Biological hazards - 589 entries found
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Villanueva Íńiguez Y., Laborda Grima R.
Legionellosis - A public health problem with occupational repercussions
Legionelosis - Un problema de salud pública con repercusiones en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
This article presents Spanish regulations on the prevention of legionellosis. Contents: legislation; various types of equipment that are subject to the current national regulations; notification of hazardous installations to the competent authority; log of installation maintenance operations; general prevention measures; prevention measures applicable to health care institutions; interventions by sanitary authorities; steps to be undertaken in cases of single outbreaks or epidemics; preventive measures that are referred to in legal texts adopted by the autonomous region of Valencia.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2003, No.164, p.28-38. Illus. 7 ref.
Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in medical laboratories
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen in medizinischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prévention des infections transmises par voie sanguine dans les laboratoires médicaux [in French]
Prevenzione delle infezioni transmese par la via ematica nel laboatori di analisi cliniche [in Italian]
Aimed at medical laboratory workers, this booklet addresses the issue of infection hazards from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the event of accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids. Contents: infection hazards; purpose of prevention; main preventive measures (avoiding pricks and injuries, avoiding contact with blood and biological fluids, ensuring cleanliness and hygiene during work, hepatitis B vaccination); measures to be taken in the event of accidental exposure. Updated version of CIS 90-2071.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 4th rev.ed., May 2003. 7p. 1 ref.
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-19-d.pdf [in German]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-19-f.pdf [in French]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-19-i.pdf [in Italian]
Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections during patient care
Prévention des infections transmises par voie sanguine lors de soins aux patients [in French]
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen beim Umgang mit Patienten [in German]
Prevenzione delle infezioni trasmese par la via ematica nel contatto con i pazienti [in Italian]
Aimed at health care workers in contact with patients, this booklet addresses the issue of infection hazards from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the event of accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids. Contents: infection hazards; purpose of prevention; main preventive measures (avoiding pricks and injuries, avoiding contact with blood and biological fluids, ensuring cleanliness and hygiene during work, hepatitis B vaccination); measures to be taken in the event of accidental exposure. Updated version of CIS 90-2070.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 5th rev.ed., May 2003. 7p. 1 ref.
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-20-d.pdf [in German]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-20-f.pdf [in French]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-20-i.pdf [in Italian]
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working and the prevention of infection in clinical laboratories and similar facilities
This guidance is intended primarily to cover working practices in clinical pathology laboratories, and updates the 1991 edition (see CIS 91-2072) by taking into account the requirements under the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 (see CIS 95-1930) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002. Contents: introduction; health and safety law; health and safety management; categorization of biological agents; buildings and accommodation; standard operating procedures and safe working practices; equipment; revision of standard practices and procedures; cleaning, decontamination and waste disposal; information, instruction and training; health surveillance and immunization; incidents and accidents; audits. Appendices include: microbiological safety cabinets; disinfectants and disinfection of clinical laboratories; packaging requirements for diagnostic specimens; staff safety guidelines.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2003. iv, 80p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working and the prevention of infection in the mortuary and post-mortem room
This guidance updates the 1991 edition (see CIS 92-326) on safe working practices and the prevention of infections in mortuaries and post-mortem rooms. It includes the requirements under the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) 1999 (see CIS 02-1507) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002. Contents: introduction; definition of health and safety management; risk assessment; mortuary facilities and building accommodation; body reception; safe working practices in the mortuary and post-mortem room; post-mortem examinations; visitors and observers in the mortuary and post-mortem examination room; cleaning and decontamination; waste disposal; information, training, instruction and supervision; health surveillance and immunization; checking what has been done. Appendices include: health and safety law; disinfectants and disinfection; infection control notification sheet; packaging, labelling and transport of specimens.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2003. iv, 52p. 61 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Ruiz Figueroa M.J., García Puente N.E.
Prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing
La prevención del riesgo biológico en la ganadería [in Spanish]
The livestock rearing sector is subject to the provisions of Royal Decree 664/1997 of 12 May on the protection of workers against biological hazards (see CIS 98-411). Following a brief overview of legal requirements with respect to the prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing and a presentation on the current situation of the sector in Spain (types of farms and production data), this document, aimed at occupational health services goes on to provide information enabling the qualitative evaluation of biological hazards and the control of preventive measures in the sector. Topics covered: definitions of biological pathogens, risk groups and occupational risk classification; tables showing the hazards associated with certain tasks in various sectors mentioning the biological hazards to which workers are exposed, the hazard group and the disease caused; clinical, biological or functional diagnosis of all diseases caused by biological agents; technical and medical prevention measures for various biological hazards; recommendations for the prevention of hazards in livestock rearing.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 140p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: EUR 3.44.
Actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures
Conduite ŕ tenir en cas d'accident avec exposition au sang [in French]
This leaflet summarizes the main actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures, namely: cleaning (rinsing copiously with clean water in cases of eye or mouth exposure, cleaning and disinfecting in cases of needle-stick or other skin injuries); reporting the accident and informing the occupational physician; setting up the biological monitoring system.
