Personal protection - 519 entries found
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Campbell D.L., Noonan G.P., Merinar T.R., Stobbe J.A.
Estimated workplace protection factors for positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus
An analytical model is presented that estimates the distribution of workplace protection factor (WPF) values for positive pressure respirators. Input for the model is the instantaneous face piece pressure measured as a function of time and the distribution of WPF values for negative pressure version of the respirator. As an example application, the model was applied to 57 measurements made in a previous study. The analytical model that was developed estimates the ratio of the mass of contaminant that enters the facepiece during momentary negative pressure excursions to that which would be expected to enter a negative-pressure respirator utilizing the same facepiece. The results of the application of this analytical model are consistent with the current NIOSH assigned protection factor for a positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.322-329. Illus. 21 ref.
Zelnick S.D., McKay R.T., Lockey J.E.
Visual field loss while wearing full-face respiratory protection
The loss of visual field was quantified for 21 test subjects while they wore three different full-face respirators. Changes in visual field were quantified for each type of respirator by the use of a modified Goldmann projection perimeter. The loss of visual field was determined by comparing the area under the curve with and without a respirator. Distinct patterns of visual field loss were apparent for the different style respirators. Analysis of the patterns could lead to the design of full-face respirators with improved visual qualities, which could improve worker safety for certain occupations. The technique also could be of help in the selection of models of respiratory protection when certain visual fields must be maintained.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.315-321. Illus. 19 ref.
Krishnan U., Willeke K., Juozaitis A., Myojo T., Talaska G., Shukla R.
Variation in quantitative respirator fit factors due to fluctuations in leak size during fit testing
In a controlled human study, fit factors were determined by an aerosol filter fit test and the newly developed dichotomous-flow fit test. For a higher level of respirator fit (aerosol fit factors > 1000), the aerosol fit factors were 30-60 times the corresponding flow fit factors, while for a lower level of respirator fit (fit factors < 1000) they were 2 to 4 times the flow fit factors. In a similar mannequin study considerably lower variation in fit factors was found. However, the variation in the aerosol method relative to the flow method, in the human study, is of the same magnitude as in the mannequin study. This suggests that the higher variation in the human tests is mainly due to variations in face-seal leak size and not to increased systematic errors. It was estimated that the fluctuations in face-seal leak size for the subjects with the high fit factor varied between 0.5mm and 0.7mm, and between 1.0mm and 1.3mm for the subject with the low fit factor. Thus, the fit factor determined for a human cannot be expected to be constant, even for the most perfect test system.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.309-314. Illus. 13 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
A short guide to the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
This leaflet explains the requirements of the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) at Work Regulations 1992 (see CIS 93-6). Guidance is given on types of PPE and its provision and use, assessing suitable PPE for various hazards, training in its use and maintenance. Other relevant regulations are listed.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1994. 12p. Illus. 7 ref.
Consumer Protection - Health and Safety - The Personal Protective Equipment (EC Directive) (Amendment) Regulations 1994 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (effective essentially 1 Jan.1995) give effect to Council Directive 93/95/EEC (CIS 94-778) amending Directive 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381) concerning personal protective equipment (PPE). They principally authorize action by the enforcing authority to require the proper use of CE conformity markings.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 4p. Price: GBP 1.10.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Final Rule - Stay of Enforcement and correction - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; Electrical protective equipment [USA]
On 31 Jan. 1994, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a new standard addressing the work practices to be used during the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, transmission and distribution facilities. In that document, the OSHA also revised the electrical protective equipment requirements contained in the General Industry Standards. This Notice stays the enforcement of some of the requirements contained in the electric power generation standard, corrects language in the preamble explaining the standard (particularly as it relates to the wearing of clothing for employees working on or near exposed energized parts) and corrects several errors in the standard.
Federal Register, 30 June 1994, Vol.59, No.125, p.33658-33664.
Body protection equipment - List of suppliers
Protection individuelle du corps - Répertoire des fournisseurs [in French]
List of manufacturers of personal body protective equipment sold in France. Included are: survey of relevant legislation and standards in France; protective equipment against falls from height (antifall systems, systems using an absorber of kinetic energy with a tether, safety harnesses); heat and flame protective clothing; protective clothing against cold and bad weather; protective clothing against chemical hazards; protective clothing against mechanical hazards; protective clothing against various risks. Suppliers by region in France. For each type of equipment, standards and regulations applicable in France are listed.
Institut national de Recherche et de Sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1994. 49p. Illus.
