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Respiratory protection - 688 entries found

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1990

CIS 90-2009 Respiratory protective equipment: Legislative requirements and lists of HSE approved standards and type approved equipment
This guide lists relevant UK Regulations concerning the control of substances that cause damage to health and explains the duties placed on employers to ensure that respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is used in compliance with the Regulations. Two further lists provide details of the types of RPE which have been approved or for which standards have been approved by the UK Health and Safety Executive under the Regulations. Names and addresses of manufacturers and suppliers are also provided.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 34p. Price: GBP 2.00.

CIS 90-1706
Health and Safety Executive
Respiratory protective equipment for use against airborne radioactivity
Topics covered in this guidance note include: descriptions of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) such as mask respirators, air-fed equipment and breathing apparatus fitted with gas filters; assessment of the degree of respiratory protection required; selection of appropriate RPE according to the nature of the hazard, protection offered by RPE, nature of work to be carried out, and ergonomic and personal factors; control over the issue and use of RPE and provision of adequate employee training; maintenance and storage procedures, and effective operation of a respiratory protection programme.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London, SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 7p. 16 ref.

1989

CIS 91-2032 Graveling R.A., Miller B.G.
Permissible wearing times for rescue personnel using a new self-contained breathing apparatus
A series of experiments was carried out to determine the times for which a sample of mines-rescue men wearing a new compressed oxygen breathing apparatus, Selected Elevated Flow Apparatus (SEFA), could work in a range of climatic conditions without exceeding physiological safety criteria. Subjects carried out light and heavy physical work routines in a climate chamber under a range of experimentally controlled climates, and selected physiological responses were monitored. A chart of permissible wearing times for the SEFA apparatus was produced and is included in this report.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, Aug. 1989. 54p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 20.00 (GBP 25.00 in other countries).

CIS 91-1384 Kaminskij S.L., Smirnov K.M.
Ergonomic requirements for modern respiratory protective equipment
Ėrgonomičeskie trebovanija k sovremennym sredstvam individual'noj zaščity organov dyhanija [in Russian]
This booklet, intended for those engaged in the development, testing and manufacture of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), as well as for safety officers and trade-union labour inspectors, reviews the state of the art in research and regulatory activities concerning ergonomic qualities of RPE, systematises the data available from Soviet and foreign publications and legislative sources on the hygiene, anthropometric, physiological and psychological characteristics of different types of RPE, defines ergonomic requirements for the RPE and surveys the actual qualities of existing Soviet-made RPE. In an appendix: methods for evaluating the ergonomic qualities of RPE currently in use in the USSR.
VCNIIOT VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, 119829 Moskva, USSR, 1989. 55p. 69 ref. Price: SUR 0.60.

CIS 91-1135 Attention all employers and workers - Using respiratory equipment safely
This data sheet provides basic safety information on the issuing of respirators, their location and training in their use; maintenance, inspection and cleaning procedures and checking for corrosion and wear; legislative requirements.
Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Aug. 1989. 2p.

CIS 90-1625 Tanaka S., Abuku s., Imaizumi K., Ishizuka H., Seki Y., Imamiya S.
Efficiency of respirator canisters with methyl bromide
Two kinds of respirator canisters, an organic vapour (OV) canister containing activated carbon and a methyl bromide (MB) canister containing activated carbon impregnated with triethylenediamine were investigated for their ability to retain MB gas under various conditions of MB concentration, humidity and temperature. At lower MB concentrations, the breakthrough time of the OV canister was shorter than that of the MB canister and decreased with an increase in temperature, remaining unchanged for the MB canister. Examination of the desorption and the residual adsorption capacity for MB gas showed that more than 5ppm of MB gas leaked from 11 out of 18 used OV canisters, whereas less than 0.1ppm MB leaked out from each of the used MB canisters. The mean remaining breakthrough time of the used OV canisters was 9.3min. whereas that of the used MB canisters was 74.4min. It was shown that the gas masks with the OV canisters were not suitable for fumigating with MB gas.
Industrial Health, Dec. 1989, Vol.27, No.3, p.111-120. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 90-1311 NIOSH certified equipment list as of December 31, 1989
This list is provided as part of the NIOSH testing, approval and certification programme for personal protective devices and industrial hazard measuring instruments. Certified products listed include coal mine dust personal sampler units, self-contained breathing apparatus, gas masks, supplied air respirators, particulate respirators, chemical cartidges, powered air purifers and vinyl chloride respirators. Brief technical details are given of each product listed, and names and addresses of manufacturers and distributors are provided.
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Jan. 1990. 489p.