Association interprofessionnelle des centres médicaux et sociaux de la région Ile-de-France, 55 rue Rouget-de-l'Isle, 92158 Suresnes Cedex, France, 2003. 4p. 2 ref.
Brasseur G., Balty I., David C., Le Bâcle C., Leprince A.
Biological hazards in the workplace: Does it concern all of us?
Risques biologiques au travail - Sommes-nous tous concernés? [in French]
Many biological agents are encountered in occupational settings. They may give rise to allergies or cancers, and the toxins they liberate may cause poisonings. According to a survey carried out in 1994, 10% of French employees are exposed to biological agents in the course of their work. Health care personnel, persons working in the presence of animals, laboratory workers, workers in the food industry and waste disposal workers are particularly exposed to this hazard. This collection of articles discusses some of the general aspects of these hazards, applicable regulations and appropriate preventive measures, and describes the specific aspects of a number of industries ands sectors: antenna maintenance workers exposed to bird droppings; manufacturing processes involving fermentation; chicken processing plants; medical laboratories; processing of meat carcasses.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2003, No.625, p.20-35. Illus. 3 ref.
Guidance for filtration and air-cleaning systems to protect building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks
This document proposes preventive measures that building owners and managers can implement to protect building air environments from an airborne chemical, biological or radiological (CBR) terrorist attack. Main topics covered: filtration and air-cleaning principles; recommendations regarding filter and sorbent selection, operations, upgrade and maintenance; economic considerations (initial, operation and replacement costs, cost data). In appendices: description of CBR threats; gas-phase air-cleaning principles.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2003. xv, 62p. Illus. 66 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-136/2003-136.html [in English]
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Official Mexican Standard - Environmental Protection - Environmental Health - Dangerous Biologically Infectious Residues - Classification and Specifications for Handling [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Protección ambiental - Salud ambiental - Residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos - Clasificación y especificaciones de manejo [in Spanish]
This standard was emitted in accordance with the provisions of the General law on ecological balance and environmental protection. Contents: definitions and terminology; classification of biologically dangerous infectious residues; classification of establishments generating biologically dangerous infectious residues; handling of such residues. The previous standard on the same subject (NOM-087-ECOL-1995) is repealed.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 17 Feb. 2003, Vol.DXCIII, No.10, p.10-20. Illus. 42 ref.
http://www.semarnat.gob.mx/ssfna/NOM/NOM087ECOL.zip [in Spanish]
Health and Safety Executive
Working with sewage - The health hazards
This leaflet for persons working with sewage explains the main health risks (gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and hepatitis), the measures to be taken to prevent infections and what to do in case of illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. 6p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg197.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Control of substances hazardous to health (Fourth edition). The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 - Approved Code of Practice and Guidance
Contains the Approved Code of Practice for the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002 with supporting guidance on the control of carcinogenic substances, work with biological agents and the control of substances that cause occupational asthma. Covers: the assessment of health risks; prevention or control of exposure; use and maintenance of control measures; exposure monitoring; health surveillance; provision of information and training; arrangements for dealing with accidents. Replaces previous edition (CIS 00-814).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 131p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.
Alakomi H.L., Kujanpää K., Partenen L., Suihko M.L., Salo S., Siika-aho M., Saarela M., Mattila-Sandholm T., Raaska L.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Microbiological problems in paper machine environments
This literature survey compiles the information available about microorganisms present in paper production processes, from raw materials to end products. It discusses the most important factors involved in the build-up of biofilm in papermaking machines and in end-product contamination, the role of spore-forming bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, the migration of microorganisms from packaging materials to foods, offensive odours and quality problems. Microbiological methods used in studying the microbial ecology of paper machine environments were collated. Conventional and novel methods used to reduce or to limit the amount of microbes or microbial activity, especially in circulation waters and raw materials, and to control and prevent deposit formation on paper machines are reviewed.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2002. 97p. Illus. 206 ref. Price: EUR 35.00 (+8 % VAT) .
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding ill health at open farms - Advice to teachers
This information sheet provides advice to teachers on how to reduce health risks to children during visits to open farms. The main hazard is a transmission of animal microorganisms to humans; E. coli O157 in particular can cause severe illness in young children. Contents: precautions to be taken before the visit (reading and understanding the advice in the main information sheet aimed at farmers (CIS 01-580), making provisions for the proper supervision of children during the visit); precautions to be taken during and after the visit (preventing children from touching animals, washing of hands, eating arrangements, supervision of children). Reprinted with updated references (replaces the supplement sheet analysed as part of CIS 01-580).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2002. 1p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais23.pdf [in English]
Neumann H.D., Balfanz J., Becker G., Mathys W., Raulf-Heimsoth M.