Hearing protectors. Performance, selection, use
Les protecteurs individuels contre le bruit (PICB). Performances, choix, utilisation [in French]
This paper presents the different types of hearing protectors, their fields of application, their acoustical performance characteristics, and other factors such as comfort. It also describes the regulations and standards governing these devices, and explains the meaning of the different noise attenuation indices, the role of standards and regulations, the guarantees provided by label and conformity marks, etc., and describes the potential of existing protector types and how to choose a suitable and comfortable hearing protector. It concludes by discussing problems that have not been resolved and their proposed solutions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1959-155-94, p.169-179. Illus. 33 ref.
Solomon J., Bishop P., Bomalaski S., Beaird J., Kime J.
Responses to repeated days of light work at moderate temperatures in protective clothing
This study assessed workers' ability to sustain work output over four consecutive workdays in encapsulating protective clothing (PC). Six subjects wearing a two-piece PC ensemble cycled at a work rate of 38W in a 29/22°C (dry/wet bulb) ambient temperature. Work continued until rectal temperature (Tre) reached 38.3°C or fatigue forced the subject to stop. Subjects then rested without PC in a 21°C room until Tre reached 38.0°C to simulate micro- or macro-environmental cooling during rest. Work was alternated with rest for a total time of four hours. Contrary to expectations, mean work time did not diminish on succeeding days. Subject responses to the repeated exposures were highly variable and in no case changed significantly from day one to day four. Subjects tolerated well repeated four hour exposures with controlled elevations in Tre. There was no clear evidence of either increased or decreased tolerance of this work-rest paradigm across days.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.16-19. Illus. 15 ref.
Estimating service lives of organic vapor cartridges
Procedures were developed for estimating service lives of air purifying organic vapour respirator cartridges, including methods for untested compounds and use conditions (concentration, temperature and airflow rate). Correlations of absorption capacities and adsorption-rate coefficients based on equilibrium and breakthrough curve data were reviewed. These correlations were combined using a reaction kinetic equation to estimate breakthrough times. Even limited breakthrough curve data for one vapour/carbon combination can be used to substantially improve the accuracy of the estimation. Only dry conditions (below 50% relative humidity) were considered.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.11-15. Illus. 14 ref.
Mitchell L.V., Lawler F.H., Bowen D., Mote W., Asundi P., Purswell J.
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of employer-issued back belts in areas of high risk for back injury
A retrospective survey instrument was administered to 1316 workers who perform lifting activities at an US Air Force base to identify back belt use, lifting requirements, injury, and treatment history. Analysis was also performed on costs applicable to providing the belts, treatment of injury, and lost or limited duty work days. Use of a back belt appears to be marginally effective in reducing injuries when controlling for other related factors. Cost analysis over all diagnoses of low back injury shows less intensive treatment and lower cost per injury for workers injured without a belt versus those injured while wearing a belt. It appears that predictors of low back injury are those expected based on risk assumed and that training programs are effective in prevention of problems. However, costs of injury while wearing a belt are substantially higher than if injured otherwise. Therefore, the benefits of back belts based on these findings do not appear to warrant their use.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.90-94. 9 ref.
Measurement of the sound attenuation of air-fed protective helmets
Mesure de l'affaiblissement acoustique des cagoules de protection respiratoire [in French]
Air-fed protective helmets are used to protect workers from metal dust or particle projections, particularly during sand and shot blasting operations that are also associated with high noise levels. It was therefore interesting to determine whether these devices also protect the wearers from noise. At present, however, there are no regulations governing the noise attenuation properties of this equipment, and no standardized method for measuring the sound attenuation provided. This paper presents the implementation of the MIRE (Microphone In the Real Ear) measuring technique, which seems to be suitable for measuring the sound attenuation afforded by air-fed protective helmets. Minor sound attenuation is achieved by these protective devices, indicating the need for users of these devices to wear ear protectors when exposed to sound pressure levels higher than the legal limit.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1953-154-94, p.61-68. 9 ref.
Héry M., Meyer J.P., Villa M., Hubert G., Wrobel R., Gerber J.M., Hecht G., Herrault J., François D.
