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Skin protection - 112 entries found

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  • Skin protection

1990

CIS 93-1223 Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens Juanena D., Romaguera Sagrera C.
Protection and prevention measures for occupational skin diseases
Medidas de protección y prevención de las dermatosis profesionales [in Spanish]
Collective and personal protective measures for occupational skin diseases are reviewed. The importance of identifying the hazards related to different production processes and work stations is noted. Preventive measures can be summarised as follows: information and training; skin hygiene; protective clothing, including footwear, gloves and barrier creams; industrial hygiene, including ventilation; machine maintenance.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1990, Vol.37, No.150, p.30-39. 21 ref.

CIS 91-1174 Tomb R., Grosshans E.
Data sheet on healty working conditions - 3. Skin hygiene
Fiche d'hygiène de vie au travail - 3. Hygiène cutanée [in French]
The basic principles of skin hygiene are the same in work as out of work: the need to remove environmental dirt and the by-products of the skin's normal functions while preserving the seven basic functions of the skin in its role as a mechanical, chemical, light, thermal, immunological and antiinfection barrier and as a sense organ. Working conditions need extra hygiene precautions as a result of the changes brought about in the physiology of the skin by effort or by environmental factors, and of the pollution and other hazards specific to certain jobs. Although skin hygiene is above all a problem of health education and individual effort, preventing skin damage is primarily a matter for collective protective measures and regulations and for technical improvements in working conditions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1791-140-90, p.569-573. 6 ref.

CIS 91-946 Mellström G.
Protective gloves and protective creams for occupational use - A review
Skyddshandskar och skyddskrämer för yrkesmässigt bruk - En kunskapsöversikt [in Swedish]
This review consists of 2 chapters. The 1st deals with protective gloves, rules and instructions for proper use, testing and test methods for determining the protective effect against chemicals. Different glove materials and glove types are described and glove materials are recommended for protection against hazardous chemicals and blood-borne infections. The adverse effects of protective gloves are discussed, as are important factors which should be considered when gloves for protection against blood-borne diseases are chosen. The 2nd chapter deals with protective creams, skin care programmes and test methods. Results of recent investigations are presented. Components commonly used in protective creams are reported and evaluated from the occupational dermatological point of view.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 29p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 90-1624 Leinster P., Bonsall J.L., Evans M.J., Lewis S.J.
The application of test data in the selection and use of gloves against chemicals
A scheme is proposed for the selection of appropriate gloves and for deciding whether they should be reused. This takes into account the toxic properties of the chemical involved, the type of activity being undertaken and the degree of protection afforded by a particular material as indicated by data obtained from standard tests.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1990, Vol.34, No.1, p.85-90. 9 ref. Illus.

CIS 90-781 Ziegler G.
Skin protection
Hautschutz [in German]
Protezione della pelle [in Italian]
Protection de la peau [in French]
This updated illustrated booklet (see CIS 76-1089) gives practical information on: causes of skin injuries produced by chemical or physical agents; mode of action of harmful substances; description of the diseases; technical and individual preventive measures.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1990, No.122. 20p. Illus.

1989

CIS 92-1339
ACTU-VTHC Occupational Health and Safety Unit (Australia)
Prevention of occupational skin cancer and other ultraviolet radiation hazards: Outdoor workers
This is an Occupational Health and Safety Standard produced by 2 Australian trade union organisations and aimed at all workers who spend some of their working time in outdoor occupations. Contents: list of affected professions; characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (essentially from the sun) and health effects of exposure to it (premature aging of the skin, retina damage, cataracts, keratoses, skin cancer); prevention measures (limitation of exposure, appropriate clothing, sunscreens, hats, sunglasses); health surveillance; the ACTU Code of Practice (scope; nature of the hazard; responsibilities of employers and workers; exposure assessment; control measures; training and education; health surveillance). In annex: sample exposure assessments and control measures (telecommunications; petroleum docks and pumps; tree felling; sports ground maintenance); list of common photosensitising agents (industrial chemicals; plants).
Health and Safety Bulletin, June 1989, No.61, 37p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 90-367 DRT circular No.89/4 of 27 Feb. 1989 - Barrier creams: warnings to be disseminated by distributors and instructions to be laid down by users [France]
Circulaire DRT n°89/4 du 27 fév. 1989 - Crèmes barrières: avertissements que doivent diffuser les distributeurs et consignes que doivent édicter les utilisateurs [France] [in French]
Labour Relations Directorate (DRT) circular 89/6 of 27 February 1989 (not published in the Journal officiel). It describes the usefulness of barrier creams, as well as limitations and the precautions to be taken when using them. It stipulates the information which must be given on warning labels and in instructions for users.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.135, Note No.1741-135-89, p.373-374.