Risk of exposure to germs among waste collection and waste disposal workers
Gefährdung von Beschäftigten bei der Abfallsammlung und -abfuhr durch Keimexpositionen [in German]
The introduction of waste separation has somewhat modified the working conditions of garbage collectors, in particular with respect to their exposure to bioaerosols. The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of garbage collectors, with a focus on determining whether the level of exposure varied as a function of the type of waste stream, the frequency of removal and seasons, and whether it presented a risk to the workers' health. Exposure to fungi, bacteria and bacterial endotoxins was measured under both real and standardized conditions, and 220 garbage collectors were subjected to medical examinations to determine their state of health. Exposure tests show that garbage collectors are exposed to microbial emissions that are significantly higher than background levels (total moulds 202-204 CFU/m3), but nonetheless lower than the expected values. Driver exposures are much lower than those of workers loading the truck. No correlations were found between the state of health and the exposure to microbial germs, and no significant differences were observed between exposure to organic and inorganic waste.
Ergo-Med, May-June 2002, Vol.26, No.3, p.72-77. Illus. 18 ref.
Health and Safety - The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations re-enact, with minor modifications, Statutory Instruments 1999 No.437 on the same topic (CIS 00-620), which is repealed. It is consistent with, and implements as respects Great Britain, various European Council Directives, in particular 80/1107/EEC (CIS 81-1610), Commission Directives 91/322/EEC (CIS 92-1427) and 96/94/EC (CIS 97-9), and others with a more limited scope (vinyl chloride, benzene, carcinogens etc.), Council Directive 98/24/EC on dangerous chemicals (see CIS 98-1094) and Directive 2000/54/EC on biological hazards (see CIS 03-1046). The Regulations impose duties on employers to protect employees and other persons who may be exposed to substances hazardous to health. These duties relate to: prohibition of importation (except from another EU state) of certain substances (2-naphthylamine, benzidine, 4-aminodiphenyl, 4-nitrodiphenyl, salts of these chemicals, matches made with white phosphorus); assessment of health risks; prevention, control and monitoring of exposure; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; arrangements to deal with accidents, incidents and emergencies; fumigation; exemption certificates. In the schedules: list of carcinogens; prohibition of certain substances for certain purposes; special provisions relating to biological agents; examination and testing frequency of local exhaust ventilation plant; specific substances to be monitored; medical surveillance in connection with certain substances; legislation concerned with the labelling of containers and pipes; fumigation exemptions and notifications.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2002. (Also: TSO Online Bookshop, http://www.tso.co.uk/bookshop/). 27p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.50.
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2002/20022677.htm [in English]
Cabinet Regulation No.189/2002 of 21 May 2002 - Labour protection requirements when coming into contact with biological substances [Latvia]
Darba aizsardzības prasības, saskaroties ar bioloģiskajām vielām [in Latvian]
Regulations issued under the Labour Protection Law of 2001 (see CIS 01-1571) on protection against biological hazards in the workplace. Contents: general provisions; risk assessment; prevention and reduction of risk; list of workers who may be at risk of exposure to biological agents; informing supervisory and control authorities; labour protection requirements in medical and veterinary care institutions; special measures in laboratories, premises intended for animals and industrial processes; health surveillance of employees; informing, training, consultation and participation of employees. In annex: classification of harmful biological agents, by type (bacteria and similar organisms, viruses, parasites, fungi); containment measures and levels for the protection of workers against biological agents (in general and as part of industrial processes).
Latvijas Republikas Saeimas un Ministru Kabineta Ziņotājs, 2002, No.12, p.140-. Internet copy: 27p. (Latvian), 28p. (English).
http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=62417 [in Latvian]
http://www.ttc.lv/New/lv/tulkojumi/E0419.doc [in English]
Miller A.K., Tepper A., Sieber K.
Historical risks of tuberculin skin test conversion among non-physician staff at a large urban hospital
Following cases of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among workers at a 1000-bed urban hospital, an extensive evaluation was carried out of this risk among workers with potential exposure to tuberculosis patients or to contaminated biological samples. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence and risk of tuberculin skin test (TST) conversions among workers employed between 1 January 1990 and 30 September 1992. Personal, social and occupational risk factors were evaluated in 2,362 workers with potential exposure and 886 workers with no known exposure. The 33-month cumulative rate of TST conversion was 5.8% for potentially exposed workers and 2.0% for controls. Among workers with potential tuberculosis exposure, statistically significantly elevated risks were found for nurses, laboratory technicians, pharmacy workers, phlebotomists, housekeepers, clerks, emergency room workers and emergency responders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.42, No.3, p.228-235. 33 ref.
Touche S., Leprince A., Abiteboul D.