Efficiency of unassisted half-mask dust respirators in industry
Efficacité de demi-masques anti-poussières non ventilés en situation industrielle [in French]
Thirty workers employed in 4 different factories volunteered to participate in a study of 6 unassisted half-mask dust respirators. The study investigated 3 parameters: the efficiency of filtering facepieces or unassisted half masks measured on the basis of concentrations of pollutants determined simultaneously inside and outside the respirator; the physical workload; comfort, estimated by a self-assessment questionnaire. A study of the correlations between the values of the concentrations measured inside the respirator and other parameters as well as the answers to the questionnaire, for each respirator and factory concerned, established the following: in most cases the efficiency of the respirators in industrial situations is much lower than that measured in laboratory conditions; in practical conditions of use in industry, respirator efficiency increases with dust concentration; the efficiency of the different respirators when tested in industrial conditions was practically identical, whatever the values determined in laboratory tests; comfort affects the subjective efficiency of unassisted respirators.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1949-154-94, p.21-33. Illus. 37 ref.
Decree-Law No.348/93 concerning minimum safety and health requirements in the use of personal protective equipment [Portugal]
Decreto-Lei n°348/93 sobre as prescrições mínimas de segurança e de saúde dos trabalhadores na utilização de equipamentos de protecção individual [in Portuguese]
Decree-Law transposing into Portuguese law the provisions of Council Directive 89/656/EEC of 30 Nov. 1989 (CIS 90-385) on the same subject. Topics: compliance tests; information of personnel; law; penalties; personal protective equipment; Portugal; protective clothing; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; supply of personal protective equipment.
Diário da República, 1 Oct. 1993, I Serie-A, No.231, p.5553-5554.
Decree No.988/93 of 1993 concerning minimum requirements for the safety and health of workers in the use of personal protective equipment [Portugal]
Portaria sobre às prescrições mínimas de segurança e de saúde dos trabalhadores na utilização de equipamento de protecção individual [in Portuguese]
Decree transposing into Portuguese law the provisions of Council Directive 89/656/EEC of 30 Nov. 1989 (CIS 90-385) on the minimum requirements for the safety and health of workers in the use of personal protective equipment. Topics: biological hazards; chemical hazards; dangerous work; electricity; hazard evaluation; law; personal protective equipment; physical hazards; Portugal; radiation protection; supply of personal protective equipment.
Diário da República, 6 Oct. 1993, I Serie-B, No.234, p.5599-5602.
Health and Safety Executive
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
Data sheet on legal requirements for personal protective equipment in the health services (United Kingdom), 1993. Topics: comment on law; data sheet; health services; personal protective equipment; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; supply of personal protective equipment; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Apr. 1993. 2p. 1 ref.
Personal protection at the workplace
This guide describes the basic requirements and the use of personal protective equipment. It covers head, eye, ear, hand, leg, skin and respiratory protection. References to Indian standards are given.
Loss Prevention Association of India Ltd., Warden House, Sir P.M. Road, Bombay 400 001, India, 1993. 32p. Illus.
Benvenuti F., Spagnoli G.
Pesticide exposure risks in greenhouse operations
Definizione dei rischi di esposizione ad antiparassitari nelle lavorazioni e nell'impiego degli stessi nelle coltivazioni in serra [in Italian]
This study describes the risks of pesticide use in greenhouse agricultural operations. Crop diseases and the chemicals used for their management are reviewed. The TLVs of the most common products are given. Risks of exposure and prevention criteria are discussed, including the re-entry times after pesticide application that are required to avoid hazards to workers. Types of greenhouses in the Italian Lazio region are described. The use of personal protection equipment is recommended together with the adoption of biological solutions in order to reduce exposure to pesticides. Relevant Italian legislation is discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.V, No.1, p.129-152. Illus. 13 ref.
Design of personal protective equipment [Sweden]
Utförande av personlig skyddsutrustning [in Swedish]
This ordinance was adopted on 28 Oct. 1993. It covers: scope and definitions; basic provisions; technical documentation; type approval; manufacturers responsibilities for quality control; EEC marks; special rules. In annex: general requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) (design principles, equipment should be risk free, comfort and effectiveness, information to be provided by the manufacturer); additional requirements of specific types of PPE; special requirements for specific hazards (mechanical hazards, overuse, scrapes, prick injuries, cuts, drowning, noise, heat, fire, cold, electricity, radiation, dangerous substances, diving); technical documentation from manufacturers; type approval; control by the manufacturer; standard form for the manufacturers declaration of conformity; advice for the implementation of the ordinance. After the ordinance comes into effect, a number of provisions of older circulars and all of ordinance AFS 1987:10 (CIS 88-41) are abrogated.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 35p.