CIS 90-1323 Respiratory protective equipment (RPE) - Legislative requirements and lists of HSE Approved Standards and Type Approved Equipment
Contents of this guidance document: legislative requirements for the use of RPE in the United Kingdom, type approval certificates and user action; annotated list of HSE-approved RPE; annotated list (with manufacturer and distributor noted) of approved RPE commercialised in the UK.
Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Oct. 1989. 41p.

CIS 90-1352 Mayer A.
Respirators and optical filters for arc welding - Safety information sheet
Masques et filtres optiques pour le soudage à l'arc - Fiche pratique de sécurité [in French]
The main criteria for the selection of filters are the level of protection offered, the type of the filter and the type of respirator. Caracteristics to take into account for these 3 elements are discussed.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1989, No.12, p.699-702. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 90-912 Cohen H.J., Garrison R.P.
Development of a field method for evaluating the service life of organic vapor cartridges: Results of laboratory testing using carbon tetrachloride
The method involves using small carbon tubes (RCTs) packed with sorbent obtained from a respirator cartridge of interest. A sample tube is placed directly behind the RCT and periodically replaced. This tube acts as a backup section to the RCT. The sample tube can be brought back to a laboratory and analysed for the contaminant of interest. Alternatively, a direct-reading instrument can be placed at the exit end of the RCT to obtain "real-time" breakthrough information. The results, when combined with existing sorbent thories, can be used to predict the service life of a respirator cartridge. The advantage of using RCTs is that, unlike respirator cartridges, they can be taken into the field and used with traditional high-flow air sampling pumps. This method is designed to be able to determine the service life of respirator cartidges even when multiple contaminants are present in the workplace. Results of initial laboratory studies, using carbon tetrachloride as a challenge agent, indicated that RCTs were capable of predicting cartridge service life within an accuracy of ±15%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1989, Vol.50, No.9, p.486-495. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 90-979 Holthaus I.
Are the Federal German regulations on compressed-air work still up to date?
Ist die Druckluftverordnung noch zeitgemäss? [in German]
German (Rep.Fed.) legislation on diving and work in compressed air is reviewed in the light of current knowledge in physiology, medicine and safety engineering. It is recommended to update the existing regulations of 1972, 1977 and 1979.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1989, Vol.39, No.4, p.100-104. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 90-472 Brown R.C.
Modern concepts of air filtration applied to dust respirators
The current state of development of those aspects of air filtration particularly relevant to dust respirators is reviewed. Models and theories of airflow are described, and this description is followed by an account of the various mechanisms of particle capture by mechanical means and by electric forces. Electrically charged materials that are, or could be, used in respirator filters are described and classified according to the methods by which they become charged. Ways of measuring the charge level are summarised, and the stability of electric charge on filters is discussed with respect to storage, exposure to harsh environmental conditions and use. Measurements of filtration efficiency using monodisperse laboratory aerosols, industrial aerosols and standard aerosols are put into their various perspectives. The review ends with a brief account of the place of coarse mechanical filters in industrial hygiene.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.4, p.615-644. Illus. 96 ref.

CIS 90-529 Vaughan N.P., Milligan B.D., Ogdan T.L.
Filter weighing reproducibility and the gravimetric detection limit
Weighing of filters is of fundamental importance in numerous analysis techniques, yet the errors associated with such weighings are not generally appreciated. The reproducibility achievable in weighing of filters on different balances, and under different conditions, has been experimentally determined. The implications of these findings for the detection limit of gravimetric filter analysis are discussed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.3, p.331-337. 8 ref.

