Hearing protection - 278 entries found
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Comparison of the efficiency and comfort of two personal protection systems against noise
Comparaison de l'efficacité et du confort de deux protecteurs individuels contre le bruit [in French]
To evaluate the efficiency of a personal hearing protector it is necessary to consider not only its attenuation spectrum, but also its comfort level, because it might have to be worn for a long period of time. This study compared these two aspects in foam ear plugs and moulder ear protectors. Attenuation was better with the foam plugs, but moulded ear protectors also afforded sufficient protection. On the other hand, moulded ear protectors were more comfortable because of their better ergonomic design, and are recommended for this reason.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.125-129. Illus. 2 ref.
Decree No.72/92 of 28 Apr. 1992, establishing the general framework for the protection of workers against the risks of exposure to noise at work; Regulation No.9/92 of 28 Apr. 1992 relative to Decree No.72/92 [Portugal]
Estabelece o quadro geral de protecção dos trabalhadores contra os riscos decorrentes da exposição ao ruído durante o trabalho; Regulamenta o Decreto-Lei n°72/92 ... [in Portuguese]
The Decree modifies provisions of Decree 251/87 concerning noise (see CIS 90-1090) and it implements in Portuguese legislation Directive 86/188/EEC (see CIS 87-45) concerning exposure to noise at work. It essentially establishes the framework for the introduction of the Regulation. The Regulation concerns: general concepts and definitions (particularly of noise levels); general safety and health measures; evaluation of daily noise exposure; what to do when the action level and the exposure limit are exceeded; medical and audiometric surveillance of workers exposed to noise; hearing protection; noise emitted by work equipment; information and training of workers; keeping and consultation of records. In annex: noise measurement (methods and instruments); criteria for the selection and use of hearing protectors; indicative list of measures for the reduction of noise exposure at work.
In: Colectânea de Legislação - Segurança, higiene e saúde no trabalho - Instrumentos comunitários e legislação portuguesa, Serviço de Informação Científica e Técnica (SICT), Ministério do Emprego e da Segurança Social (MESS), Lisboa, Portugal, May 1992, p.LP 61-71.
This booklet on hearing protection is addressed to workers. It deals with: noise measurement; what to do about a noisy workplace; ear protection; medical advice.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Illus. 9 ref. Free.
Hattori Y., Kodama Y., Kawamoto T.
Questionnaire survey for the fitness of protective equipments used by workers
Rōdō eisei hogogu no mondaiten - Rōdōsha ni taisuru ankēto chōsa [in Japanese]
Questionnaire surveys on the opinions of workers regarding personal protective equipment were conducted for three consecutive years (1987-1989) at a personal protective equipment exhibition which is held annually at an industrial enterprise during Japan's Labour Hygiene Week, and is attended by workers of the enterprise and associated enterprises. One out of five to six returned questionnaires indicated problems associated with protective equipment at work, but the number and rate of such complaints declined from year to year. Safety spectacles were by far the most common source of complaint (10% of total questionnaire returned), followed by earplugs (1.3%) and dust masks (1.2%), but the number and rate of complaints on protective spectacles decreased each year; the most frequent complaints were: "lens becoming misty", "cords becoming weakened", and "lens easily scratched".
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.40-41. 3 ref.
Noise at the workplace - Hearing protection equipment [Netherlands]
Lawaai op de arbeidsplaats - Gehoorbeschermingsmiddelen [in Dutch]
It is common knowledge that one's hearing becomes less acute with advancing years. This process is accelerated when someone is exposed for many years to high noise levels. Such a loss of hearing can have a substantial influence on speech intelligibility. Therefore the deterioration of hearing capacity must be avoided by: reduction of noise level at the workplace to below the level of 80dB(A) and by the use of hearing protectors. The requirements of hearing protection equipment are given in this directive. Together with information about the physiology of hearing and the characteristics of hearing protection equipment, recommendations are given about factors to be considered when selecting such equipment. Relevant regulations are explained. The instructions given in this booklet are partly supported by sections of decrees based on the Working Conditions Act of 1980 (see CIS 92-351).
