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Respiratory protection - 688 entries found

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2003

CIS 03-1758 Majchrzycka K.
The protection factor - A basis for selecting respirators
Wskaźnik ochrony - podstawowe kryterium doboru sprzętu ochrony układu oddechowego [in Polish]
This article presents the concept of the "protection factor" and discusses its application for selecting respirators. It presents the results of studies conducted in the European Union and in the United States, as well as a method for determining the protection factor for different types of respirators.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.25-27. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 03-1757 Olson P., Barnes H.
Industrial respiratory protection - An overview
This article describes the four main phases of the implementation of a respiratory protection programme on an industrial site: identification of respiratory hazards and ambient concentrations (dust, smoke, fog, gases, vapours); understanding the possible effects of the ambient contaminants on workers' health; selection of the appropriate respirator; training of the workers in the use and care of the respirators. Once the programme is launched, it is necessary to verify that the workers are using the equipment provided and to remind them of the importance of use by means of posters, booklets and training courses. They should also be subjected to an annual check of their aptitude to use the equipment. Finally, data concerning the programme need to be recorded and stored. A checklist summarizes the main elements that need to be considered when implementing a respiratory protection programme.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Apr.-June 2003, Vol.XXXIV, No.1, p.27-30.

CIS 03-1872 Jones B., Brenkley D., Jozefowicz R.R., Whitaker J., Shotton J., Booth A.P.
Health and Safety Executive
Use of self-rescuers in hot and humid mines
The concept of self-rescue is based on the assumption that underground mineworkers have the required physical and mental capacities. However, there is insufficient knowledge concerning the personal endurance limits associated with the extended wearing of mining industry respiratory protective devices under high physiological stress conditions. In response to these issues, a research programme was defined, consisting of a literature review, an audit of climatic conditions, laboratory investigations and climatic chamber respiratory equipment wearing trails. This work has provided a wider understanding of the physiological response to the wearing of escape respiratory protective devices under hot and humid conditions, enabling recommendations to be made with respect to the selection and use of self-rescuers appropriate to the prevailing deep mine conditions in the United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 147p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 30.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr180.pdf ((sections1-3)) [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr180a.pdf ((sections4-6)) [in English]

CIS 03-767 de la Iglesia Huerta A., Gómez Beltrán J., Ledesma Díaz M.J., Ledesma de Miguel J., Pacheco Reina L., Sáenz Aznares R., García Granados M.L., Dueñas Lopez M.
Health surveillance of workers wearing respirators (2nd part)
La vigilancia de la salud en los usuarios de equipos de protección individual respiratoria (2a parte) [in Spanish]
This article specifies the medical examinations that workers using respirators have to undergo, and completes the article analysed under CIS 03-766. It proposes three levels of examination for each respirator group (examinations prior to authorizing activities requiring the use of respirators, specific examinations according to the type of respirator, periodic examinations) and specifies the health problems that are counter-indicated to the wearing of respirators of a given group. Various practical aspects are also addressed, including: medical certificate of the aptitude to wear respirators; ergonometric tests (exercise tests protocols; calculation of energy expenditure); audiological function tests.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.23, p.16-28. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 03-765 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Pulido E.V.
Using respirators and goggles to control exposure to air pollutants in an anatomy laboratory
This study explored the feasibility of wearing one or a combination of respirators and goggles to control exposure to chemicals in laboratories of anatomy. A total of 28 subjects were trained in wearing protective equipment and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their subjective reaction after having worn the assigned protective equipment while carrying out their normal work. The subjects' exposure to formaldehyde was also measured and it generally exceeded the recommended limits. When a full-face respirator or the combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles were worn, a majority of subjects reported no odour problem and no irritation to the eyes or the upper respiratory system. Subjects accepted the protective equipment to a certain degree, but those using respirators encountered difficulties communicating with others. The combination of a half-mask respirator and goggles was found to be the best combination to control exposure to air pollutants in a laboratory of anatomy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.326-331.19 ref.