CIS 90-75 Respiratory protection
Arbeitsschutz-Produkte [in German]
La protection respiratoire [in French]
Catalogue of respiratory protection equipment available from the 3M company. Contents: discussion of atmospheric contamination and its effects on the organism; filtration techniques and selection criteria; different kinds of facial masks; measuring and testing equipment; supplied-air respirators.
In France: 3M France, Bd. de l'Oise, 95006 Cergy Pontoise Cedex, France; in Germany: 3M Deutschland GmbH, Verkauf Arbeitsschutz-Produkte, 4040 Neuss 1, Carl-Schurz-Str. 1, Postfach 10 04 22, Federal Republic of Germany, no date. 16p. Illus.

CIS 89-1912 Balieu E.
Activated carbon filters in air cleaning processes - I. Introduction and fundamental aspects
A survey is given on the fundamental properties of activated carbons with a special view to their ability to act as a filter material in air cleaning filters for removal of gases and vapours in the industrial environment. The nature of the filtration process and its dynamic character is described and principles, definitions and terms of importance for a fundamental understanding of the design, testing and operation of small as well as large filters are given.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.181-195. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-1892 Heineman E.F., Shy C.M., Checkoway H.
Injuries on the fireground: Risk factors for traumatic injuries among professional fire fighters
This case-control study involving 75 injured firefighters and 144 controls within a metropolitan fire department evaluated the effect of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and other risk factors on three types of injury at the scene of a fire (smoke inhalation, burns, and falls). Smoke inhalation cases were not significantly different from controls in SCBA use, cigarette smoking, previous fires in the shift, or injury history. Jobs with high risk of burns included nozzle operator, engine officer, and forcible-entry person in first-due companies. Other risk factors for burns were: basement origin of fire; prior fire-fighting training outside the present department, and on-duty injury in the prior 12 months. When other risk factors were considered, consistent SCBA use was associated with falls but not with burns. Neither age nor experience was related to injury in this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.3, p.267-282. 43 ref.

CIS 89-1964 NIOSH - Certified equipment list as of December 31, 1988
NIOSH, under authorisation of the US Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, provides a testing, approval and certification programme assuring commercial availability of safe personal protective devices and reliable hazard measuring instruments. NIOSH develops improved performance regulations, tests and certifies (or approves) devices, and purchases approved and certified products on the open market to verify the quality of manufacture. This publication lists products certified as of October 1, 1985, contains tables of useful information concerning certified coal mine dust personal sampler units and respirators, updates the list of approval applicants, and lists some of the more common cautions and limitations for specific respirator classes.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centres for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1989, p.1-14; A-1-A-39; B-1-B-36; C-1-C-56; D-1-D-56; E-1-E-237; F-1-F-30; G-1-G-3; 15-23. Appendix.

CIS 89-2037 Personal protective equipment - Care of self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
Equipement de protection individuelle - Entretien des appareils respiratoires autonomes [in French]
Eighth of a series of 12 data sheets on personal protective equipment. Aspects covered: procedures for the inspection, cleaning and repair of the various parts of the respirator unit.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 89-2036 Personal protective equipment - Care of respirators
Equipement de protection individuelle - Entretien des appareils respiratoires [in French]
Seventh of a series of 12 data sheets on personal protective equipment. Aspects covered: facepieces; headstrap/harness; inhalation and exhalation valves; filter elements; air supply system; respirator battery packs; repair, cleaning and storage.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