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 1992. 30p. Illus.
Casali J.G., Park M.Y.
A regression-based methodology for efficient prediction of broadband attenuation of hearing protectors
Attenuation data were collected on 4 groups of 10 industrial workers each; each group was assigned to one of 4 hearing protection devices which the members used at work for six weeks. Regression models and probabilistic prediction intervals based on these data enabled conservative estimation of a noise reduction rating per subject by measurement of real-ear attenuation in only a single band (500 or 1000Hz). The approach has potential for implementation in the workplace, forecasting a worker's overall protection levels and determination of compliance with exposure limits.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, May-June 1992, Vol.38, No.3, p.97-108. Illus. 18 ref.
Effects of cup, cushion, band force, foam lining and various design parameters on the attenuation of earmuffs
Commercial and custom-made earmuffs were tested on volunteers by a miniature microphone method in an anechoic room and in a low-frequency chamber, and on a simulator in an acoustic tunnel. Changes in the cup or its foam lining improved attenuation by as much as 10dB. Changes in the material or shape of the cushion improved attenuation by up to 4dB. Effects of modifications were frequency-dependent. Breaks in the cushion or holes in the cup degraded attenuation by up to 30dB, whereas producing a gap between the cushion and the head degraded attenuation by less than 10dB. In practice, tight fit and an increase in sound absorption inside the cup were most important for improving sound attenuation.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.38, No.2, p.59-65. Illus. 20 ref.
Dirección Nacional de Salud y Seguridad en el Trabajo
Approval of technical standards for hearing protectors [Argentina]
Apruébanse Normas Técnicas de protectores auditivos y externos [in Spanish]
This Standard is issued under the authority of D.N.H.S.T. Disposición 7/90. It provides for a classification of hearing protectors in function of their acoustic characteristics, and it defines the minimum attenuation values required for protection against low, medium and high frequency sound.
Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, 11 June 1991, Year 99, No.27,153, p.7-8.
Pääkkönen R., Vienamo T., Järvinen J., Hämäläinen E.
Development of a new noise helmet
A prototype for a new noise helmet was developed because high noise levels were not sufficiently attenuated by commercially available helmets. The new helmet was designed to be tight, especially in the area of the throat and face, and to cover the entire head. The noise attenuation properties of the new helmet were tested against pink noise in an anechoic room, jet engine noise, and low-frequency noise with the test subjects wearing a miniature microphone under the protector. The new helmet provides insertion loss of over 50dB, which is 18-29dB more attentuation than that of the tested earmuffs in the frequency range of 1-8kHz. It is also better (8-13dB) than the tested earmuffs at frequencies of 125-1000Hz, and it protects against air impurities because the air fed into the helmet is filtered.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1991, Vol.52, No.10, p.438-444. Illus. 19 ref.
Noise exposure of pilots in the cockpit of jet aircraft
Die Schallbelastung der Piloten im Cockpit von Strahl-Verkehrsflugzeugen [in German]
Measurements with an artificial head in the cockpit of 7 different types of jet aircraft identified radio communication using headphones as a major noise source for pilots. The average noise level from this source was above 105dB(A), with peak levels extending to 127dB(A). The risk of hearing damage for pilots was confirmed from random samples of audiogrammes and through notifications of occupationally-induced hearing damage. Speech-filter type earplugs tested by pilots were welcomed by the majority of pilots older than 30 years.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Sep. 1991, Vol.45, No.3, p.159-167. Illus. 21 ref.
Park M.Y., Casali J.G.
A controlled investigation of in-field attenuation performance of selected insert, earmuff and canal cap hearing protectors
Attenuation data were collected from 40 industrial workers wearing four different hearing protection devices (HPDs) while at work. Statistical analyses indicated that the earplugs' attenuation significantly improved when training for proper fitting was used, whereas the earmuff and canal cap were relatively insensitive to the training effect. Results confirmed that laboratory protocols designed to simulate workplace influences on attenuation may not yield reasonable estimates of field protection performance of HPDs, particularly for earplugs. The study also demonstrated that the labelled manufacturers' noise reduction ratings substantially overestimated the actual field attenuation performance.
