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Biological hazards - 589 entries found

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  • Biological hazards

2001

CIS 02-1453 Eduard W., Douwes J., Mehl R., Heederik D., Melbostad E.
Short term exposure to airborne microbial agents during farm work: Exposure-response relations with eye and respiratory symptoms
Airborne exposure to microbial agents of 106 Norwegian farmers and their spouses was measured while carrying out specific tasks. Fungal spores, bacteria, endotoxins, β(1-3)-glucans, fungal antigens specific for Penicillium and Aspergillus species, and mites were measured by methods not based on microbial cultures. Also silica, inorganic and organic dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide were measured. Respiratory, nose and eye symptoms experienced during measurements were recorded by a short questionnaire. Prevalences of work related symptoms were: wheezing 3%; chest tightness 7%; cough 14%; eye symptoms 18%; nose symptoms 22%. Prevalence ratios for nose and eye symptoms were 4-8 after exposure to 20-500x103 fungal spores/m3 and higher, and a prevalence ratio for cough was 4 after exposure to 500-17,000x103 fungal spores/m3. Nose symptoms were also associated with exposure to silica with prevalence ratios of 4-6 after exposure to 0.015-0.075mg/m3 and higher.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.113-118. 29 ref.

CIS 02-915 Miro L.
Risks from radiofrequency electromagnetic waves
Risques liés aux ondes radioélectromagnétiques [in French]
Biophysics of the interaction between radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and human tissues are discussed, and the concept of specific absorption flux is defined. Health hazards are evaluated, in particular that of risk to the ocular lens. Other specific effects include effects on the central nervous system, behaviour, the endocrine system and the haematopoietic system. In occupational medicine, pathologies linked to the thermogenic effect that have been highlighted during clinical observations, epidemiological surveys and cases of active implants are discussed. Work aptitude conditions for jobs involving exposure are reviewed, and the procedures to be adopted in cases of accidental acute or chronic exposure and medical supervision of personnel are described. Finally, safety standards are presented and discussed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 8p. 12 ref.

CIS 02-941 Scherrer Y., Boillat M.A.
Are guards in the penitentiary system of the Canton of Vaud at risk of occupational exposure to blood-transmissible diseases?
Les surveillants travaillant dans le système pénitentiaire vaudois sont-ils soumis à un risque d'exposition professionnelle à une maladie transmissible par le sang? [in French]
Prison staff is at risk of blood-transmissible diseases given the nature of the of inmate population they are confronted with, in particular in the course of searches, acts of violence and accidents. The objective of this study conducted in a Swiss canton was to characterize the real and perceived risk of occupational blood-transmissible diseases in this occupation. Hepatitis B (HB) was used as an indicator of blood transmissible diseases, and HB serology of all employees (n = 248) was determined. Furthermore, a questionnaire was addressed to all employees. 19% of the warders had been wounded during searches in cells and 8.2% when searching inmates. One third of the guards had been at least once in contact with the blood of a prisoner. However, no increases in the number of seroconversions were observed. Finally, risk perception remains intense, concerning 73% of the guards and 20% of the remaining staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-540 Commission Directive 2001/36/EC of 16 May 2001 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market [European Union]
Directive 2001/36/CE de la Commission du 16 mai 2001 portant modification de la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques [Union européenne] [in French]
This Directive amends Annexes II and III of Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). Changes to Annex II: Part B is replaced by a new one detailing the information that must be supplied for micro-organisms (incl. viruses) used in plant protection products (PPPs): identity; biological properties; further information; analytical methods; effects on human health; residues; fate and behaviour in the environment; effects on non-target organisms; summary and evaluation of environmental impact. Changes to Annex III: Part B is replaced by a new one detailing data requirements for the authorization of PPPs based on the preparation of micro-organisms (incl. viruses): identity; physical, chemical and technical properties of the PPP; data on application; further information on the PPP; analytical methods; efficacy data; effects on human health; residues; effects on non-target organisms; summary and evaluation of environmental impact.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 20 June 2001, Vol.44, No.L 164, p.1-38 (whole issue).
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/archive/2001/l_16420010620en.html [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/fr/archive/2001/l_16420010620fr.html [in French]