Controlling infection hazards in microbiology laboratories
Maîtrise des risques infectieux en laboratoires de microbiologie [in French]
Work carried out in microbiology laboratories and in medical laboratories that analyse biological samples from patients involves infection hazards for the workers. The nature and magnitude of these hazards depend on the type of laboratory under study. It is therefore important that laboratory workers and all persons concerned with their occupational hygiene prepare their specific occupational safety and health plan. Based on two studies carried out in hospital environments, the objective of this review article is to describe an approach to evaluating hazards and to define an approach to prevention. Contents: description of the hazards; hazard identification and exposure evaluation; risk control strategy.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.91, p.231-245. 27 ref.
Contamination of ventilation systems by pigeons: An unrecognized hazard
La contamination des systčmes de ventilation par des pigeons: un risque méconnu [in French]
The presence of pigeons can lead to the contamination of ventilation systems and it favours the growth of microorganisms that can affect the health of persons inside the buildings. Indeed, the contamination of ventilation systems by pigeon droppings is an unrecognized hazard that needs to be addressed. This article describes the symptoms of various diseases caused by pigeons, as well as the measures that need to be taken when pigeons establish a nesting colony near a ventilation system (disinfection, removal of the droppings, decontamination of the premises, installation of physical obstacles).
Travail et santé, Dec. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.22-26. Illus. 11 réf.
Le Bâcle C., Balty I., Dornier G.
Animal prions in the working environment
Les prions d'origine animale en milieu de travail [in French]
Persons working in slaughterhouses as well as those exposed to animal flour are at risk of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) caused by prions. Contents of this practical safety data sheet on risks from animal prions at the workplace: description of prions (their nature and the WHO classification of animal tissues according to the risk they present); risks to humans; preventive measures as a function of activities and workplaces; French and European regulations; efforts undertaken by the French French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INRS) and other French institutions involved. Tables show data on TSE by animal species as well as the incidence of bovine TSE (BSE) in the ten most severely affected countries.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2002. 4p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/les_prions_d_origine_animale_en_milieu_de_travail.html [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Control of laboratory animal allergy
Aimed at employers, managers, employees and safety and health professionals, this guidance note describes possible health risks that could result from exposure to laboratory animal allergens. It includes advice to employers and managers of animal facilities on the precautions needed to prevent or control exposure as required by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, see CIS 00-620). It also addresses duties under Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSW, see CIS 00-403), including the need to co-operate and coordinate where different employers share a workplace. Contents: description of laboratory animal allergy; management of health and safety in animal facilities; assessment of hazards to health; prevention and control of exposure (ventilation, systems of work, personal protective equipment); maintenance, examination and testing of control measures; information and training of employees.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2002. 8p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Guidance for protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biological or radiological attacks
This document provides guidance on preventive measures to be adopted by building owners and managers to protect air environments from a terrorist release of chemical, biological or radiological contaminants. These recommendations focus on short-term actions and are to be considered only as a first step of a process to develop more comprehensive guidance. Contents: scope; background; importance of understanding current building systems; specific recommendations (things not to be done; physical security; ventilation and filtration; maintenance; administration and training); decisions and measures.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, May 2002. vii, 28p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/bldvent/pdfs/2002-139.pdf [in English]
Krajewski J.A., Tarkowski S., Cyprowski M., Szarapińska-Kwaszewska J., Dudkewicz B.
Occupational exposure to organic dust associated with municipal waste collection and management
Questionnaire responses showed that workers employed in municipal waste collection regarded noise, dustiness, odour, physical effort and changeable atmospheric conditions as the most strenuous factors. In order to evaluate exposure to organic dust, endotoxins, bacteria and fungi, air samples were collected in the workers' breathing zone. The highest dust concentrations were observed on waste collection and composting sites. Samples collected on the composting site contained the largest amount of endotoxins, followed by sorting facility and waste collection area. Gram-negative rods (primarily intestinal) were found in all samples collected at the different workposts, which justified the adoption of the air concentrations of endotoxins as a criterion for assessing their hygienic conditions. It is concluded that waste collectors and composting site workers are working in poor hygienic conditions.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.3, p.289-301. Illus. 40 ref.
Guidance for controlling potential risks to workers exposed to class B biosolids
Bio-solids are organic residues resulting from the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Currently, more than 50% of the bio-solids generated in the United States are recycled to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plant growth. Class B bio-solids may contain some pathogens found in sewage (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths). Aimed at employers (essentially, farmers), this booklet provides guidance for controlling risks to workers during storage and land application of class B bio-solids. Topics covered include basic hygiene recommendations, providing appropriate protective clothing and adopting good environmental practices to prevent and minimize exposure.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2002. 7p. 23 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-149/2002-149.html [in English]
Haug T., Sřstrand P., Langĺrd S.
Exposure to culturable microorganisms in paper mills and presence of symptoms associated with infections
Based on an exposure assessment, workers exposed to culturable bio-aerosols in 11 paper mills were divided into three exposure groups. 781 exposed and 285 unexposed workers completed a questionnaire that provided data pertaining to infections and associated symptoms. Concentrations of culturable bacteria in process waters varied in the range 104-106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and in bio-aerosol concentrations varied typically in the range 104-105 CFU/m3. Operators exposed to bio-aerosols reported higher incidence of symptoms associated with infections compared to the reference population (odds ratio 1.7-5.9), and the group of highest exposed workers reported higher incidence than the lowest exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to bio-aerosols containing culturable microorganisms may induce symptoms associated with infections among operators in paper mills.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.498-505. 32 ref.
