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Biological hazards - 589 entries found

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CIS 11-0052 Mangeot A.M., Vogel L.
Production and reproduction - Stealing the health of future generations
Attività produttive e riproduzione umana - Quando il lavoro diventa una minaccia per le generazioni future [in Italian]
This issue reproduces the full contents of a booklet originally published by the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI), whose aim is to help improve awareness of work-related reproductive hazards, which consist of a vast and complex mix including chemicals, ionizing radiation, vibration, heat, biological agents and stress. They also have a wide variety of effects, including male and female infertility, miscarriages, birth defects and impaired child development. They often receive scant attention. There is probably no other sphere of safety and health at work in which the available information is so piecemeal and lacking. The booklet reviews and gives a broad-brush picture of the available knowledge for a general readership. It forms part of the general work of ETUI to develop a critical trade union approach to safety and health at work. This particular publication deals in most detail with chemicals, but also provides relevant information on other reproductive risks.
2087, Casa editrice Edit Coop, Via dei Frentani 4/A, 00185 Rome, Italy, Sep.-Oct. 2008, No.6/7, p.1-65 (whole issue). Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 12-0323 Hache P.
Infection hazards among fighters
Sapeurs-pompiers et risque infectieux [in French]
Short report of a one-day conference on biological hazards among firefighters, held in Aix-en-Provence, France, 8 June 2011. In France, 249,000 firefighters carry out more than four million interventions each year, of which it is estimated that 70% involve an infection hazard. Speakers included biological hazard experts, particularly on the chain of infection and vaccinations. Topics addressed also included accident analysis and feedback by safety and health professionals involved with firefighters and police officers.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2011, No.128, p.637-646. 4 ref.
Sapeurs-pompiers_et_risque_infectieux_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
ILO_CIS_12-0323_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0322 Géhin D., Le Bâcle C.
Endotoxins in occupational settings - II. Exposure, hazards, prevention
Endotoxines en milieu de travail - II. Exposition, risques, prévention [in French]
In occupational settings, endotoxins give rise to a non-specific and often considered commonplace flu-like syndrome. Repeated or long-time exposures can cause lung function impairment, leading to chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease and further complications. Several occupational sectors are concerned: air processing (air conditioning and/or humidification); waste collection; processing of vegetable fibres (cotton, linen, sisal); animal farms; food industry. Prevention involves limitation of exposure and medical supervision, including spirometry. Sequel to an earlier article (see CIS 11-0803).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2011, No.128, p.583-601. Illus. 135 ref.
Endotoxines_en_milieu_de_travail_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
ILO_CIS_12-0322_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0320 Vu-Khanh T., Dolez P., Nguyen C.T., Gauvin C., Lara J.
Glove resistance to needle puncture - Development of a test method
Résistance des gants à la piqûre par les aiguilles - Mise au point d'une méthode d'essai [in French]
At the request of sector-based associations and three workplaces at risk of needle-stick injuries, namely police officers, officers in correctional facilities and blue collar workers, the IRSST developed a test method for determining the resistance of protective gloves against needle pricks. The project involved taking into consideration the impact of needle characteristics, including their sharp points, in order to define prick resistance. Various models of protective gloves were then evaluated to determine which performed the best by measuring their resistance to three types of mechanical agents: pricks by medical needles, puncture and cutting. The report recommends the most suitable gloves according to the type of use.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. xvi, 103p. Illus. 78 ref.
Résistance_des_gants_à_la_piqûre_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
ILO_CIS_12-0320_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0229 Richard P.
Sewage systems - Risky work
Réseaux d'assainissement - Des interventions à risques [in French]
Extension and renovation of sewage systems involve hazards, for which prevention requires hazard evaluation, safety and health plans, continuous monitoring of workplace atmospheres, training and the use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Sept. 2011, No.145, p.36-37. Illus.
Réseaux_d'assainissement_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
ILO_CIS_12-0229_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0318 Smit L.A., Heederik D., Doekes G., Koppelman G.H., Bottema R.W., Postma D.S., Wouters I.M.
Endotoxin exposure, CD14 and wheeze among farmers: A gene-environment interaction
The objective of this study was to assess whether the association between occupational endotoxin exposure and wheeze is modified by innate immunity gene variants. Twenty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, MD2 and MyD88 were genotyped in 408 agricultural workers with spirometry and questionnaire data on asthma symptoms available. Personal airborne endotoxin exposure levels were estimated in 249 exposure measurements. The association between occupational endotoxin exposure and wheeze in agricultural workers was significantly modified by genetic variants in CD14 and MD2. Findings suggest that carriers of the functional CD14/-260 C allele are more responsive to endotoxin exposure than T allele homozygotes. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2011, Vol.68, No.11, p.826-831. Illus. 33 ref.
Endotoxin_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_CIS_12-0318_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0127 Schlünssen V., Madsen A.M., Skov S., Sigsgaard T.
Does the use of biofuels affect the respiratory health among male Danish energy plant workers?