Human Factors, Dec.1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.693-714. Illus. 26 ref.
Stokes J.P., Royster L.H., Pearson R.G., Royster J.D.
Subjective evaluation of a prototype earmuff exhibiting flat and nonlinear attenuation characteristics
Subjective user reponses were obtained for a test earmuff exhibiting approximately flat (uniform) attenuation of about 25dB from 500 to 8000Hz for sound pressure levels (SPLs) less than 120dB. At SPLs above 120dB, the test earmuff exhibited nonlinear (level-dependent) attenuation characteristics such that noise reduction increased with increasing sound level. The study population consisted of police officers executing a series of firing programmes during two sequential and identical relays. The study subjects wore either the test earmuff or a comparable conventional earmuff during the first relay, then the alternate protector for the second relay with the order counterbalanced. Results indicated a significant preference for the test earmuff in three comparison areas: comfort, perceived hearing protection, and speech understanding. The study demonstrates that ammunition type and level of noise exposure contributed significantly to a preference in favor of the test earmuff. The subjects who used the quietest of the ammunition types rated the test earmuff significantly better than the remaining subjects with respect to speech understanding.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1991, Vol.52, No.2, p.52-60. Illus. 22 ref.
Acoustics - Hearing protectors. Part 1: Subjective method for the measurement of sound attenuation
Acoustique - Protecteurs individuels contre le bruit. Partie 1: Méthode subjective de mesurage de l'affaiblissement acoustique [in French]
This international standard cancels and replaces ISO 4869:1981 (abstracted under CIS 82-378). Standard references and definitions are listed along with specifications for a subjective method for measuring sound attenuation of hearing protectors at the threshold of hearing: test signals; test site; test equipment; test subjects; test procedure; application force; reporting of data. Annex A: uncertainty of sound attenuation measurements.
International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1990. ii, 7p. 7 ref.
Noise protection at the workplace - Present situation and trends
Lärmschutz am Arbeitsplatz - Stand und Tendenzen [in German]
Comparison of Swiss and European Community regulations and standards. Scale of noise exposure in Switzerland. Precedence of noise control over protective equipment. Noise measurement. Protective equipment (importance of correct fit and use). Prophylaxis. Services of the Swiss Accident Insurance Institute (SUVA).
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitssicherheit, Oct. 1990, No.5, p.7-10. Illus. 6 ref.
Castella López J.L.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo
Legislation on the protection of workers against noise
La normativa para la protección de los trabajadores frente al ruido [in Spanish]
Survey of Spanish legislation (including standards) concerning the protection of workers against noise. Special attention is paid to Royal Decree No.1316/89 (see CIS 90-720). Legislation is discussed under the headings of: basic standards and thematic structure; sale of "noisy" machinery; evaluation and control of noise in the working environment; surveillance of the hearing of workers exposed to noise; hearing protection; registries of environmental and medical data and information and consultation with workers and their representatives. In addition to references to Spanish legislation, there are also references to EEC Directives and CEN and ISO Standards.
Salud y trabajo, 1990, No.77, p.25-37.
Damongeot A., Lataye R., Kusy A.
Noise attenuation due to double hearing protection (earmuffs plus earplugs)
Affaiblissement acoustique apporté par une double protection de l'ouïe (serre-tête + bouchons d'oreille) [in French]
The utilisation of double hearing protection (earmuffs plus earplugs) may be necessary in particularly noisy environments. Global attenuations (ISO index: ENR80) given by 32 models of earmuffs and earplugs, used alone or in combination, are presented, based on the literature and tests performed by INRS. In addition, a simple empirical formula was established, relating the global attenuation ENR80 given by the combined protectors to the attenuation given by each one of them. This formula can be useful for assessing the noise attenuation due to any combination of earmuffs and earplugs used in France.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1990, No.140, Note No.1789-140-90, p.557-562. Illus. 11 ref.
Casali J.G., Park M.Y.