1988

CIS 93-1288 Brown R.C.
An account of depth-filtration in air cleaning with particular reference to electrically charged filter material
Properties of filter materials that are relevant to their behaviour during air filtration on a large scale are described. Basic filter types include fabric filters, coarse-fibred depth filters, fine mechanical filters and electrically charged material. Filter performance is discussed in terms of resistance offered to airflow and filtration efficiency. Particulate capture by means of electrostatic filters is described along with types of electrically charged material available and detailed performance data. The potential usefulness and limitations of electrically charged materials are discussed.
In: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ventilation for Contaminant Control, 20-23 Sep. 1988, London, United Kingdom, p.303-312. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 93-258 Brown R.C., Wake D., Blackford D.B., East G.C., Smith P.A.
The use of electrically charged polymers in air filters
A paper presented at the First International Conference on Electrical, Optical and Acoustic Properties of Polymers, held in Canterbury, United Kingdom, 5-7 September 1988. The need for electrically charged filters is outlined and their mechanism of action is briefly described. The stability of the charge is discussed and unsolved problems concerning the behaviour of electrically charged filters are listed.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 9p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 93-26
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Performance test methods of long tube respirators [China]
Changguan mianju xingneng shiyan fangfa [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1986) describes tests for assessing some performance criteria of airline respirators. They include: leakage, breathing resistance, air-tightness of the low-pressure part, working pressure of the input air valve, soft tube or mid-pressure soft tube, connecting part of the soft tube, and air supply equipment. A commentary is appended which outlines the main tests necessary for evaluating the efficiency of airline respirators. They comprise tests described in this standard (GB 6221-86) and also those in GB 2891.1-82, GB 2891.2-82, GB 2891.4-82, GB 2891.5-82 and GB 2891.6-82; and cover testing of leakage, effective dead space, field of vision, air-tightness of air valves and air resistance.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.194-206. Illus. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).

CIS 93-25
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Long tube respirators [China]
Changguan mianju [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1986) contains: area of application of airline respirators, definition of terms, specifications on various types, structure and performance requirements, material, inspection and labelling. Further explanations on the standard, particularly on the protection efficiency and human physiology-related properties of airline respirators are given in the appended commentary. Data showing performances of locally made products compared with one German and one Japanese product are also annexed.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.170-193. Illus. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).

CIS 93-203 Wake D., Brown R.C.
Measurements of the filtration efficiency of nuisance dust respirators against respirable and non-respirable aerosols
The filtration efficiency of a range of nuisance dust masks was investigated using monodisperse aerosols with particle diameters between 1.5 and 9µm, and dispersed dusts with particle diameters up to 40µm. The filtration efficiency of the masks was found to be highly size-dependent with the penetration of any dust through a mask depending critically on its size distribution. Combining test results with measured size-distributions of limestone dust gave predicted penetrations through the filters of between about 1 and 55%.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.295-315. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 93-257 Brown R.C., Wake D.
Particle size-selection by simple filters
A paper from the Aerosol Society Conference held in Bournemouth, United Kingdom, 22-24 March 1988. Some experimental size-selection curves for relatively coarse filters are presented and differences in general shape are related to simple theory. Size-selectivity has a Gaussian form if the process by which the filter acts is pure interception or gravitational desposition, while a much sharper curve is associated with inertial impaction.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 8p. 13 ref.

CIS 93-195 Brown R.C., Wake D., Gray R., Blackford D.B., Bostock G.J.
Effect of industrial aerosols on the performance of electrically charged filter material
Four different types of electrostatic filter material were exposed to a range of aerosols. Different aerosols varied considerably in the extent to which they caused loss of efficiency of the filters. Simple dry dusts and asbestos caused little effect, but foundry aerosols were more damaging to all filters, and coke-oven fume to filters made of soluble polymers. It is concluded that although degradation of electrically charged materials occurs when they are exposed to aerosols, significant electrical activity remains; and even if all the effects of the carge were removed, they would be no worse than mechanical filters of the same structure. A simple theory of degradation is outlined.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.271-294. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 93-194 Waker A.J., Brown R.C.
Application of cavity theory to the discharge of electrostatic dust filters by x-rays
Irradiation of electrostatic dust filters with x-rays can be used as a means of studying the charged state of these filters. Cavity theory is used to determine the relationship between ion production in the cavities and that in free air. An experimental method is propsed to check the validity of the calculations based on cavity theory and the results of experimental tests reported. Reasonable agreement is found between theoretical predictions and experimental results and the need for the use of an extended cavity theory is clearly demonstrated.
International Journal of Radiation and Applications and Instrumentation, 1988, Vol.39, No.7, p.677-684. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 92-1425
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Test methods for filter-type respirator for particles [China]
Guolushi fangweili kouzhao de shiyan fangfa [in Chinese]
These standards (effective 1 Dec. 1986) describe the experiments for testing the performance of filter-type particulate removing respirators (dust masks): GB 6224.1-86 describes the testing for total leakage, GB 6224.2-86 that for filtration efficiency, GB 6224.3-86 that for dead space, and GB 6224.4-86 that for breathing resistance. The appended commentary includes explanations on standard GB 6223-86 (standard on filter-type particulate removing respirators) and also the present standards.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.259-266. Illus. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).