CIS 02-29 Regulations for Hazardous Biological Agents [South Africa]
Regulations issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). Contents: definitions; scope; classification of biological agents; information and training; duties of persons who might be exposed to hazardous biological agents (HBAs); risk assessment by employers or self-employed persons; monitoring exposure; medical surveillance; records; control of exposure to HBAs; personal protective equipment and facilities; maintenance of control measures, equipment and facilities; prohibitions; labelling, packaging, transporting and storage; special measures for health and veterinary isolation facilities; special measures for laboratories, animal rooms and industrial processes; disposal of HBAs. In annex: indicative list of incidents; hazardous biological agent guidelines (incl. list of bacteria, viruses and parasites with their hazard classification); precautions for workplaces (incl. table of precaution codes connected with specific infections or conditions; table presenting clinical syndromes or conditions warranting additional precautions aimed at the prevention of infection pending conformation of diagnosis); containment rules.
Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 27 Dec. 2001, Vol.438, No.22956, p.3-67. Illus.
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2001/22956.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-438
Health and Safety Commission
The management, design and operation of microbiological containment laboratories
The implementation of EC Biological Agents Directive (90/679/EC, see CIS 91-29) via the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 and 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 95-19 and CIS 00-620) introduced legal requirements applicable to all types of laboratories. This guidance concentrates on legal requirements under COSHH applicable to work with biological agents in microbial containment laboratories. Contents include: safety and health management in microbial containment laboratories; general principles of design and operation of microbial containment laboratories; principal requirements for containment level 2 and level 3 laboratories.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 72p. lllus. 61 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 02-275 Porru S., Carta A., Placidi D.
Job fitness definition of workers exposed to biological risks in a health care environment: Considerations in light of a case report
Il giudizio di idoneità lavorativa di lavoratori esposti a rischio biologico in ambiente sanitario: considerazioni alla luce di un caso clinico [in Italian]
Report of the case of a young female nurse in the haematology department of an Italian hospital, who was in charge of preparing and administering antineoplastic drugs. She was suffering from membranous glomerulonephritis and was being treated with immunosuppressant agents. The risk assessment showed that the preparation and administration of the antineoplastic drugs was not safely performed and she showed moderate leucopenia. This worker was judged unfit for work involving high risk of exposure to potentially harmful pharmaceutical agents. The case provided the opportunity for underlining the role of the occupational physician in detecting potentially harmful cases of exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.345-352. 20 ref.

CIS 01-1309
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries: Final Rule [USA]
This is a revision of the Bloodborne Pathogens standard (for 1991 original, see CIS 93-371) in conformity with the requirements of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. New examples have been included in the definition of engineering controls, along with two new definitions (needleless systems and sharps with engineered sharps injury protections). In addition, employers who are required to establish an Exposure Control Plan must document how the Plan is implemented. Certain employers are also required to establish and maintain a log of percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.
Federal Register, 18 Jan. 2001, Vol.66, No.12, p.5318-5325.
http://www.osha.gov/FedReg_osha_data/FED20010118A.html [in English]
http://www.osha.gov/FedReg_osha_pdf/FED20010118A.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-926 Notification No.89/2001 of the Ministry of Health defining the classification of occupations, fixing biological exposure limits and establishing the requirements for the notification of work with asbestos and biological agents [Czech Republic]
Vyhláška Ministerstva zdravotnictví ze 15.2.2001, kterou se stanoví podmínky pro zařazování prací do kategorií, limitní horodnoty ukazatelů biologických expozičních testů a náležitosti hlášení prací s azbestem a biologickými činiteli [in Czech]
This notification defines four categories of occupations according to the level of workplace health hazard. It announces the requirements for the notification of work involving asbestos, risk of asbestos exposure and work with biological agents. In annex: biological exposure limits connected with exposure to certain chemical substances.
Sbírka zákonů, 28 Feb. 2001, No.35, p.2657-2671.
http://www.mvcr.cz/sbirka/2001/sb035-01.pdf [in Czech]

CIS 01-1238 Pascual Álvarez G.
Management of occupational safety and health in laboratories where high-risk biological organisms are present
Gestión de la prevención en un centro de alta seguridad biológica [in Spanish]
There are three main factors of safety in laboratories where high-risk (hazard-classes 3 and 4) biological organisms are present: biological safety, proper maintenance of biological equipment and occupational hygiene. Biological safety involves paying attention to the following: negative pressure in contaminated zones, filtration of fresh and exhaust air, hygrometric and thermal conditions in laboratories and animal houses, decontamination, solid and liquid waste management, control of the inflow and outflow of samples and the reception of animals. Regular maintenance must be carried out on the equipment to ensure that it stays in compliance with safety levels 3 or 4, and management must take corrective, preventive and predictive actions, energy costs and emission control into account. Occupational hygiene must be in compliance with legislation on occupational hazards; workers must receive training in biological hazards and informed of the risks they are exposed to and appropraite preventive measures to be adopted.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2001, No.11, p.16-23. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-885
Health and Safety Executive
Hygienic design of machinery in the food and drink industries
This information sheet is aimed at manufacturers, suppliers and importers of food processing machinery into the United Kingdom. It covers legal requirements for minimizing microbiological and chemical risks to food consumers through hygienic design. The guidance will also be relevant to the food industry for the selection of suitable machinery when making purchases. Contents include: approaches to hygienic design; hygienic design priorities; design "do's" and "don'ts"; instructions for users; verifications; safety considerations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2001. 4p. 10 ref.