Attenuation performance of four hearing protectors under dynamic movement and different user fitting conditions
To determine the effects of movement and fitting procedures on protection levels afforded by 4 hearing protection devices (HPDs), psychophysical attenuation measurements were made before, during, and after a 2-hr wearing stint that included periods of vigorous work activity or chewing. The 40 subjects, who were non-users of HPDs, initially fit the protectors according to either the instructions on the package (subject fit) or after receiving interactive training on proper fit (trained fit). The subject-fit HPDs gave less protection at 1000Hz and below for a premolded polymer earplug, a user-molded foam earplug, and a double protector consisting of a muff over the foam plug. The muff alone was more resilient to fitting effects than were the plugs. Movement caused a reduction in attenuation for the premolded plug, muff, and muff-plug combination. The compliant foam earplug was largely resistant to either type of movement effect but did benefit more than the other devices from the trained-fit procedure.
Human Factors, Feb. 1990, Vol.32, No.1, p.9-25. Illus. 23 ref.
Barham T.D., Russell M.F., Gooding D.
Improving the protection afforded by earmuffs to employees who are exposed to noise
This study investigated causes of variations in the protection afforded by earmuffs among different wearers. Microphones were installed in five earmuff cups worn by workers in an electronics factory where the noise was due to a large lamination press. Real-time measurements of sound level pressure were made both before and after instruction on how to fit the earmuffs correctly. Results showed that simple instruction on how to fit the hearing protectors gave an overall improvement in protection of 4dB. The effect of wearing safety spectacles was found to be negligible. Subjects with short hair tended to achieve higher levels of protection than those with long or curly hair.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.67-76. Illus. 13 ref.
Attention all workers - How to avoid industrial deafness
Guidance note explains the legal requirements for employers to implement noise control measures and provide appropriate hearing protection; selection of appropriately graded hearing protectors and their availability, maintenance and storage; overcoming worker resistance to use of hearing protection.
Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1989. 2p.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at work - Guidance on regulations [United Kingdom]
This guidance publication contains the text of The Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (see also CIS 90-21), together with extensive explicatory text and commentary. There are two parts to the publication: Noise Guide 1 (Legal duties of employers to prevent damage to hearing) and Noise Guide 2 (Legal duties of designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers to prevent damage to hearing).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 27p. Illus. Price: GBP 3.00.
Pfeiffer B.H., Kuhn H.D., Specht U., Knipfer C.
Noise damping by hearing protectors under field conditions
Schalldämmung von Gehörschützern in der betrieblichen Praxis [in German]
A method was developed for testing the sound-attenuating properties of hearing protectors during wearing in the workplace. The values obtained were compared with the results of laboratory measurements according to standard ISO 4869. The performance of ear plugs in the field was clearly inferior to that predicted by type testing in the laboratory according to standard DIN 32 760. The difference between field and laboratory values was much less for earmuff-type protectors, but used equipment of this type afforded less protection than new.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Lindenstrasse 80, Postfach 2043, 5205 Sankt Augustin 2, Federal Republic of Germany, 1989. 74p. Illus. 23 ref.
Ministerio de Relaciones con las Cortes y de la Secretaria del Gobierno
Royal Decree No.1316/1989 of 27 Oct. 1989 concerning the protection of workers against noise-exposure hazards during work [Spain]
Real Decreto 1316/1989, de 27 de octubre, sobre protección de los trabajadores frente a los riesgos derivados de la exposición al ruido durante el trabajo [in Spanish]
Decree issued in accordance with European Communities Directive 86/188 (see CIS 87-45). It covers: obligations of the employer to reduce noise to the lowest practicable level and to measure noise levels; rights of workers' representatives to be present during the measurement of noise levels and to be informed of the results of measurements; use of ear protectors (starting at equivalent daily noise levels of 85dB(A)); periodic audiological examinations (starting at daily average noise levels of 80dB(A)); maintenance of registers of data resulting from audiological examinations. In the annexes: definitions and general concepts; noise measurement; instruments of noise measurement and calculation methods; hearing tests of workers.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 2 Nov. 1989, No.263, p.34428-34431.
Pathak B., Marha K., Louch W.J.
