Hearing protection - 278 entries found
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Noise and its consequences
Le bruit et ses conséquences [in French]
In France, two million workers are exposed to noise levels that present a risk of hearing damage (above 85dB(A)). In 1997, illnesses due to noise exposure accounted for 4.7% of occupational illnesses, the third-highest cause behind musculoskeletal disorders and illnesses from asbestos dust exposure. In 1996, 34% of occupational disease compensation was paid for illnesses due to noise exposure. Contents of this collection of articles: harmful effects of noise; description of the scale for measuring noise; functioning of the ear; individual and collective protection measures; French and European standards.
Face au risque, Oct. 1999, No.356, p.7-16. Illus. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Ear protection: Employers' duties explained
This booklet highlights the responsibilities of employers for providing ear protecting for employees, with reference to the UK Noise at Work Regulations of 1989 (see CIS 90-21). Among the topics covered: types of ear protection; selecting the appropriate form of protection; informing employees and ensuring compliance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. 11p. Illus. 5 ref.
Lusk S.L., Hong O.S., Ronis D.L., Eakin B.L., Kerr M.J., Early M.R.
Effectiveness of an intervention to increase construction workers' use of hearing protection
In this project the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention (video, pamphlets and a guided practice session) to increase the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) among construction workers was tested. Post-test measures were collected 10-12 months following the intervention. A total of 837 high-noise-exposed workers were included in the analysis. The results indicated that the intervention significantly increased use of HPDs but had no effect on intention to use HPDs in the future. Pretesting had no effect on use. The fact that younger workers used HPDs less often and reported lower intention to use HPDs in future is worrying.
Human Factors, Sep. 1999, Vol.41, No.3, p.487-494. 29 ref.
King R.B., Saliba A J., Brock J.R.
A comprehensive noise survey of the S-70A-9 Black Hawk helicopter
At-ear noise levels were measured at four positions in the cabin of the Sikorsky S-70A-9 Black Hawk helicopter under various flight conditions and at 13 positions outside the helicopter under various ground running conditions using the Head Acoustic Measurement System. The attenuation properties of the hearing protection devices (HPDs) normally worn by aircrews and by maintenance crews (the ALPHA helmet and the Roanwell MX-2507 Communications headset) were also assessed. At-ear sound pressure levels that would be experienced by personnel wearing their normal HPDs were determined at the positions they would occupy in and around the aircraft. Results indicate that HPDs do not provide adequate hearing protection to meet current hearing conservation levels of 85 dB(A) for an 8h day. Topics: acoustic helmets; acoustic vibration; defence services; exposure evaluation; hearing protection; helicopters; noise dosimetry; noise level; noise measurement; sound frequency.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.70, No.2, p.107-116. Illus. 18 ref.
Acoustics - Hearing protectors - Part 4: Measurement of effective sound pressure levels for level-dependent sound-restoration ear-muffs
Acoustique - Protecteurs individuels contre le bruit - Partie 4: Mesurage des niveaux effectifs de pression acoustique des serre-tête destinés à la restitution du son [in French]
This technical report specifies a physical test method for level-dependent sound-restoration ear-muffs. The physical measurements are made with the acoustic text fixture according to ISO/TR 4869-3 or with a suitable head and torso simulator with a suitable acoustic isolation. The results of this test in combination with the results from the ISO 4869-1 tests can be used to estimate the effective A-weighted sound pressure level when sound-restoration earmuffs are worn.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 1998. iv, 7p. Illus. 3 ref.
Passchier-Vermeer W., van den Berg R., Crijns H.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Development of a simplified method for testing the attenuation of personal hearing protectors and determining the attenuation values in specific work situations
Measuring methods to determine the attenuation achieved by a set of hearing protectors have been developed in the laboratory and tested in the field. An additional aim of the project was to determine the attenuation of hearing protectors worn under on-site conditions in the coal and steel industry. The method had to meet a number of criteria, namely to be applicable for practically all workers wearing hearing protectors, including those with hearing impairment, and to all types of hearing protectors, while not inducing heavy costs, being simple, providing rapid and reliable results, and capable of being used close to the workplace. Measures conducted on different types of hearing protectors have shown the need for a determination of individual attenuation of hearing protectors. Summaries in French and German.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1998. xii, 162p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Davis R.R., Sieber W.K.
