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Foot and leg protection - 166 entries found

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  • Foot and leg protection


CIS 90-307 Grönqvist R., Roine J., Järvinen E., Korhonen E.
An apparatus and a method for determining the slip resistance of shoes and floors by simulation of human foot motions
An apparatus to measure the coefficient of kinetic friction between the shoe sole and the underfoot surface was constructed, and a method including criteria to evaluate the risk of slipping during waling was developed. The apparatus is a prototype stationary step simulator capable of simulating the movements of a human foot and the forces applied to the underfoot surface during an actual slip, and the drainage capability of the contact surface between the shoe sole and the flooring when different lubricants or contaminants are used. The apparatus consists of a movable artificial foot controlled by a computer with the aid of three hydraulic cylinders. The frictional force, the normal force and their ratio are measured with a two-way force platform when the foot slides along its surface. Two separate gait patterns, heel-slide and sole-slide gait pattern, are used for the evaluations. The method classifies studied shoe, lubricant and underfoot surface combinations into five slip resistance classes according to the measured heel-slide gait pattern. The slip resistance assessments are specified by other complementary safety criteria. The reliability of the developed measurement method was assessed in an international comparison test. The method seems to be valid and the slip resistance measurements repeatable.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1989, Vol.32, No.8, p.979-995. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-2033 Personal protective equipment - Safety footwear
Equipement de protection individuelle - Chaussures de protection [in French]
Fourth of a series of 12 data sheets on personal protective equipment. Aspects covered: selection chart for safety footwear; footwear sole rating according to use.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1989. 1p. Illus.

CIS 89-1692 Schulz W.
Provision of safety shoes to employees
Bereitstellungspflicht von Schutzschuhen [in German]
After an accident in which an employee's toe was broken by a falling object, an employer in Germany (Fed.Rep.) was ordered to provide safety shoes for his employees. His refusal and the argumentation of the court are reported.
Die BG, Jan. 1989, No.1, p.10-11. Illus.


CIS 89-1682 Skiba R.
Safety limits to avoid slipping on floors
Sicherheitsgrenzwerte zur Vermeidung des Ausgleitens auf Fussböden [in German]
The degree of safety from slipping was determined for various friction coefficients between floors and soles taking into consideration the forces measured on humans during walking and the social acceptance of the risk of slipping. Friction coefficients between 0.43 and 0.63 were found to be safe for walking speeds up to 0.25m/s. For higher speeds higher friction coefficients are necessary.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 1988, Vol.42, No.1, p.47-51. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 89-1694 Knollman
Safety shoes for roofers
Schutzschuhe für Dachdecker [in German]
Roofers in the Federal Republic of Germany are required by law to wear safety shoes with metal toe caps and penetration-resistant soles. Various non-slip soles offered are illustrated.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Wuppertal, 1988, No.3, p.147-149. Illus.

CIS 89-982 Santee W.R., Endrusick T.L.
Biophysical evaluation of footwear for cold-weather climates
Proper selection of footwear for cold-wet environments is important in determining individual performance and comfort. Testing only total dry insulation is not a wholly adequate basis for boot selection. The present technical note demonstrates an effective method for evaluating the effects of surface moisture on boot insulation. This method allows a more knowledgeable selection of footwear for cold-wet climates. In this study, regional insulation values were obtained under dry conditions, then during a soak in shallow water, and finally for insulation recovery after removal from water. Results for 7 boots show no advantage of presently used synthetic materials during short soak episodes. Insulated leather-synthetic boots, however, recovered to dry insulation levels more rapidly than more traditional insulated leather boots. Rubber waterproof bottoms were the most effective boot construction for retaining insulation levels during water exposure.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1988, Vol.59, No.2, p.178-182. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 89-343 Working in a standing position - Footwear and floors
Le travail debout - Chaussures et sols [in French]
Aspects covered in this technical safety information sheet: characteristics of comfortable footwear; floors.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1988. 2p. Illus.