1988

CIS 90-1175
Branchesikkerhedsrådet
Advice and guidance on skin problems in the pottery industry
Råd og vejledning om hudproblemer i den keramiske industri [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on how to avoid skin injuries during manual tasks in the pottery industry: hazards to the skin in this type of work, the genesis of skin injuries, eczema, preventive measures (replacement of hazardous substances, protective gloves, avoidance of direct contact with the substances) and skin care (creams, hygiene).
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1st ed. 1988. 8p. Illus.

1987

CIS 89-572 Liwkowicz J.
Method for testing coating gel resistance to organic solvents
Metoda badania odporności żelu powłokowego na działanie rozpuszczalników organicznych [in Polish]
Using a quantitative method, the penetrating power of organic solvents was tested with respect to the following skin protection agents: Secol, Fistrax, Mono-Dermin, Stokolan, Sansibal, T-Cewi-San and Physioderm. A qualitative method for comparing their resistance is presented. The following solvents were used: petrol, benzene, trichloroethylene, ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride. Secol resistance to these solvents is the best among the preparations tested. Its permeability is very low (from 3% to 6%) which is comparable to the permeability of polyvinyl chloride gloves.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.34, p.137-149. 19 ref.

CIS 88-1030 Bendsöe N., Björnberg A., Löwhagen G.B., Tengberg J.E.
Glass fibre irritation and protective creams
Five commercial products were tested pairwise as prophylaxis against itching and irritation from glass fibres: a commercial cream for glass fibre itching, a silicone spray, an emollient cream, a fatty ointment, and a "cream-ointment". The preparations were of very limited value in protection against glass fibre irritation. Some workers even experienced exacerbated itching from all the preparations, including the cream marketed for protection against glass fibre irritation. Only 25% of a group of workers with severe glass fibre itching still used an emollient cream after 12 weeks.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1987, Vol.17, No.2, p.69-72. 1 ref.

CIS 88-279 EMAS campaign to save your skin
This data sheet covers the Employment Medical Advisory Service (EMAS) plan to make employers and employees aware of skin hazards. Discussed are: the awareness campaign; necessity for prevention; extent of the problem; accumulative effects; campaign plan.
United Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, July 1987. 5p.

CIS 88-251 Blanken R., Nater J.P., Veenhort E.
Protective effect of barrier creams and spray coatings against epoxy resins
This study evaluates the protective capacity of 4 barrier creams and 2 methacrylate spray coatings against skin contact with epoxy resins. The effect of these materials on the strength and on the surface area of patch test reactions caused by epoxy resin was assessed in 11 volunteers with a known allergy to epoxy resins. Standard amounts of barrier cream and spray coating were applied on the skin. Patch tests were then carried out with spray resin on the pretreated area. After 24h, patches were removed; 48h thereafter the strength and surface area of the reactions were scored. Results were compared with the score of a control test. The use of 2 barrier creams significantly reduced the surface area of the patch test reactions. Spray coatings significantly reduced both the strength and the surface area of the reactions. Thus, methacrylate spray coatings and barrier creams may provide protection against epoxy resins during a test period of 24h. However, the development of new formulations, adapted more specifically to this purpose, is necessary.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1987, Vol.16, No.2, p.79-83. 23 ref.

