Work Environment Service (Arbejdstilsynet). Any accident that might lead to the contamination of workers must be reported to the local Work Environment Service. In annex: list of microorganisms, with hazard classification and labelling requirements.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Nov. 1993. 23p. Illus. Price: DKK 32.25.
Blanchin N., Abadia G., Leprince A.
Risk of infection associated with the management and handling of experimental animals in animal facilities
Risques infectieux liés à la maintenance et à la manipulation des animaux de laboratoire pour le personnel travaillant dans les animaleries [in French]
Contents of this information sheet on the risk of infection associated with the handling of laboratory animals: 1. main infectious agents of animal origin which are pathogenetic in men (table on the use of vertebrate animals in 1990); 2. real risks in relation to the animals handled and their sources (table of bacterial, viral, parasitic, ectoparasitic and fungal diseases, with information on: name of the aetiological agent, degree of pathogenicity in man, animal vectors, mode of contamination diagnosis and treatment); 3. guidelines for the prevention of infectious risks in laboratory animal facilities (vaccinations, safety precautions in case of a bite or any other contaminating incident, training and information of employees).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.3-23. 61 ref.
Pandey R., Kanhere V.
Activists' handbook of occupational health and safety
The principal problems faced by the Indian workforce are described for the benefit of trade union activists, journalists, medical personnel and others working to improve occupational safety and health. Chapter headings: introduction; safety; physical hazards; how women and children are affected; chemical hazards; hazards of dust; case studies; prevention of health hazards; occupational health: a legal perspective; further information. The case studies cover agate working, sewer maintenance, garbage collection and hospital work. The chapter on legal aspects summarizes existing laws and their application in practice; it includes a list of notifiable diseases under the Indian Factories Act (CIS 89-701) and a list of occupational diseases under the Workmen's Compensation and Employees' State Insurance Acts. "Further information" provides the names of 13 resource institutions in India as well as a bibliography.
Society for Participatory Research in Asia, 42, Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110062, India, July 1993. 223p. 95 ref. Price: USD 20.00.
Guenzi C., Simon F., Abadia G.
Waste water purification by biological treatment: Notification of a high-fever syndrome among workers
Stations biologiques de traitements des eaux usées: enregistrement de syndromes fébriles [in French]
A study by 43 French occupational physicians of waste water purification plants (see CIS 92-1370) covers the years 1990-1993. During the collection of data, a high-fever epidemic (headaches, shivers, muscle aches) broke out among workers of such a plant treating waste water from a chemical factory by biological means. Blood tests indicated an infectious origin of this epidemic, even though no viral or bacterial pathogen could be identified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.53, p.31-32. 2 ref.
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