Use of personal protective equipment [Sweden]
Användning av personlig skyddsutrustning [in Swedish]
This regulation supersedes AFS 1982:13 (CIS 83-1702) and the Board's Notice 1976:37 (CIS 77-1692). It was adopted on 28 October 1993 and is an adaptation of the EEC Directive 89/656/EEC (CIS 90-385). It defines general rules on the use. Recommendations for compliance with the regulation are appended. In appendix 1: List of regulations including personal protective equipment.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 13p.
Adaptation into Greek legislation of Council Directive 89/686/EEC of 21 Dec. 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to personal protective equipment [Greece]
Summorfōsē tēs Ellēnikēs Nomothesias me tēn 89/686/EOK Odēgia tou Sumbouliou tēs 21ēs Dekembriou 1989 gia tēn troseggisē tōn nomothesiōn tōn kratōn melōn shetika me ta mesa atomikēs prostasias [in Greek]
Adaptation into Greek legislation of Directive 89/686/EEC (see CIS 90-381) concerning personal protective equipment. Special emphasis is placed on community-wide approval procedures (including the conditions for displaying the EC mark).
In: Egheiridio nomothesias ugieinēs kai asfaleias tēs ergasias (ISBN 960-7389-04-2), Ellēniko Institouto Ugieinēs & Asfaleias tēs Ergasias, Patēsiōn 89, 104 34 Athēna, Greece, 1994, p. 1075-1106. Illus. (Vol.B). Also in: Efēmeris tēs kubernēseōs, 23 Mar. 1993, No.187 B'.
Anundi H., Lind M.L., Friis L., Itkes N., Langworth S., Edling C.
High exposures to organic solvents among graffiti removers
The average 8h exposure to dichloromethane of 12 graffiti removers in underground stations in Sweden ranged from 18 to 1,200mg/m3. For 50% of the workers, the average exposure was above the limit of 120mg/m3. The breathing zone concentrations of other solvents such as glycol ethers, trimethylbenzenes and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone were low or not detectable. While irritative symptoms of the eyes and upper respiratory tract were more prevalent than in the general population, neither exposure-related deviations of the indicators of liver damage nor acute effects on the central nervous system were found. The workers were advised to use half-mask respirators and to avoid skin contact by wearing protective clothing.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.4. p.247-251. Illus. 19 ref.
Safety in meatcutting establishments and butcher shops
Sicherheit in Fleischereien [in German]
Safety guide for employers and workers who cut and process meat. Machines such as cutters, grinders and sausage stuffers should be fitted with appropriate guards and interlock switches. Manual operations such as trimming and boning should be done with proper methods and protective equipment. The sales room poses special risks due to the limited space behind the counter and the pressure imposed by clients.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, May 1993. 19p. Illus. 13 ref.
Regulation on the use of personal protective equipment in the workplace [Norway]
Forskrift om bruk av personlig verneutstyr på arbeidsplassen [in Norwegian]
This regulation was issued by Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet on 24 May 1993, with modifications on 31 Aug. 1994. It came into effect on 1 Jan. 1995. It implements in Norway the provisions of Directive 89/656/EEC (CIS 90-385). It makes the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) obligatory when the safety, health or welfare of a worker cannot be protected fully by technical equipment or by the modification of work methods or processes. The relevant obligations of employers are outlined (supply of PPE; hazard evaluation; storage, maintenance and testing; training and information of workers). Chapter VI of the 1987 Regulation concerning PPE (see CIS 88-1429, English translation CIS 90-385) is repealed.
Norsk Lovtidend, 4 Oct. 1994, No.19, p.1511-1513. Also available as a separate booklet (11p.) from Arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep, 0032 Oslo, Norway.
Industrial Training Systems Co.
Equipped for safety: Personal protective equipment
Videotape on the proper use and maintenance of personal protective equipment.
TFI, Hadlow House, 9 High Street, Green St Green, Orpington, Kent BR6 6BG, United Kingdom, no date. Videotape. Length: 9min. Price: GBP 85.00 (sale), GBP 85.00 (rental for 5 working days). ###
Arias Lázaro J.I.
Personal protective equipment for ascent and descent: Guidelines for selection, use and maintenance
Dispositivos personales para operaciones de elevación y descenso: guías para la elección, uso y mantenimiento [in Spanish]
Contents of this data sheet on the selection, use and maintenance of personal protection equipment (PPE) used as fall-prevention equipment during ascent/descent: scope of data sheet; risk of falls from height in ascent/descent operations; selection criteria; classification and description of components; general characteristics of PPE (fall-arrest devices, etc.); general characteristics of PPE components; standards for PPE; recommendations relating to scope and safe use of PPE; maintenance criteria; recommendations relating to PPE integrity; recommendations relating to obsolete PPE.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna, 73 - 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. Illus. 2 ref.