1986

CIS 89-138 Steen L.
Hand cleansers at the workplace
Håndrensemidler til erhvervsmæssig anvendelse [in Danish]
A survey of 90 skin cleansers in Denmark was made to determine the active cleansing substances. The cleansers were surfactants, abrasives, organic solvents, reducing agents and skin disinfectants. For each group the functions, risks, and specific uses are given. Auxiliary substances (perfumes, preservatives, dyes) are described. Surfactants were preferred, followed by abrasives and solvents. Reducing agents should be used only to remove discoloration and disinfectants should not ordinarily be used at all. Several kinds of cleanser should be available at the workplace.
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vesterbrogade 69, 1620 København V, Denmark, 1986. 55p. 18 ref.

CIS 88-195 Packham C.L.
Industrial skin care
Coverage of this guide to proper skin care in industry: the skin and its functions; dermatitis and its prevention; a global approach for the development of a programme for industrial skin care; setting up such a programme; provision of washing facilities; contrasting the traditional approach (barrier creams, gel cleansers, after-work creams) with an alternative based on the heavy use of soaps, pumice powder and continuous application of refatting agents. The appendices contain check lists for skin care hazards and dermatitis and a sample skin care test report.
Reinol-Spartan (UK) Ltd, Willersey Industrial Estate, Broadway, Worcestershire WR12 7PR, United Kingdom, 1986. 51p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 1.00.

CIS 87-1358 Lodén M.
The effect of 4 barrier creams on the absorption of water, benzene, and formaldehyde into excised human skin
The effect of 4 barrier creams on the absorption of radioisotope-labelled water, benzene and formaldehyde by excised human skin was studied. Control skin and Barrier cream-treated skin were exposed to the test substance for 0.5h, washed and subjected to scintillation counting. The experimental cream "Water barrier" reduced the absorption of water and benzene but not of formaldehyde. Kerodex 71 cream slightly reduced the absorption of benzene and formaldehyde. The barrier creams Petrogard and "Solvent barrier" did not affect the absorption of any of the substances studied. The use of these creams against percutaneous absorption is questioned.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1986, Vol.14, No.5, p.292-296. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 86-1999 Hughes A.D.
The industrial safety shower and eyebath
A survey of the use of safety showers as a method of decontamination after working with toxic and corrosive substances. The use of showers as a first-aid measure after burns, scalds and injuries from corrosive chemicals is described. The main points of the US standard (ANSI Z358.1.1981) for Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment are given (no British Standard exists for this kind of equipment).
Safety Practitioner, Feb. 1986, Vol.4, No.2, p.8-9. Illus.

1985

CIS 86-1110 Šulakov N.A., Božefatov A.S., Jasnecov V.S.
Film-forming solution of polyvinyl alcohol for protecting the skin of workers in glass fibre-reinforced plastics production
Plenkoobrazujuščij rastvor polivinilovogo spirta dlja zaščity koži rabočih stekloplastikovogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
A solution made by dissolving 50mL polyvinyl alcohol in 40mL glycerin and 910mL distilled water dries to form a film that resists acetone, ethyl alcohol and several trade-named glues and cements. When 2-3mL of the solution is rubbed over the hands and wrists, the barrier that is formed after 1-1.5min lasts for up to 24h.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1985, No.2, p.58-59. 5 ref.

CIS 86-200 Mellström G., Wrangsjö K., Wahlberg J.E.
Patch testing with barrier creams
12 barrier creams commercially available in Scandinavia were tested on eczema patients. One cream produced reactions in 85% of the subjects to whom it was applied. One cream and the controls (a commercial unguent base and petrolatum) produced no responses. The remaining creams produced responses at frequencies between these extremes. Thus, it is important to test the barrier cream alone in any test of protection against an allergen or irritant.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1985, Vol.13, No.1, p.40-41. 11 ref.

CIS 85-2055 Planning a skin hygiene program
Written text of an audiovisual skin hygiene programme designed for presentation with slides and audio cassettes.
Canadian Society of Safety Engineering, 1087 Meyerside Drive, Mississanga, Ontario LMT 1M5, Canada, no date. 9p.

1984

CIS 87-453 Safronova N.A.
Protective clothing and safety footwear for workers of the chemical petroleum refining and petrochemical industries
Specodežda i specobuv' dlja rabotnikov himičeskoj, neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Aspects covered in this training manual: classification of personal protective equipment (clothing, shoes, boots, gloves, helmets, barrier creams) protecting against water, bases, acids, petroleum, petroleum products, heat, cold, static electricity, vibration, mechanical hazards, and explosion hazards; materials used for manufacturing, maintenance of personal protective equipment, a procedure for providing enterprises with this equipment.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 175p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: Rbl.0.55.