Zanoni G., Martini S., Zedde A., Pagani M., Guarnieri A., Tridente G., Romeo L.
Specific immune response to occupational antigens in asymptomatic egg processing workers
Hen's egg proteins are known sensitizers and may cause occupational respiratory diseases in exposed workers. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of sensitization to work-related antigens in asymptomatic egg processing factory workers. Clinical history, respiratory function, atopy and the presence of specific antibodies to environmental and occupational antigens were evaluated in 77 workers. A total of 116 unexposed controls were also studied. The antigen concentration of the factory environment was measured. Specific IgE and precipitin positivity to egg components was more frequently present in workers than among controls. The egg white protein concentration was higher in the egg breaking area. The avian proteins inhaled induced immune responses to occupational antigens in asymptomatic, professionally exposed subjects. Measures to decrease environmental antigen concentrations and thorough monitoring of sensitized workers are advocated.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.490-497. 24 ref.
Ortega H.G., Kreiss K., Schill D.P., Weissman D.N.
Fatal asthma from powdering shark cartilage and review of fatal occupational asthma literature
Work-related asthma is the most common occupational respiratory disease in developed countries. This article reports a case of fatal occupational asthma due to exposure to shark cartilage dust. A 38-year-old male operator worked for eight years in a facility which primarily granulated and powdered various plastics. Sixteen months prior to his death, the plant also began grinding shark cartilage. After ten months of exposure, he reported chest symptoms at work in association with exposure to shark cartilage dust and a physician diagnosed asthma. Six months later, he complained of shortness of breath at work and died from autopsy-confirmed asthma. The latency from onset of exposure to symptoms, and from the appearance of symptoms to death was shorter than for ten occupational asthma fatalities reported in literature. Recognition of occupational causes and triggers of asthma and removal of affected individuals from these exposures can prevent progression to irreversible or fatal asthma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.50-54. 31 ref.
Lavoie J., Guertin S.
Study of biological agents and ergonomic constraints when using trucks with side-lift arms for collecting household waste
Etude des agents biologiques et des contraintes ergonomiques lors de l'utilisation des camions avec bras assisté pour la collecte des ordures domestiques [in French]
One of the ways of limiting the exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols consists of using trucks with side-lift arms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the exposure to bioaerosols with this form of garbage collection and to identify the potential ergonomic constraints when using this type of equipment. Personal exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols was measured for five different types of collection and under the most extreme conditions, those prevailing in summer. The exposure of workers to airborne bacteria and endotoxins was significantly reduced by using trucks with side-lift arms. The recommended 8h exposure limit of 104CFU/m3 was reached only in the case of mixed wastes. However, even when using trucks with side-lift arms, strict personal hygiene remains one of the most effective means of prevention. In the ergonomic study, the following parameters were taken into consideration: quantities collected; distances driven; number of collection points; incident records and the density of the wastes. It is concluded that certain changes are necessary in the way garbage is collected in order to benefit fully from the advantages offered by trucks with side-lift arms.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. 52p. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-317.pdf [in French]
Quality of indoor air... Something to be closely watched!
La qualité de l'air intérieur... ŕ surveiller! [in French]
This full issue is devoted to indoor air quality in workplaces in Quebec (Canada). Main topics covered: nature of indoor air contaminants; sources of indoor air pollutants; proactive prevention management; disorders due to poor indoor air quality; non-environmental variables associated with complaints concerning the quality of indoor air (stress, job dissatisfaction, psychogenic effects); evaluation of fungal contamination and preventive measures; advice for avoiding the degeneration of an indoor air quality problem into a crisis situation; information communication within the enterprise during interventions following a problem or a crisis; ventilation of premises and air renewal; compensation of disorders due to indoor air quality; right of refusal to work because of poor indoor air quality.
Convergence - Revue de gestion de la santé-sécurité, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.3, p.1-19 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Alcouffe J., Boyer-Raby H., Chaudron B., Devaux M.J., Fabin C., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Accidents involving exposure to blood among private sector workers in Ile-de-France
Accidents avec exposition au sang chez les salariés du secteur privé d'Ile-de-France [in French]
Three epidemiological surveys were carried out to study accidents involving exposure to blood (AEB) among private-sector employees in the region of Ile-de-France (Paris region, France): a survey conducted by occupational physicians through their practice, a survey in health care enterprises and a survey in enterprises considered to be risky (garbage collection, cleaning, housekeeping, security personnel, catering, etc.). Such accidents had a prevalence of 0.33% among all private-sector health care workers and of 0.075% for non-occupational factors. Victims of AEBs were predominately women (62%); the most affected age group was 35-44 (34%). Intervention in enterprises has created awareness for the AEB problem and has enabled the creation or reinforcement of procedures to be followed in the event of AEBs.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.2, p.207-218. 9 ref.