Trends in hearing protector usage in American manufacturing from 1972 to 1989
Based on national survey data, estimates were made of numbers of workers using hearing protection in various industries in the USA. In general higher percentages of workers used hearing protection in 1989 than in 1982. Increased hearing protection use over time was also found when size of facility was taken into account. Differences in the use of hearing protection over the period 1972-1989 varied in individual industries, ranging from less than 10% to more than 30%. Topics: hearing protection; legal aspects; list of occupations; manufacturing industries; noise level; statistical trends; supply of personal protective equipment; survey; USA.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1998, Vol.59, No.10, p.715-722. Illus. 21 ref.
Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D., Kalinowski D.J.
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss surveillance in Michigan
From 1992-1997, 1378 individuals with occupational noise-induced hearing loss were reported to the Michigan Department of Consumer and Industry Services and interviewed about their exposures to noise at work. Over 70% of workplace noise exposure was in manufacturing, where approximately 46% of individuals reported that the most recent company at which they worked did not provide regular hearing testing. 96% of construction workers had no regular hearing testing at their most recent job, although hearing protection such as earplugs or earmuffs was provided for approximately half of these jobs. Of the 43 companies where state enforcement inspections were conducted, 23 had noise levels above 85dBA, and 17 of those had either no hearing conservation programme or had one that was cited as incomplete. The surveillance system identified workplaces with hazardous noise levels and no hearing protection programme, thereby protecting similarly exposed workers from further noise exposure and hearing loss. Topics: audiometric tests; construction industry; enforcement; hearing loss; hearing protection; hearing threshold; job-exposure relation; labour inspection; manufacturing industries; Michigan; noise level; noise; survey; USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.40, No.8, p.667-674. 11 ref.
Lusk S.L., Kerr M.J., Kauffman S.A.
Use of hearing protection and perceptions of noise exposure and hearing loss among construction workers
Topics: construction industry; deafness; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; hearing protection; noise; perceived noise level; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1998, Vol.59, No.7, p.466-470. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing noise at work - Guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989
Topics: acoustic enclosure; comment on law; earmuffs; earplugs; evaluation of equipment; exposure evaluation; exposure records; glossary; hazard evaluation; hearing protection; information of personnel; labelling; legislation; machinery; noise control; noise dosimetry; noise level measurement; responsibilities of employers; safety by design; selection of equipment; silencers; sound absorption; sound isolation; substitution; supply of information; supply of personal protective equipment; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. vii, 91p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 9.75.
Cáceres Armendáriz P.
Commercialization of earplug-type hearing protectors
Comercialización de los protectores auditivos tipo tapón [in Spanish]
Topics: approval; data sheet; earplugs; equipment testing; hearing protection; legislation; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 8p. Illus.
Cáceres Armendáriz P.
Commercialization of earmuff-type hearing protectors
Comercialización de los protectores auditivos tipo orejeras [in Spanish]
Topics: approval; data sheet; earmuffs; equipment testing; hearing protection; legislation; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 10p. Illus.
Nakladal C., Listner T.
Objective determination of verbal communication comprehension while wearing hearing protectors in order to improve their acceptability
Objektivierung der Sprachverständlichkeit beim Tragen von Gehörschutz zur Verbesserung der Tragebereitschaft [in German]
Summaries in English, in French and in Spanish. Topics: audibility; comfort assessment; hearing protection; human experiments; noise level measurement; noise; sound attenuation; subjective assessment.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Sep. 1997. 105p. Illus. 32 ref.
Pfeiffer B.H., Hoormann H.J., Leidtke M.
Noisy worksites in and on vehicles in the public road transport sector
Lärmarbeitsplätze in und auf Fahrzeugen im öffentlichen Strassenverkehr [in German]
Summaries in English, French and Spanish. Topics: acoustic signalling; audibility; drivers cabs; earmuffs; earplugs; evaluation of equipment; hearing protection; noise level measurement; noise; road transport; sound attenuation.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 1997. 213p. Illus. 28 ref.