CIS 85-1695 Mahmoud G., Lachapelle J.M.
Study of the effectiveness of an anti-solvent protective gel against skin irritation caused by n-hexane
Etude de l'efficacité d'un gel de protection anti-solvants, vis-à-vis de l'irritation cutanée provoquée par le n-hexane [in French]
Experiment involving guinea-pigs: an anti-solvent gel (Antixol) was applied to a part of the skin subsequently exposed to n-hexane. Skin biopsies showed damage to the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles in areas of the skin not covered by the gel. Advantages of the gel when compared with gloves, or with creams or gels designed as protection against organic solvents; effectiveness of the gel studied and need for tests in the workplace.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.233-237. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 84-2002 Hombach W.
Skin protection in the factory. A working program
In the first stage of a programme to reduce skin disease a survey was conducted to identify what hazardous materials and what means of protection were in use, by which workers and in which operations. A skin protection plan was then developed to provide information about the most effective prevention for specific substances and circumstances. The skin care programme costs US$1.00 per month per employee compared with US$1,500 per month for a case of occupational dermatosis.
National Safety News, Feb. 1984, Vol.129, No.2, p.26-29. Illus.

1983

CIS 85-444 White I.R.
Preventing dermatitis - the uses of gloves and barrier creams
The causes and mechanism of contact dermatitis (both irritant and allergic) are discussed. The preventive methods of using gloves and barrier creams are outlined, with emphasis on the lack of preventive power of the latter.
Safety Practitioner, Apr. 1983, Vol.1, No.4, p.27-29. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 84-1987 Romaguera C., Vilaplana J., Grimalt F., Mascaró J.M., Carreras E.
Prophylaxis of chromium and nickel sensitised patients with a topically administered cosmetic preparation
Profilaxis de los pacientes con sensibilización al cromo y al níquel, con un preparado cosmético de utilización tópica [in Spanish]
Description of the clinical methodology followed to obtain a prophylactic cream usable in workers sensitised to chromium and nickel. The composition of the cream was: 10% silicone, 2% glyceryl lactate, 2% glycine, 1% tartaric acid, in addition to the excipient. 25% of the workers tested were able to continue working without contact dermatitis developing. 35% developed occasional eczema, while the cream proved ineffective in 40% of the cases. The cream was more useful against chromium sensitised reactions than against nickel sensitised ones, while it was useless in the case of cobalt sensitisation.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1983, Vol.3, No.11, p.27-32. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 84-1702 Mellström G.
Protective gloves and barrier creams
Skyddshandskar och barriärkrämer [in Swedish]
Report in 3 parts: 1. Compilation of the literature on the protective and biological effects of protective gloves (plastic and rubber) and of barrier creams. 2. Test results of the various protective gloves and barrier creams available in Sweden. 3. Presentation, in tabular format, of the appropriate protective glove and barrier cream as a function of chemical and exposure time.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 156, 18 and 66p. Illus. 198 ref.

CIS 84-992 Paulet G., Oizon S.
Study of the absorption through the skin of nitroglycerine. Research into the protective power of some ointments
Etude de la pénétration transcutanée de la nitroglycérine. Recherche de l'effet protecteur de certaines pommades [in French]
Study of the protective power against nitroglycerine (NG) of 3 barrier creams. NG absorption through the skin was measured in animal experiments (exposure of skin - with barrier creams applied and not - to NG-containing fumes). NG concentration in blood was measured. Even though analytical methods do not allow NG concentration determination below 10ng/ml, it seems that the barrier creams tested do provide effective protection against skin absorption. However, skin absorption of the creams must also be considered, and their repeated application must depend on the specific situation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.8, p.575-577. Illus.