A pilot survey of the traditional use of the patuka round the waist for the prevention of back pain in Nepal
A questionnaire survey of 55 persons from the traditional patuka-wearing population in central Nepal was conducted to determine the significance of the use of the patuka (a piece of cloth about 5m long wound around the waist) in relation to the prevention of back pain. Clinical examinations were carried out on ten of these subjects. Results support the hypothesis that a patuka functions as a spinal support and hence prevents back pain in these workers. However, further studies are required to reliably establish its role in clinical or ergonomic application.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.337-344. Illus. 20 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine, Health and Safety of Strasbourg - Meeting of 26 March 1993
Société de médecine, d'hygiène et de sécurité du travail de Strasbourg - Séance du 26 mars 1993 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Health and Safety of Strasbourg (France, 26 Mar. 1993): report on a programme aimed at the prevention of tobacco smoking in a large plant; the ergonomics of garbage collecting.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.695-700.
Zellers E.T., Sulewski R.
Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves
Study of breakthrough time of N-methylpyrrolidone for butyl and natural rubber gloves. The gloves were tested at four temperatures from 25-50°C. The butyl rubber glove did not show any breakthrough after four hours. The natural rubber gloves showed permeation rates applying well with the Arrhenius relationship. Extrapolation of the temperature to 70-93°C gave breakthrough values of less than 0.5-2 minutes. Experimental values were compared with permeation models. The Fickian diffusion equation gave values of breakthrough time and steady-state permeation time within 23 and 50% respectively of the experimental values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.465-479. Illus. 52 ref.
Johnson A.T., Grove C.M.
Respirator mask design modules and their interactions
Mask design modules and how they relate to mask physiological effects are presented in a respirator performance rating table scheme. The main factors are: vision, communication, respiration, thermal comfort and physiological effects of elevated temperatures, personal support (e.g., lens design affects the ability of mask wearers to communicate visually), physical and psychological aspects.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1993, Vol.54, No.12, p.749-751. 2 ref.
Hinds W.C., Bellin P.
The effect of respirator dead space and lung retention on exposure estimates
Equations that predict the magnitude of the effect of lung retention and respirator dead space on average inhalation concentration and other related quantities were developed, tested and applied. The equations were validated by numerical simulation and experimental measurement with a respirator on a mannequin connected to a breathing machine. Experimental data verifying the applicability of the equations are presented, as are applications of the equations and procedures to various types of respirator performance measurements and to a predictive respirator performance model. Graphs give correction factors, which in all cases were less than 2. Under typical conditions of workplace protection factor measurement with half-mask respirators, average inhalation concentration will be 105% to 125% of full-cycle average concentration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1993, Vol.54, No.12, p.711-722. Illus. 22 ref.
Fox S.H., DuBois A.B.
The effect of evaporative cooling of respiratory protective devices on skin temperature, thermal sensation, and comfort
Theoretical considerations of thermal exchange between the face and the environment with and without a mask are discussed to elucidate factors that may improve the design of masks to increase their acceptability. Evaporative cooling of a dummy mask and a modified Scott respirator was tested in resting and exercising subjects. Skin temperature was significantly reduced when wet felt covered the outer surface of both masks. At rest the masks were rated by subjects as significantly more comfortable than dry felt on the outer surface.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1993, Vol.54, No.12, p.705-710. Illus. 10 ref.
Determining the service lives of organic-vapor respirator cartridges for nitroglycerin under workplace conditions
A field study, with the aim of estimating the service lives of different brands of organic-vapour respirator cartridges, is presented. The measurement were carried out in a gunpowder factory. The breakthrough time for nitroglycerin was between seven and 81 hours (depending on the brand of the tube) when the concentration in the air was 1mg/m3. No premature breakthrough was detected.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.432-439. Illus. 28 ref.
Moyer E.S., Findlay M.W., Maclay G.J., Stetter J.R.
Preliminary evaluation of an active end-of-service-life indicator for organic vapor cartridge respirators
Data are presented on a microwatt chemiresistor microsensor for use with negative-pressure organic vapour respirators. This sensor would operate at or within a sorbent bed and detect parts-per-million levels of chemical vapours and/or gases as a function of sensor resistance. Sensors were evaluated against four challenge concentrations of ethyl acetate (750ppm, 1500ppm, and 2000ppm). The chemiresistor sensor responses correlated well with an infrared system. Although the chemiresistor sensors were not as sensitive as the IR detectors, they could be used if located inside the charcoal bed. However, further improvement in the stability and sensitivity of these chemiresistor sensors is necessary.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.417-425. Illus. 13 ref.