Respiratory symptoms in 138 woodchip workers, 94 straw workers and 107 control workers from 85 heating- or combined heating and power plants were collected by questionnaire. Spirometry, metacholine provocation tests and skin prick tests were performed on 310 workers. The work area concentrations of total dusts, airborne endotoxins, cultivable Aspergillus fumigatus and cultivable fungi were measured at each plant. Personal exposure was calculated from the time spent on different tasks and average work area exposures. Exposure levels are discussed. Exposure levels were increased in biofuel plants compared with conventional plants. The prevalences of respiratory symptoms among conventional plant and biofuel plant workers were comparable, except for asthma symptoms among non-smokers, which were higher among straw workers compared with controls. A trend for increasing respiratory symptoms with increasing endotoxin exposure was seen with odds ratios (ORs) between 3.1 (work-related nose symptoms) and 8.1 (asthma symptoms) for the most exposed group. Associations between fungal exposure and respiratory symptoms were less clear but suggested cultivable fungi to be associated with asthma symptoms and work-related respiratory symptoms. No associations were seen between lung function and the level of endotoxin or fungal exposure. It is concluded that working with biofuel at an energy plant does not generally enhance the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. However, the exposure level to microorganisms has an impact on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms among biofuel workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.467-473. 39 ref.
Does_ the_use_of_biofuels_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_CIS_12-0127_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0317 Choi K.M., Johnson E.S.
Industrial hygiene assessment of reticuloendotheliosis viruses exposure in the poultry industry
Reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV) are a group of retroviruses similar to avian leukosis/sarcoma viruses (ALSV) that naturally infect and cause cancers in chickens. It was recently found that ALSV antibody levels were associated with job tasks in the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to examine whether a similar association can be found with REV antibody levels and to examine the correlation between REV and ALSV antibody levels. Relative risk was estimated comparing REV antibody levels of 45 poultry workers with those of 44 controls. The expected mean antibody level was predicted for the association with employment by a generalized linear model. REV antibody levels were significantly higher in poultry workers than in control subjects and were associated with gender and employment conditions, especially employment duration. The relative risk was significantly higher for some job categories. A significant correlation was observed between REV and ALSV antibody levels, which was strong among poultry workers, but weak among the control subjects. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.375-382. Illus. 11 ref.
Industrial_hygiene_assessment_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
ILO_CIS_12-0317_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0873 Legionella and legionnaires' disease: European policies and good practices
Legionella et maladie du légionnaire: politiques européennes et bonnes pratiques [in French]
Legionella y legionelosis: políticas y buenas prácticas en Europa [in Spanish]
Legionnaires' disease is usually thought of as a public health issue rather than an occupational health matter, even though it often strikes workers in places at high risk of outbreak (which include cooling towers, premises where mist machines are present, biological waste water treatment facilities, carwash stations, healthcare facilities, spas and hotels). This factsheet summarises the occupational aspects of exposure to Legionella. It is based on an overview of European policies related to Legionella and legionnaires' disease, together with case studies on how to control Legionella risks. It is also available in several other European languages.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2011. 2p. Illus. 3 ref.
Facts_100/EN.pdf [in English]
11-0873en.pdf [in English]
11-0873es.pdf [in English]
Facts_100/FR.pdf [in French]
11-0873fr.pdf [in Spanish]
Facts_100/ES.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0803 D. Géhin, Le Bâcle C.
Endotoxins in occupational settings - I. Origins and toxic properties of endotoxins. Metrology.
Endotoxines en milieu de travail - I. Origine et propriétés toxiques des endotoxines. Métrologie [in French]
Review article on endotoxins, which consist of Gram negative bacterial wall constituents which are responsible for systemic occurrences such as septic shock when infected by such bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides which are the biologically active elements of endotoxins cause reactions of the immune system, coagulation and inflammation. Endotoxins are generally implicated in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome and certain hepato-biliary diseases. Although not frequently undertaken, endotoxin determination in bioaerosols in gradually increasing. Contamination of respiratory pathways in occupational settings causes cough, dyspnea and asthma, often associated with fever.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd quarter 2011, No.126, p.225-240. Illus. 77 ref.
11-0803.pdf [in English]
TC_136.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0711 Tsapko V.G., Chudnovets A.J., Sterenbogen M.J., Papach V.V., Dutkiewicz J., Skórska C., Krysińska-Traczyk E., Golec M.
Exposure to bioaerosols in the selected agricultural facilities of the Ukraine and Poland - A review
The aim of this literature survey was to review studies on bioaerosols carried out in the years 1972-2009 in the following branches of the agricultural sector in Ukraine and Poland: animal farms for cows and pigs; animal feed facilities; production of biofuel from rapeseed; herb farms and herb processing facilities. Where available, data on airborne dust and microorganism concentrations, microflora species and airborne bacterial toxin concentrations were identified. Bioaerosol concentrations were found to depend on the specificity of the setting, the type of technological operations, the degree of mechanization, the properties of processed materials, temperature and humidity, and airborne dust concentrations. It is concluded that the airborne biological risk factors in observed concentrations may exert harmful effects on the health of exposed workers.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2011, Vol.18, p.19-27. 72 ref.