CIS 89-204 Hitcho P., Tipton D., Fracassi F.
Mobile boot wash for hazardous waste sites
A detailed drawing provides all the information necessary to construct this washing station.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1988, Vol.49, No.8, p.A 504-A 505. Illus.


CIS 90-1683 Afanas'eva R.F.
Physiological and hygienic evaluation of winter footwear with electric heating elements (experimental study)
Fiziologo-gigieničeskaja ocenka zimnej obuvi s ėlektroobogrevajuščimi ėlementami [in Russian]
Results of an investigation with 4 male volunteers of different electric heating elements (insoles, slippers, socks) and of footwear possessing a thermal resistance of 0.35°C.m2/W in the rear region and 0.40°C.m2/W in the sole are presented. The study, carried out at ambient temperatures of -10, -15 and 25°C and a wind velocity of 5m/s showed the possibility of improving the general thermal state of the body and local thermal comfort without increasing the specific consumption of materials for clothes and footwear. The advantages of steady heating of the foot are set forth.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1987, No.3, p.46-50. 7 ref.

CIS 89-463 Jędrzejewska M.
Assumptions concerning design and materials used for oil- and slip-resistant soles
Założenia konstrukcyjno-materiałowe dotyczące olejoodpornych spodów przeciwpoślizgowych [in Polish]
Physical and chemical properties of oil-resistant rubbers and plasticised polyvinyl chloride were tested as well as tread samples of soles made of these materials. Guidelines for design and choice of materials for oil-and slip-resistant soles are presented. A special type of oil-resistant rubber, containing acrylonitrile rubber, and polyvinyl chloride modified with acrylonitrile rubber were selected as the best for oil-resistant soles. Tread designs of slip-resistant soles are presented.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.134, p.151-167. 11 ref.

CIS 88-347 Feet at work
This data sheet covers: strains on the feet; foot deterioration; foot design; falling arches; flooring; anti-slip flooring; corns and bunions; report on a conference on feet; fashion footwear; suitable work footwear; safety footwear; taking care of feet; exercise; stretch socks; comfort devices.
United Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, June 1987. 7p. Illus.

CIS 87-1485 O'Brien J.
Stamping out foot protection myths
The myths and excuses used against wearing safety shoes are denounced by explaining the facts concerning the advantges of wearing the shoes. Protection against heat, cold, falling objects, electricity and liquids is explained and style and cost are considered.
Safety and Health, Apr. 1987, Vol.135, No.4, p.34-36. Illus.

CIS 87-972 Tolson P., Beet L.
The use of antistatic footwear in the resin manufacturing industry
The results of tests that were carried out in the resin manufacturing industry in order to assess the suitability for use in that industry of a number of different types of anti-static footwear are described. The tests included measurement of floor resistance, variation of sole resistance with wear and assessment of some of the other factors associated with the footwear that were considered relevant to safety.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Apr. 1987, Vol.8, No.4, p.251-260. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 87-1077 No more slipping
On ne glisse plus [in French]
Description of a non-slip sole that is adaptable to all shoe models and sizes. It is used at present in the food industry.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.19-20. Illus.


CIS 90-1786
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Water and humidity resistant boots [Spain]
Botas impermeables al agua y a la humedad [in Spanish]
Technical standard brought into legal force by a Resolution of the Dirección General de Trabajo on 3 Dec. 1981. Contents: classification and definitions; characteristics; requirements and testing procedures. In the appendix: ministerial Order dated 17 May 1974 on the type testing of personal protective equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 35p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 87-636 Jędrzejewska M.
Electrically conducting and anti-electrostatic safety shoes
Obuwie prądoprzewodzące i antyelektrostatyczne [in Polish]
Wearing electrically conducting and anti-electrostatic safety shoes reduces the risk caused by accumulation of static charges and protects against explosion of inflammable gases. Data concerning the materials of which such safety shoes are made, the strength of sole-upper joints, the relative efficiency of upper joints, the elasticity of shoes, sole wear and one-shoe mass are presented.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 1986, No.5, p.13-14, p.12.