An industrial noise levels database
A data base of industrial noise levels has been developed and made available through an online system and on compact disc. The contents are compiled from the data reported in journals, health and safety reports, and industrial hygiene surveys made by industries, government agencies and independent institutions. Along with measured noise level data, information on engineering controls and use of ear protection is included whenever such data are available. The objective of the data base is to facilitate sharing of information on noise levels among those concerned with workplace health and safety.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.2, p.269-274. 7 ref.
Personal protective equipment - Hearing protection
Equipement de protection individuelle - Protecteurs auditifs [in French]
Sixth of a series of 12 data sheets on personal protective equipment. Aspects covered: selection of hearing protectors; care; fit; comparison of earplugs and earmuffs.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.
Noise exposure of motorcyclists
This study was designed to evaluate noise exposure of motorcyclists at work. Open and full face safety helmets were compared and the effects of helmet design and the contribution of radio intercoms investigated. Special measuring equipment is described and hearing protection discussed. Previous studies concentrated mainly on the attenuation of noise by safety helmets, and were made under conditions untypical of day-to-day motorcycling. During town driving the sample equivalent continuous noise level (s.leq) ranged from 63 to 90dB(A), the intercom giving the highest peak levels. On the open road s.leq was up to 105dB(A); exposure to this level for only 15min would exceed the present recommended maximum 90db(A) for an 8h working day.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1989, Vol.33, No.1, p.123-127. Illus.
Personal hearing protection equipment
Der persönliche Gehörschutz [in German]
La protezione individuale dell'udito [in Italian]
La protection individuelle de l'ouïe [in French]
Users' guide intended for workers and employers. Aspects covered: definition of noise hazardous to hearing; effects of acoustic load on the hearing organ; evaluation of different types of hearing protection equipment, their acoustic isolation, the length of time they can be used, the upper acoustic level the worker is protected against; requirements for the understanding of communication and signs; legal aspects of the use of hearing protection in Switzerland.
SUVA, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1989. 51p. Illus. 17 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Management of ear protection
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1988. Videotape. Length: 20min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Health and Safety Executive
First defence against deafness
Videotape on the proper use of ear protectors.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1988. Videotape. Length: 15min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###
Health and Safety Commission; Paper and Board Industry Advisory Committee
Protection of hearing in the paper and board industry
This Guidance Note should be read in conjunction with the appropriate parts of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and guidance contained in the 'Code of practice for reducing the exposure of employed persons to noise'. It is intended to help managers, health and safety advisers, buyers, safety representatives, technical staff and employees to reduce noise in their workplace using a step-by-step approach. Advice is given on how to use a noise survey to draw up a plan of action for a hearing conservation programme. The guidance concentrates on giving a practical appreciation of how exposure to excessive noise damages hearing and on providing quick reference to specific noise control measures. Detailed examples of noise reduction techniques are given in tabular format. In appendices: glossary of acoustic terms; legal requirements; methods for determining the adequacy of ear protectors; use of noise dosimeters.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1988. 40p. Illus. 56 ref. Price: GBP 9.00.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Information sheet concerning medical advice on the wearing of hearing protectors
Merkblatt für die ärztliche Beratung zur Anwendung von Gehörschützern [in German]
Information note aimed at occupational physicians charged with advising workers on the wearing of hearing protectors. Description of different kinds of protectors; anatomy and physiology of the hearing apparatus with respect to the choice of hearing protectors; ear diseases.
Carl Heymanns Verlag, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 29p. Illus.
Intercomparison of measurements on ear protectors by subjective and objective test methods (NPL Results)
An intercomparison involving 5 European laboratories was carried out with the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) acting as the central co-ordinating laboratory. The purpose of the intercomparison was to quantify and identify the origin of discrepancies involved in measuring the attenuation of 5 different types of hearing protector using both subjective and objective procedures (ISO 4869:1981 and ISO/DIS 6290). This report describes the test facilities and procedures used at the NPL and provides detailed results in the form of graphs and tables.
National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 OLW, United Kingdom, Sep. 1987. 84p. Illus. Bibl.