11-0711.pdf [in English]
Exposure_to_bioaerosols.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0218 Richez J.P., Brasseur G., Clergiot J.
Renewable energies - Towards sustainability in occupational safety and health
Energies renouvelables - Vers un développement durable de la prévention [in French]
This collection of articles reviews the specific occupational safety and health hazards related to the construction and operation of equipment for producing biogas and solar, wind and geothermal energy.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.18-34. Illus.
11-0218.pdf [in English]
Energies_renouvelables.pdf [in English]

2010

CIS 12-0319 Adams S., Stojkovic S.G., Leveson S.H.
Needlestick injuries during surgical procedures: A multidisciplinary online study
Needlestick injuries are common during surgical procedures. Following such an injury, local protocols should be followed to minimize the risk of infection. The objective of this study was to identify who sustains such injuries, under what circumstances and what actions are taken to minimize the risk. A questionnaire was submitted via e-mail to all 255 staff of a hospital in the United Kingdom who took part in operations (response rate 53%). The results were checked against occupational health department records. It was found that non-compliance with injury protocols was commonest among senior surgical staff. A revision of the protocol to reduce the time it takes to complete it may improve compliance.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.60, No.2, p.139-144. Illus. 30 ref.
Needlestick_injuries_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
ILO_CIS_12-0319_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0900 Karvala K., Toskala E., Luukkonen R., Lappalainen S., Uitti J., Nordman H.
New-onset adult asthma in relation to damp and moldy workplaces
Damp and mouldy indoor environments aggravate pre-existing asthma. Recent meta-analyses suggest that exposure to such environments may also induce new-onset asthma. This study assessed the probability of moulds being the cause of asthma in a series of 694 patients examined between 1995 and 2004.because of respiratory symptoms in relation to workplace dampness and moulds. According to their histories, they had all been exposed to moulds at work and had suffered from work-related lower respiratory symptoms. The investigations had included specific inhalation challenge (SIC) tests with mould extracts and serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) recordings. The patients were categorized into three groups: probable, possible, and unlikely occupational asthma (OA, 156, 45, and 475 patients, respectively). The clinical details of 258 patients were analyzed, and their levels of microbial exposure were evaluated. The agreement between the serial PEF recordings and SIC tests was 56%. In the group of probable OA, mould sensitization was found in 20%. The level of exposure and sensitization to moulds was associated with probable OA. At six months, the follow-up examinations of 136 patients with probable OA showed that the symptoms were persistent, and no improvement in spirometry was noted despite adequate treatment. Only 58% of the patients had returned to work. It is concluded that exposure to damp and mouldy workplaces can induce new-onset adult asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 2010, Vol.83, No.8, p.855-865. Illus. 43 ref.
11-0900.pdf [in English]
New-onset_adult_asthma.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0872 Létourneau V., Nehmé B., Mériaux A., Massé D., Duchaine C.
Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols
In this study, bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes as a total (culturable and non-culturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and moulds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed non-statistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with sawdust beds.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.94-102. Illus. 39 ref.
11-0872.pdf [in English]
Impact_of_production.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0831 Gilbert Y., Veillette M., Meriaux A., Lavoie J., Cormier Y., Duchaine C.
Metalworking fluid-related aerosols in machining plants
This study evaluates airborne microorganisms and aerosols from soluble metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the working environment. Air quality parameters (endotoxin levels, culturable airborne microorganisms, fluid mist, inhalable dust and air exchange rates) were evaluated at 44 sites in 25 shops in Quebec, Canada. Microorganism concentrations were also measured in MWF. Most workplaces respected the recommended maximum values for fluid mist and showed low concentrations of airborne endotoxin, culturable microorganisms and inhalable dust despite fluid contamination, even when air exchange rates were below the recommendations. Airborne Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was recovered from many sites at significant concentrations. Possible health-associated risks from exposure to this microorganism need to be further investigated.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2010, Vol.7, No.5, p.280-289. Illus. 56 ref.
11-0831.pdf [in English]
Metalworking_fluid-related_aerosols.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0713 Gołofit-Szymczak M., Górny R.L.
Bacterial and fungal aerosols in air-conditioned office buildings in Warsaw, Poland - The winter season
The microbial quality of the working environment was assessed in winter in air-conditioned office buildings in Warsaw. The average indoor concentrations of bacterial and fungal aerosols were low (<10³ cfu/m³), below Polish proposals for threshold limit values in public service buildings. Even during cold months, if the air-conditioning system works properly, people remain the main source of bacterial aerosol in offices, whereas infiltration of outdoor air remains a major mechanism responsible for their fungal contamination. An analysis of the bioaerosol size distribution showed that microbial propagules that reach both the upper and lower respiratory tract may evoke numerous adverse health effects from irritation and asthmatic reactions to allergic inflammation. A comparative analysis of viable and total airborne microbial counts showed that viable micro-organisms accounted for up to 0.3% of the total number of microbial propagules. Hence, a comprehensive hygienic assessment of office workplaces should include an efficient control of both these elements.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.4, p.465-476. Illus. 38 ref.