2000

CIS 03-1513 Health and Safety - The Genetically Modified Organisms (Contained Use) Regulations 2000 + Amendment (2002) [United Kingdom]
The purpose of these Regulations is the protection of persons from risks arising from activities involving the contained use of genetically modified organisms (in the case of genetically modified micro-organisms, the protection of the environment is also provided for). They implement in Great Britain Council Directive 90/219/EEC (CIS 93-1075), as modified subsequently. Any activity involving the genetic modification of organisms is prohibited unless an appropriate risk assessment has been carried out. The Regulations also provide for: notification and duties of the competent authority; obligation to respect safety principles; application of containment measures; preparation of emergency plans; notification of accidents to the competent authority; granting of exemptions. The Genetically Modified Organisms (Contained Use) Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-1072), together with their 1996 and 1998 amendments, are repealed. S.I. 2002 No.63 is a 2002 amendment that introduces confidentiality provisions in the interest of national security.
The Stationery Office Ltd (TSO), PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom, 2000, 2002. 43p. + 4p. (amendment). Price: GBP 6.50 + 1.75 (amendment).
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2000/20002831.htm [in English]
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2002/20020063.htmamendment [in English]

CIS 03-1046 Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (seventh individual directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) [European Union]
Directive 2000/54/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 18 septembre 2000 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'exposition à des agents biologiques au travail (septième directive particulière au sens de l'article 16, paragraphe 1, de la directive 89/391/CEE) [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2000/54/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 18 de septiembre de 2000, sobre la protección de los trabajadores contra los riesgos relacionados con la exposición a agentes biológicos durante el trabajo (Séptima Directiva específica con arreglo al apartado 1 del artículo 16 de la Directiva 89/391/CEE) [in Spanish]
Consolidated version of Directive 90/679/EEC (CIS 91-29, which is repealed) with its various amendments, also repealed: 93/88/EEC (CIS 94-783), 95/30/EC (CIS 99-730), 97/59/EC (CIS 97-1430) and 97/65/EC (CIS 97-1790). The aim of the Directive is to protect workers against risks to their health and safety arising from exposure to biological agents at work. Contents: definitions; scope, risk determination and assessment; employers' obligations (replacement, risk reduction, information for the competent authority, hygiene and individual protection, information and training of workers, worker information in particular cases, list of exposed workers, consultation and participation of workers, notification to the competent authority); miscellaneous provisions (health surveillance; health and veterinary care facilities other than diagnostic laboratories; special measures for industrial processes, laboratories and animal rooms; classification of biological agents). In annex: indicative list of activities; Community classification (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi); practical recommendations for the health surveillance of workers; indications concerning containment measures and containment levels; containment measures for industrial processes; recommended code of practice on vaccination.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 17 Oct. 2000, Vol.43, No.L 262, p.21-45. Illus.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2000/l_262/l_26220001017en00210045.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2000/l_262/l_26220001017fr00210045.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2000/l_262/l_26220001017es00210045.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1933 Duchaine C., Grimard Y., Cormier Y.
Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings
Eight pigpens were visited twice during winter and once during summer to measure the concentrations of biological and chemical contaminants. For each of the premises, the cleanliness, number of ventilators, air temperature, number of animals and building size were noted. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, microbiological counts and endotoxin levels. Significant decreases in bacterial levels, dust, ammonia and CO2 were observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mould counts were positively correlated with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter. Bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals. Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other. Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1466 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Exposure to biological agents. Management of personal protective equipment in health care services
Exposición a agentes biológicos. La gestión de equipos de protección individual en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
The management of personal protective equipment (PPE) against biological hazards includes designating a suitably-qualified team for training and informing the personnel on its use, as well as the acquisition, distribution, proper care and storage of PPE. This information note describes the general aspects of managing PPE against biological hazards in health care services. Contents: why PPEs are needed; designating a qualified team; acquiring the PPE; internal use standards; distribution; supervision and implementation. Tables list the biological hazards specific to different hospital or health care services, together with the suitable PPE.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1465 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Exposure to biological agents: Personal protective equipment
Exposición a agentes biológicos: equipos de protección individual [in Spanish]
There is some confusion, particularly in the health care environment, concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) against biological hazards. This information note describes the possibilities of protection against biological hazards, specifically through the use of appropriate PPE. Contents: classification of PPEs; modes of exposure; appropriate PPE against inhalation, dermal, parenteral and conjunctive exposure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1176 Steps to be taken in cases of accidental exposure to blood or biological fluids
Conduite à tenir en cas d'accident d'exposition au sang ou à des produits biologiques [in French]
This leaflet contains practical guidance on the steps that need to be taken in cases of accidental exposure to blood or biological fluids. Contents include: first aid; reporting the accident to the employer; consulting an occupational physician or general practitioner; preventive measures including avoiding pricks from contaminated needles and using appropriate waste collectors.
Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 6p. Illus.