CIS 92-1424
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Filter-type respirators for particles [China]
Guolushi fangweili kouzhao [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1986) applies to filter-type particulate removing respirators (dust masks) for protection against harmful particles such as metal fumes and radioactive aerosols. It contains: definition of terms; types of respirators and conditions of application; performance, structure and material requirements; inspection of products; labelling, packaging and storage. The commentary includes: explanations on the standard, testing of respirators, test results of locally made products, and general comparison of the standard with American, Russian, British, German and Japanese standards.
In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.256-258, 267-275. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume).

CIS 92-368 Standards for Dust Respirators [Japan]
English translation of the industrial hygiene standard on dust respirators, issued in compliance with the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Law on 30 Mar. 1988. Contents: classification of dust respirators, with corresponding manufacturing specifications; materials used in dust respirators, with corresponding test methods; general manufacturing requirements and performance tests; marking of respirators; information to be included in users' instruction manuals.
In: Industrial Safety and Health Law and related legislation of Japan, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108 Japan, 1991, p.879-888. Illus.

CIS 91-1977 Anderson P.W.P.
The IOSH guide to respiratory protective equipment
Contents of this guide: sources of information (British Standards and HSE Certificates of Approval); the physiology of respiration; summary of types of respiratory equipment (RPE); nominal protection factors; RPE selection strategies; use, care, maintenance and storage of RPE; training in correct use of RPE; brief description and limitation of types of breathing apparatus, dust respirators, and respirators for gases and gases with dusts; air fed dust helmets.
The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, 222 Uppingham Road, Leicester LE5 0QG, United Kingdom, 1988. 46p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 91-1956 Liao G., Beale S.B.
Computer simulation of the leakage of filtering facepiece respirators
This report describes the simulation of the fluid flow and mass transfer associated with a typical filtering facepiece respirator. Results support experimental data in demonstrating that probe location is of prime importance for accurate measurement of the total inward leakage of contaminant into the lungs. Results also suggest that the method of sampling (continuous or pulsed) may be of second order.
Health and Safety Executive, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Trinity Road, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, 1988. 57p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 91-196 Yagami T.
Estimate of the efficiency of respirators used against fumes and gas in welding and application of magnetopneumography
Yōsetsu hyūmu, gasu ni taisuru kokyū-hogogu no seinō-hyōka to haijikai-sokutei no ōyō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
The protective performance of respirators depends upon the collection efficiency of filters, air flow resistance and facial fit. Collection efficiency was estimated by measuring the amount of perifacial leakage of respirable dust, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The Roken Mask-Tester that was used is a mobile apparatus, freely usable by workers anywhere in the workplace. The fit between face and respirator was evaluated by measuring the rate of dust leakage into the respirator using a high-sensitivity aerosol meter. Retained dust in the welder's lung was measured by magnetopneumography using a computer control system. The latter is a non-invasive, non-destructive technique for estimating the amount and mapping the location of inhaled magnetisable dust in the lung. The present study was performed in a welding test chamber and in welding shops. A strong magnetic field was measured in the lungs of arc welders, especially in those with poorly fitting respiratory protection (collection efficiency of 86% or less). The new type of fibrous active carbon filter provides reliable protection against ozone.
Occupational Health Journal, July 1988, Vol.11, No.4, p.12-21. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 89-1488 Safety equipment and occupational hygiene
Productos de seguridad e higiene ocupacional [in Spanish]
Training manual concentrating on hazardous substances in air and on the proper selection and use of respiratory protective equipment.
3M México S.A., Mexico, [c1988]. 1 loose-leaf binder. Illus.