11-0713.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0712 de la Torre S., Gasimbi I., Bhat D., Posner J., Noel M., Masembe V., Songa J., Hossain I.
Protecting at risk cadres of health workers from medical transmission of HIV and hepatitis B and C through injection safety interventions
This study on work practices and awareness of HIV and hepatitis B and C among medical waste disposal workers in several developing countries was presented in a poster session at an international symposium on HIV and emerging infectious diseases held on 24-26 March 2010 in Marseille, France. The study was part of a broader programme aimed to improve injection safety and healthcare waste management practices in eleven developing countries. Cross-sectional studies were carried out to evaluate progress in these areas. Observations of waste management practices and interviews were carried out with waste handlers at several sited. Surveys across countries showed that majority are aware of HIV, but not of hepatitis B or C. In Kenya, 91% of waste handlers mentioned HIV, but only 33% mentioned hepatitis B, and 5% hepatitis C. Only three waste handlers reported receiving all three doses of the hepatitis B vaccination in Kenya while in Uganda, only one waste handler interviewed was fully vaccinated at follow-up. The percent of waste handlers who reported having personal protective equipment varied widely between countries, with 55% in Kenya reporting having heavy duty gloves and boots, while only 7% of waste handlers reporting the same in Haiti. Implications of these findings are discussed.
2010, Vol.7, Suppl.1, p.152.
11-0712.pdf [in English]
Protecting_at_risk.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0579 Orriols Ramos R.M., Cortés Domènech M., Alonso Espadalé R.M.
Biological hazards: Methodology for evaluating the risks from sharp and cutting equipment with built-in biosafety features
Riesgo biológico: metodología para la evaluación de equipos cortopunzantes con dispositivos de bioseguridad [in Spanish]
The objective of this technical note is to guide health care professionals in the selection of sharps designed to maximize biological safety. A methodology for assessing the degree of safety of equipment with built-in biosafety is proposed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 14 ref.
11-0579.pdf [in English]
NTP_875.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0430 Constans Aubert A., Solans Lampurlanés X
Funeral services: Occupational exposure to biological agents
Servicios funerarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the various activities within the framework of funeral services as well as their associated hazards. It lists the infectious diseases to which workers of these services may be exposed, together with the causative agent and mode of transmission, and provides a set of preventive measures to minimize exposure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 8 ref.
11-0430.pdf [in English]
NTP_858.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0397 Canalejas Pérez P., Gadea Carrera E., Solórzano Fábrega M.
Collection, transport and storage of sanitary waste
Recogida, transporte y almacenamiento de residuos sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note addresses the management of various types of medical wastes, and in particular the way they should be collected, transported and stored prior to disposal. It also presents the regulations which apply in the various Spanish autonomous communities.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus.
11-0397.pdf [in English]
NTP_853.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0245 Brasseur G.
Good protection requires identifying hazards
Une bonne protection passe par une identification du risque [in French]
This article presents the approach implemented by an enterprise specialized in the disposal of harmful waste, aimed at improving the evaluation of workers' occupational exposures.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2010, No.711, p.38-40. Illus.
11-0245.pdf [in English]
Une_bonne_protection.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0189 Rachiotis G., Mouchtouri V.A., Schlaich C., Riemer T., Martinez C.V., Nichols G., Bartlett C.L., Kremastinou J., Hadjichristodoulou C.
Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: Results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT)
The aim of this study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS) with focus on communicable diseases. A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions on occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Findings reveal a wide heterogeneity regarding occupational health of maritime employees in EU MS. This work provides some evidence that further work at international and European level could be considered, in order to explore the potential for harmonized initiatives regarding occupational health of seafarers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:1, 7p. 19 ref.
11-0189.pdf [in English]
Occupational_health_legislation.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0273 Balty I.
Respirators and protection against bioaerosols: What are the filtration media efficiencies?
Appareils de protection respiratoire et bioaérosols: quelle est l'efficacité des médias filtrants? [in French]
Since the middle of the nineteen eighties, successive health hazards including tuberculosis, SARS, bioterrorism and influenza pandemics have lead scientists to study means of respiratory protection aimed at health care and other workers exposed to bioaerosols. This article reviews these research efforts and answers frequently-asked questions concerning the efficiency of respirators and the possible proliferation of microorganisms in these filters. It also reviews recent research on biocidal filters and inactivation processes for contaminated filters.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2010, No.221, p.41-49. Illus. 43 ref.
PR 46-221.pdf [in French]
11-0273.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0221 Poirot P., Grosjean J., Monta N., Nicot T., Zimmermann F., Duquenne P., Greef-Mirguet G., Koehler V., Piernot C.
General considerations of chemical and microbiological hazards in composting
Approche des risques chimiques et microbiologiques dans le secteur du compostage [in French]
This article presents a non-exhaustive inventory of the chemical and biological hazards faced by workers of composting facilities. Findings of various studies reveal the presence of three main pollutants: total particulate materials (TPM), ammonia and endotoxins. While generally present at concentrations lower than the occupational exposure limit value (OELV), TPM concentrations are significant and, locally, may reach very high levels depending on the work operation and the workplace configuration. Ammonia concentrations appear to be of greater concern (28% exceeding the OELV) at some enclosed facilities processing urban water purification plant sludge. It was also found that loader filter boxes were inefficient in half the study cases. Endotoxins were present at all sites, sometimes at very high concentrations. Cultivable microorganism concentrations were also highly variable and were observed to reach very high levels, in particular thermophilic bacteria concentrations, exceeding 105 UFC/m3 at some composting facilities.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2010, No.221, p.3-16. Illus. 30 ref.