CIS 02-942 Pouliquen P., Catilina P.
Leptospirosis vaccine - Pharmacosurveillance survey carried out among doctors who administer the vaccination
Vaccin leptospires - Enquête de pharmacosurveillance auprès des médecins vaccinateurs [in French]
Leptosirosis consists of a bacterial infection which may be particularly serious and possibly fatal. It is transmitted to man by rats, through sludge or contaminated water, and is recognized as an occupational disease. The main risk populations include workers in waste disposal, waste water treatment, roadwork, maintenance and inspection of sewers, and analytical laboratories. This article presents the results of a survey of occupational physicians, aimed at establishing current practices in medical inspection, frequency rates of leptospirosis and the effectiveness of vaccination. Preventive vaccination is shown to be a useful way of fighting leptospirosis.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.83-88. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 02-436 Touche F., Fleury L., Berlie C., Domart M., Pernet M., Leprince A.
Risks of infection in medical laboratories
Risques infectieux dans les laboratoires d'analyses médicales [in French]
Despite the fact that each day, a large number of potentially contaminating samples are handled in medical laboratories, data on the risks of infection are still scanty. A first study was conducted in 1996 in 26 medical laboratories belonging to five hospitals, with the objective of collecting the basic data necessary for hazard evaluation (see CIS 98-954). The study carried out two years later in the same laboratories enabled the assessment of trends with respect to approaches and risk perception. It includes a description of the laboratories, a retrospective inventory of infectious diseases and injuries involving blood exposure and a survey on the perception of the risks of infection. Results highlight favourable trends with respect to facilities, equipment and procedures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.233-239.

CIS 01-1835 Alonso Espaladé R.M., Martí Solé M.C., Constans Aubert A.
Biological hazard prevention in the laboratory: Work with parasites
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio; trabajo con parásitos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the risks associated with working with parasites in laboratories as well as the appropriate corresponding protective measures. Contents: different types of parasites and the diseases for which they are responsible; characteristics of parasites (host-parasite relationship, means of infection, ways of entry); description of protozoa, trematodes, nematodes and cestodes, risks to workers involved in their handling and precautions to be taken.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 01-742 Exposure to blood - What health-care workers need to know
Health care workers are at risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Exposures occur through needle pricks or cuts from other sharp instruments contaminated with an infected patient's blood. Aimed at health care workers, this booklet provides guidance on reducing the risks from exposure to blood. Contents include: prevention of exposure; actions to undertake if exposure occurs; risk of developing an infection after exposure; treatment for the exposure; follow-up after exposure.
Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, [2000]. 9p.

CIS 01-882 Vonesch N., Tomao P., Signorini S., Palmi S., Papaleo B.
Vaccine prophylaxis for workers exposed to biological hazards
La profilassi vaccinale: contributo per il controllo del rischio biologico nei lavoratori esposti [in Italian]
Occupations with exposure to biological agents have become a matter of discussion, especially after the introduction in Italy of Law 626/94 (see CIS 96-1531), in conformity with the EU directive 90/679/EEC (see CIS 91-29). There are many important biological agents that can have infectious, allergic, toxic or carcinogenic effects on the working population. Large occupational groups are exposed to these biohazards, both in agriculture and industry. Vaccination is one of the most beneficial medical practices, which has led to the eradication of devastating diseases such as smallpox and the almost total elimination of poliomyelitis. Vaccination is also one of the most cost effective prevention measures applicable. This paper describes the possible vaccinations that employers should make available to employees exposed to biological risk, according to article 86 of Law 626/94.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.226-250. 79 ref.