2002

CIS 06-5
Health and Safety Executive
Asbestos dust kills. Keep your mask on
Breathing asbestos fibres can lead to asbestos-related diseases. This leaflet, aimed at workers involved in work with asbestos-containing materials, explains why asbestos is dangerous. It gives guidance on when respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is needed, what type of RPE to wear, employers' obligations and what employees can do to protect their health.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2002. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg255.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1939 Laird I.S., Goldsmith R., Pack R.J., Vitalis A.
The effect on heart rate and facial skin temperature of wearing respiratory protection at work
Twelve New Zealand workers from a range of occupations were studied to investigate the effect of wearing air-filtering respiratory protection on their heart rate and facial skin temperature (lip and cheek) whilst working. All variables were measured continuously during simulated and actual work. Mean heart rates in subjects moving without respirators ranged from 75 to 94 beats/min and from 77 to 98 beats/min during respirator use at work. Mean skin temperature under the mask (lip) increased in 11 while using respirators (range 1.2¿4.8°C) but cheek temperature only increased in four (range 0.6¿1.5°C). The heart rate data from the real and simulated work indicated that effort and workload were similar. The increase in skin temperature under the mask may account for the reluctance of individuals to wear respiratory protection at work.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-609 Personal protective equipment - Head and respiratory system
Środki ochrony indywidualnej - Głowa i układ oddechowy [in Polish]
This guide provides information on the characteristics and scope of use of personal protective equipment for the head and respiratory system protection, guidance concerning the proper selection of this equipment and information regarding the compliance of Polish standards with European Union directives. Translation of INRS publication ED 279.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 32p. Illus.

CIS 03-766 de la Iglesia Huerta A., Gómez Beltrán J., Ledesma Díaz M.J., Ledesma de Miguel J., Pacheco Reina L., Sáenz Aznares R., García Granados M.L., Dueñas Lopez M.
Health surveillance of workers wearing respirators (1st part)
La vigilancia de la salud en los usuarios de equipos de protección individual respiratoria (1a parte) [in Spanish]
The objective of this article is to serve as a guide to the services responsible for the medical supervision of workers who use respirators, so as to ensure that they do not pose additional risks to their health. Contents: occupations and sectors of activity which may require the use of respirators; definitions (particulate filers, insulators, self-contained or semi-autonomous); classifications (groups 1 to 3); physiological consequences of using respirators (pulmonary, cardiovascular, metabolic, psychological, cutaneous, postural, ophthalmological and ear-nose-throat); diseases for which the use of respirators is not recommended (disorders of the endocrine system and lung, heart, neurological or musculoskeletal diseases); evaluation of the aptitude for wearing a respirator (anamnesis, physical examinations, specific tests). See also CIS 03-767.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.22, p.4-12. Illus.

CIS 03-433 Larsson B.M., Larsson K., Malmberg P., Palmberg L.
Airways inflammation after exposure in a swine confinement building during cleaning procedure
The purpose this study was to investigate health effects during cleaning of a pigsty and to evaluate the effect of respirators. Sixteen volunteers were exposed for three hours during cleaning of a pigsty with a high pressure waterjet cleaner. Seven were equipped with a mask. The bronchial responsiveness increased in all subjects following exposure, significantly more in the group exposed without respirators. The cell concentration (mainly neutrophilic granulocytes) in nasal lavage fluid as well as the concentration of interleukin-8 increased significantly only in those subjects without respirators. In peripheral blood, an increase of neutrophilic granulocytes was observed in both groups, although it was significantly higher in the group without mask. The inhalable and respirable dust levels were 0.94mg/m3 and 0.56mg/m3 respectively.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.41, No.4, p.250-258. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-304 Klein R.
Self-contained respirators - Validating the safe operation of devices containing electronic circuitry
Appareils de protection respiratoire autonomes - Validation de la sûreté de fonctionnement des appareils comportant des circuits électroniques [in French]
Self-contained insulated open-circuit compressed air respirators increasingly use electronic devices to replace pneumatic manometers and whistle alarms. Electronic alarms allow the design of lighter respirators having improved performance and capable of supplying more information to the user. However, there are currently no standards for evaluating the reliability of electronic alarms. This article is aimed at standardization specialists, equipment designers and certification bodies. It proposes solutions to problems of reliability of the electronic circuitry in self-contained respirators, in particular by taking design requirements into account and by applying a validation method.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2002, No.189, p.27-33. Illus. 12 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/appareils_protection_respiratoire_autonomes.html [in French]

CIS 03-352
Health and Safety Executive
Selection of suitable respiratory protective equipment for work with asbestos
This guidance is aimed at employers and self-employed contractors in the building industry, at persons working with asbestos-containing insulation materials, including contractors licensed for this work, and at safety representatives. It will help in selecting the appropriate respirators, making sure they are used correctly and maintained in good condition. Contents: why respirators are necessary; when they should be provided; control measures to be applied before resorting to respirators; marking of respirators; selection of respirators; evaluation of concentrations to which workers are exposed; protection factors; facepiece fit testing; consulting employees; maintenance, training and supervision; some common misuses of respirators when working with asbestos. Replaces CIS 99-2014.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 2002. 26p.14 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg288.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-103 Torloni M.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Respiratory protection programme - Recommendations, selection and use of respirators
Programa de proteção respiratória - Recomendações, seleção e uso de respiradores [in Portuguese]
This publication provides practical guidance on designing a respiratory protection programme as well as on the selection and use of respirators. Contents: requirements applicable to respiratory protection programmes; qualifications required for managing a respiratory protection programme and responsibilities of the responsible person; written procedures for routine and emergency use; factors influencing the selection of equipment (routine work, work in confined spaces, in IDLH atmospheres or under reduced pressure, other factors); training in the use of the equipment; air-tightness testing; maintenance; inspection and storage; breathing air for self-contained or compressed air respirators. The 11 appendices provide additional information (glossary, procedures for cleaning and carrying out air-tightness testing, evaluation of the aptitude of workers to wearing the respirators, classification of respirators according to their mode of work).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2002. 127p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: BRL 10.00.