ND 2336-221-10.pdf [in French]
11-0221.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0124 Colorado Soriano M., Rey-Stolle Prado L., Sanz Albert F., Abril Muños I., Sanz Albert F., Delgado Cobos P.
Evaluation of the risk of exposure to microbiological biopesticides
Evaluación del riesgo por exposición a bioplaguicidas microbiológicos [in Spanish]
The purpose of increasingly substituting chemical pesticides by biological pesticides in conjunction with other measures is to considerably reduce the risk of exposure. The appearance on the market of these new products warrants a review of the methods currently used to evaluate exposures to pesticides, given their different nature. This article describes the hazard evaluation methodology to be followed in case of work involving exposure to microbiological plant protection products in order to ensure workers' protection. It underscores the importance of information printed on the label.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2010, No.60, p.14-19. Illus. 11 ref.
11-0124.pdf [in English]
Evaluación_del riesgo.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0064 Santos M.
Some notions of hygiene, safety and health applied to handling of meat
Algumas noções de higiene, segurança e saúde aplicadas à manipulação de carnes [in Portuguese]
Contents of this literature survey on occupational hygiene, safety and health in the meat industry: main hazards; microbiological agents; collective protective measures; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP); personal protective measures.
Segurança, Sep.-Oct. 2010, Vol.XLV, No.198, p.10-13. Illus. 12 ref.
11-0064.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0876 Kim H., Kriebel D., Quinn M.M., Davis L.
The snowman: A model of injuries and near-misses for the prevention of sharps injuries
Sharps injuries (SI) and other blood/body fluid exposures (BBFE) present bloodborne pathogen risks for home healthcare (HHC) workers. In this study, a new conceptual model for using near-misses for SI and BBFE was developed and its utility in statistical analyses of SI and BBFE risk factors was evaluated. It involved surveying 787 HHC nurses and 282 aides. Questions focused on the circumstances leading up to the SI, BBFE, and near-misses. After evaluating the hypothesis that near-misses and events lie along the same causal pathway, these outcomes were combined to estimate their association with employment status. There were similar frequencies of risk factors for the events SI, BBFE, and their near-misses, suggesting that they may share common causal pathways. Combined data on events and near-misses confirmed that part-time and temporary HHC aides were at higher risk than full-timers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2010, Vol.53, No.11, p.1119-1127. Illus. 34 ref.
10-0876.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0729 Marchand G., Lavoie J., Cloutier Y., Racine L., Lacombe N., Bélanger E., Lemelin C., Nadeau D., Desroches J.
Reduction of microbial contamination of soluble cutting fluids
Réduction de la contamination bactérienne des fluides de coupe solubles [in French]
A previous exploratory study had demonstrated that water-based metal cutting fluids (MCFs) show very high rates of bacterial contamination. This situation is in part explained by incomplete or improperly performed cleaning and maintenance procedures. This study evaluated the effect of intensive cleaning of machines on the microbial flora present in MCFs. It was noted that intensive cleaning does not by itself reduce the concentration of the bacteria in cutting fluids. However, cleaning does reduce the number of fluid changes necessary. It was also demonstrated that the bacterial flora in cutting fluids can be significantly controlled by the use of biocides. It is believed that since major cleaning is not sufficient and that biocides are known to be responsible for worker health problems, other means of controlling the bacterial flora present in cutting fluids should be evaluated.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. iv, 26p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
10-0729.pdf [in English]
Rapport_R-655.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0583 Wicker S., Rabenau H.F.
Occupational exposures to bloodborne viruses among German dental professionals and students in a clinical setting
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of occupational exposures to patient body fluids among German dental healthcare workers (DHCW), to assess the rate of reporting of such incidents, and to evaluate the association of various factors with these exposures. Data were obtained through an anonymous questionnaire. The study confirms that occupational skills are an important factor concerning needlestick injuries (NSIs). Dental students had nearly twice the number of NSIs compared with dentists. Overall, 54.3% of the 265 of respondents had sustained at least one NSI in their professional life. One-fourth of respondents were not wearing a mask and 55.6% were not wearing protective goggles during their last occupational exposures. Occupational exposure to blood or body fluids is a common problem among DHCW and dental students. Measures must be adopted by official institutions, public health service, occupational health association and universities in order to reverse this situation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.83, No.1, p.77-83. 30 ref.
10-0583.pdf [in English]
Occupational_exposures_to_bloodborne_viruses.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0581 Majchrzycka K., Gutarowska B., Brochocka A.
Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part I: Type of active substance, contact time, microorganism species; Part II: Sweat in the environment, microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol
The results of a study on antimicrobial activity of polymer filter nonwovens produced by needle-punching or melt-blowing with an addition of disinfecting agents are presented in two articles. The first article examines how the type of active agent, the duration of the contact of microorganisms and the type of microorganisms affect the activity of nonwovens. The second article investigates whether an addition of artificial sweat to a bioactive nonwoven has a protective effect on the microbes and whether it changes their survivability. In addition, the sensitivity of bacteria deposited on a nonwoven in the form of a liquid and a bioaerosol was tested. The filtration efficiency of nonwovens against microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol was also tested with a dynamic method. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.2, p.263-273. Illus. 23 ref. (Part I); p.275-280. Illus. 5 ref. (Part II)
10-0581.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0580 Boal W.L., Leiss J.K., Ratcliffe J.M, Sousa S., Lyden J.T., Li J., Jagger J.
The national study to prevent blood exposure in paramedics: Rates of exposure to blood
The purpose of this analysis is to present incidence rates of exposure to blood among paramedics in the United States by selected variables and to compare all percutaneous exposure rates among different types of healthcare workers. A survey on blood exposure was mailed in 2002-2003 to a national sample of paramedics. Results for California paramedics were analyzed with the national sample and also separately. The incidence rate for needlestick/lancet injuries was 100/1,000 employee-years among the national sample and 26/1,000 employee-years for the California sample. The highest exposure rate was for non-intact skin, 230/1,000 employee-years. The rate for all exposures was 465/1,000 employee-years. California needlestick/lancet rates, but not national, were substantially lower than rates in earlier studies of paramedics. Rates for all percutaneous injuries among paramedics were similar to the mid to high range of rates reported for most hospital-based healthcare workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.191-199. 33 ref.
10-0580.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0579 Rapparini C., Lui Reinhardt E.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Implementation manual - Programme for the prevention of accidents caused by sharps in health services
Manual de implementação - Programa de prevenção de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes em serviços de saúde [in Portuguese]
This manual contains practical information to help health services develop, implement and evaluate a programme to prevent accidents caused by sharps. Contents: information on the manual; risk of accidents with needles or sharps and their prevention among health care workers; description of the six stages of the programme; procedures to be implemented. In appendices: various models of forms for collecting data about the programme, questionnaires and other documents for analysing and evaluating the programme.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2010. 161p. Illus. 146 ref.
Manual_de_implementação.pdf [in Portuguese]
10-0579.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0334 Pimbert S.
Facts and figures 2009
Faits et chiffres 2009 [in French]
This report presents an overview of the Institute's activities during 2009 in the field of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, grouped under the ten following headings: occupational cancers; biological agents; low back pain; chemical exposure; psychosocial risks; nanotechnologies; work equipment and machinery; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation; teaching OSH. The details of how the Institute is organised and of how it acts (assistance, training, research, information, public and international relations) make up the remainder of the publication. The main scientific research findings in 2009 are also summarized. In 2009, 121 studies were conducted by the scientific and technical divisions of INRS. In 2009, chemical hazards, including fields such as toxicology, metrology and process engineering, represented 36% of the research activity. Also, activity on nanoparticles increased markedly, with 10% of the total hours worked.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 35p. Illus.
ED_4295.pdf [in English]
10-0334en.pdf [in English]
ED_4294.pdf [in French]
10-0334fr.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0412 Lacey S.E., Abelmann. A., Dorevitch S.
Exposure to human waste from spills while servicing aircraft lavatories: Hazards and methods of prevention
Workers service the lavatories of commercial aircraft approximately 11 million times per year in the United States and may have exposure to the spectrum of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites potentially found in human waste. An industrial hygiene inspection of the workplace was conducted by an interdisciplinary occupational safety and health team, during which the tasks carried out by lavatory waste operators and supervisors were observed. Exposure to untreated waste can occur through dermal, ingestion and inhalation in quantities ranging from droplets to large spills. Several engineering and administrative measures were advised to minimize worker exposure, including the effective locking of a critical valve and a mechanism for communicating valve locking problems.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.123-128. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure_to_human_waste.pdf [in English]
10-0412.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0287 Code of practice - Prevention and control of Legionnaires' disease 2010
This code of practice on the prevention and control of legionnaires' disease has been developed through a tripartite consultative process involving employers, unions and the State Government of Western Australia. It describes the legionnaires' disease, its symptoms, risk factors, notification and sources of infection (potting mix, soils, mulch, air handling systems, hot and cold water distribution systems and other equipment). It explains how to ensure prevention through water treatment, disinfection and equipment maintenance. Appendices include relevant legislation and a glossary. Replaces CIS 99-1354.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 37p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/PDF/Codes_of_Practice/Legionnaires-code.pdf [in English]
10-0287.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0286 Ishihama K., Sumioka S., Sakurada K., Kogo M.