CIS 01-516 Dower J.M., Metzler R.W., Palya F.M., Peterson J.A., Pickett-Harner M.
NIOSH-DOD-OSHA sponsored chemical and biological respiratory protection workshop report
Report of a workshop on chemical and biological respiratory protection in connection with combating terrorism, held in Morgantown, WV, USA, 10-12 March 1999. The workshop provided a forum for over 140 representatives of 63 different emergency services, fire fighters, domestic preparedness organizations, equipment manufacturers, federal research organizations, and state and federal regulatory organizations. Main topics discussed: hazards associated with chemicals or chemical incidents; emergency services and their respiratory protection needs; respirator standards; chemical or biological response plans and protection needs for public health and the medical community. A list of chemical and biological agents of concern is included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 2000. iii, 76p.

CIS 01-580
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to farmers; Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to farmers and others responsible for open farms on how to reduce health risks to visitors, particularly to children. A supplementary sheet is aimed at teachers. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Main topics covered: legal requirements for open farms; risk assessment; risk control; farm layout and access areas to visitors; animal contact; eating areas; washing facilities; visitor information and signs; staff training and supervision; livestock management procedures; manure and compost; laying out a "no contact" farm. Additional sources of advice to farmers are provided. Replaces CIS 98-676.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. 4p. + 1p. (Supplement).
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais23.pdf [in English]

CIS 00-554 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 5/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-553). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by firemen, ambulance drivers, educational workers and childminders, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

CIS 00-553 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 4/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by taxi and bus drivers, cleaners, restaurant and pub doormen, and library and shop workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

CIS 00-552 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 3/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations, which could be experienced by social workers, bailiffs, pharmacists and pharmacy employees, dentists and nurses, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

CIS 00-551 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 2/5
This videotape is part of a series of 5 films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-552, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by nurses, real estate managers, agricultural workers, health inspectors as well as microbiology laboratory workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 40min).

CIS 00-550 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 1/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by police, border guards, customs officials, conductors and security guards, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

1999

CIS 07-9 Ordinance on the use of organisms in confined spaces [Switzerland]
Ordonnance sur l'utilisation des organismes en milieu confiné (Ordonnance sur l'utilisation confinée) [Suisse] [in French]
Verordnung vom 25. August 1999 über den Umgang mit Organismen in geschlossenen Systemen (Einschliessungsverordnung, ESV) [in German]
Ordinanza del 25 agosto 1999 sull'utilizzazione di organismi in sistemi chiusi (Ordinanza sull'impiego confinato, OIConf) [in Italian]
Ordinance on the safe use of microorganisms in confined spaces. In summary: general measures; requirements concerning the use of organisms in confined spaces (general requirements and requirements concerning genetically modified organisms); role of government authorities (verification of notifications and of authorization applications; monitoring of enterprises; monitoring of transportation; collection, treatment and confidentiality of data; directives, training and further education). In annex: definition of the techniques of genetic modification; hazard evaluation (classification of organisms, systems of biological safety, classification of activities); information required for the declaration, notification and authorization of activities; safety measures.
Internet document, 1999. 38p.
http://www.admin.ch/ch/i/rs/c814_912.html [in Italian]
http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/sr/c814_912.html [in German]
http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/rs/c814_912.html [in French]

CIS 03-530 Pipke R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Ordinance on biological substances - Text of the ordinance; Community classification; Technical rules [Germany]
Biostoffverordnung - Rechtsverordnung; Gemeinschaftliche Einstufung; Ausgewählte technische Regeln [in German]
This booklet contains the texts of the ordinance on biological substances (see also CIS 00-332) and of its first modification, the consolidated unofficial community classification of biological substances as well as two technical rules: focussed prevention measures during laboratory work involving biological substances (TRBA 100) and minimum standards for general hygiene measures (TRBA 500).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 59p. Illus. Price: EUR 9.00.

CIS 01-1838 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological risk prevention in the laboratory: Work with fungi
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con hongos [in Spanish]
This information note is addresses to the issue of the various species of fungi that can present a hazard to workers who handle them in laboratories. It describes the different types of mycoses associated these fungi (generalized mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, dermatomycoses or superficial mycoses), the characteristics of fungi, yeasts and moulds as well as the hazards and biological safety measures (confinement level) associated with each species. Safety measures applicable to the handling and disposal of fungal cultures in laboratories are also discussed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 4p. 9 ref.