CIS 02-1862 Hodous T.K., Washenitz F., Newton B.
Occupational burns from oxygen resuscitator fires: The hazard of aluminum regulators
There were more than 30 incidents of oxygen resuscitator fires in the United States during the period 1996-2002, causing severe burns to fire fighters, ambulance workers, emergency medical service personnel, health care workers and patients. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to investigate three such incidents. NIOSH conducted site investigations of the incidents, and the oxygen resuscitators were sent to a testing laboratory for analysis of the fire causes. The three investigated fires were associated with aluminium regulators from the same manufacturer, mounted on oxygen cylinders. It was found that the cause of the fires was an initial small ignition in the high-pressure area of the aluminum regulator, which then resulted in a massive burnout. Aluminium regulators used with compressed oxygen cylinders are subject to potentially catastrophic combustion during normal use. Replacement of such regulators as well as education and improved safety practices are needed to reduce this hazard.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.63-69. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1769 Bémer D., Callé S., Vaxelaire S., Thomas D., Contal P.
Performance of filter media used in industrial dust filtration - Test method
Performance des médias filtrants utilisés en dépoussiérage industriel - Méthode de test [in French]
This article presents a new method for testing filter media used in industrial dust control. It enables the monitoring changes in the characteristics of the media, such as the pressure drop and fractional filtration efficiency during use characterized by a succession of clogging and unclogging cycles. The test aerosol is composed of alumina particles with a volume median diameter of 3.2µm. Unclogging is ensured by injecting a back flow of compressed air. Results of tests carried out on three types of media used in industrial dust control are presented. Their performance was determined at the initial state (new filter) and after 40 clogging-unclogging cycles. The selected performance criteria enable comparisons to be made among the various media and provide guidelines for selecting a medium as a function of the industrial application.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.71-77. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1404 Guimon M.
Respirators
Les appareils de protection respiratoire [in French]
There is a wide variety of respirator types, suitable for different conditions of intervention or specific working environments. Contents of this safety data sheet: brief summary of the regulatory framework; selection of a suitable respirator as a function of the nature and concentration of the pollutants, degree of protection required and conditions of work and of use; classification of respirators (half-masks, full-mask, helmet, air purifying respirators, self-contained breathing apparatus).
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2002, No.614, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 02-1312 Dobroski H., Tuchman D.P., Vinson R.P., Timko R.J.
Differential pressure response of 25-mm-diameter glass fiber filters challenged with coal and limestone dust mixtures
The correlation between the mass of respirable coal and limestone dusts collected on glass fibre filters and the increase in differential pressure across the filters were studied. Test aerosols were generated inside a laboratory dust chamber using various coal and limestone dusts. The relationship between differential pressure increase and dust mass is linear. This relationship may thus provide a pointer at a reasonable method for measuring respirable dust concentrations.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.96-103. Illus. 15 ref.

2001

CIS 02-1807 Alam Khan M.M.
Personal respiratory equipment - Respiratory
This article provides an overview of respiratory protective equipment. Contents: classification of hazards for respiratory protection (oxygen-deficient work environment, toxic gases, airborne particulate matter, mixtures); types of respirators (air supplying respirators, air purifying respirators), respirator selection; maintenance and effective use of respirators.
INDOSHNEWS, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.6, No.4, p.5-11. 6 ref.

CIS 02-778 Hanshi J.A.
Use of pesticides and personal protective equipment by applicators in a Kenyan district
Thirty randomly-selected farmers in the Garissa district of Kenya were interviewed to assess their safe working methods with pesticides, in particular with respect to their knowledge, attitudes and practices. All participants were male, of average age 23 years. 83% had no formal education. Half of the participants had used pesticides for a period of five years or more. The most frequently-used insecticides were carbamates (53%), pyrethroids (30%) and Kelthane (organo-chlorine, 17%). Only 17% of the participants used masks, mostly improvised. Among the reasons for not wearing masks, 40% mentioned the heat and 36% the expense, while 24% were unaware of the importance of masks. 77% of the respondents had experienced illness as a result of using pesticides.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.74-76. 11 ref.