Floating aerial blood mists in the operating room
High-speed surgical instruments and electric coagulator devices produce contaminated particles and aerosols. This study aimed to investigate the presence of blood-contaminated aerosol in an operating room environment. Test filters were fitted to the extract ducts of a standard central air conditioning system, and were left in place for one, two or four weeks. In a separate experiment to analyze contributing factors, the test filters were changed following every operation. Green dots showing a reaction with leucomalachite green method were counted. In the accumulation experiment, the number of positive dots tended to increase over time (26, 60, and 143 dots after one, two and four weeks, respectively). Surgical procedures performed with these devices produce aerosolized blood in the operating room. Implications are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.1179-1181. Illus. 9 ref.
10-0286.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0164 Topping J.
A dose of surgical spirit
This article describes how the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom, which is the service responsible for operating all public hospitals, is responding to the need to provide safety and health training to its employees. Such training is particularly important because the hospitals operate 24h per day during which employees may be exposed to poisons, radiation, sharps, a variety of pathogens and contaminated waste. Topics addressed: induction training; on-the-job training; job-specific training; refresher training; training of senior management; role of safety and health managers; record-keeping.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2010, Vol.28, No.8, p.50-53. Illus. 2 ref.
10-0164.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0278 Scarselli A., Vonesch N., Melis P., Massari S., Marinaccio A., Iavicoli S.
Biological risk at work in Italy: Results from the national register of occupational exposures
The aim of this study was to analyze the information on workers exposed to biological hazards based on information that employers are legally required to supply to the Italian National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention. Biological agents included in the system belong to risk groups 3 and 4 of the European Union classification. The survey included 90 firms and 2194 workers exposed to biological agents between 1994 and 2008. The most frequent biological agent reported was Salmonella typhi, while that which counted the most exposures was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.365-369. 18 ref.
10-0278.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0100 Canalejas Pérez P., Gadea Carrera E., Solórzano Fabrega M.
Medical waste management
Gestión de residuos sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note on medical waste management in medical and veterinarian services aims at ensuring public health and protecting workers handling this kind of waste at the site of production as well as outside. It describes the different types of waste and their disposal according to the hazard they present (with household garbage or as special waste). European and Spanish legislation, as well as the specific legislation of the regional authorities in this field is also listed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p.
10-0100.pdf [in English]
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/838%20web.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0136 Hernández Calleja A.
Biological agents. Simplified assessment
Agentes biológicos. Evaluación simplificada [in Spanish]
This information note presents a methodology for a simplified biological hazard evaluation based on the determination of the level of potential exposure risk to biological agents. It also proposes prevention measures according to the risk level. Finally, it defines the classes of risk for non infectious biological agents.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/833%20web.pdf [in Spanish]
10-0136.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0098 Alonso Espadalé R.M., Solans Lampurlanés X., Constans Aubert A.
Veterinary centres: Occupational exposure to biological agents
Centros veterinarios: exposición laboral a agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the main risk factors of exposure of the staff of veterinary centres (practices or clinics) to biological agents as well as preventive measures. It mainly concerns services in urban regions which treat pets. A table lists the main zoonoses related to these pets.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. 11 ref.
10-0098.pdf [in English]
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/821%20web.pdf [in Spanish]

2009

CIS 12-0321 Bailey C., Beswick A.
Health and Safety Executive
Identification of microbial contamination in body wax samples
There are few published data available regarding infection prevention and control during the process of body waxing. This microbiological sampling study of wax pot residues in salons was therefore undertaken to inform the Health and Safety Executive on this area of treatment. Samples were collected from 13 beauty salons in the United Kingdom. Most samples were found to be negative for any detectable microbial contamination (bacteria or fungi). The study concluded that the findings were indicative of generally low level of contamination at the limit of available detection levels. Several proposals are made for further improving working methods to reduce risks of contamination.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 19p. Illus. 10 ref.
Identification_of_microbial_contamination_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
ILO_CIS_12-0321_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0274 Marchand G., Cloutier Y., Pépin C., Drolet D.
Validation of a method for the exploratory analysis of the mycological population by using spore traps
Validation d'une méthode d'analyse exploratoire de la population mycologique par utilisation de trappes à spores [in French]
The method most commonly used to document the presence of mould in the air of an environment consists of cultivating the sampled microorganisms in the laboratory, which requires extensive expertise and a lot of time due to the incubation period. The processes used for analyzing an environment's cultivable mycological flora do not determine the non-cultivable flora, which can also have impacts on health. The spore trap method, despite being limited to mould analysis, is a rapid exploratory technique. This study was able to explore the method's limits of detection and quantification, and to verify its scope and precision. Finally, the IRSST now disposes of an exploratory method for analyzing total mycological contamination.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. i, 16p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: CAD 5.25. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
11-0274.pdf [in English]
R-605.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0125 Romeo L., Dalle Molle K., Zanoni G., Peretti A., Marangi G., Conrado L.G.L., Aragón A., Perbellini L.