Noise and hearing protection
Buller och hörselskydd [in Swedish]
Illustrated booklet to be used for training purposes.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 4p. Illus.
Trynkowska D., Michalski R.
Studies on attenuation and protective properties of hearing protectors with respect to impulsive noise
Badania właściwości tłumiących i ochronnych ochronników słuchu w przypadku hałasu impulsowego [in Polish]
Objective tests of 12 models of ear-muff-type hearing protectors, done under laboratory conditions, resulted in the determination of the total insertion loss and the spectral-response characteristics of the insertion loss. The method for ear-muff testing with respect to impulsive noise, based on a method recommended by ISO/DIS 6290 in the case of stationary pink noise, may be used for comparative purposes and for quality control. Subjective tests carried out in an industrial plant revealed that the use of hearing protectors diminished the temporary threshold shift TTS2, which means that hearing protectors can protect against the harmful effects of impulsive noise.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.135, p.187-214. 28 ref.
Sataloff T., Sataloff J.
Occupational hearing loss
Contents: occupational hearing loss - an overview; the physics of sound; the nature of hearing loss; the otologic history and physical examination; classification and measurement of hearing loss; the audiogramme; special hearing tests; conductive hearing losses; sensorineural hearing loss - diagnostic criteria; mixed, central and functional hearing loss; systemic causes of hearing loss; handicap and rehabilitation; tinnitus and vertigo; tables summarising differential diagnosis; noise measurement; noise control; noise criteria regarding risk and prevention of hearing injury in industry; hearing protectors; legislation and compensation; US Occupational Safety and Health Administration noise regulation; formula differences in state and federal hearing loss compensation; noise induced hearing loss in the railroad and maritime industries; the US Longshore and Harbour Workers' Act; occupational hearing loss in Canada and the UK; presenting evidence in workers' compensation cases; hearing conservation in industry; establishing a hearing conservation programme.
Marcel Dekker Journals, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1987. 717p. Illus. Bibl. Price: USD 99.75.
Audiovisual presentation stressing the importance of hearing conservation in all noisy environments. The dangers of industrial noise are demonstrated, and the selection and correct use of protective devices are shown.
Tel-A-Train Inc., 309 N. Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1987. Videotape (NTSC, PAL), also available as 16mm film. Length: 18min. Price: USD 410.00 (videotape), USD 450.00 (film). Rental: USD 110.00 (videotape), USD 150.00 (film).
Al-ma (had ul-(arabiyy li ṣ-ṣiḥḥa wa-s-salâmat il-mihniyya
Safety and health posters
Set of 8 posters to encourage maintenance of electrical equipment, use of hearing protectors, reading of instructions before using or storing chemical products, use of warning signs and flagmen during work on roads and proper lifting and carrying techniques, and to discourage smoking (control passive smoking), careless work and carelessness with fire.
Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, no date. 8 posters.
Lataye R., Damongeot A.
Evaluation of the acoustic performance of personal hearing protectors. Influence of the measuring method
Evaluation des performances acoustiques des protecteurs individuels - Influence de la méthode de mesure [in French]
The fact that different methods are used to assess the attenuation of hearing protectors leads to difficulties in the interpretation of performance. The aim of this paper is to recall the various methods and indices currently used to evaluate sound perception attenuation as well as their limitations. It also presents the results of a study carried out at the European level which compared various attenuation indices obtained by using the ISO objective test method, the ISO subjective test method and the AFNOR subjective test method.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1987, No.129, Note No.1648-129-87, p.525-533. Illus. 7 ref.
Barbara J.J., Damongeot A., Lataye A.
Active hearing protectors - Characteristics, performance and range of application of individual hearing protectors using active elements
Casques antibruit à atténuation asservie - Caractéristiques, performances, limites d'utilisation des protecteurs individuels contre le bruit à restitution sonore asservie [in French]
Results of tests conducted at the research centre of INRS (the French National Research and Safety Institute) on 8 earmuff-type hearing protectors from 4 French suppliers. The equipment was tested on a manikin according to the draft international standard ISO DIS 6290. Results are presented in the form of data sheets that show attenuation curves as functions of sound level for different standard frequencies and for typical noise in the middle of the frequency range. Method for calculating the daily noise exposure of a worker wearing hearing protection and exposed to various types of noise during the day.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.268-279. Illus.