CIS 02-303 Moyer E.S., Smith S.J., Wood G.O.
Carbon tetrachloride replacement compounds for organic vapour air-purifying respirator cartridge and activated carbon testing - A review
A review about substitutes for carbon tetrachloride in measuring activated carbon activity (adsorption capacity) or organic vapour air-purifying respirator cartridge breakthrough times. Different criteria have already been established by USA, in the European Union and in Japan. None meet all the need criteria and are not endorsed.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.494-507. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 02-265 Trakumas S., Willeke K., Grinshpun S.A., Reponen T., Mainelis G., Friedman W.
Particle emission characteristics of filter-equipped vacuum cleaners
Report of a study of household vacuum cleaners concerning their collection efficiency immediately after new high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have been installed. Low-cost household vacuum cleaners equipped with such a final HEPA filter were found to have initial filtration efficiencies comparable to those of industrial vacuum cleaners equipped with a HEPA filter. For extensive cleaning efforts and for cleaning of wet surfaces industrial vacuum cleaners may have an advantage.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.482-493. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-459 Caretti D.M., Scott W.H., Johnson A.T., Coyne K.M., Koh F.
Work performance when breathing through different respirator exhalation resistances
An evaluation of the performance in workers, exercising at a fixed workload and wearing full-face piece respirators, and modified to provide different expiratory resistances. Fifteen volunteers exercised on a treadmill at fixed speeds and grades. Performance time decreased linearly with increased resistances. Average oxygen consumption rates and minute ventilation also decreased, indicating that increases in expiratory resistance result in hypoventilation. This study suggests that the only practical expiratory resistance level limitation is the reduction in performance that will be acceptable to the workers.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.411-415. Illus. 15 ref.

2000

CIS 02-99 Introduction to chemical safety. Module IV - Personal controls: Session 5
This booklet describes the hygiene explains the personal hygiene measures to be adopted when working with toxic substances, and explains the basic principles for the selection, use and maintenance of respirators. It also presents two case studies (unloading sulfur tanks and abrasive blasting), highlighting the importance of using appropriate respirators. Finally, it includes an exercise and test on the contents of the training module.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, no date. 24p. Illus.

CIS 01-730 Ribeiro V.R.
Automobile repair - Respiratory protective equipment for painting
Reparação automóvel - Aparelhos de protecção respiratória em pintura [in Portuguese]
Training manual on respiratory protective equipment for painting in automobile repair shops. Main topics covered: descriptions of main hazards and intoxication routes; exposure limit values; types of respirators; components of respirators; classification of respirator filters; selection of respirators; use and maintenance; safety signs required when working with paint.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 2000. 49p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 01-516 Dower J.M., Metzler R.W., Palya F.M., Peterson J.A., Pickett-Harner M.
NIOSH-DOD-OSHA sponsored chemical and biological respiratory protection workshop report
Report of a workshop on chemical and biological respiratory protection in connection with combating terrorism, held in Morgantown, WV, USA, 10-12 March 1999. The workshop provided a forum for over 140 representatives of 63 different emergency services, fire fighters, domestic preparedness organizations, equipment manufacturers, federal research organizations, and state and federal regulatory organizations. Main topics discussed: hazards associated with chemicals or chemical incidents; emergency services and their respiratory protection needs; respirator standards; chemical or biological response plans and protection needs for public health and the medical community. A list of chemical and biological agents of concern is included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 2000. iii, 76p.

CIS 00-1675 Poirot P., Grzebyk M., Héry M., Possoz C., Subra I.
Effectiveness of negative-pressure gas respirators in an industrial setting conditions
Efficacité de masques anti-gaz à ventilation libre en situation industrielle [in French]
Thirty volunteers in six companies took part in a survey to measure the performance of negative-pressure gas respirators with no powered ventilation. Two full-face masks and five half-masks were tested. Each mask was fitted with a filter adapted to the solvent to which operatives were exposed. A new filter was used for each test. The efficiency of the masks was gauged by taking simultaneous readings of pollutant gas levels inside the masks (actual exposure) and outside the masks (potential exposure). The pollutant gases were generated by solvent mixtures. The study produced the following findings: only one mask was shown to be inefficient; there was little or no difference in the performances of the other six; mask leakage in actual working conditions is about 10%; leakage is higher than levels usually found in the literature (between 2% and 4%). The variability of results excludes prediction of the effectiveness of negative-pressure gas respirators in industrial settings.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2000, No.178, Note No.2123-178-00, p.43-52. Illus. 21 ref.