CIS 86-1954 Fussereau J., Muslmani M., Cavelier C., Hervé-Bazin B.
Contact allergy to safety shoes
During the period 1972-1984, 13 cases of allergy to safety shoes were recorded at Strasbourg Hospital. The patients were most often males in the 22-38 year age group, with eruptions on the backs of their feet or toes. There were 5 cases of allergy to leather, 4 to rubber, 3 to non-woven linings, 2 to azo dyes, 1 to glue and 1 to contaminants from the industrial environment. As these figures show, some patients were sensitive to more than one component of their shoes. Changing the brand of safety shoe worn may cure the dermatitis; if it does not, the affected worker may have to be transferred to work that does not require safety shoes.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1986, Vol.14, No.4, p.233-236. 4 ref.

CIS 86-1113 Bruce M., Jones C., Manning D.P.
Slip-resistance on icy surfaces of shoes, crampons and chains - A new machine
A new machine for measuring friction of shoe sole materials is described. Shoes and attachments such as crampons and chains worn by a test subject are dragged across the substrate, the horizontal force being measured by a load cell. Measurements showed that, for ice, the optimum shoe sole hardness is in the range of 20 to 30 Shore A. However, friction from the softness of sole materials cannot be expected to give complete protection from slipping accidents on smooth ice, and only crampons give adequate friction values. Chains attached to shoes were found to be dangerous on smooth ice.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Feb. 1986, Vol.7, No.4, p.273-283. Illus. 18 ref.


CIS 87-1181
Gosudarstvenny komitet SSSR po standartam
Leather protective footwear. Method for determining the coefficient of decrease in [sole] bonding strength due to aggressive media [USSR]
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja. Metod opredelenija koėfficienta sniženija pročnosti kreplenija ot vozdejstvija agressivnyh sred [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) prescribes a method for measuring the strength of attachment of the uppers and lowers of leather safety shoes when they are exposed to acids, bases, organic solvents, petroleum or petroleum products. Apparatus, reagents and sample selection and preparation are specified by reference to other GOST standards; the testing methods are also modifications of these standards (GOST 9290-76, 9134-78 and 9292-82). Treatment of results and safety in the course of testing are also specified. Duplicate of CIS 87-42.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 87-385
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Leather safety shoes and boots for protection against mechanical effects - Technical requirements [USSR]
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja dlja zaščity ot mehaničeskih vozdejstvij. Tehničeskie uslovija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1986) applies to safety footwear intended to protect workers from punctures and impacts on toe caps with energies of 200, 100, 50 and 25J. Contents: types and sizes, technical requirements, acceptance criteria, methods of testing, marking, packing, transport, storage, instructions for use, and guarantee of the manufacturer.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 16p. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 87-42
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam
Leather safety boots and shoes - Method for determination of the coefficient of decrease in adhesive strength on exposure to aggressive media [USSR]
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja. Metod opredelenija koefficienta sniženija pročnosti kreplenija ot vozdejstvija agressivnyh sred [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) establishes a method for determining a strength decrease coefficient for different types of joints between the soles and uppers of leather protective footwear. The equipment to be used and the evaluation criteria are specified by reference to other USSR State Standards.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 87-315 Matsumura M., Itoh S.
Comparison of ISO, BS, ANSI, DIN and JIS standard footwear standards
In Japan, workers at specific worksites are required to wear safety shoes under Article No.558 of the Industrial Safety and Health Ordinance. The quality standard of safety shoes is specified by the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) which have 7 categories for safety footwear according to intended use and construction method. The performance level, test method, etc., have been and will be reviewed and improve from time to time for further satisfaction of the wearer. Users have come to recognise the importance of the JIS mark in regards to quality. Future developments will involve: (1) study of the unification of the requirements of JIS, ISO and other standards; (2) combination and simplification of the various JIS categories of safety footwear; (3) improvement of comfort, slip-resistance, etc. The different systems of national and international standards are compared in tables.
Safety Digest, 1985, Vol.31, No.9, p.408-412.