Brown R.C., Vaughan N.P.
Measurement of the leakage and fit factor of a filtering facepiece by continuous monitoring of pressure pulsations
The fit factor of filtering respirators is measured by continuous monitoring of the pressure produced in the respirator cavity by injecting and withdrawing a volume of air so that the volume varies sinusoidally with time. Comparison between measurements made when leaks occur and the measurements made without leakage enables a fit factor to be calculated for each breath. Results obtained by the use of this method on a filtering respirators worn by a manikin agree with bubble flowmeter measurements, although systematic differences exist. The method is most accurate when leakage is large, and is potentially useful for fit factors up to about 50, and leakages down to about 2%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.409-416. Illus. 10 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
These eight information sheets cover: principles, duties and responsibilities for the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE); head protection; hearing protection; eye and face protection; respiratory protective equipment; general and specialist clothing; gloves; safety footwear. Guidance is given on legal requirements and responsibilities, selection of appropriate equipment, maintenance and storage, training and use.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. 17p.
Council Directive 93/95/EEC of 29 october 1993 amending directive 89/686/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to personal protective equipment (PPE) [European Communities]
Directive du Conseil 93/95/CEE, du 29 octobre 1993, modifiant la directive 89/686/CEE concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives aux équipements de protection individuelle (EPI) [Communautés européennes] [in French]
These amendments to Directive 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381) mainly apply to the dates of adoption and bring into effect the measures stipulated in the directive. They also state the deadlines for the publication of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the Directive.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 9 Nov. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.276, p.11-12.
Council Directive 93/68/EEC of 22 July 1993 amending Directives 87/404/EEC, 88/378/EEC, 89/106/EEC, 89/336/EEC, 89/392/EEC, 89/686/EEC, 90/384/EEC, 90/385/EEC, 90/396/EEC, 91/263/EEC, 92/42/EEC and 73/23/EEC [European Communities]
Directive 93/68/CEE du Conseil, du 22 juillet 1993, modifiant les directives 87/404/CEE, 88/378/CEE, 89/106/CEE, 89/336/CEE, 89/392/CEE, 89/686/CEE, 90/384/CEE, 90/385/CEE, 90/396/CEE, 91/263/CEE, 92/42/CEE, 73/23/CEE [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive amends a number of EEC directives with provisions concerning the "CE" mark of conformity with pertinent standards and specifies: shape of the mark, conditions for use of the mark, obligations of authorities when dealing with marked products. The "CE marking" replaces the "EC mark". Several of the affected directives have been abstracted by CIS: 87/404/EEC (simple pressure vessels) (see CIS 87-1166), 89/106/EEC (construction products) (see CIS 93-3), 89/392/EEC (machinery) (see CIS 89-1442), 89/686/EEC (personal protective equipment) (see CIS 90-381), and 73/23/EEC (electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits) (see CIS 75-1239).
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 Aug. 1993, Vol.36, No.L.220, p.18-38. Illus.
Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation professionnelle
Government Orders of 5 and 19 March 1993 and of 4 and 9 June 1993 on the conditions and periodicity of general checking carried out on certain working equipment and personal protective equipment [France]
Arrêtés des 5 et 19 mars 1993 et des 4 et 9 juin 1993 relatifs aux conditions et à la périodicité des vérifications générales portant sur certains équipements de travail et équipements de protection individuelle [France] [in French]
The Order of 5 March 1993 gives a list of working equipment (machinery) that should not be used without having undergone regular general checking in keeping with Art. R.233-11 of the French Labour Code. The Order of 4 June 1993 states that this checking should cover all machine parts likely to cause danger if damaged. The type of checks to be carried out is also described in detail. The Order of 19 March 1993 gives a list of personal protective equipment that should not be used without having undergone regular general checking as provided for in Art. R.233-42 of the French Labour Code. It states the purpose of the checking (Art.2).The Order of 9 June sets forth the conditions governing the checking of machinery used for lifting loads or elevating workplaces or people, in keeping with Art.R.233-11 and R.233-84 of the French Labour Code. A list of equipment subject to such checking and equipment to which it does not apply is appended. The Orders of 16 Aug. 1951 (as amended) and 2 Apr. 1980 are repealed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.152, Note No.1941-152-93, p.493-498. Also available as an offprint from the INRS.