CIS 01-1022 Sousa J.P., Franco M.H., Rodrigues M.A., dos Santos M., Reis F.
Hazards due to biological agents - Prevention manual
Riscos dos agentes biológicos - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual provides technical information on the risks from exposure to biological agents in various occupational sectors. It also surveys the prevention measures for improving safety, hygiene and health conditions that need to be implemented at work sites where biological agents are handled or produced. Separate chapters cover: legislation in Portugal and methods for risk evaluation; metabolism of different organs in the body; action of biological agents on the organism; biological hazards in certain industries (research and clinical laboratories, hospitals and other health-care establishments, the food industry, in the fishing industry, in the transport and elimination of wastes, in water treatment centres); biological agents (fungi) in workplace air.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Oct. 1999. 405p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-884 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological hazard prevention in the laboratory: Work with viruses
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con virus [in Spanish]
This information note provides guidance on biological hazards linked to the handling of various viruses (hepatitis A, B and C, herpes, influenza, Armstrong's disease, polio, rabies, spongiform encephalopathy and vesicular stomatitis, HIV and SIV retroviruses); modes of transmission and levels of confinement appropriate for safe work in laboratories.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 8 ref.

CIS 01-578 Allescher W.
Ordinance on biological agents at work - Implementation of the Law on Occupational Health and Safety
Biostoffverordnung - Arbeitsschutzgesetz konkretisiert [in German]
With the Ordinance on biological agents at work (CIS 00-332) which went into effect in April 1999, Germany has implemented Directive 90/679/EEC (see CIS 91-29) into national law. The ordinance addresses all work with biological substances as well as exposure to biological substances such as the operation of earthmoving equipment in a sanitary landfill. The requirement that the employer determine all biological hazards encountered on a workplace and provide necessary protection is considered to be the most important part of the ordinance. The ordinance distinguishes four classes of biological substances and risk, and differentiates work with known and unknown biological substances. It applies to agriculture, effluent treatment, waste disposal, and the health care professions. Protective measures and medical examinations are discussed. A panel on work with biological substances was created to produce technical guidance documents.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, 1999, No.5, p.15-19.

CIS 01-582 Biological agents and occupational health
Les agents biologiques et la santé au travail [in French]
Biologische agentia en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
This booklet explains the provisions of the Royal decree on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, which is an application of the EU directive (see CIS 91-29). It describes the effects of biological agents on health (infection, intoxication, allergies), employers' responsibilities as well as required procedures (notification of the work, lists of workers, confinement measures, medical records and vaccination).
Federaal Ministerie van Tewekstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, 1040 Brussel, Belgium, [1999]. 24p. 14 ref.

CIS 01-256 Duma S.M., Rudd R.W., Crandall J.R.
A protocol system for testing biohazardous materials in an impact biomechanics research facility
This article presents a protocol system, comprising a review process and a series of checklists, that was developed for testing cadaveric tissue in an impact biomechanics research facility. The use of cadaveric tissue may expose personnel to bloodborne pathogens including HIV and hepatitis B, which have been shown to remain virulent in a cadaver for several weeks after death. To minimize exposure risks, the protocol system presented emphasizes initial blood screening to keep infectious tissue from entering the laboratory, and adopts universal precautions to prevent exposure by treating all tissue as though it were infected. All laboratory employees must read, sign and demonstrate proficiency with the protocol. Well-developed test procedures for the handling of biohazardous materials along with an annual individual protocol review have proven effective for the preceding six years in minimizing exposure risks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.629-634. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-26 Ordinance of 25 Aug. 1999 concerning the protection of workers against the risks connected to microorganisms [Switzerland]
Ordonnance du 25 août 1999 sur la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés aux microorganismes (OPTM) [Suisse] [in French]
Verordnung vom 25. August 1999 über den Schutz der Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer vor Gefährdung durch Mikroorganismen (SAMV) [in German]
Ordinanza del 25 agosto 1999 sulla protezione dei lavoratori dal pericolo derivante da microorganismi (OPLM) [in Italian]
Contents of this Ordinance (effective 1 Nov. 1999): definitions; classification of microorganisms; obligations of employers (hazard identification, risk evaluation, safety measures, information and training, medical surveillance, notification of use); obligations of workers. In annex: definition of the techniques of genetic modification; hazard evaluation techniques; safety measure techniques in case of microorganism utilization (with particular techniques listed for: research and development laboratories, locales and isolation chambers used for microorganism culture, units reserved for animals, microorganism production installations).
Amtliche Sammlung des Bundesrechts - Recueil officiel des lois fédérales, 23 Nov. 1999, No.46, p.2826-2835. + Annexe (16p.).
http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/sr/c832_321.html [in German]
http://www.admin.ch/ch/i/rs/8/832.321.it.pdf [in Italian]
http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/rs/c832_321.html [in French]