CIS 86-1506 Kérdö S.
Electrically conductive safety shoes for the reduction of electrostatic build-up
Vezetőképes védőcipő az elektrosztatikus feltöltődés csökkentésére [in Hungarian]
Detailed description of a safety shoe developed jointly by a rubber manufacturer and a research institute. The basic material of the shoe is polyvinyl chloride. The electrical resistance of the shoe is 106Ω, enabling it to earth static electric charges, but sufficiently high to provide protection against exposure to currents at 250V.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1985, Vol.31, Nos.7-9, p.98-102. Illus.

CIS 86-1114 Eliseeva G.P.
Personal protective equipment
Sredstva individual'noj zaščity [in Russian]
Descriptions of new products presented at the "Labour Protection 84" exhibition. The protective clothing includes suits for protection from harmful substances, arctic cold and glass fibres. The footwear includes boots for work with livestock, boots for protection against physical and chemical factors, and shoes for protection from hot surfaces. Head and face protection includes a helmet with a transparent mask and a skirt for neck protection, and safety spectacles for protecting the eyes from 300-400nm ultraviolet radiation during defect detection with luminescent dyes. A lightweight respirator for protection from dust and gas, and a skin cream for neutralisation of aliphatic amines are also featured.
Mašinostroitel', Apr. 1985, No.4, p.22-24. Illus.

CIS 86-780
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Safety shoes and boots made of polymeric materials for protection from mechanical effects - General technical requirements - Methods of testing
Obuv' special'naja iz polimernyh materialov dlja zaščity ot mehaničeskih vozdejstvij - Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija - Metody ispytanij [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) applies to safety shoes and boots made of polymeric materials and intended to protect workers in coal mines and open-cast collieries from mechanical hazards. It establishes general requirements for their protective, functional, physiological and hygienic effectiveness, and methods for testing. Contents: main parameters and dimensions, technical requirements, methods of testing (determination of impact resistance of toe, shock absorption by protective elements, flexibility, electrical safety properties, coefficient of friction of slipping).
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 10p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 86-778
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Protective toes for safety shoes and boots - Method for determination of impact strength
Noski zaščitnye dlja special'noj obuvi - Metod opredelenija udarnoj pročnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1986) establishes a method for determining the impact resistance of toes of safety shoes and boots. The method is based on the measurement of the space inside the toe at the moment of the greatest sagging when force is applied. Contents: method of sample selection, testing equipment, preparation for testing and testing; treatment of results, safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 86-579 Elnäs S., Hagberg D., Holmér I.
Electrically heated model for foot heat balance simulation
Elektriskt uppvärmd modell för simulering av fotens värmebalans [in Swedish]
An electrically heated model of a foot has been designed for simulating heat loss from the foot at various skin and air temperatures and for measuring the insulating properties of footwear. The insulating properties of various types of socks and leather, felt and rubber footwear with and without steel toe caps and steel soles were measured. Insulating values were 0.101-0.167m2 °C/W for the socks, 0.174-0.284m2 °C/W for shoes and 0.146-0.235m2 °C/W for boots. Compression of the socks by a 20kg weight applied to the foot model reduced insulating values by 60-80%, compared to uncompressed socks.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 24p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 86-157 Eun H.C., Park H.B., Chun Y.H.
Occupational pitted keratolysis
A mass screening of industrial workers in Korea in 1981 revealed pitted keratolysis in 1.5% of the workers examined. It was especially prevalent in a zinc refinery where the workers wore rubber shoes. In Sep. 1984, visits to 2 anthracite mines revealed pitted keratolysis of the soles of the feet of 66 of 283 miners (23.3%). The miners all wore rubber boots, and some had immersion foot. The wearing of footgear which keeps the feet warm and moist probably favours the growth of Corynebacterium species that are responsible for pitted keratolysis.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1985, Vol.12, No.2, p.122. 5 ref.