The role of psychological stress and prior experience in the use of personal protective equipment
Effective personal protective equipment (PPE) use was assessed by behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS). Participants, consisting of 141 emergency response team members of a chemical manufacturing organization, were evaluated in a series of field simulations where PPE was used. Subjects completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires measuring anxiety, type A behaviour, anger expression, and a knowledge test concerning chemical emergency response. Self-estimates of PPE skill were better predictors of observed BARS performance than knowledge scores, the amount of formal training, or emergency response experience. Effective performance scores were related to knowledge and experience in PPE use and negatively related to the outward expression of anger. Discomfort in using PPE was significantly correlated with experience using protective gear, positive teamwork-effectiveness ratings, and lower levels of anxiety symptoms.
Journal of Safety Research, 1993, Vol.24, No.3, p.181-187. 11 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Occupational health in waste disposal services - Papers presented at a conference in Dortmund, Germany, on 3 and 4 November 1992
Arbeitsschutz in der Abfallwirtschaft - Vorträge der Fachtagung am 3. und 4. November 1992 in Dortmund [in German]
Subjects addressed at this conference: the Waste Disposal Act in Germany and its effects on waste treatment and disposal methods; health protection during collection, handling, transport, storage, and treatment of waste and recycling material; disposal of hazardous waste; exposure to and protection from harmful substances.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 261p. Illus. Price: DEM 40.00.
Wear and care
Resource pack providing training to workers and their employers on the selection, fitting, proper use, cleaning, maintenance and storage of personal protective equipment. Reference is made throughout to EEC Directive 89/656 (see CIS 90-385) and its implementation in Britain, the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (see CIS 93-6). Detailed discussion of: head and scalp protection; eye protection; hearing protection; respiratory protective equipment; hand and arm protection; foot protection; body protection; miscellaneous items (life jackets, safety harnesses etc.); risk assessment. In annex (to the manual): risk assessment table for personal protective equipment.
Sandown Training, Parkwood House, Cheltenham GL50 2HA, United Kingdom, 1993. 1 videocassette (20min) + manual (90p., illus.). Price: GBP 345.00 + VAT.
Zejda J.E., Hurst T.S., Barber E.M., Rhodes C., Dosman J.A.
Respiratory health status in swine producers using respiratory protective devices
A cross-sectional survey on respiratory health in swine producers showed that 30% of 301 men examined usually used a dust mask when working inside a barn. They did not differ significantly from non-users of dust masks in respect of respiratory symptoms and lung function. This analysis was undertaken to determine whether the respiratory health of dust mask users was associated with reasons for their having started to use individual respiratory protection. The subjects were recontacted in order to identify those who started using a mask deliberately to prevent symptoms (42 men) and those who started using protection because of pre-existing respiratory symptoms (44 men). Not unexpectedly, between-group comparisons of respiratory symptoms and lung function suggest that swine producers who wear dust masks for preventive purposes have better respiratory health than those who wear dust masks because of symptoms or those who do not use individual respiratory protection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the full impact of respiratory protection in these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.743-750. 14 ref.
Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation professionnelle
Decrees Nos.93-40 and 93-41 of 11 Jan. 1993. Work equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE). Conditions of use [France]
Décrets n°93-40 et 93-41 du 11 janv. 1993. Equipements de travail et équipements de protection individuelle (EPI). Conditions d'utilisation [France] [in French]
Decree No.93-40 sets forth the requirements applicable to second-hand equipment and the regulations governing the bringing into conformity of existing equipment. The measures are applicable as of 15 Jan. 1993, but there is a transition period up to 1 Jan. 1997 for work equipment in service before 1 Jan. 1993. Decree No.93-41 deals with the organisational aspects and the use of work equipment and personal protective equipment, pursuant to European directives No.89/655/EEC (CIS 90-357) and 89/656/EEC (CIS 90-385). The new titles (II. "Work equipment, organisational measures and conditions of use"; IV. "PPE, organisational measures and conditions of use") concern inter alia the information of employees and the plant health and safety committee, safety training, the conditions of installation of work equipment, special training and the establishment of a maintenance log book for certain equipment, the provision of PPE, periodical inspections and instructions for use. These measures are applicable as of 15 Jan. 1993.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1918-150-93, p.143-148. Also in: Journal officiel, 13 Jan. 1993.