CIS 83-1669 Winiarski M.
Failed protection: Barrier creams increased skin absorption
Skyddsförmågan underkänd: Barriärkrämer ökade hudgenomträngning [in Swedish]
Summary of 2 studies of the protection provided by several barrier creams currently used in the metalworking industry. The first study shows that these creams neither protect sufficiently against cobalt chloride (an allergen) nor against sodium lauryl sulfate (an irritant), and that they actually increase the skin absorption of cobalt ions. The other study examined 6 creams and found that none of them protect sufficiently against cutting fluids. Barrier creams make it easier to wash hands after work, but a good skin cleanser combined with a protective cream provides better protection than do barrier creams.
Arbetsmiljö, 1983, No.4, p.50. Illus.

CIS 83-1128 Fischer T., Rystedt I.
Skin protection against ionized cobalt and sodium lauryl sulphate with barrier creams
Report of a study on 853 workers with current or past exposure to hard metal who were examined and patch tested with materials from their working environment including metal allergens. Workers with positive reactions to cobalt chloride or sodium lauryl sulfate were retested first with dilutions of the same chemical on bare skin and then on skin prepared with a layer of barrier or emollient cream used for hand care in the workers' factory. The cream gave no protection against either chemical - in fact, it seemed to enhance the penetration of cobalt ions. The value of such creams as protection against metal allergens is questionable.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1983, Vol.9, No.2, p.125-130. 22 ref. Illus.

1982

CIS 84-524 Cuckov M.E., Brajnina M.L., Ardasenov V.N., Novožilova I.S., Čubarova A.V.
Development of means of protecting the hands against organic solvents
Razrabotka sredstv zaščity ruk ot organičeskih rastvoritelej [in Russian]
Description of the development and properties of protective gloves made from aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol. The gloves are suitable for work with organic solvents, lacquers, paints, and polyester and epoxy resins.
Published in: Kompleksnoe rešenie voprosov ohrany truda, Profizdat, ul. Kirova 13, 10100 Moskva, USSR, 1982. p.28-33. Illus. Price: Rbl.2.20 (whole volume).

CIS 84-218 Risvig Henriksen H.
Materials for protective gloves
Materialer til beskyttelseshandsker [in Danish]
Contents of this report: chemical products and resistance of rubber or plastic sheet to them (skin contact, permeability values, experimental data on penetration times, diffusion coefficient and rate of saturation, resistance to chemicals); rubber or plastic sheet for protection against epoxides (choice of materials, experimental methods and results); conclusions (laminated sheet with a layer of vinyl alcohol-ethylene copolymer sandwiched between layers of polyethylene offers the best protection against epoxides and solvents). An appendix includes diagrams, a bibliography on protective gloves, and an alphabetical index.
Arbejdstilsynet, Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København, Denmark, 1982. 57p. Illus. 168 ref. Price: Dan.cr.25.00.

CIS 83-2016 Preparing "biological gloves" for protection of the hands
Opyt prigotovlenija "biologičeskih perčatok" dlja zaščity ruk [in Russian]
A barrier cream which dries to form a "glove" is prepared to contain 19.7% casein, 58.7% alcohol, 19.7% glycerine, and 1.9% ammonia (25% solution). A second cream is prepared to contain 12% soda soap, 40% kaolin, 10% technical-grade glycerine and 38% water. Preparation of the 2nd cream requires that the soap be dissolved in the water (boiling), followed by the glycerine and the kaolin. About 5g of either cream is applied to clean, dry hands. The creams dry in 2-3 minutes. The resulting "gloves" are removed by washing with warm water and soap.
Mestnyj proizvodstvennyj opyt v promyšlennosti, 1982, No.2, p.37-38.

CIS 83-788 Chavy-Millet M.
Protection of hands against chemical hazards
La protection des mains contre le risque chimique [in French]
Contents of this MD thesis: irritative and allergic skin effects of chemicals; magnitude of these effects and their impact on health costs and the social and occupational future of workers; legal provisions defining preventive measures; circumstances of chemical exposure (irritants, aetiologies by occupational sector, trends); physiology and pathophysiology of the skin of the hand; medical, collective and personal preventive measures (gloves, barrier creams, hand washing, workers' information). Role of the occupational physician. Continuous development of new substances has aggravated the hazard, while automation and hygienic measures made obligatory by legislation have had a positive effect in some sectors.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1982. 165p. 83 ref.