Reducing noise in the workplace
Réduire le bruit dans l'entreprise [in French]
Topics: acoustic helmets; audiometric tests; earmuffs; earplugs; exposure evaluation; France; hazard evaluation; hearing protection; information of personnel; legislation; noise control; noise level; noise measurement; physiology of hearing; sound absorption; sound isolation; sound shielding; training material; warning notices.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 1997. 94p. Illus. 16 ref. Index.
Better understanding of personal protective equipment (eyes, ears, respiratory tract and head)
Mieux connaître les équipements de protection individuelle (Yeux, oreilles, voies respiratoires et tête) [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met persoonlijke beschermingsmiddelen (Ogen, oren, ademhaling en hoofd) [in Dutch]
Topics: face and eye protection; gas removing respirators; head protection; hearing protection; particulate removing respirators; personal protective equipment; respirable dust; respirators; safety guides; safety helmets; safety spectacles; training material.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1997. 20p. Illus. 5 ref.
Factories (Amendment) Ordinance 1997 [Gibraltar]
Transposition into Gibraltar legislation of the provisions of Directive 86/188/EEC (CIS 87-45) concerning the protection of workers against noise. It covers: exposure assessment; assessment records; obligation of employer to reduce the risk of hearing damage and noise exposure by his/her employees; provision of ear protection equipment; ear protection zones; maintenance and use of protective equipment; provision of information. In schedules: calculation methods for the evaluation of noise exposure; compulsory sign for ear protection zones.
Gibraltar Gazette, 1st Supplement, 16 Jan. 1997, No.2958, p.1-11. Illus.
Alvarez Brime C., López Muñoz G.
Workplace exposure to noise
La exposición laboral al ruido [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on standard; hearing damage risk criteria; hearing loss; hearing protection; noise control; noise level measurement; noise; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 52p. Illus. 24 ref.
Protectores auditivos [in Spanish]
Topics: acoustic helmets; check lists; earmuffs; earplugs; European Communities; hazard identification; health hazards; hearing protection; noise level; personal protective equipment; safety guides; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996, 15p. Illus.
Noise Regulations, 1996 [Lesotho]
Contents of these regulations (effective on publication): interpretation; noise measurement; obligations by the employer to reduce noise; personal hearing protection; information, instruction and training of employees; noise reports; noise data.
Lesotho Government Gazette, 15 Nov. 1996, Vol.41, No.106, p.1336-1338.
Health and Safety Executive
Noise at work. Noise Guide No.1: Legal duties of employers to prevent damage to hearing. Noise Guide No.2: Legal duties of designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers to prevent damage to hearing
This document provides guidance on compliance with the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (CIS 90-21). Noise Guide No.1 covers: interpretation of the Regulations; assessment of noise exposure; assessment records; reduction of risk of hearing damage; reduction of noise exposure; ear protection; ear protection zones; maintenance and use of noise control equipment and ear protectors; information of personnel. Noise Guide No.2 covers the duties of machine designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers: provision of information on the noise likely to be generated by the machine; labelling noisy machines; machine testing procedures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1996. iii, 28p. Illus. 4 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.
Damongeot A., Didry G., Kusy A.
Psychoacoustic method for the measurement of sound levels emitted by earphones. Application to so-called "communication" hearing protectors
Méthode psychoacoustique de mesure du niveau sonore émis par les écouteurs. Application aux protecteurs de l'ouïe dits "de communication" [in French]
Calculating the sound levels to which wearers of communication hearing protectors are exposed to requires knowledge of the electroacoustic emission characteristics of the earphones (relation between emitted sound level and supply voltage). The psychoacoustic method described is used to determine these characteristics. It consists in asking test subjects to equalize the intensities of test sounds emitted alternately by the earphone and by a loudspeaker, making the latter easier to measure. Measurements were made with 10 test subjects and 3 types of earphone. Good reproducibility was achieved (deviations not exceeding 2dB for the same subject and the same earphone position). The inter-individual dispersion was wider, with standard deviations as high as 4.7dB, reflecting morphological differences in the subjects and differences in the fit of the earphones. This method could constitute a reference method for validating faster measurement techniques such as the "MIRE" technique (Microphone in the Real Ear) or the "HATS" technique (Head and Torso Simulators) currently being developed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, Note No.2034-165-96, p.481-489. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/methode_psychoacoustique_mesure_niveau_sonore_emis.html [in French]
Approved code of practice for the management of noise in the workplace
This code of practice provides practical guidance on meeting legal requirements for the identification and management of occupational noise hazards. Contents: health effects of noise; noise hazard identification checklist; noise hazard assessment; planning and implementation of control measures; hearing protection and marking of noise areas and machinery; training and education; audiometric testing; responsibilities of designers, manufacturers and suppliers of plant and hearing protectors. Appendices include: noise assessment techniques; engineering controls; selection and maintenance of hearing protectors.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Sep. 1996. 70p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Kusy A., Damongeot A.