Respiratory health effects and immunological response to thermoactinomyces among sugar cane workers in Nicaragua
Specific sensitization and respiratory effects associated with the inhalation of sugar cane dust were evaluated in a group of 51 Nicaraguan workers exposed to bagasse. A questionnaire interview, lung function test, serum precipitin tests for Thermoactinomyces sacchari and T. vulgaris, and IgE tests for specific environmental allergens were performed for each worker. Twenty-one workers reported at least one respiratory symptom and 16 reported possible symptoms of bagassosis. Six workers demonstrated acute symptoms, one had chronic symptoms, and nine had the reacutized form of the disease. A higher proportion of precipitin response to T. sacchari and T. vulgaris was found in workers reporting symptoms suggestive of acute bagassosis. A possible restrictive ventilatory pattern was observed in eight subjects and a mild airway obstruction in one subject. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.249-254. 29 ref.
11-0125.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0874 Solans Lampurlanés X.
Evaluation of the hazards from exposure to biological agents during work
Evaluación de los riesgos relacionados con la exposición a agentes biológicos durante el trabajo [in Spanish]
This article reviews the various situations to which the provisions of Royal Decree 664/1997 on occupational exposures to biological agents apply, and describes the possible modes of exposure. It emphasizes the difficulties faced in carrying out reliable ambient evaluations, as well as the lack of systematic methods and reference values that would allow comparing findings.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.18-25. Illus. 3 ref.
10-0874.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0284 Wicker S., Rabenau H.F., Groneberg D.A., Gottschalk R.
Occupationally-acquired infections among health care workers: Children's diseases
Arbeitsbedingte Infektionen bei Mitarbeitern des Gesundheitswesens: Kinderkrankheiten [in German]
Infections professionnelles chez les soignants: maladies infantiles [in French]
Infectious childrens' diseases can cause substantial illness and complications among non-immune health care workers, and present a significant risk for pregnant women. This article reviews literature data on children's diseases (measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox and parvovirus B 19) and describes the preventive measures to be taken by health care workers to reduce the risk of transmission of these infectious diseases. See also ISN 110616, ISN 110617 and ISN 110619.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 2009, Vol.59, No.12, p.370-381. Illus. 43 ref.
10-0284.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0137 Duchaine C., Létourneau V., Nehmé B., Mériaux A., Gilbert Y., Veillette M.
Characterization of bioaerosols by molecular microbial ecology
Caractérisation des bioaérosols par écologie microbienne moléculaire [in French]
Pigsty workers are exposed to organic contaminants and gases. Most studies on the workplace atmosphere in pigsties have so far been based solely on the culture of microorganisms, which limits the microbial biodiversity and underestimates the microbiological load. Other methods, based on molecular biology, have been used to analyze the microbiology of soils, but not that of bioaerosols. The researchers applied these two methods for comparison purposes and studied the impact of seasons and the manure management method on the type and load of the bioaerosols in pig operations. They show the usefulness of molecular biology tools in characterizing bioaerosols in an agricultural environment, but conclude that the analyses based on this method also have limitations that could have an impact on the extent of the biodiversity observed. As a result, classical culture methods for microorganisms remain an essential complement.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. viii, 37p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-595.pdf [in French]
10-0137.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1294 Vainio H., O'Hara L., Cheveers E., Yassi A., Fedotov I., Geyer N., Sigler N., Savolainen K., Takala J., Hämäläinen P., Pääkkönen T., Lehtinen S.
New emerging risks
Contents of this collection of articles on new chemical and biological hazards of relevance to African countries: H1N1 and occupational health for health workers in Africa; excerpts from WHO materials on H1N1; North-South partnership to strengthen trade union action against HIV/AIDS; engineered nanomaterials; globalization of risks; brief account of a conference on occupational health of nanotechnology which took place in 2009 in Finland; brief account of a meeting of WHO collaborating centres which took place in Geneva in 2009.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2009, Vol.19, No.3, p.55-75 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
09-1294.pdf [in English]
http://www.ttl.fi/en/publications/electronic_journals/african_newsletter/Documents/african_newsletter3_2009.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1248 Gehin D., Faure M., Duquenne P., Simon X., Vallet D., Montjoffre F., Le Bâcle C.
Salami production and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Current knowledge and job study
Fabrication de saucissons secs et pneumopathie d'hypersensibilité. Point des connaissances et étude de poste [in French]
This study was carried out in a salami factory following the incidence of various respiratory ailments among the workers. Investigations included plant inspections and atmospheric sampling. It was found that workers were at risk of inhalation exposure of moulds. Local exhaust ventilation on the brushing and flouring machine should allow reducing the exposure to bioaerosols. Regular surveillance of the workers' pulmonary function is recommended.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4nd Quarter 2009, No.120, p.437-452. Illus. 48 ref.
09-1248.pdf [in English]
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20183/$File/TF183.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-1375 Tschopp A., Joller H., Jeggli S., Widmeier S., Steffen R., Hilfiker S., Hotz P.
Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers in workers exposed to sewage: A prospective cohort study
Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). To assess the incidence of clinical hepatitis E and peptic ulcers and the seroconversion rate of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure, 332 workers exposed to sewage and a control group of 446 municipal manual workers entered a study with clinical examination and determination of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV. Findings are discussed. Overall, sewage does not appear to be a source of occupational infection by H. pylori or HEV in trained sewage workers with personal protective equipment working in a region with good sanitation infrastructure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.45-50. Illus. 34 ref.
09-1375.pdf [in English]

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