Mershon D.H., Lin L.J.
Directional localization in high ambient noise with and without the use of hearing protectors
Personal hearing protective devices (HPDs) are becoming increasingly common in settings where levels of noise above 85dB(A) represent a potential threat to hearing. Several previous studies have indicated that the use of such devices adversely affects the localisation of sounds, but none of these experiments employed very precise measures of location discriminability. The major study in the present report examined just such fine discrimination, using a forced-choice task, and compared the effects of three different HPDs. Localisation signals were 1.5s bursts of noise (≥1kHz). Both of the described experiments were conducted in environments designed to simulate real working conditions. Results indicated that greater attenuation (especially at higher frequencies) was the primary factor associated with poor performance on the fine discrimination task.
Ergonomics, 1987, Vol.30, No.8, p.1161-1173. Illus. 20 ref.
Barbara J.J., Damongeot A., Lataye R.
Acoustic helmets with adaptive attenuation
Casques antibruit à atténuation asservie [in French]
Results of tests performed by the research centre of INRS on tightly-fitting acoustic helmets provided by 4 French manufacturers. Testing was by means of an artificial ear, following ISO standard DIS 6290. Results are presented in tables and graphs, showing sound attenuation as a function of the external sound level in different frequency bands, as well as for a typical noise with a preponderance of medium frequencies. Method to follow for the calculation of daily exposure to noise by a worker wearing a helmet and exposed to several types of noise during the day.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 1987, No.4, p.268-279. Illus.
Savell J.F., Toothman E.H.
Group mean hearing threshold changes in a noise-exposed industrial population using personal hearing protectors
The audiometric test data of 265 employees in one facility were studied to determine group mean hearing threshold changes. The data covered 7 to 13 years. During this time, the population was exposed to workplace noise levels of 86 to 103dBA. Personal hearing protection was used. Essentially no change in the mean threshold hearing level was found. Certain other hearing conservation programme effectiveness indicators were also used to evaluate this population. The results of these evaluations generally follow the trends for effective programmes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1987, Vol.48, No.1, p.23-27. Illus. 9 ref.
García Gimeno A.
Hearing protectors - Attenuation (dB) (update)
Protectores auditivos. Atenuación en dB A (actualización) [in Spanish]
The noise reductions achieved by 33 newly-commercialised ear protectors (ear muffs and earplugs) are evaluated in this information note.
INSHT, Torrelaguna, 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 2p.
Isakov V.M., Federovič M.A.
Sound and vibration insulation in the electric equipment industry
Vibrošumozaščita v ėlektromašinostroenii [in Russian]
Contents: electric machines and their vibroacoustic characteristics; prediction of the vibroacoustic characteristics of electric machines; methods and means of reducing noise and vibration; trends in the improvement of the design of low-noise electric equipment.
Ėnergoatomizdat, Matsovo pole 1, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1986. 207p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: SUR 1.20.
Buller [in Swedish]
Contents of these regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1987): general noise protection rules (work should be organised with a view to limiting exposure to noise); technical measures (noise control at the design stage and when machinery and equipment are installed and maintained); work premises (which should be designed and arranged so as to ensure that exposure to noise is as low as possible); noise measurements; audiometric tests; wearing of hearing protectors in all cases where exposure exceeds the limit values. Annexes: noise exposure limit values (85dB equivalent level for 8h; 115dB maximum level; 140dB for peaks of impulse noise); definitions; detailed commentaries.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 20 Aug. 1986. 22p.
Casali J.G., Epps B.W.
Effects of user insertion/donning instructions on noise attenuation of aural insert hearing protectors
The noise attenuation achieved with some common protective earplugs was strongly affected by the instructions for their use. Five levels of instruction were tested: (1) subjects were given no instruction all; (2) subjects were given no placement instructions, but were given a reference noise to help them judge attenuation; (3) subjects used manufacturers' on-package instructions; (4) subjects used detailed written and pictorial instructions; (5) correct insertion was demonstrated to the subjects. The earplugs differed in their sensitivity to incorrect insertion, but all types were more effective with detailed instructions or demonstrations: in some cases, attenuation was tripled by improved instructions.