1999

CIS 02-302 Besser G., Werner W.
Modern methods of mask maintenance - A new cost-effective process for cleaning and disinfecting of protective masks
Moderne Maskenwartung - Ein neues kostengünstiges Verfahren für die Reinigung und Desinfektion von Atemschutzmasken [in German]
Masks used by firefighters or rescue workers need to be regularly cleaned and disinfected. A new process for the maintenance of these masks is described. After an initial cursory wash, the masks are placed in protective bags, and washed and disinfected in a single operation in a programmable industrial machine. Besides being economical, this process avoids in most cases the need to dismantle the mask before washing.
Drägerheft, Dec. 1999, No.370, p.26-34. Illus.

CIS 01-1791 Code of practice for selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices
The purpose of this code of practice is to provide information and guidance on the selection, use and maintenance of respiratory protective devices. It is to serve as a reference standard for acceptable practices for respirator usage in Singapore. The mere provision of a respirator does not by itself ensure the protection of a worker: it must be the correct type of respiratory protection for the particular situation. This code contains requirements and recommendations on respirator selection, respirator fit, training, medical fitness, respirator maintenance and breathing air quality.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1999. 54p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 01-1136 Lécrivain J., Gerber J.M., Aubert S., Delsaut P., Dogan C., Masson A., Héry M.
Assessing the quality of air used to feed supplied air respirators: Measurement of oil and carbon monoxide content
Evaluation de la qualité de l'air utilisé pour l'alimentation des systèmes à adduction d'air: mesure de la teneur en huile et en monoxyde de carbone [in French]
The objective of this study was to examine the quality of compressed air from compressors supplied to wearers of respiratory protection devices. A field study was conducted in different industrial settings, including asbestos removal work, metal part sandblasting and fettling work in a foundry. A sampling and counting method for compressed air was developed, and oil and carbon monoxide concentrations were measured in the air either while it was coming out of the compressor or after it had gone through a cleaning device. The findings differed between sites, although serious exposures were encountered only on one site (and excessively high concentrations in air directly at the compressor on one other site). The responsibilities of the various industry participants (equipment hirers, employers and occupational hygienists) are described, and the need for special compressors for respirable air as well as the importance of maintenance and inspection procedures for this type of equipment are emphasized.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.175, p.5-12. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-1149 Burgess G.L., Mashingaidze M.T.
Respirator leakage in the pharmaceutical industry of Northwest England
Respirators are used in the pharmaceutical industry for protection against dusts that may contain active physiological modifying substances. Even in cases where the filtration efficiency of the respirator is high, the individual fit may be poor. Fit tests were conducted at 10 pharmaceutical manufacturing companies to determine the proportion of leaking respirators. The 3M FT-10 Qualitative Fit Test Apparatus was used to test 211 half-face particulate respirator wearers. Results indicated a failure rate of 69%. Successful results were associated with neither frequency of use, nor years of experience wearing respirators, nor respirator training in the current job or training the in previous job. Only 35 of the 211 participants performed a negative pressure test. Of these, 80% successfully passed the fit test, while the pass rate among those who had not performed the pressure test was 22%.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 1999, Vol.43, No.8, p.513-517. 16 ref.

CIS 01-155 Coffey C.C., Campbell D.L., Zhuang Z.
Simulated workplace performance of N95 respirators
In 1995, NIOSH began to certify new classes of particulate respirators in the United States. To determine the performance of these respirators, NIOSH conducted a study to measure the simulated workplace performance of 21 N95 respirator models, to determine whether fit-testing affected the performance, and to investigate the effect of varying fit-test pass/fail criteria on performance. The 95th percentile of total penetrations for each respirator without fit-testing ranged from 6 to 88%. The 95th percentile of total penetrations for all the respirators combined was 33%, which exceeds the amount of total penetration (10%) normally expected of a half-mask respirator. When a surrogate fit test was applied to the data, the 95th percentile of total penetrations for each respirator decreased to 1 to 16%. The 95th percentile of total penetrations for all the respirators combined was only 4%. Therefore, fit-testing is necessary to ensure that the user receives the expected level of protection. The study also found that performance was dependent on the value of the pass/fail criterion used in the surrogate fit-test.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.618-624. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1625 León M.C.
Definition and conditions of entry - Confined spaces
Definición y condiciones de entrada - Espacios confinados [in Spanish]
Topics: carbon dioxide; oxygen; Colombia; explosive atmosphere detection; flammable gases; hazard evaluation; respirators; responsibilities; toxic atmosphere detection; work in confined spaces.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.45, No.266, p.26-30. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 00-1763 NIOSH respiratory protection program in health care facilities: Administrator's guide
Guide to the implementation of a respiratory protection programme in health care facilities used for the prevention of tuberculosis infection.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1999. x, 112p. Illus.