CIS 00-1533 Royal Order of 29 Apr. 1999 modifying the Royal Order of 4 Aug. 1996 concerning the protection of workers against risks connected with the exposure to biological agents at work [Belgium]
Arrêté royal du 29 avril 1999 modifiant l'arrêté royal du 4 août 1996 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'exposition à des agents biologiques au travail [Belgique] [in French]
29 april 1999 - Koninklijk besluit tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 4 augustus 1996 betreffende de bescherming van de werknemers tegen de risico's bij blootstelling aan biologische agentia op het werk [in Dutch]
This Order introduces the provisions of Directive 97/59/EC (CIS 97-1430) and 97/65/EC (CIS 97-1790) into Belgian legislation, by modifying the 1996 Order on the protection of workers against exposure to biological agents (see CIS 00-1532).
Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 7 Oct. 1999, No.198, p.37917-37921.

CIS 00-1580 Ramos Carrillo C.
Ministerio de trabajo y asuntos sociales
Biological hazards among health care personnel - Prevention programmes
Riesgos biológicos en personal sanitario - Programas de prevención [in Spanish]
Topics: antibodies; bacterial diseases; biological hazards; chickenpox; health care personnel; health programmes; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious hepatitis; influenza; legionellosis; manuals; medical supervision; risk factors; rubella; Spain; training material; tuberculosis; typhoid fever; vaccination; virus diseases.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 51p. 21 ref.

CIS 00-1464 Simon R., Tichy H.V., Gerbl-Rieger S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Model operating instructions for activities with biological materials
Musterbetriebsanweisung für Tätigkeiten mit biologischen Arbeitsstoffen [in German]
Operating instructions for the handling of biological material, based on the German ordinance on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (a transposition of Council Directive 90/679/EEC, see CIS 91-29) are presented. A collection of text modules enables the generation of specific operating instructions by selecting the appropriate elements. As an example, the operating instructions for a laboratory of containment level 2 is given.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. xi, 119p. 33 ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 00-1240 Factories ordinance - Factories (Control of Biological Agents at Work) Regulations 1999 [Gibraltar]
These regulations transpose into local legislation the provisions of Council Directive 90/679 of 26 November 1990 on the protection of workers against biological agents at work (CIS 91-29). They provide for an evaluation of the hazards due to biological agents, as well as preventive and control measures. They also contain special provisions for laboratories and medical and dentistry offices. An appendix includes a classification of biological agents.
Gibraltar Gazette, 15 Apr. 1999, Second supplement, No.3098, p.99-130.

CIS 00-814
Health and Safety Commission
General COSHH ACOP (Control of substances hazardous to health) and Carcinogens ACOP (Control of carcinogenic substances) and Biological agents ACOP (Control of biological agents). Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 - Approved Codes of Practice
This revised guidance incorporates three Approved Codes of Practice (ACOPs) relating to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH), which updates the provisions of the COSHH of 1988 (CIS 89-1092) and 1994 (CIS 95-19), both now revoked. Changes include amended definitions, the removal from the schedules of the list of substances for which a maximum exposure limit has been approved, and some other minor changes. The ACOPs replace those of 1997 (see CIS 97-950).
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1999. viii, 76p. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 00-620 Health and Safety - The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations re-enact, with minor modifications, Regulations No.1994/3246 on the same topic (CIS 95-19), as amended subsequently. It is consistent with, and implements as respects Great Britain, various European Council Directives, in particular 80/1107/EEC (CIS 81-1610) and Commission Directives 91/322/EEC (CIS 92-1427) and 96/94/EC (CIS 97-9), as well as others with more limited scope (vinyl chloride, benzene, carcinogens etc.). The Regulations impose duties on employers to protect employees and other persons who may be exposed to substances hazardous to health. These duties relate to: prohibition of importation (except from another EU state) of certain substances (2-naphthylamine, benzidine, 4-aminodiphenyl, 4-nitrodiphenyl, salts of these chemicals, matches made with white phosphorus); assessment of health risks; prevention, control and monitoring of exposure; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; fumigation; exemption certificates. In the schedules: list of carcinogens; prohibition of certain substances for certain purposes; special provisions relating to biological agents; examination and testing frequency of local exhaust ventilation plant; specific substances to be monitored; medical surveillance in connection with certains substances; fumigation exemptions and notifications.
The Stationery Office Ltd., P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1999. 25p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.50.