Human Factors, Apr. 1986, Vol.28, No.2, p.195-210. Illus. 23 ref.
The effects of protector-noise interaction on the accuracy of the NRR estimate of hearing protector attenuation
A total of 262 noise spectra were divided empirically into 3 groups and the accuracy of the noise reduction rating (NRR) estimate of hearing protector attenuation was evaluated for each group using 15 hearing protectors. The mean and standard deviation of the error in the NRR estimate was most stable across the 15 protectors, when noise spectra were characterised by a simple monotonic band-level function yielding a dBC-dBA difference of 3.5dB or less. Both the octave band attenuation function of the hearing protector and the octave band spectrum of the noise appeared to contribute to the error in the NRR estimate.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1986, Vol.47, No.4, p.195-198. Illus. 18 ref.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Hearing protectors [Spain]
Protectores auditivos [in Spanish]
Technical standard on hearing protectors, brought into legal force by a Resolution of the Dirección General de Trabajo on 28 July 1975. Contents: definitions: types and classification of hearing protectors; testing (determination of hearing threshold attenuation). In the appendix: ministerial Order dated 17 May 1974 on the type testing of personal protective equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1985. 31p. Illus. 8 ref.
Hearing protection for the construction industry
Aspects covered in this illustrated data sheet: fundamentals of sound and noise; noise measurement; hearing process; hearing loss; hearing protection (types, effectiveness, selection criteria, fit, care and use); audiometry.
Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 2A5, 1985. 16p. Illus.
Collection of French standards - Acoustics. Vol. 1: Vocabulary, instrumentation. Vol. 2: Basic standards for measurement and hearing protection. Vol. 3: Specific tests in building construction and with various materials
Recueil de normes françaises. Acoustique. Tome 1: Vocabulaire, instrumentation. Tome 2: Normes fondamentales de mesurage, protection de l'ouïe. Tome 3: Essais spécifiques au bâtiment et à divers matériels [in French]
Among the standards in this collection are: vocabulary of acoustics; measuring instruments; guide to noise measurement and to the measurement of noise effects in man; determination of the acoustic power emitted by noise sources; labelling of equipment and machinery; hearing protection; acoustics in building construction; specific test codes for machines and equipment (other than those used in building construction); electric typewriters, rotating machines, machine tools, textile machinery, compressor units, etc. In addition, Vol.I contains a French-English-German glossary.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, Cedex 7, 92080 Paris-La Défense, France, 1985, 4th ed., Vol.I: 473p., Vol.II: 387p., Vol.III: 567p. Illus.
Körpert K., Westphal G.
Factors that influence the wearing of hearing protection by Austrian workers
Einflussfaktoren für das Tragen von Gehörschutz bei Arbeitnehmern in Österreich [in German]
Five factors were studied: noise level, duration of exposure, branch of industry, geographical region, hearing ability. The data were taken from 191,938 routine audiometric tests carried out from 1976 to 1983. The percentage of workers wearing hearing protection doubled during this period, but further measures are necessary to increase the use of hearing protectors among women, workers with hearing impairment and persons working in high-noise areas. The adequacy of the hearing protectors must also be ensured.
Zeitschrift für Lärmbekämpfung, 1985, Vol.32, p.151-158. Illus. 7 ref.
Noise and noise control
Lärm und Lärmbekämpfung [in German]
The introductory chapters of this work describe the physics of sound, personal protection against noise, technical measures for the reduction of noise and the vocabulary of technical acoustics. The main body of the text is devoted to noise measurement methods and to technical measures of noise control with practical examples: sound isolation, silencers, noise screens. A computer program used int he solution of noise control problems (involving acoustics and noise toporaphy in factories) is reporduced in full. Explanations are given of the mechanisms by which noise is produced and of possible ways to reduce noise at source.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, no date. 102p. Illus. 5 ref.
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