Notification No.87 of 2002 concerning biological agents and the working environment on offshore installations [Denmark]
Bekendtgřrelse om biologiske agenser og arbejdsmiljř pĺ havanlćg [in Danish]
Contents of this Notification (effective 2 Mar. 2002): scope of application and definitions; risk evaluation; safety instructions and information; notification of work with certain biological substances; medical examinations; exemptions. Notification No.670 of 14 July 1994 on the same subject is revoked.
Lovtidende A, 26 Feb. 2002, Vol.22, p.472-477.
One-year study of occupational human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis
A 12-month experience with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in a specialized medical care centre in the United States was evaluated for timeliness of treatment and adherence to treatment recommendations. 46 health care workers were started on HIV PEP. Risk status of the source patient, rather than type of exposure, was a significant determinant for both initiating and completing treatment. Of those exposed to HIV-positive sources, 79% completed the full 28 days of therapy. Only 22% of all health care workers who started PEP discontinued treatment because of adverse effects. The mean time from exposure to first dose of PEP was one hour and 46 minutes. The use of a defined treatment protocol, with supporting educational material and immediately-available PEP medication is an effective way of managing HIV exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.265-270. 14 ref.
Sampling and analysis of airborne endotoxins - A literature survey
Echantillonnage et analyse des endotoxines dans l'air - Etude bibliographique [in French]
Risks to health from airborne bacteria and moulds are known. However, although numerous studies have attempted to estimate the level of exposure to endotoxins in various sectors of occupational activity, dose-effect relationships could not be established. Furthermore, results of tests carried out by different laboratories often show a poor correlation. The variety of techniques used both with respect to sampling and analytical methods explain this dispersion of results to a large degree. This literature survey highlighted the fact that different practices coexist during each step of the sampling and analysis of endotoxins in air. The adoption of a future European standard should impose uniform sampling and analytical techniques, enabling inter-laboratory comparisons, better assessments of the true levels of exposure to endotoxins in all sectors of activity and more accurate evaluations of dose-response relationships.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2170-187-02, p.73-87. Illus. 84 ref.
Order No.47/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on health protection while working with biological agents [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pri práci s biologickými faktormi [in Slovak]
This Order (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to biological agents at work. In annex: classification of biological agents; lists of bacteria and similar organisms, viruses, parasites and fungi (with classification codes); safety precautions in certain situations with risk of exposure to biological agents.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 1 Feb. 2002, No.22, p.494-513.
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/47_02.pdf [in Slovak]
Wouters I.M., Hilhorst S.K.M., Kleppe P., Doekes G., Douwes J., Peretz C., Heederik D.
Upper airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms in domestic waste collectors
In a cross sectional study among 47 waste collectors and 15 controls, questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms were collected. Nasal lavage (NAL) was performed before and after a work shift at the beginning and at the end of the working week. In NAL fluid, cells were counted and differentiated and concentrations of interleukin 6 and 8 (IL6, IL8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and IL1β were measured. In collectors, inhalable dust samples were collected in which bacterial endotoxin and mould β(1⇒3)-glucan were assessed. Waste collectors show signs of increased upper airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms compared with controls. Geometric mean exposure concentrations were 0.58mg/m3 for dust, 39EU/m3 for endotoxin, and 1.3µg/m3 for β(1⇒3)-glucan. At the end of the week collectors had higher concentrations of total cells and IL8 in NAL before and after a shift than controls. However, concentrations of IL6, TNFα, and IL1β were not associated with symptoms or exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.106-112. Illus. 38 ref.
Regulations implementing federal measures concerning protection against major hazards and organisms dangerous to the environment [Switzerland - Geneva]
Rčglement d'application des dispositions fédérales relatives ŕ la protection contre les accidents majeurs et les organismes dangereux pour l'environnement [Suisse - Genčve] [in French]
Regulations implementing in Geneva certain Swiss federal ordinances, including the 1991 Major hazards ordinance (OPAM) (CIS 95-1568), the 1999 Ordinance concerning the protection of workers against the risks connected to microorganisms (OPTM) (CIS 01-26) and the 1999 Ordinance on the use of organisms in confined spaces (CIS 07-9).
Internet document, 2001. 6p.
http://www.ge.ch/legislation/rsg/f/s/rsg_K1_70p06.html [in French]
HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B and C - Preventing exposure at work
This booklet is aimed at employers and workers who are not expected to come into contact with blood and body fluids at their workplace but who could nonetheless have contact with these fluids in rare, isolated incidents that cannot be foreseen. This booklet describes the health effects caused by HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C viruses, together with their mode of infection, and explains how to prevent or reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Includes examples of safe work practices.