CIS 89-1641 Werner W., Kampmann B., Morfeld P.
Circulatory responses during a practise session with respirators
Beanspruchung des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems während einer Atemschutzübung [in German]
Forty-four members of various gas protection brigades participated in a 30-minute exercise involving, e.g., operation of an impact hammer requiring a force of 250N or climbing a ladder. Compressed air breathing apparatus was worn during the exercise. Measurement of the heart rate revealed values above 180 per minute during 5.9% of the time in 20 of the 41 persons who completed the exercises.
Brandschutz, 1988, Vol.42, No.9, p.508-513. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 89-1397 White M.C., Baker E.L., Larson M.B., Wolford R.
The role of personal beliefs and social influences as determinants of respirator use among construction painters
The purpose of this study was to identify and rank potential determinants of respirator use among painters in the construction industry. As part of a health survey of union painters, 169 male spray painters were questioned about their own beliefs concerning the consequences of wearing cartridge respirators, as well as about the perceived attitudes of others in the workplace toward respirators. Intended respirator use was clearly associated with beliefs. The most important beliefs concerned discomfort or inconvenience. Other determinants that were associated with respirator use were respirator availability, cigarette smoking, and social influences. It was concluded that the most effective intervention strategy to increase respirator use would be multidimensional and that efforts to change only a worker's beliefs may have limited success.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1988, Vol.14, No.4, p.239-245. 20 ref.

CIS 89-883 Le Bot J.Y.
Control of filter clogging in a ventilation system: The case of vehicle spray paint booths
Contrôle pratique de l'encrassement des filtres d'un système de ventilation: cas des cabines de peinture fermées [in French]
In a ventilated enclosure, it is necessary to remove the airborne solid contaminants. Filters of variable efficiency are installed for this purpose. The user then has to clean or replace these filters at regular intervals. This paper considers at what time these operations should be carried out and proposes a solution. It covers the following points: theoretical approach to fan working, filters replacement, theoretical control methods, methods proposed by manufacturers, theoretical working of a ventilation circuit, suggested solution.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1988, No.132, Note No.1684-132-88, p.409-413. Illus.

CIS 89-824 Shimozaki S., Harber P., Barrett T., Loisides P.
Subjective tolerance of respirator loads and its relationship to physiological effects
Subjective and physiological responses to a variety of respiratory loads were measured in a group of 52 normal volunteers during steady, moderate treadmill exercise. Subjective response (SR) was determined with two visual analogue scales developed for this study: EXERT (perceived limitation of exercise duration) and DISC (perceived discomfort). There was a linear relationship between inspiratory resistance and SR. Expiratory and inspiratory resistance loading produced similar subjective effects. Dead space loading, however, produced very little subjective effect on either scale. The study suggests that subjective response can be measured quantitatively and should be considered in respirator design.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1988, Vol.49, No.3, p.108-116. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 89-571 Stobbe T.J., Da Roza R.A., Watkins M.A.
Facial hair and respirator fit: A review of the literature
The results of 14 studies of the facial hair leakage question are summarised. All but 2 of the 14 studies found that, in the presence of facial hair, face seal leakage increased from 20 times to 1000 times. In addition, both intersubject and interrespirator face seal leakage variability increased when facial hair was present. In the other 2 studies, one completed with positive pressure SCBAs and the other completed in the workplace, no statistically significant leakage differences were found.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1988, Vol.49, No.4, p.199-204. 25 ref.