CIS 82-2012 Skin absorption of industrial solvents: evaluation of the efficacy of barrier creams
Absorption cutanée de solvants industriels: évaluation de l'efficacité des crèmes-barrière [in French]
This report of an investigation to evaluate the efficacy of barrier creams to prevent skin absorption of solvents is based on experimental work with volunteers and a study of workers exposed to styrene (liposoluble solvent) and dimethylformamide (lipo- and hydrosoluble). Conclusions: in the case of liposoluble solvents, skin absorption was not prevented by application of barrier creams (with or without silicon), whereas use of a barrier cream not containing silicon reduced skin absorption of a lipo- and hydrosoluble solvent. Protection afforded by barrier creams is significantly less than that obtained by wearing protective gloves impermeable to solvents.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1982, Vol.19, No.1, p.3-6. Illus. 6 ref.

1981

CIS 83-285 Engst R.
Possibilities of secondary prevention in skin disease
Möglichkeiten der sekundären Prävention bei dermatologischen Krankheitsbildern [in German]
The status of the skin plays an important primary role in the prevention of dermatoses; the stable physiological skin environment forms the most effective barrier against bacterial and mycotic infections, and against certain forms of eczema. Description of primary and above all secondary possibilities of prevention, based on regeneration of the barrier function in the case of: allergic and non-allergic effects of medical preparations on the skin, eczema, skin carcinoma, mycoses, porphyria cutanea tarda, prurigo, pyoderma, varicose symptoms.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Dec. 1981, Vol.16, No.12, p.298-302. 35 ref.

1980

CIS 80-1952 Klaschka F., Tronnier H., Schuppli R., Wiskemann A., Gründer K.
Skin protection in working life
Hautschutz im Arbeitsleben [in German]
Series of articles devoted to; physiological principles underlying skin protection (choice and role of type of protection chosen, behaviour of horny layer of the skin); research and practical data concerning skin protection (protective methods and their efficacy, restorative treatment, cleansing of the skin); skin protection against metallic ions (nickel and chromium sensitisation, therapy and prophylaxis); skin protection against ultraviolet and infrared radiation; protection against skin infection, especially mycoses (exposure, predisposition, disinfection).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1980, Vol.15, No.1, p.1-20. Illus. 67 ref.

CIS 80-1362 Lauwerys R.R., Kivits A., Lhoir M., Rigolet P., Houbeau D., Buchet J.P., Roels H.A.
Biological surveillance of workers exposed to dimethylformamide and the influence of skin protection on its percutaneous absorption.
Blood and urine were analysed in 22 workers in an acrylic fibre factory exposed to dimethylformamide (DMF) and 28 controls. When direct skin contact with DMF was prevented there was a significant relation between atmospheric DMF concentrations and post-shift urinary N-methylformamide (NMF) levels. Exposure to 10mg/m3 for 6h (urinary NMF <40-50mg/g creatinine) is probably safe as regards liver damage. Different protective measures were studied in 7 workers. Skin absorption was greater than inhalation exposure when no protection was used. Wearing of impermeable gloves with long sleeves appears to be the best method of preventing DMF absorption. Silicone or glycerol barrier creams are not recommended.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.45, No.3, p.189-203. Illus. 14 ref.

1979

CIS 81-512
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennij komitet SSSR po standartam)
Skin protective products - Classification. General technical rules
Sredstva dermatologičeskie zaščitnye - Klassifikacija. Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija [in Russian]
Contents of this standards (effective 1 July 1980): classification of barrier creams and skin cleansers; requirements to be met by these products. Appended: list of barrier creams and skin cleansers recommended for use in industry.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 21 Sep. 1979, 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 80-1932 Surfactants - Industrial detergents containing solvent for washing hands - Specifications - Tests
Agents de surface - Détergents d'atelier avec solvant pour le lavage des mains - Spécifications - Essais. [in French]
This standard lays down specifications regarding constituent substances (surfactants, fillers, dyes and perfumes, active additives, solvents) and the finished product (pH, free caustic alkali and solvent, composition of fillers), test methods, packaging and labelling. The specifications are principally concerned with the toxicity of the substances used. Appended: research for chlorinated hydrocarbons (copper-blade test); qualitative research on, and quantitative analysis of water-miscible solvents (polar solvents) by gas chromatography; qualitative research and anlysis of compensatory fats.
Norme française homologuée NF T 73-102, Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, May 1979. 13p. Illus.