Measurement of the acoustic performances of ear plugs. Test using the MIRE technique
Mesure des performances acoustiques des bouchons d'oreille - Essai d'application de la technique MIRE (Microphone in the real ear) [in French]
The protection offered by some hearing protectors (ear muffs or ear plugs) of the non-linear or active types varies with the sound level. For the specific standardization of such hearing protectors, the need was felt to validate an objective method for assessing the noise attenuation afforded by a proven passive protector. The application of the MIRE (Microphone In Real Ear) technique, in which noise is measured by a miniature microphone placed in the ear canal, to the measurement of the acoustic performances of ear plugs of the user-moulded type is described. The noise attenuation measured using this technique was compared with the results obtained for the same protector using the subjective REAT (standardized hearing threshold displacement) method. There appears to be good agreement between the two methods, except at the 8kHz frequency. This discrepancy may be corrected by taking certain precautions in use.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.164, Note No.2023-164-96, p.287-291. Illus. 7 ref.
Franks J.R., Stephenson M.R., Merry C.J.
Preventing occupational hearing loss - A practical guide
Update of the document A practical guide to effective hearing conservation programs in the workplace, published by NIOSH in 1990 (see CIS 91-427). Though the OSHA Noise Standard with its Hearing Conservation Amendment and the NIOSH hierarchy of controls (engineering control, administrative control, PPE) have remained the same, changes since 1990 include the new use of the term occupational hearing loss (not necessarily associated with exposure to noise - chemicals, vibration and extreme heat might also be involved), the emphasis on prevention rather than conservation, a new recommended definition of hazardous noise (85 vs. 90dB(A)), and new ways of evaluating noise exposure and defining standard threshold shift (STS). This guide, usable for training purposes, take these changes into account. Contents: value of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs); policy needs; HLPP audits; monitoring of hearing hazards; engineering and administrative controls; audiometric evaluation; personal hearing protection devices; education and motivation; record keeping; programme evaluation; emerging trends and technologies. In annex: OSHA Noise Standard compliance checklists; list of useful audiovisual training material; resources; glossary.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1996. xiii, 91p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Occupational hearing loss and vibration induced disorders
This article is a synopsis of information on the medical aspects of occupational hearing loss and vibration-induced disorders. The incidence of hearing loss in the United Kingdom is reported (an estimated 13,000 received compensation benefits in 1992). The causes of deafness, its clinical presentation and diagnostic procedures together with audiometric screening in industry are summarized. The calculation of compensation benefits for disability from hearing loss is explained. The procedure for assessing noise exposure and the prevention of hearing loss, i.e. the appropriate ear protectors are described. Hand-arm vibration syndrome is presented together with its classification (Stockholm Workshop Scale). Diagnosis, prognosis and risk assessment aspects are also surveyed.
British Medical Journal, July 1996, Vol.313, p.223-226. Illus. 3 ref.
Giardino D.A., Durkt G.
Evaluation of muff-type hearing protectors as used in a working environment
Noise reduction measurements were carried out for 23 models of muff-type hearing protection devices (HPDs) and 545 machines in a mining environment. The measured effectiveness was compared with the performance predicted by the Environmental Protection Agency Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) method, based on laboratory-derived attenuation values. The field performance was significantly less than that predicted by the NRR method. It was concluded that the NRR method grossly overestimates HPD performance. Use of this laboratory-based technique to predict field performance of HPDs could result in an overestimation of the protection afforded the worker.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.264-271. Illus. 18 ref.