Personal protective equipment in construction
Following the introduction in Britain of the Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-6), the Health and Safety Executive has issued an information pack on personal protective equipment (PPE) in the construction industry. This article describes the content of the pack: it provides advice and information on legal requirements, duties of employers and employees, types of PPE available (information sheets per type of PPE) and the risks they protect against, the importance of training and the care, use and storage of PPE.
Industrial Safety Data File, Apr. 1993, p.I:13:1-I:13:4. 2 ref.
Produktbanken [in Swedish]
Semi-annual catalogue of safety and industrial hygiene products and services published by the Joint Industrial Safety Council of Sweden, which links major employers' and workers' organisations. Commercial and non-commercial sources are represented. An introductory chapter on making appropriate choices is included for the first time.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, Spring 1993. Issue No.26. Article No.354. 180p. Illus.
Personal protective clothing and equipment
This booklet outlines the criteria for selecting and using personal protective clothing and equipment (PPCE) so that they can be an effective part of an overall safety and health strategy. PPCE include headwear, eye, ear, hand, feet and body protection, and respiratory protection. The needs for workers' training and medical supervision and for developing standard operating procedures for the use of PPCE are outlined. A checklist for assessing the use of appropriate PPCEs at the workplace is provided. Relevant regulations are also mentioned.
Occupational Health and Safety Authority, World Trade Centre, Corner Flinders and Spencer Streets, PO Box 414, Melbourne, Victoria 3005, Australia, July 1992. 20p. Illus.
Grand-Ducal Regulation of 10 August 1992 concerning personal protective equipment [Luxembourg]
Règlement grand-ducal du 10 août 1992 relatif aux équipements de protection individuelle [Luxembourg] [in French]
This Regulation transposes into national legislation Council Directive 89/686/EEC (CIS 90-381). Topics: approval; buoyant devices; compliance tests; dangerous substances; diving suits; European Communities; face and eye protection; fire protection; inspection; law; Luxembourg; marking; penalties; personal protective equipment; protection against cold; protection against heat; protective clothing; radiation protection; respirators; supervision of use of protective equipment; supply of personal protective equipment.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 21 Aug. 1992, No. 63, p.2077-2091.
Royal Order of 31 Dec. 1992 implementing the Directive of the Council of the European Communities dated 21 Dec. 1989 concerning the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to personal protective equipment [Belgium]
Arrêté royal du 31 déc. 1992 portant exécution de la Directive du Conseil des Communautés européennes du 21 déc. 1989 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives aux équipements de protection individuelle [Belgique] [in French]
31 dec. 1982 - Koninklijk besluit tot uitvoering van de Richtlijn van de Raad van de Europese Gemeenschappen van 21 dec. 1989 inzake de onderlinge aanpassing van de wetgevingen der Lid-Staten betreffende persoonlijke beschermingsmiddelen [in Dutch]
This Royal Order (effective 1 July 1992) implements with respect to Belgium the provisions of Directive 89/686/EEC (see CIS 90-381). Contents: scope; conditions for the placing on the market of personal protective equipment (PPE); approval procedures; EC type examinations; quality control of the manufacturing process; the EC mark; authorization of organizations charged with carrying out EC type examinations; recognition of EC type examinations carried out in other EC Member States; monitoring and sale restrictions. In annex: basic safety and health requirements of PPE; model conformity declaration; technical documentation required of manufacturers.
Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 4 Feb. 1993, 163th Year, No.23, p.2202-2224. Illus.
Advances in personal protective equipment
Methods used to evaluate the use of personal protective equipment are briefly described. A survey of foundry workers indicated that goggles frequently misted up during hot, heavy work; laboratory experiments demonstrated that the problem could be overcome by increasing the ventilation of the goggles. A study of the comfort of helmets on construction sites led to a number of improvements in the design of the helmet cradle and the sweat band. Studies show that considerations of acceptability are at least as important as those of protection.
Mining Engineer, May 1992, Vol.151, No.368, p.311-313. Illus. 4 ref.
Schwops (Luton) Ltd.
"Personal protective equipment"
Videotape aimed at management concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) at the workplace in line with Directive 89/656/EEC (CIS 90-385) and the 1992 British Regulations concerning the matter (CIS 93-6). Contents: impact of the new legislation; definition of PPE; duties of employers and the self-employed; assessments (with check lists); maintenance, replacements and storage; obligations to workers (training, information); sample list of PPE. The illustrated booklet can be used along with the videotape for training purposes.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby, Yorkshire LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1992. Videotape (length: 17min.) + booklet (28p., illus.).
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