CIS 80-1931 Surfactants - Solvent-free industrial detergents - Specifications - Tests
Agents de surface - Détergents d'atelier sans solvant - Spécifications - Essais. [in French]
This standard lays down specifications regarding constituent substances (surfactants, fillers, dyes and perfumes, active additives) and finished product (pH, free caustic alkali content), test methods, packaging and labelling. The specifications are principally concerned with the toxocity of the substances used. Appemnded: qualitative research on water-miscible solvents (polar solvents) by gas chromatography.
Norme française homologuée NF T 73-101, Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, May 1979. 8p. Illus.

CIS 80-1992 Kožuhov N.I., Krasnoščekov N.A., Mačula V.Ja.
Protection from the effects of aliphatic amines
Zaščita ot dejstvija aminosoedinenij žirnogo rjada [in Russian]
Description of the protective properties of a solution developed to neutralise the action of hexamethylenediamine and other aliphatic amines with which chemical industry workers may have skin contact. The solution (1:100, pH=3.4-3.5) is glutamic acid in distilled water, wich does not irritate the skin and does not modify its pH.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Dec. 1979, No.12, p.37-38.

CIS 80-804 Sul'zenko A.I., Levin M.M.
Agent for cleansing skin contaminated by adhesives containing phenolformaldehyde resins
Sredstvo očistki koži ot zagrjaznenij svjazujuščim veščestvom na osnove fenolformal'degidnyh smol [in Russian]
To counteract the disadvantages of ethanol as detergent, a mixture of glycerine, ammonia water, ethanol and boiled water was developed. Composition and preparation are presented. Used for 2 years in several undertakings, it was also useful against epoxy resin residues. It does not dry out the skin.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1979, No.6, p.47.

CIS 80-254 Tronnier H.
Skin cleansing from the hygiene and dermatology viewpoint
Hautreinigung aus hygienischer und dermatologischer Sicht [in German]
Case study of eczema in 2 stages (dessication of the skin followed by friction dermatitis) following frequent use of a hand cleanser, and influence of the cleanser on the bacterial flora of the skin. Criteria are suggested for evaluating the physical and chemical effects and overall action on the skin of cleansers: primary and secondary effects, influence of pH on skin behaviour, removal of fats and reduction of the horny layer. Comments on the relatively rare phenomenon of sensitisation to cleansing products and on drying of the skin after washing (preference given to towelling).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, June 1979, Vol.29, No.6, p.154-159. Illus.

CIS 79-1973 Gall H.
Degenerative contact eczema of toxic origin and its prevention in members of the German armed forces
Das toxisch-degenerative Kontaktekzem und seine Prophylaxe bei Angehörigen der Bundeswehr [in German]
Description of the skin structure and especially of the stratum conjuctum, which acts as a barrier, and considerations on the stages of pathogenesis in degenerative toxic eczema of toxic origin. The main part of this article gives information on preventive measures adopted in the West German forces: protective gloves, barrier creams (technical data, classification according to their composition and the harmful agents against which they give protection). Cleaning products are chosen for their efficacy, and this often leads to skin hazards. The importance of using nutrient cream after cleaning (to make up fat and water losses) is emphasised.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, May 1979, Vol.14, No.5, p.125-127. 7 ref.

CIS 79-790 Barnard J.M.
The control and prevention of dermatitis at work.
This paper presented at the 19th International Congress on Occupational Health (Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, Sep. 1978) emphasises the importance of dermatitis control (health screening; early identification of skin disorders; nursing aspects; rehabilitation and resettlement) and dermatitis prevention (health education and advice, washing facilities, personal hygiene, gloves, barrier creams).
Occupational Health, Jan. 1979, Vol.31, No.1, p.14-18. 12 ref.