CIS 00-371 Manual for paramedics on HIV/AIDS
This booklet aimed at paramedicals, patients and people dealing with HIV/AIDS patients provides practical information about safe behaviour and protective measures. Main topics covered: basic facts; how to protect oneself from AIDS; misconceptions about AIDS; precautions to be taken by health care workers (personal protective equipment, hygiene of the hands, management of body fluids, waste disposal).
Society for Participatory Research in Asia, 42 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi, India, 1999. 30p. Illus.

CIS 00-549 Leprince A., Dornier G.
Biological hazards in the work environment
Risques biologiques en milieu de travail [in French]
In France, an estimated 1.2 million workers are exposed to biological hazards at work. This information sheet summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to the prevention of biological hazards. Topics covered: risks of infection from biological agents; carcinogenicity of some biological agents; preventive action (risk assessment, identification of hazards, containment, vaccination); occupations at risk from exposure to blood; infection risks in medical laboratories; biological hazards in effluent treatment plants; research; training; French and European regulations.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1999, No.589, 4p. Insert. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 00-548 Preventing needlestick injuries in health care settings
This booklet is addressed to employers and workers in health care establishments. Health care workers exposed to needles are at an increased risk of needlestick injuries. Such injuries can lead to serious (even fatal) infections with bloodborne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case studies of needlestick injuries are presented. The brochure advises avoiding the unnecessary use of needles, using needleless and safer needle devices, and promoting education and safe work practices. It also presents intervention strategies for reducing the risks.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 1999. 23p. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 00-332 Ordinance of 27 January 1999 applying EU Directives on the protection of workers from risks related to biological agents at work [Germany]
Verordnung zur Umsetzung von EG-Richtlinien über den Schutz der Beschäftigten gegen Gefährdung durch biologische Arbeitsstoffe bei der Arbeit [in German]
Ordinance introducing into national legislation the provisions of Directive 90/679/EEC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (CIS 91-29).
Bundesgesetzblatt, 29 Jan. 1999, Teil I, G5702, No.4, p.50-60.

CIS 00-546 Guastello S.J., Gershon R.R.M., Murphy L.R.
Catastrophe model for the exposure to blood-borne pathogens and other accidents in health care settings
Workers at three hospitals were surveyed on HIV-relevant exposures (needlesticks, cuts, splashes, contact with open wounds), the accident rate for broadly-defined injuries, and several occupationally relevant themes. A cusp (cubic polynomial) model predicting HIV-relevant exposures was more accurate than a linear model containing the same variables. Some of the variables predisposed workers to greater differences in HIV-relevant and general accident exposures: shiftwork, climate, depressive symptoms and workpace. Other variables governed how close an individual was to a critical threshold where a harmful incident would take place: verbal abuse, professional group membership. Similarly, a cusp model for accident incidents predicted from HIV-relevant exposures and occupational variables was also more accurate than comparison models. Two variables predisposed the worker to a greater accident risk: depression symptoms and shift work. Four other variables predisposed the worker to lesser accident risk: job satisfaction, safety climate, environment stressors and workpace.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 1999, Vol.31, No.6, p.739-749. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-248 Chouchan D.
P4 laboratory: A fortress against viruses
Laboratoire P4: une forteresse pour les virus [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; containment; experimental animals; infectious diseases; laboratory work; legal aspects; microorganisms; negative pressure application; pathogenic bacteria; protective clothing; safe layout; safety devices; viruses.
Travail et sécurité, June 1999, No.585, p.2-8. Illus.

CIS 00-252 Ivens U.I., Breum N.O., Ebbehøj N., Nielsen B.H., Poulsen O.M., Würtz H.
Exposure-response relationship between gastrointestinal problems among waste collectors and bioaerosol exposure
The relationship between gastrointestinal problems and exposure to bioaerosols among waste collectors was investigated using a job-exposure matrix constructed from a combination of questionnaire data (concerning 1,747 waste collectors and 1,111 controls), and field measurements (189 personal samples measuring viable fungi, total count of of fungal spores, microorganisms and endotoxins). Results show that high exposure to endotoxins was associated with nausea, and the risk of reporting nausea decreased with decreasing exposure. High exposure to endotoxins was also associated with reports of diarrhoea, and the risk of reporting diarrhoea decreased with decreasing exposure. The same pattern existed for exposure to fungi, and reported diarrhoea.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.238-245. 40 ref.

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