CIS 00-1404 Moscatelli R.
Selection and use criteria for respiratory protective devices
Criteri di scelta e di impiego degli apparecchi di protezione delle vie respiratorie [in Italian]
Referring to the UNI-ISPESL guideline for the selection and use of respiratory protective devices (see CIS 00-1403), this article provides justification for the criteria for selection and use of such devices based on experience gained in contacts with manufacturers and with users. It is pointed out in particular that the safety gain available from the protective device depends on the likelihood that the device is worn, which in turn depends on the wearing comfort, simplicity, instruction and training, and motivation.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.27-33. Illus.

CIS 00-1403 Campanella E.
UNI-ISPESL guide to the selection and use of respiratory protective devices
La guida UNI-ISPESL alla scelta e all'uso degli apparecchi di protezione delle vie respiratorie [in Italian]
This article essentially provides a detailed contents analysis of the UNI 10720 standard concerning the selection and use of respiratory protective devices, with the exception of diving and high-altitude applications. The main applications are in areas of chemical hazards, oxygen deficiency and/or the presence of harmful substances in the atmosphere. Compulsory features of the devices and selection criteria are described. Two appended tables list the required protection factors for a number of types of both filtering and insulating devices. The standard recommends to use these factors, which are more realistic than those based on nominal performance, in order to compare the performances of the devices.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.19-26. 10 ref.

CIS 00-1106 Grau T.
Respirators for extended time use
Langzeitatemschutzgerät [in German]
A fire requiring 60 minutes to be put out by fire fighters is used as an example to illustrate the advantages of the use of regenerative chemical oxygen versus compressed air respirators. The latter provides breathing for only 20 minutes, hence three groups of firefighters equipped with this type of respirator are needed in a 60-minute duty call. A switch to the regenerative chemical oxygen respirators would reduce the number of firefighters and fire engines required on the scene. A survey of 20 fire services in Germany with a total of 4,600 firefighters has revealed a need for respirators that provide more time on the scene. According to this survey, approximately 60% of all fires require the presence of firefighters during 15 to 30 minutes, and 5% of the fires require more than 60 minutes of presence.
Brandschutz, Oct. 1999, Vol.53, No.10, p.858-861. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 00-779 Krishnan U., Janicak C.A.
Compliance with OSHA's respiratory protection standard in hospitals
Data from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspections that occurred in hospitals and resulted in violations of the respiratory protection standards were examined. From July 1, 1990, to June 30, 1995, the complaint rates for hazards in the workplace significantly increased. During 1990-1991, tuberculosis hazard complaint inspections rates were approximately 5 complaints per 1,000 complaint inspections conducted. During 1994-1995, tuberculosis hazard complaint inspections rates were approximately 76 complaints per 1,000 complaint inspections conducted, representing an increase of over 15 times. During this same period, the percentage of respiratory protection violations in relation to all violations doubled. Increased employee awareness of the hazards and current safety laws could have contributed to the increased frequency of employee complaints, leading to increases in inspections, violations and fines. Employers must adhere to the current safety and health requirements specifically as they pertain to respiratory hazards and tuberculosis.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.228-234. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 00-888 Caretti D.M.
Cognitive performance and mood during respirator wear and exercise
The combined effects of respirator wear and low-intensity work on decision making and mood were assessed in eight subjects during 60min of low-intensity treadmill walking with and without a respirator. Subjects completed walks during no mask wear, wear of a respirator with high inspiratory resistance, and wear of a respirator with low resistance. Cognitive tasks included choice reaction, serial addition/subtraction, logical reasoning, and serial reaction. Mood was measured using a questionnaire with 36 adjectives representing the factors of activity, anger, depression, fear, happiness and fatigue. Data were obtained pre-exercise, after 20 and 40min of walking, and post-exercise. Combined respirator wear and low-intensity exercise did not affect accuracy, speed or throughput in any of the cognitive tasks. Likewise, no significant effects of condition on the six mood factor scores were observed. These results show that the combination of respirator wear and low-level activity does not adversely alter cognitive performance or mood.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.213-218. 20 ref.