CIS 87-453 Safronova N.A.
Protective clothing and safety footwear for workers of the chemical petroleum refining and petrochemical industries
Specodežda i specobuv' dlja rabotnikov himičeskoj, neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti [in Russian]
Aspects covered in this training manual: classification of personal protective equipment (clothing, shoes, boots, gloves, helmets, barrier creams) protecting against water, bases, acids, petroleum, petroleum products, heat, cold, static electricity, vibration, mechanical hazards, and explosion hazards; materials used for manufacturing, maintenance of personal protective equipment, a procedure for providing enterprises with this equipment.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 175p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: Rbl.0.55.

CIS 86-777
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Rubber for soles of safety boots and shoes - Method for determination of thermal conductivity
Rezina dlja niza special'noj obuvi - Metod opredelenija teploprovodnosti [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987) establishes a method for determining the thermal conductivity of rubber for soles of safety shoes and boots intended for protection against high temperatures (contact heat) in the range 18-150°C. The method is based on the measurement of (1) the heat flow through a flat rubber sample placed between a heat source and a heat sink and (2) the difference between the surface temperatures of the source and sink. A calculation formula is given. Contents: method of sample selection, preparation for testing and testing, treatment of results, safety requirements. A description of equipment for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of rubber, a form for the official report of the measurement and examples of calculation of constants in the formula are appended.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1985. 8p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 86-772 Očkurenko V.I., Kvasova R.I.
Method for determining the dust permeability of work shoes and boots under dynamic conditions
Sposob opredelenija pylepronicaemosti specobuvi v dinamičeskih uslovijah [in Russian]
Shoes or boots to be tested for dust permeability are fitted with a special flexible insert and mounted in a sealed chamber. The insert is a model of the foot with openings that provide circulation of air within the shoe; it is connected by flexible tubing to a filter and recirculating fan outside the chamber. The mounting for the shoe is connected to a system of levers outside the chamber. This permits the shoe to be repeatedly bent and straightened in imitation of walking. Dust at known concentrations (1-10g/m3) is kept in suspension in the chamber by a fan. After 1h of exposure (30°C deformation, 100cycles/min), the dust collected on the filter is weighed. This weight is a quantitative indicator of the permeability of the tested article. Whereas pull-on half-boots admited 12.4-19.4mg of dust, close-fitting shoes of more elastic leather admitted only 7.4-12.6mg under the same conditions.
Koževenno-obuvnaja promyšlennost', Nov. 1984, No.11, p.44-46. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 86-493 Safety footwear. Specifications and tests
Bottes et chaussures de sécurité. Spécifications et essais [in French]
This French standard (effective 5 Nov. 1984) specifies the characteristics of safety footwear: protection adapted to the risks of the job; durability; solidity; hygienic requirements; comfort; specifications applicable to safety footwear not entirely vulcanised or moulded and to footwear entirely vulcanised or moulded; certain types of safety boots (protection against slipping, heat protection, puncture-resistant soles). Description of testing methods.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, Cedex 7, 92080 Paris-La Défense, France, Nov. 1984. 34p. Illus.