Casali J.G., Berger E.H.
Technology advancements in hearing protection circa 1995: Active noise reduction, frequency/amplitude-sensitivity, and uniform attenuation
Developments in hearing protection devices (HPDs) designed to improve communication and signal reception for noise-exposed workers are reviewed. Both active (electronic) and passive (nonelectronic) designs are considered. Topics covered include: effects on auditory perception of conventional HPDs; active noise reduction (ANR) HPDs; analogue and digital ANR devices; applications, reliability and maintainability of ANR-based devices; amplitude-sensitive sound transmission HPDs; HPDs with communications features; passive HPDs (frequency-sensitive, adjustable attenuation, amplitude-sensitive, and uniform-attenuation devices). Operational characteristics, design alternatives and performance data are discussed and recommendations are provided.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.175-185. Illus. 31 ref.
Alvarez Brime C., Gómez-Cano Hernández M., Lezcano Núñez V.M.
Noise control - Regulatory framework for the selection of hearing protectors
Control del ruido - Marco normativo para la selección de protectores auditivos [in Spanish]
Topics: comment on directive; comment on standard; hearing protection; legislation; noise control; noise level; selection of equipment; sound attenuation; Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1995, No.110, p.26-33. Illus. 10 ref.
Letowski T., Burstein N., Clark J., Romanowski L., Sevec A.
Most comfortable loudness shift as a measure of speech attenuation by hearing protectors
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.356-361. Illus. 21 ref. ###
Barbara J.J., Soudry C., Pringalle C.
Personal protective equipment. Effective protection afforded by hearing protectors
Equipements de protection individuelle. L'efficacité effective des protecteurs de l'ouïe [in French]
Presentation of the characteristics of individual hearing protection equipment (earplugs, earmuffs and helmets) with passive or active sound attenuation. Description of applicable French occupational safety and health regulations (rules to be respected by the employer, the occupational physician and the worker) and standards. Presentation of the principal factors that determine the effective protection afforded by the equipment.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1995. No. 542, p.606-614. Illus. 7 ref.
Lusk S.L., Ronis D.L., Kerr M.J.
Predictors of hearing protection use among workers - Implications for training programs
A conceptual Health Promotion Model was used to identify predictors of hearing protection use among 504 manufacturing workers. In general, the workers reported using hearing protection more than two-thirds of the time they were required to do so; about 40% reported using it all the time and about 10% reported never using it. The strongest predictors of use were self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived value and barriers to use. Items in the barriers scale were most strongly correlated with use and had the greatest potential for change. These factors may therefore be used as the basis of a training intervention programme.
Human Factors, Sep. 1995, Vol.37, No.3, p.635-640. 17 ref.
Gehörschützer [in German]
Contents of this information note on hearing protection: general concepts; hearing and hearing protection; principles of hearing protection equipment (types, classification); recommendations on equipment purchase; obstacles to the wearing of hearing protectors; selection, use and maintenance. In annex: check lists.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, July 1995. 20p. Illus. 7 ref.
Eye and hearing protection
Lunettes de protection et protecteurs d'ouïe [in French]
Augen- und Gehörschutzmittel [in German]
Mezzi di protezione degli occhi e dell'udito [in Italian]
Main contents of this guide to eye and ear protectors: protective glasses (the eye, uses of protective glasses, polycarbonate devices, cleansers, glass cases); hearing protectors (the ear and hearing function, types of protectors, earmuffs, plastic, foam earplugs, spare parts). Placing an order.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1995. 26p. Illus.
Hearing Conservation and Noise Control Regulation [Canada - Manitoba]
Règlement sur la protection de l'ouïe et la lutte contre le bruit [Canada - Manitoba] [in French]
This Regulation was issued under the Workplace Safety and Health Act (CIS 87-1130), and it replaces Regulation 103/88. Contents: definitions and interpretation; assessment of workers' exposure to noise and action levels required of employers (with specific measures for exposure <80dB(A), 80-85dB(A), 85-90dB(A) and >90dB(A)); hearing surveillance programmes; disclosure of information; preservation of records on workers' health and on workplace sound records; licensing of industrial audiometric technicians.