CIS 00-764 Müller-Wening D., Neuhauss M.
Investigation of the efficacy of the protective effect of respiratory devices in farmers with occupational asthma
Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Atemschutzgeräten bei Landwirten mit berufsbedingtem Asthma bronchiale [in German]
Farmers have an above-average frequency of bronchitis and bronchial asthma attributable to the inhalation of specific organic dusts. As in other professions, filters of respiratory devices do not offer complete protection. This was demonstrated in 26 farmers suffering from occupational asthma, who were challenged by exposure to work-related dust, first without and then, about 20 weeks later, with the respiratory device. The increases in airway resistance and thoracic gas volume were statistically significant in both challenges, but 50-80% smaller when respiratory devices in the second challenge. This experiment shows that the use of a respirator in farmers suffering from occupational asthma reduces the development of bronchial obstruction but does not prevent it.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Nov. 1999, Vol.25, No.11, p.635-638. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-421 Wilson J.R., Raven P.B., Morgan W.P.
Prediction of respiratory distress during maximal physical exercise: The role of trait anxiety
Industrial respirators offer protection for men and women who are required to work in toxic or oxygen-deficient environments. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm an earlier finding, using a simplified protocol that an individual's tendency to experience respiratory distress during exercise can be predicted. In the present experiment, an independent sample of 38 subjects underwent a maximal exercise test. It was predicted that subjects with elevated trait anxiety scores would experience respiratory distress when required to perform heavy physical exercise using a full-facepiece, air-line supplied, pressure-demand respirator. The prediction of respiratory distress was accurate in 34 of 38 cases (89.5%). It was concluded that an objective measure of trait anxiety can be used to identify those individuals who are most likely to experience distress while performing maximal physical exercise and using a pressure-demand respirator.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.60, No.4, p.512-517. 21 ref.

CIS 00-473 Muhm J.M.
Medical surveillance for respirator users
The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has changed the content and frequency of medical assessments required by the Respiratory Protection Standard. The requirement for periodic reevaluations has been replaced by a requirement to reevaluate users when they experience difficulties with respirator use, or when changes in the workplace result in increased physiological stress in workers. The experience of medical surveillance programmes for respirator users suggests that routine surveillance is not necessary. The frequency of disease sufficiently debilitating to preclude respirator use found through medical surveillance is low; adverse outcomes experienced by respirator users, although potentially tragic, are not outcomes for which medical surveillance plays a preventive role. This article proposes an approach for in which the respirator components are evaluated before the user is subjected to medical investigations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.41, No.11, p.989-994. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 00-203 Antekeuer B., Lottner K., Maldener H.W., Röder N.
Physical stress due to respirators
Belastung durch Atemschutzgeräte [in German]
Exercises performed by four mine rescue workers wearing regenerative chemical oxygen respirators showed that pulse rates remained distinctly lower, compared to those recorded in exercises with heavier compressed air respirators. The exercises were conducted on a 25% slope tread mill and an endless ladder. The mine rescue workers had to climb the equivalent of 90m in height on the treadmill and 60m on the extension ladder. The experiments were conducted under normal conditions without insulating clothing. Results confirmed the subjective assessment of the two types of respirators by the mine rescue workers. The regenerative chemical oxygen equipment is recommended for long rescue operations.
Brandschutz, Sep. 1999, Vol.53, No.9, p.794-805. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1975 Caretti D.M., Gardner P.D.
Respirator fit factor performance while sweating
Data on respirator fit factors were obtained while 14 subjects completed 30min of treadmill walking at an intensity of 75% of age-predicted maximal heart rate in an aerosol test chamber under ambient environmental conditions. Facial and whole body sweat production were also measured. Respirator fit was significantly degraded after 14min of exercise. Sweat accumulation inside the respirator facepiece averaged 30.9±15.5g. However, no significant correlation of facial sweat production with overall fit factor values measured during exercise was found. Results indicate that respirator fit factors degrade significantly over time under moderate exercise and environmental conditions and suggest that facial sweat accumulation alone does not account for the reduced fit factor levels. Topics: dehydration; exercise tests; human experiments; leakage testing; respirators; sweat rate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.84-88. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 99-2014
Health and Safety Executive
Selection of suitable respiratory protective equipment for work with asbestos
Topics: asbestos removal; asbestos; chrysotile; construction work; data sheet; exposure evaluation; information of personnel; legislation; respirators; responsibilities of employers; selection of equipment; supervision of use of protective equipment; supply of personal protective equipment; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Feb. 1999. 26p. 14 ref.