CIS 86-486
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Materials for uppers of safety shoes and boots - Method for determining resistance to organic solvents
Materialy dlja verha special'noj obuvi - Metod opredelenija stojkosti k dejstviju organičeskih rastvoritelej [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1986) covers all leathers for uppers of boots and shoes and defines a method to be used for determining their resistance to organic solvents. The method is based on the measurement of tensile strength and elongation to break for natural leather, and of resistance to repeated bending, rigidity and abrasion resistance for synthetic leather. Contents: method of sampling; testing equipment and reagents; preparation for testing and testing; treatment of results; safety requirements.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per.3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 4p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 85-1392
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Leather protective boots and shoes - Method for determining an attachment strength decrease coefficient of the bottom of shoes on exposure to high temperatures
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja. Metod opredelenija koefficienta sniženija pročnosti kreplenija detalej niza ot vozdejstvija povyšennyh temperatur [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1985) covers all types of leather boots and shoes with uppers attached by riveting and/or cementing, intended to protect from high temperatures (up to 200°C). The calculation of the attachment strength decrease coefficients of the bottom parts attached to uppers by different methods is given. Strength criteria are specified by reference to other USSR State Standards.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1984. 3p. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 85-1391
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Leather boots and shoes protecting against petroleum, petroleum products, acids, alkalis, non-toxic and explosive dust - Technical requirements
Obuv' special'naja kožanaja dlja zaščity ot nefti, nefeproduktov, kislot, ščeločej, netoksičnoj i vzryvoopasnoj pyli [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1985) covers leather safety boots and shoes protecting against crude petroleum, products of heavy petroleum fractions and mineral oils, acids and alkalis in concentrations up to 20%, non-toxic and explosive dust. Contents: types and sizes (in tables); technical requirements (methods of sole attachment in accordance with the use to be made of the footwear); materials for footwear components, permissible thicknesses, strength criteria for seams, soles and heels, criteria for stiffness of counter and toe, mass and flexibility; acceptance criteria; methods of testing; marking, transport, storage; instructions for use; guarantee by the manufacturer.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 16p. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 85-925 Hamilton M.
Footwear and gloves for electrical hazards
Contents of this data sheet: electrical hazards; insulating boots (soles made of rubber without conducting fillers such as carbon black are recommended); insulating gloves (British Standard 697 is recommended as a guideline on choice, use and maintenance of gloves); storage, maintenance and use of insulating footwear and gloves.
Industrial Safety Data File, Dec. 1984, p.I:4:1-I:4:5.

CIS 85-781 Cleveland R.J.
Factors that influence safety shoe usage
A Bureau of Labor Statistics questionnaire survey of 1,251 employees in 6 selected occupations who sustained foot injuries in 1979 revealed that the major occupational groups reporting injury were labourers (39%), operatives (28%) and craftsmen (27%). 58% of employees injured were struck by heavy falling objects. 57% of injuries were to the toes and 38% to the metatarsal area. 16% of injuries resulted from employees stepping on sharp objects and 13% from heavy objects rolling over the foot. The 4 factors which influenced wear of safety shoes were: a policy requiring wearing of safety shoes; instructions to employees on safety shoe usage; employer payment for safety shoes; employee belief that safety shoes are practical. A safety shoe programme should be based on a history of past accidents, an analysis of the work processes and situations where heavy objects are likely to fall or be dropped, and a determination that significant numbers of employees believe that there are foot injury hazards.
Professional Safety, Aug. 1984, Vol.29, No.8, p.26-29. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 85-488 Hamilton M., Vezey P.
Hands, feet and eyes
Causes of hand, foot and eye injuries are pointed out and various preventive measures and protective equipment are described.
Occupational Safety and Health, July 1984, Vol.14, No.7, p.8-18. Illus.

CIS 85-8 Jones C., Bruce M.
Many a slip
The resistance to slip of shoe sole materials is evaluated by measuring the coefficient of friction, which is defined as the ratio of the horizontal force required to cause a slip and the vertical force (body weight) applied to the shoe. Various slip resistance test machines are described. Factors affecting slips are identified (contaminants, floor materials, weather conditions). Recommendations are given for the use of various shoe soles under specific conditions.
Occupational Safety and Health, Mar. 1984, Vol.14, No.3, p.16-21. Illus. 18 ref.