Manitoba Gazette - Gazette du Manitoba, 17 Dec. 1994, Vol.123, No.50, Part II, p.1503-1527.
Design, formation and production of personal protective equipment [Norway]
Konstruksjon, utforming og produksjon av personlig verneutstyr [in Norwegian]
Directive on the Norwegian requirements pertaining to personal protective equipment. It is harmonized with European directives 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381), 93/95/EEC (CIS 94-778) and 93/68/EEC (CIS 94-751); it came into force 19 Aug. 1994. Procedures for evaluation of compliance and marking are described. The requirements cover the performance of the equipment, and are of a general nature. Examples of equipment dealt with are: protection against falls, hearing protection, vibration protection, protection against heat and cold, protection against drowning, protection against radiation, protection of respiratory organs, protection of skin and eyes.
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, 19 Aug. 1994. 34p. Illus.
Genuit K., Blauert J., Hudde H., Richter U., Fedtke T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Objective determination of the soundproofing properties of ear protectors using an artificial head measuring system
Objektiver Gehörschützer-Messplatz zur Bestimmung der Schalldämmung von Gehörschützern mit einem Kunstkopf-Messsystem [in German]
An objective measurement procedure for determining soundproofing properties of hearing protectors was developed using noise measurements in an artificial head. The method gave satisfactory results for cup-type protectors. Corrections are needed for the use of the method on plug-type protectors, and in the case of transmission through bone tissue. The method is an alternative to the subjective evaluation of the soundproofing properties of hearing protectors described in ISO Standard 4869 (CIS 82-378).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. vi, 100p. Illus. 24 ref.
Gower D.W., Casali J.G.
Speech intelligibility and protective effectiveness of selected active noise reduction and conventional communications headsets
Speech intelligibility and noise attenuation were investigated in a conventional passive headset and in an electronic Active Noise Reduction (ANR) headset operated with and without its ANR feature. The ANR unit required a significantly higher speech-to-noise ratio than the two passive headsets to maintain equal intelligibility; the conventional headset afforded comparable intelligibility to the ANR device. On a speech intelligibility basis alone, the results do not justify the additional cost of the ANR headset; however, for severe noise exposure, a properly functioning ANR unit may afford more protection than a similar passive headset.
Human Factors, June 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.350-367. 28 ref.
Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social
Official Standard concerning safety and health conditions in workplaces where noise is generated [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana relativa a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se genere ruido [México] [in Spanish]
Standard with legal force replacing Directive No.11 of 1985 (modified 1989, see CIS 94-1114). It covers: responsibilities of employers (hazard evaluation) and of workers (wearing of protective equipment); role of joint health and safety committees and of the government; basic requirements for hazard identification, evaluation and control; exposure reduction when the equivalent continuous sound level in the workplace is between 90-105dB(A); prohibition of exposure > 105dB(A); attenuation levels in function of the exposure. In annex: obligatory components of medical examinations and of audiometric tests; mathematical methods for the calculation of the equivalent continuous sound level; maximum exposure time permitted in function of noise levels; methods for the calculation of attenuation factors for PPE.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 6 July 1994, Vol.CDXC, No.4, p.78-89. Illus. 2 ref.
Hearing protectors. Performance, selection, use
Les protecteurs individuels contre le bruit (PICB). Performances, choix, utilisation [in French]
This paper presents the different types of hearing protectors, their fields of application, their acoustical performance characteristics, and other factors such as comfort. It also describes the regulations and standards governing these devices, and explains the meaning of the different noise attenuation indices, the role of standards and regulations, the guarantees provided by label and conformity marks, etc., and describes the potential of existing protector types and how to choose a suitable and comfortable hearing protector. It concludes by discussing problems that have not been resolved and their proposed solutions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1959-155-94, p.169-179. Illus. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Foundries Industry Advisory Committee
Hearing protection in foundries
This leaflet highlights the need for the correct wearing and maintenance of ear protectors in foundries. Signs of damage in ear plugs and ear muffs are outlined along with guidance on care and maintenance. Examples of good and bad earmuffs are provided.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1994. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.