CIS 99-1605 Pappas G.P., Takaro T.K., Stover B., Beaudet N., Salazar M., Calcagni J., Shoop D., Barnhart S.
Medical clearance for respirator use: Sensitivity and specificity of a questionnaire
USA OSHA regulations require that workers receive medical clearance prior to respirator use, and a detailed questionnaire has been provided to assist with this purpose. 474 consecutive workers were tested at a Department of Energy complex. After completing the self-administered questionnaire, all workers received a standardized physician evaluation including interview, physical examination, and spirometry. The outcomes of the questionnaire assessment were compared to the outcomes of physician evaluation. All workers received medical clearance; only 10 workers received work restrictions. The questionnaire demonstrated 100% sensitivity in identifying workers who required work restrictions, but had specificity of only 19%. Compared to physician evaluation, the questionnaire had modest sensitivity to the detection of chronic medical conditions. The data suggest that the rates of medical clearance for respirator use are very high, and that a self-administered questionnaire may be appropriate for medical clearance in certain settings. It is recommended that the policy of routine physician evaluation and spirometry for respirator clearancebe re-examined. Topics: medical examinations; medical supervision; prohibition of use; questionnaire survey; respirators; spirometry; subjective assessment; work aptitude.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.35, No.4, p.395-400. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 99-1604 Pappas G.P., Takaro T.K., Stover B., Beaudet N., Salazar M., Calcagni J., Shoop D., Barnhart S.
Respiratory protective devices: Rates of medical clearance and causes for work restrictions
All workers with work restrictions or denied clearance for respirator use over a one-year period were identified and their medical records abstracted. Of the 5,569 workers who received medical evaluation, only 71 received limitations on respirator use documented in their medical record. Of the 65 workers with sufficient medical records for additional analysis, 9 of the 5,569 workers were denied medical clearance, while 56 workers received work restrictions. Pregnancy was the most common cause for denying medical clearance for respirator use. Lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and claustrophobia were the most common causes for work restrictions. Physical examination and spirometry added little to the detection of relevant medical conditions. It is concluded that few workers fail medical clearance for respirator use or receive work restrictions. Data on adverse events from respirator use are needed to help design appropriate medical evaluations and uniform criteria for work restrictions or denial of medical clearance. Topics: cardiovascular diseases; expectant mothers; medical examinations; medical supervision; prohibition of use; respirators; respiratory diseases; work aptitude.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.35, No.4, p.390-394. 11 ref.

1998

CIS 00-1626 Alves S.
Confined spaces: It remains a hazardous occupation
Espaço confinado: ainda uma atividade de risco [in Portuguese]
Topics: Brazil; carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; explosive atmosphere detection; flammable gases; hazard evaluation; personal protective equipment; respirators; responsibilities; safety engineers; toxic atmosphere detection; toxic gases; work in confined spaces.
Revista CIPA, Apr. 1998, Vol.19, No.225, p.88-91. Illus.

CIS 00-819
Health and Safety Executive
Selection of respiratory protective equipment suitable for use with wood dust
Topics: data sheet; dust helmets; face shields; information of personnel; legal aspects; maintenance; marking; particulate removing respirators; standard; United Kingdom; ventilation; wood dust; woodworking industry.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1998. 4p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 00-286 Tempel J.
Occupational life-time of fire fighters
Lebensarbeitszeit der Feuerwehrleute [in German]
The average life expectancy of professional fire fighters in Munich in 1997 was 65.4 years, far lower than the average life expectancy of 72.77 years of the male population in Germany in 1996. The causes for the lower life expectancy include continued night work throughout the years of active employment and multiple stress factors, such as the manipulation of heavy equipment, life-threatening duties, being injured at work, witnessing the death of a colleague or a child, understaffing, and increasing medical ambulance duties. Professional fire fighters above age 55 have limited ability to cope with requirements, and those above 60 no longer have the ability. The retirement age should be 55, rather than 61 as planned under current discussions on the extension of working life in Germany.
Gewerkschaft öffentliche Dienste, Transport und Verkehr, Abteilung Feuerwehr, Theodor-Heuss-Strasse 2, 70174 Stuttgart, Germany, Apr. 1998. 57p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1606 Meyer J.P., Héry M., Hubert G., François D., Hecht G., Villa M.
Field study of subjective assessment of negative pressure half-masks. Influence of the work conditions on comfort and efficiency
Demi-masques à pression négative. Influence des conditions de travail sur leur confort et leur efficacité [in French]
French translation of CIS 98-313. Topics: comfort assessment; comfort criteria; conditions of work; equipment testing; leakage testing; respirators; subjective assessment; translation; visual comfort.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.171, Note No.2077-171-98, p.147-155. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 99-1603 Coffey C.C., Campbell D.L., Myers W.R., Zhuang Z., Das S.
Comparison of six respirator fit-test methods with an actual measurement of exposure in a simulated health care environment: Part 1 - Protocol development; Part 2 - Method comparison testing
While quantitative fit tests (QNFT) have been assumed to be predictive of the protection provided by respirators, studies have consistently found no correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors. A study was designed to compare the fit factors from six QNFT methods against the actual dose of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2 trifluoroethane (Freon-113) received under the same laboratory conditions. Results suggest that some QNFT methods may be used to estimate actual respirator performance under laboratory conditions. Topics: 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane; comment on standard; comparative study; determination in exhaled air; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; leakage testing; personal sampling; respirators; skin absorption.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.12, p.852-870. Illus. 50 ref.

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