WorkSafe, Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Canada, 2001. iv, 34p. Illus.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/hiv_aids.pdf [in English]
Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological risk prevention in laboratories: Work with bacteria
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con bacterias [in Spanish]
This information note covers the prevention of biological hazards in laboratories during work involving bacteria. It lists the main species that may be pathogenic for exposed workers along with the level of biological security required during their handling. Contents: applicable legislation; general characteristics of bacteria; main bacterial agents that are pathogenic for humans; risks incurred in laboratories and precautions to be taken; list of bacteria and their risk class.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 6p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_585.htm [in Spanish]
Hernández Calleja A.
Biological agents: Developing a sampling plan
Agentes biológicos: planificación de la medición [in Spanish]
This information note provides guidance on how to plan the sampling of biological agents for the purposes of evaluating the exposure of workers. Contents: general aspects of the approach; questions to raise during the monitoring of biological agents (purpose of the measurement, location of frequency of the sampling, selection of the sampling equipment, number of samples to be collected); volume and duration of the sampling; rules for the determination of airborne microorganisms and endotoxins as specified in the standard UNE EN 13098.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 10p. 14 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_608.htm [in Spanish]
Łuczak M., Zużewicz M.A.
Biological hazards - A case study
Zagrożenia biologiczne - wybrane zagadnienia [in Polish]
This document describes living organisms which are biological hazards for humans: bacteria, fungi and viruses, as well as irritating agents, allergens, carcinogens and biological toxic agents. The development cycles of Chlamydia and Legionella are also presented.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 64p. Illus. 24 ref
Lefebvre V., Gimenez C., Brochard P.
Chemical hazards in molecular biology laboratories
Risque chimique dans les laboratoires de biologie moléculaire [in French]
As is the case with all new disciplines, molecular biology gives rise to new hazards. Aimed at scientists directly involved as well as at occupational safety and health specialists, and in at particular at occupational health physicians responsible for the medical supervision of persons working in molecular biology laboratories, this article presents current understanding in the field of prevention of chemical hazards. A new method of hazard evaluation is proposed, based on a theoretical approach and on job studies. Knowledge of substances used as a function of laboratory activity and operating procedures specific to each molecular biology technique allows us to propose modifications to preventive and medical surveillance measures. The proper analysis and comprehension of molecular biology techniques is a first requisite for job studies and hazard evaluation in these laboratories.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.3-31. Illus. 27 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/risque_chimique_dans_laboratoires_biologie.html [in French]
Technical and immunological methods of preventing hepatitis B viral infections
Sicherheitstechnische und immunologische Prävention berufsbedingter Hepatitis-B-Virus-Infektionen [in German]
In this thesis, a critical review of occupational hazards and epidemiology relating to hepatitis B infection was carried out, together with incidents that give rise to infections in occupational settings. The frequency with which the piercing of gloves occurred in hospital environments was also evaluated for the purpose of defining the conditions giving rise to such incidents. Results were compared to those of published studies. Despite the adoption of purely technical prevention measures such as wearing double-layer protective gloves or incision-resistant gloves, and protecting the skin to avoid skin diseases, protective vaccination remains an indispensable prevention measure.
FFAS, Postfach 5171, Freiburg, Germany, 2001. 124p. Illus. 152 ref.
Safety and Health at Work (Biological Agents) Regulations of 2001 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Asfáleias kai Ugeías stēn Ergasía (Biologikoí Parágontes) Kanonismoí tou 2001 [in Greek]
These regulations (issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work, see CIS 98-5) specify the provisions needed in order to protect workers against biological hazards. In annex: schedules of bacteria, viruses and parasites, with corresponding hazard codes; limitations on industrial procedures because of the presence of biological hazards.
Episęmos Efęmeris tęs Dęmokratias, 6 Apr. 2001, No.3487, Suppl. III(I), p.1572-1603.
Proposed procedure to be adopted in non-hospital environments following injuries by potentially-contaminated blood-stained objects
Proposition de procédure ŕ suivre, en dehors d'un milieu hospitalier, lors d'un accident du travail avec blessure causée par un objet souillé par du sang susceptible d'ętre contaminé [in French]
Outside of the hospital sector, many enterprises and public services are also confronted with the risk of occupational accident resulting in wounds acquired with objects possibly soiled by infected blood. Although the working procedure for such accidents is well known and regularly applied in hospitals, this is generally not the case in other sectors. This article proposes an approach derived from hospital recommendations. Appendices include information documents aimed at the enterprise-level occupational safety and health committee, at the medical practitioner treating the patient on the day of the accident and at the medical practitioner following this patient, as well as a list of hospitals in Belgium that are able to apply urgently a preventive AIDS tritherapy to injured workers who are not part of their personnel.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.167-178. 12 ref.