Earmuff effectiveness against chainsaw noise over a 12-month period
A study to measure the ability of new Peltor H7P3 Grade 4 helmet-mounted earmuffs to reduce the level of chain saw noise reaching forestry workers' ears was undertaken over a one-year period. Attenuation measurements indicated that the earmuffs provided effective hearing protection for loggers over the test period in spite of a decrease in attenuation measured at the 12-month stage. Many of the earmuffs would normally have been replaced before the 12-month stage owing to the discomfort associated with cushion deterioration.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.279-283. Illus. 6 ref.
Casali J.G., Park M.Y.
Laboratory versus field attenuation of selected hearing protectors
Comparaison de l'affaiblissement obtenu en laboratoire et sur le terrain avec différents protecteurs auditifs [in French]
Two studies, each using 40 subjects and 4 hearing protection devices (HPDs), of which 3 were common to both studies, were conducted to determine real-ear spectral noise attenuation in a controlled laboratory environment and in industrial field settings. On average, the laboratory attenuation results obtained after the subject underwent the work activity tasks overestimated the field performance by 8.3dB (under the subject-fit) and 5.7dB (under the trained-fit) for the foam plug, and by 10dB and 6dB, respectively, for the premoulded plug. In contrast, the laboratory results provided much better predictions of field protection for the earmuff. Close examination of the data suggests that a naive subject-fit protocol in the laboratory may yield attenuation results closest to those of well-trained users in the field. Translation of an article that appeared originally in Sound and Vibration, 1991, Vol.25, No.10, p.28-38.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1927-151-93, p.293-303. 20 ref.
Personal hearing protection
Der persönliche Gehörschutz [in German]
La protezione individuale dell'udito [in Italian]
La protection individuelle de l'ouïe [in French]
This booklet describes noise, how it is measured and how its measurement is evaluated, effects of noise exposure, legal basis for the prevention of hearing loss due to noise exposure, different types of hearing protection, noise insulation (limit values in Switzerland; measures to be taken in view of the EC Directive); adoption of the new single number rating to be applied to hearing protective devices. A review of different hearing protection equipment is given. Acoustic communication in noisy surroundings is explained. Swiss regulations on the subject are reviewed. A chapter is devoted to the reluctance of workers to wear hearing protection equipment.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 61p. Illus. 17 ref.
Carter N.L., Upfold G.
Comparison of earphone and sound field methods for estimating noise attenuation of foam earplugs
The Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) of E-A-R (slow recovery) foam earplugs was determined by three methods of presentation of the test tones during a single fitting of the earplug. The methods were (a) sound-field listening; (b) TDH49 earphone mounted in the shell of a circumaural earmuff; and (c) TDH49 earphone in a Model 51 cushion. Thresholds were tested once under each condition. The mean REAT obtained by the reference (sound field) method could be reliably estimated by both earphone methods for frequencies up to and including 4.0kHz. However, the sound field REAT values of individual subjects could not be predicted reliably from their REAT determined by either type of earphone presentation. Thus, TDH49 earphones in standard audiometric earcushions could be used to check the overall effectiveness of slow recovery foam earplugs in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.307-312. Illus. 16 ref.
Merluzzi F., Di Credico N.
Definition of criteria for the selection and use of personal hearing protection devices
Determinazione dei criteri per la scelta e la utilizzazione dei mezzi personali di protezione acustica [in Italian]
The most common occupational disease in Italy is noise-induced hearing loss. Not only is this disease invalidating and irreversible, but it also involves extremely high direct and indirect costs for both the injured worker and the employer. Appropriate preventive measures are therefore essential and include personal protection devices. Recent Italian legislation (DL 277 of 15 Aug. 1991, see CIS 93-1404) assigns an important role to personal hearing protection devices, raising, in certain situations, serious problems in terms of fitness for specific jobs. On the basis of an analysis of the characteristics of the various types of hearing protection aids, including efficacy, capacity of attenuation, influence on intelligibility of speech and perception of danger signals, guidelines are supplied for their best possible use.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1993, Vol.84, No.2, p.162-177. Illus. 32 ref.