CIS 85-1086
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Protective clothing, foot, leg, hand and arm protection - Classification
Odežda special'naja zaščitnaja, sredstva individual'noj zaščity nog i ruk - Klassifikacija [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 July 1984) covers all protective clothing, foot, leg, hand and arm protection with the exception of barrier creams. This equipment is classified according to: its protective effectiveness (against mechanical effects, high and low temperature, radioactive contamination, toxic substances, petroleum and petroleum products, mineral and fuel oils, electrostatic charges, etc.); types (sleeveless jackets, overcoats, raincoats, coveralls, suits, overalls, boots, shoes, gloves, sleevelets, gauntlets, wrist gloves, etc.). Foot and leg protective equipment includes equipment for one and several uses. Equipment definitions and their codes are tabulated.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123840 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 6p. Price: Rbl.0.05.

CIS 85-684
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, Prezidium VCSPS
Ratification of a standard on the free issuance to workers of warm work clothes and footgear according to climatic zone
Ob utverždenii norm besplatnoj vydači rabočim i služaščim teploj special'noj odeždy i special'noj obuvi po klimatičeskim pojasam [in Russian]
This standard (ratified 8 Dec. 1982) is uniformly applicable to all sectors of the economy of the USSR. It specifies that warm work clothes and footgear shall be issued in accordance with the model standards for individual branches of the economy. The wear life of jackets, trousers and footgear in the 5 climatic zones of the country is tabulated, and the districts in each zone are listed. An appendix lists the directives which are annulled by ratification of the present standard.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1983, No.5, p.20-24.

CIS 85-489
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Materials for work-shoe uppers - Method for determining permeability to petroleum and petroleum products
Materialy dlja verha special'noj obuvi - Metod opredelenija pronicaemosti nefti i nefteproduktov [in Russian]
This standard (effective: 1 Jan. 1985) covers natural and artificial leathers used for industrial footwear. Permeability is determined by measuring the time required for fluid applied to the face of the material to appear (as fluid or vapour) on the back of the material; the permeating substance is detected by its luminescence under ultraviolet light. Contents: sample collection, apparatus and reagents, sample preparation and testing, treatment of results, safety requirements for testing personnel.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 1983. 5p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.03.

CIS 84-839 Klitscher S.
Safety shoes - Requirements and physiologically optimal design
Sicherheitsschuhe - Anforderungen, gesundheitliche Bestgestaltung [in German]
Safety shoes are subject to requirements concerning: electrical resistance, labelling, soling, materials, protective features and antimicrobial treatment. Other aspects considered are: dimensions, national and international size systems, angles defined by the outline of the foot, lasts, insoles.
Sichere Arbeit, 1983, Vol.36, No.3, p.15-18. Illus.

CIS 84-226 The foot and its protection in the construction industry - Part 2
Le pied et sa protection dans les professions du bâtiment et des travaux publics - 2e partie [in French]
An issue devoted to the proceedings of a workshop held by a research and study group of occupational physicians in the construction industry (16 Oct. 1982, Tours, France). Titles of contributions (for 1st part see (CIS 83-2013): the foot as a tool; foot protection and accidents among apprentices in the building trades; characteristics and evolution of foot injuries; wearing safety shoes in the construction industry; 37 heel-bone fractures; orthopaedic and traumatic aspects of the foot; treatment and prevention of static foot disorders.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1983, Vol.11, No.3, p.127-189. Illus.

CIS 84-224 Delmas R., Baratte D., Duval H., Frimat P., Roux M., Charrier M.J., Ballereau M.
Safety footwear: criteria for wearing or refusal to wear
Chaussures de sécurité: critčres de port ou de rejet [in French]
Results of a survey conducted in France by the OPPBTP (Organisation for Safety in Building Construction and Civil Engineering). Contents: Statistical tables of wearers and non-wearers of safety footwear, by profession and industrial category; factors that influence the choice of safety footwear, and whether workers wear it or not (cost, existence/awareness of risk, compulsory wearing, problems with the footwear).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Aug. 1983, No.5, p.203-209. Illus.