CIS 89-284 Feyrer K., Holeschak W.
Service life of lift cables and drive pulleys
Die Lebensdauer von Aufzugseilen und Treibscheiben im praktischen Betrieb [in German]
This short version of a thesis describes the statistical methods for and results of determining the parameters needed for calculating the number of times that a lift cable is bent over the drive pulley during its service life. Necessary input data were taken from observations on 100 passenger and goods elevators.
Lift Report, Jan.-Feb. 1988, Vol.14, No.1, p.6-9. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 89-282
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
List of approved respirators
Verzeichnis geprüfter Atemschutzgeräte [in German]
List of different respirator types tested and approved by the following German test centres: BIA (Occupational Health Institute of the Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations), HGRW Essen (Main Centre for Mine Rescue), HGRW Hohenpeissenberg (Main Centre for Mine Rescue), SFI Bichum (Silicosis Research Institute), DAGRW (German Committee for Mine Rescue).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Repblic of Germany, 1 Apr. 1988. 48p.

CIS 89-266 Mascher W.
Self-contained rescue respirators - a comparison of systems
Isoliergeräte zur Selbstrettung - ein Systemvergleich [in German]
Features concerning maintenance, weight, reliability, handling and other criteria of compressed air, compressed oxygen, sodium chlorate and potassium superoxide (KO2) respirators are compared. The KO2-respirator is superior to all others except for breathing comfort and costs of training. Unlike the compressed air respirator, it lacks an indicator for the oxygen consumption rate.
AUER Mitteilungen, 1988, No.10, p.25-30. Illus.

CIS 89-199 Morgan M.S., Litzinger M.H., Cordts S.T.
Design and laboratory evaluation of a breath sampling respirator for organic solvent biological monitoring
A modified half-face air purifying respirator was developed as a technique for large-scale monitoring that will be acceptable to workers, simple to apply, and relatively sensitive. Toluene recovery in tests was 70% for simulated breath concentrations of 0.75mg/m3 to 60mg/m3. Nine adult males volunteered to breathe toluene in air at 40ppm for four hours. About 18 hours later, their breath was sampled to simulate a worksite measurement at the start of the next shift. Samples of at least 140L were taken from each subject, and the mean exhaled concentration was 344µg/m3 (0.23% of exposure TWA), agreeing with literature reports using more complicated methods not appropriate for field application. The device can be used to collect up to 300L in 30min. The lower limit of quantitation for toluene was about 65µg/m3 (18ppb). The technique can be applied to most solvents capable of adsorption on charcoal and will permit sampling large numbers of workers with minimal job disruption.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Feb. 1988, Vol.3, No.2, p.41-46. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 88-1982 Swearengen P.M., Weaver S.C.
Respirator cartridge study using organic vapor mixtures
All cartridges were tested in pairs under controlled conditions of mass flow, temperature and relative humidity. Used during the testing were: methyl ethyl ketone, isopropyl alcohol, hexane, n-butyl acetate and ethyl benzene. Cartridges were challenged by a single compound at 1000 and at 2000ppm (by volume) concentraation and by five different mixtures. The chemical concentrations were monitored upstream of the cartridges by infrared analysis and downstream by gas chromatography. The breakthrough times for most of the mixture components were similar to those times measured for each single component at its high concentraation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1988, Vol.49, No.2, p.70-74. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 88-1505 Lewis S.
Unit: Harmful dusts, gases and vapours - Module: Respiratory protective equipment
Training module designed for home study. It includes many practical exercises with answers. Contents: definition of nominal and effective protection factors; different kinds of respirators; breathing apparatus (fresh air hose, compressed air line, self contained). Lists of British standards and certificates of approval are given in the appendix.
Occupational Health and Safety, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Lion Gate Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HF, Hamps., United Kingdom, 1988. 39p. Illus. 13 ref.