Dolan T.G., Maurer J.F., Dickinson L.G.
Evaluation of an earphone-support device for measuring earplug attenuation
A new procedure for determining the attenuation of earplugs with a standard audiometric headset was evaluated. The procedure utilised a device that supports a conventional supra-aural earphone cushion (MX-41/AR) such that it does not contact the pinna or the earplug during threshold measurement. The attenuation provided by a foam earplug was estimated on a group of normal-hearing subjects using this method. The resulting attenuation values were compared to data obtained using sound field methods (American National Standards Institute [ANSI] S12.6-1984), and to values obtained by simply placing the earphone on the pinna. Results indicated that the test re-test reliabilities of both the earphone-support method and the earphone-only method were comparable to that of the sound field procedure. Also, of the four test frequencies employed, the closest correspondence between attenuation estimates obtained using the ANSI procedures and estimates obtained with the support device occurred at 1 and 2kHz.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1993, Vol.54, No.2, p.45-50. Illus. 15 ref.
Robinson G.S., Mauney D.W., Casali J.G.
Sound-field diffusivity and reverberation effects on the real-ear attenuation of hearing protectors with implications for testing standards
The hearing attenuation afforded by earmuffs was measured (1) in a diffuse and reverberant environment according to US standard ANSI S3.19-1974 and Canadian standard CSA Z94.2-M1984, and (2) in an anechoic chamber according to ANSI S12.6-1984, international standard ISO 4869-1:1990 and Swedish standard SS 882151 (1981). Tests were conducted in environment 1 with various degrees of reverberation and sound field directionality. There was a small but statistically significant difference in attenuation as measured by the two groups of techniques; the variations in conditions in environment 1 also produced significant differences. The differences may not always be important in practice, but must be considered in standards development, research and product labelling.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1993, Vol.40, No.2, p.199-210. Illus. 20 ref.
Sataloff R.T., Sataloff J.
Occupational hearing loss
Contents of this revised manual (see CIS 89-647 for previous edition): occupational hearing loss - an overview; the physics of sound; the nature of hearing loss; the otologic history and physical examination; classification and measurement of hearing loss; the audiogramme; special hearing tests; conductive hearing losses; sensorineural hearing loss - diagnostic criteria; mixed, central and functional hearing loss; systemic causes of hearing loss; diagnosing occupational hearing loss; handicap and rehabilitation; hearing protectors; tinnitus; dizziness; facial paralysis; tables summarising differential diagnosis; noise measurement; noise control; noise criteria regarding risk and prevention of hearing injury in industry; hearing conservation underwater; hearing loss in musicians; hearing conservation in industry; establishing a hearing conservation programme; legislation and compensation; US Occupational Safety and Health Administration noise regulation; formulae differences in state and federal hearing loss compensation; occupational hearing loss in the railroad industry; the US Longshore and Harbour Workers' Compensation Act; occupational hearing loss in Canada and the UK; tape simulation of hearing loss; presenting medical evidence in workers' compensation cases.
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 1993. viii, 833p. Index. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 195.00.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health)
Buller [in Swedish]
This directive replaces AFS 1986:15 (CIS 87-46). It covers: general workplace provisions concerning noise (work should be organized in such a way that noise exposure is minimized); technical measures (noise control at the design stage, and during the installation and operation of machinery); work premises; noise measurement; audiometric tests; wearing of hearing protectors. In annex: noise exposure limit values (85dB equivalent level for 8h; 115dB maximum; 140dB for peaks of impulse noise); definitions; detailed commentary.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 23p. 7 ref.
Comparison of the efficiency and comfort of two personal protection systems against noise
Comparaison de l'efficacité et du confort de deux protecteurs individuels contre le bruit [in French]
To evaluate the efficiency of a personal hearing protector it is necessary to consider not only its attenuation spectrum, but also its comfort level, because it might have to be worn for a long period of time. This study compared these two aspects in foam ear plugs and moulder ear protectors. Attenuation was better with the foam plugs, but moulded ear protectors also afforded sufficient protection. On the other hand, moulded ear protectors were more comfortable because of their better ergonomic design, and are recommended for this reason.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.125-129. Illus. 2 ref.
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