CIS 83-2013 Feet and their protection in the construction industry - Part 1
Le pied et sa protection dans les professions du bâtiment et des travaux publics - 1re partie [in French]
A special issue devoted to the regional meeting of the National Study and Research Group of Physicians in the Construction Industry (16 Oct. 1982, Tours, France). Papers read at the meeting: wearing of safety shoes, regulations and cost apportioning; choice of foot protection as a function of the workplace; survey on 2 construction sites; safety shoes and balance; efficiency and comfort criteria in safety shoes; socks and foot hygiene for the tolerance of safety shoes.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1983, Vol.11, No.2, p.III-IX, 69-116.


CIS 84-2007 Tudo Fernández R.
Resistance to slipping of safety shoes and non-slip floors
Investigación sobre la resistencia al deslizamiento del calzado de seguridad y suelos antideslizantes [in Spanish]
Identification and description of the factors related to slipping accidents and their prevention: characteristics of floors (surface coatings, temperature, humidity, degree of cleanliness); human factors (types of shoes and gait, psychological factors); work-related factors (tasks, handling equipment); study of walking; testing methods and experimental studies (testing equipment and protocols).
Mapfre seguridad, Oct.-Dec. 1982, No.8, p.5-12. Illus.

CIS 83-1415 Jung K.
Reduction of heel-bone injuries by sensible construction of the heel area of safety footwear
Minderung der Fersenbein-Verletzungen durch sinnvolle Gestaltung des Fersenbereiches von Sicherheitsschuhwerk [in German]
The problem of heel-bone fractures in falls from heights and statistics on the problem are reviewed. The forces acting on the heel during walking and in jumps or falls are described. Medical engineering experiments on the ability of 146 types of footwear to absorb energy (using human foot-bone preparations in flesh-like rubber matrices) revealed a wide variation in that ability and suggested future design improvements, especially in the heels of the shoes and boots. Besides the ability to absorb energy, it is important that shoes have the proper weight, fit and flexibility of sole and height of upper.
Die BG, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.226-236. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 83-534 Coenen W.
Slip resistance - Testing and assessment of work footwear
Gleitsicherheit - Prüfung und Beurteilung von Arbeitsschuhwerk [in German]
Review of the extent of the problem of accidents due to falls on the level followed by a definition of the criteria for determining footwear slip resistance (in particular adherence friction and slip friction). Description of a method and test set-up for simulating how a human walks and for measuring horizontal and vertical forces and the coefficient of friction when the shoe comes in contact with the floor. Results with 60 different brands of footwear under varying conditions demonstrate the reliability and specificity of the method. Test results are also compared with subjective assessments made during in-service testing on 18 brands of footwear. Assessment of slip resistance with all the parameters measured.
BIA-Report Nr.1/82, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Lindenstrasse 80, 5205 St. Augustin, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 45p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 82-2015 Balocco L.
Safety footwear
Le scarpe di sicurezza [in Italian]
Contents of this round-up on the requirements to be met by safety shoes and boots: some figures on foot injuries in Italy; desired properties, types, and components of safety footwear (ankle protector, toe cap, non-slip sole, metatarsal protection, special upper, penetration-resistant midsole, ankle guards); testing of footwear and footwear components (scratch tests on the upper, bending tests, dynamic tightness tests, tensile-strength and peel-adhesion tests, penetration tests, slipperiness tests).
Rivista di meccanica, Sep. 1982 (I), No.768, p.63-70. Illus.

CIS 82-1726 Mayer A., Rollin M.
Safety boots - Testing for comfort
Chaussures de sécurité ŕ tige haute - Essais relatifs au confort [in French]
Sequel to tests on toe protection (CIS 82-494) and on sole of foot protection (CIS 82-1410). Comfort was compared by taking into consideration the test parmeters: fit between boot and foot, air circulation around foot, boot impermeability, thermal comfort, flexibility and mass. Tanned flesh split or corrected grain leathers are good materials from the viewpoints of themral comfort and sweat absorption. To comply with the various comfort criteria, boots weighing <1,300g, with absorbing insoles, specially treated for impermeability and sweat absorption, should be used.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1982, No.108, Note No.1388-108-82, p.367-376. Illus. 14 ref.

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