1987

CIS 95-884
Centre national de Prévention et de Protection (CNPP)
Self-contained open-circuit breathing apparatus
Appareils respiratoires isolants à circuit ouvert [in French]
This videotape, aimed at fire-fighters and emergency crews, explains the proper use of such equipment: choice of equipment (depending on available time, location and ambient air composition); open-circuit and positive-pressure equipment (composition, elements, use); functioning; what should be checked before use; positioning before use; guidance to proper use; maintenance; storage; charging of cylinders; periodic checks of equipment.
La Médiathèque du Risque, 5 rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, 1987. VHS videotape or slide show (length: 15min). Price: FRF 1630.00 (plus tax). ###

CIS 90-170 Beretta E., Maddalon G., Occella E., Trimarchi R.
A simple procedure for the sampling of airborne dust: Aspiration by a facial mask
Semplice procedura per la determinazione della polvere aerodispersa: La captazione mediante un dispositivo a maschera [in Italian]
A face mask was fitted with inspiration and expiration valves equipped with filter-frame and micropore filtering membranes (8µm pores). A dust sampler was thus created which was used to measure the gravimetric dust concentration in the laboratory (calcite powder) and in an asbestos mill. The performance of this apparatus was compared with that of a personal dust sampler. The device gave good performance, particularly in the laboratory tests, even for relatively long sampling times. The variability of the results obtained with the two methods fell within an acceptable range (±20%), similar to that observed in repeated tests, especially those carried out in industrial environments. When the mask was used in an asbestos mill, the dust concentration values were slightly lower, probably because the mask selects a finer dust size. It is hoped that this study will be of value in establishing methods for airborne dust measurement on the basis of the real daily or hourly dose inhaled.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1989, Vol.78, No.3, p.209-218. 17 ref.

CIS 89-1610 Pasternack A.
New equipment for mine rescue operations
Neue Wege bei Grubenwehreinsätzen [in German]
The main features of new respirators and heat protective clothing (a vest and a suit) for rescue workers in mines are outlined. The respirators feature cooling of the inhaled air by dry ice or sodium phosphate. The vest is cooled by ice, the suit by a silicon oil.
Drägerheft, 1987, No.339, p.2-6. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 89-1415
Oberste Bergbehörde beim Ministerrat der DDR
Occupational safety and health. Use of respirators - 1. General provisions; 2. Testing of function data [German Democratic Republic]
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz - Einsatz von Atemschutzmitteln. 1. Allgemeine Festlegungen. 2. Überprüfung der Funktionswerte [in German]
Standard /01 contains terms and definitions, criteria for the use of and provisions for, maintenance, storage, and labelling of various types of respirators, regulations on safe behaviour and requirements to users. Standard /02 prescribes necessary testing procedures in detail. The standards are effective from 1 May 1988.
Verlag für Standardisierung und Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Mar. 1987. 6 + 6p. Illus.

CIS 89-917 Rjumšin V.M., Tjurikov B.M., Mal'cev V.V., Gavriščuk B.I.
Physiological and hygienic assessment of a personal respirator with powered air filtration
Fisiologo-gigieničeskaja ocenka individual'nogo dyhatel'nogo apparata s prinuditel'noj fil'traciej vozduha [in Russian]
Physiological and hygienic analysis of a personal helmet-type respirator with forced air filtration demonstrated its advantages over industrial gas masks. It is easier to endure physical loads constituting 40% of maximal aerobic capacity in the new respirator than in gas masks. Airway resistance and CO2 concentration in the inhaled air were below the maximum permissible levels.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1987, No.6, p.41-44. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 89-612 Howie R.M., Coleman G.C., Graveling R.A., Graves R.G., Nicholl A.G.M., Groat S., Wildblood R., Crawford N.P., Dodgson J.
Development of a powered helmet respirator suitable for use in coalmines
Contents of this report: work programme; ergonomic assessment of the AHG powered helmet respirator (PHR); development of a prototype PHR; development of fan/filter systems, headshells, visor assemblies; specification of the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) prototype PHR; ergonomic assessment of the final IOM prototype PHR; mobility, communication, physiological and wearer acceptance trials.
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Roxburgh Place, Edinburgh EH8 9SU, United Kingdom, 1987. 104p. Illus. 19 ref. Appendices. Price: GBP 10.00.

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