1978

CIS 79-109 Sanderson J.T., Jelfs E.C.G.
Bitumens - Health and safety aspects and precautionary measures.
Aspects covered: general remarks, prevention of contact, hygiene facilities, first aid (skin, eyes) TLVs (bitumen fume, 5mg/m3; hydrogen sulfide, 10ppm), safety hazards (storage and handling, fire hazard, fire emergencies, spillage and clean-up, flash points).
Medical Bulletin, Exxon Corporation, New York, USA, Spring 1978, Vol.38, No.1, p.27-32.

CIS 78-1756 Venediktova K.P., Utkina A.M.
A new product to remove dyes from the hands of workers engaged in textile finishing
O vnedrenii novogo sposoba udalenija krasitelej s koži ruk rabočih otdeločnogo tekstil'nogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Description of a detergent paste developed for cleaning the skin of scrapers, dyeing equipment operators, colour mixers etc., which oxidises the dye on the skin by a 5% permanganate solution and eliminates the oxidation products by a mixture of disodium sulfosuccinate esters, sperm whale fat alcohols (90% w/w) and a 10% w/w aqueous solution of sodium bisulfite. Results of tests at a cotton dyeing establishment: residues of direct, azo, sulfur and other dyes deposited on the skin were removed in 84% of cases without drying out or irritation of the skin.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1978, No.2, p.8-12. 6 ref.

CIS 78-1098 Langford N.P.
Fluorochemical resin complexes for use in solvent repellent hand creams.
This new technology for hand creams is described. Repellency, penetration and durability studies reported include tests with treated filter paper, pigskin and hairless mouse skin. In tests in 75 workers exposed to solvents and 60 workers at a silk screening plant, where they are exposed to solvents and inks, the cream effectively protected the skin against irritation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1978, Vol.39, No.1, p.33-40. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 78-749 Lauwerys R.R., Dath T., Lachapelle J.M., Buchet J.P., Roels H.
The influence of two barrier creams on the percutaneous absorption of m-xylene in man.
A method was developed to estimate skin absorption of m-xylene in humans. Unchanged m-xylene and total m-methylhippuric acid eliminated in the urine were measured over 24h. Absorption of m-xylene may vary by a factor of 2 in the same individual; interindividual variability is greater still. Mean absorption was 2.45µg/cm2. Barrier cream containing 10% silicone did not significantly affect absorption. A cream containing glycerol, stearates and oleostearates was not more effective.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1978, Vol.20, No.1, p.17-20. 11 ref.

1977

CIS 78-1598 Tronnier H.
Should workers be protected against light?
Beruflicher Lichtschutz? [in German]
Protection of workers against light in the undertaking is indicated only in the case of individual sensitivity, and only at workplaces where there is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The problem also arises, however, for work in the open in regions with intense sunlight, on account of the risk of chronic lesions. Several examples of occupational exposure to light are quoted, with possible skin lesions and details of the properties of the protective substances: light protection factor, mode of application, consistency of preparations.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Nov. 1977, Vol.12, No.11, p.243-245. Illus.

CIS 78-566 Protect your skin - Causes and prevention of industrial dermatitis.
Protégez votre peau - Les causes et la prévention de la dermatose dans l'industrie. [in French]
Contents of this booklet: definition of industrial dermatitis (oil acne, skin cancers, dermatitis due to resins, etc.); causes (structure of the skin; irritants: primary irritants, sensitisers (secondary irritants), mineral oils, solvents and degreasers, chemicals); prevention of dermatitis (improved working environment; personal protection (protective clothing, barrier creams)); personal cleanliness; employers' responsibility.
Deb Chemical Proprietaries, Ltd., Belper, Derby DE5 1JX, United Kingdom, 1977. 14p. Illus. Price: £0.20.

1976

CIS 77-808 The prevention of occupational skin diseases.
This booklet describes, in simple language, the incidence and causal agents of occupational dermatitis, time lost, skin anatomy and physiology, predisposing and direct (mechanical, physical, chemical, plant poisons, biological) factors, and prevention measures (environmental and personal hygiene; protective creams; lotions and ointments; protective clothing; plant design; in-plant medical department; worker education); industrial skin cleansers (basic requirements; mode of action of different types; dispensers; efficiency tests); glossary.
Soap and Detergent Association, 475 Park Avenue South at 32nd Street, New York, New York 10016, USA, 1976. 56p. Illus. Price: US-$1.50.

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