Danneberg G., Tichy H.V., Simon R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Selection of work processes and equipment for biotechnological laboratories
Auswahl von Arbeitsverfahren und Ausrüstungsgegenständen für biotechnische Laboratorien [in German]
This study examines operating procedures and equipment used in biotechnology laboratories in terms of their ability to offer a maximum degree of protection to workers against hazards from exposure to biological substances. Standard scenarios applicable to laboratory work were developed and their frequency of use was determined by means of a questionnaire. For the most frequent work procedures, a description and an evaluation of each step is presented, along with the specific corresponding hazards. Modifications of the procedures aimed at minimizing the risks and taking into account currently-available equipment and instruments are proposed. The study highlights gaps in the area of the evaluation of aerosols formed during many procedures and in data concerning the survival capacity of biological products in ambient conditions in laboratories. Further work in these areas is warranted.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. viii, 149p. 54 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.
Balty I., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Dornier G.
Legionella at the workplace
Les légionnelles en milieu de travail [in French]
Legionella are bacteria that are frequently encountered in wet environments. Thus, they are naturally present in waterways, lakes and occasionally in soil. They proliferate in hot water systems, certain industrial cooling systems and air-conditioning systems, and can give rise to epidemics or isolated cases of legionellosis. Contents of this information note on the prevention of legionella at the place of work: risks to humans; regulations; protective measures.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2001, No.611, 4p. Insert. Illus. 3 ref.
Neumann H.D., Mathys W., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Becker G., Balfanz J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Risks of microbial exposure to employees during the collection and transport of garbage
Gefährdung von Beschäftigten bei der Abfallsammlung und -abfuhr durch Keimexpositionen [in German]
The objective of this project was to assess the impact of separate garbage collection and handling on garbage collectors. The exposure to fungal spores, bacteria and endotoxins was determined during waste collection. The state of health of garbage collectors exposed and unexposed to organic waste was assessed by occupational health physicians. It was found that garbage collectors are generally exposed to relatively high levels of microbial emissions. However, only a small number of cases of ill health was found, and a relation between exposure and health status could not be established. Furthermore, there was no indication that the collection of organic waste involved higher health risks for garbage collectors. Several recommendations are made for reducing exposure. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 243p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: EUR 22.50.
Barth U., Hesener U., Kaufmann M., Blum C., Wörsdörfer K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Study of the applicability of normal chemical plant safety checks to biotechnology plants
Untersuchung der Übertragbarkeit der in chemischen Anlagen üblichen Sicherheitsbetrachtung auf biotechnische Anlagen [in German]
This report proposes an approach for testing the safety of biotechnology plants, based on the German Regulation for Hazardous Substances "Safety Technology" (Technische Regeln für Gefarhstoffe "Sicherheitstechnik", TRGS 300). It takes into account the specific aspects of biological substances as well as the working procedures of the biotechnology industry. Reference is made to current legal requirements in Germany. The validity of the approach is illustrated by reference to several of examples of plants and working procedures. The specific case of genetic engineering is discussed. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 215p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: EUR 18.00.
Becker G., Lohmeyer M., Mathys W., Neumann H.D.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Methods for reducing the release of microorganisms during lifting processes by refuse collection vehicles
Methoden zur Minderung der Keimfreisetzung bei Schüttvorgängen an Abfallsammelfahrzeugen [in German]
The objective of this study was to evaluate garbage truck designs and methods of work aimed at reducing the exposure of garbage collectors to microorganisms. Breathing air was analysed for bioaerosols. Vehicle design parameters studied included the type of compaction system (packer plates or rotating drums), rave rail height, intake hopper depth, body design and closure system (curtain or hinged lid). A prototype suction-type aerosol interceptor was evaluated with inconclusive results, requiring further development work. Several truck design factors and lifting device types resulted in reduced levels of microbial emission. The importance of regular high-pressure water-jet cleaning of the lifting device at fortnightly intervals in stressed. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 131p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.
Eduard W., Douwes J., Mehl R., Heederik D., Melbostad E.
Short term exposure to airborne microbial agents during farm work: Exposure-response relations with eye and respiratory symptoms
Airborne exposure to microbial agents of 106 Norwegian farmers and their spouses was measured while carrying out specific tasks. Fungal spores, bacteria, endotoxins, β(1-3)-glucans, fungal antigens specific for Penicillium and Aspergillus species, and mites were measured by methods not based on microbial cultures. Also silica, inorganic and organic dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide were measured. Respiratory, nose and eye symptoms experienced during measurements were recorded by a short questionnaire. Prevalences of work related symptoms were: wheezing 3%; chest tightness 7%; cough 14%; eye symptoms 18%; nose symptoms 22%. Prevalence ratios for nose and eye symptoms were 4-8 after exposure to 20-500x103 fungal spores/m3 and higher, and a prevalence ratio for cough was 4 after exposure to 500-17,000x103 fungal spores/m3. Nose symptoms were also associated with exposure to silica with prevalence ratios of 4-6 after exposure to 0.015-0.075mg/m3 and higher.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.113-118. 29 ref.
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