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Occupational exposure limits - 3,466 entries found

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  • Occupational exposure limits

1997

CIS 97-1987 Eriksson K.A., et al.
Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops
A cross-sectional study of 38 workers was carried out in 4 joinery shops in Sweden to evaluate acute respiratory effects following exposure to terpenes, while processing Scotch pine. Personal exposure to terpenes ranged between 10 and 214mg/m3. No acute effects on forced vital capacity or forced expiratory volume during 1s were detected. Personal exposure to terpenes may thus exceed the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 150mg/m3 during the winter season when workrooms air is commonly recirculated. The determination of metabolites of alpha-pinene (verbenols) in urine can be used as an index of exposure to fumes released during wood-treating processes.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.114-120. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 97-960
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational exposure limits 1997
This annual guidance note replaces EH 40/96 (CIS 96-306). It lists maximum exposure limits, occupational exposure standards, and biological monitoring guidance values for use with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (CIS 95-19). Substances currently under review are also listed. Additional sections cover the legal background, setting and application of exposure limits, monitoring exposure and mixed exposures. A technical supplement describes changes to the previous edition and provides examples of exposure calculations. Appendices provide further information on asphyxiants, lead, asbestos, and carcinogens.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. v, 92p. 41 ref. Price: GBP 6.95.

CIS 97-946 1997 Code of Practice for the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 1994 [Ireland]
List of exposure limits for Ireland issued under the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 1994 (CIS 95-1947). Schedule I contains the list of chemical agents, with the following information for each substance: name; EINECS and CAS numbers; occupational exposure limits (OELs) (8h and 15min reference periods, data both in ppm and mg/m3); notes (where relevant). Schedule II contains a list of those chemical agents for which the OEL changed in 1997. Schedule III contains those agents for which OEL changes are foreseen for 1999.
National Authority for Occupational Safety and Health, 10 Hogan Place, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1997. 57p. Price: IEP 5.00.

1996

CIS 06-182
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
Istiẖdām al-līzar fī makan al-(amal [in Arabic]
Arabic translation of an ILO publication abstracted under CIS 94-703. This document is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. 155p. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 02-548 Brondeau M.T., Calvel T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O.
Chlorine
Chlore [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the nasal, ocular and pharyngeal mucous membranes; sensation of burn and suffocation; respiratory impairment; cyanosis; pulmonary oedema; most of the time respiratory function disorders persist after treatment. Chronic toxicity: chloracne; conjunctivitis; keratitis; erosion of the teeth enamel; anorexia; anaemia; migraine; chronic bronchitis. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 3mg/m3 (1ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.017-001-00-7; T, N, R23, R36/37/38, R50, S9, S45, S61, 231-959-5. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 4p. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-544 Brondeau M.T., Calvel T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Carbon monoxide
Oxyde de carbone [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: paresis of the limbs, coma, convulsions, leading rapidly to death in the absence of treatment (superacute or massive intoxication); depending on the carboxyhaemoglobinaemia level, dyspnoea when undertaking efforts, reduction of the nervous conduction velocity, visual disorders, irritability; cardiotoxic effects. Chronic toxicity: migraine, vertigo, asthenia, cardiological effects; foetotoxic effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 55mg/m3 (50ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.006-001-00-2; F+, T, R12, R61, R23, R48/23, S45, S53, 211-128-3. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 6p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 01-1333 Bromine
Brome [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: coughing, nose bleeding, bronchopneumonia, photophobia, blepharospasms, skin burns, respiratory symptoms (respiratory distress). Chronic toxicity: irritation dermatosis, keratitis, conjunctivitis. Exposure limits (France): ceiling limit = 0.7mg/m3 (0.1ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.035-001-00-5; T+, C, R26, R35, S7/9, S26, S45, 231-778-1. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 4p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 01-661 Bonnard N., Brondeau M.T., Clavel T., Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Schneider O.
Sulfur dioxide
Dioxyde de soufre [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: respiratory symptoms (bronchiolitis, pulmonary oedema, obstructive respiratory impairment); skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: chronic pharyngitis and bronchitis; emphysema; worsening of preexisting asthma. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 5mg/m3 (2ppm); ceiling value = 10mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.016-011-00-9; T, R23, R36/37, S7/9, S45, 231-195-2. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 5p. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 01-336 Tikkainen U., Louhelainen U., Nordman H.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals - 120. Flour dust
High exposure levels to flour are common and short duration peak exposures at peak concentrations are frequent in bakeries. Flour dusts induce respiratory tract and eyes symptoms, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Specific sensitization is more frequent than allergic disease. The prevalence of symptoms, allergic rhinitis and asthma are high at the currently used limits (3-15mg/m3). Preventive measures have also to take into account other agents, including enzymes and spices, which may cause similar effects as flours.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1996. vi, 51p. Illus. 152 ref.

CIS 01-352 Luotamo M., Riihimäki V.
DECOS and NEG basis for an occupational standard - Tetrachloroethane
Of the two isomers, 1,1,1,2- and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the latter is most widely used in industry. Exposure to 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane leads to toxic effects. Target organs are the liver, gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system. Tetrachloroethanes are carcinogenic and genotoxic in animals but there is insufficient data on carcinogenic effects in humans. The critical effect is considered to be carcinogenicity for exposed workers.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1996. vi, 46p. 122 ref.

CIS 00-1104 Limit values for occupational exposure to dangerous substances recommended by ACGIH in the United States and the MAK Commission in Germany
Valores límite de exposición profesional a las sustancias peligrosas según la ACGIH de los Estados Unidos y de la comisión alemana MAK [in Spanish]
Spanish-language version of a document that originally appeared in the French publication Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.163, Note No.2022-163-96, p.197-227 (see CIS 96-1436). It comprises three parts: 1) An introduction presenting the respective policies of the two organizations, and definitions of the types of values given and their limitations. 2) A synoptic table of mean exposure limit values recommended by the ACGIH (United States) and the MAK Commission (Germany). The table also mentions carcinogenicity, the possibility of skin penetration, the risk of allergy and the types of particle considered (inhalable or alveolar). 3) An appendix containing all the relevant details for optimum use of the data provided. For the ACGIH: limit values for mixtures, dusts, carcinogens, dangerous substances of variable composition. For the MAK Commission: carcinogenic substances, mixtures, pregnancy, TRK values (technical reference concentrations), substances that alter the genetic heritage, metals dusts and compounds, smoking.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.XLIII, No.170, p.71-112. 4 ref.

CIS 99-1629 Biological monitoring of chemical exposure in the workplace - Volume II
For volume I, see CIS 98-245. Topics: aromatic amines; aromatic hydrocarbons; biological threshold limits; aluminium; arsenic; methanol; benzene; nickel; cobalt; dichloromethane; description of technique; determination in biological matter; determination in blood; determination in exhaled air; determination in urine; dithiocarbamates; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; harmful substances; list of occupations; manuals; metabolic process; pyrethroids; toxic effects; urinary metabolites; WHO.
World Health Organization, Office of Occupational Health, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1996. xi, 203p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 20.00.

CIS 98-1565 Administrative standards of 1996 concerning air contaminants in the workplace [Norway]
Veiledning - Administrative normer for forurensning i arbeidsatmosfære - 1996 [in Norwegian]
Topics: allergens; carcinogens; directive; harmful substances; limitation of exposure; mutagens; Norway; respirable dust; skin absorption; threshold limit values; TLV list.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, 1996. 23p.

CIS 98-245 Biological monitoring of chemical exposure in the workplace - Volume I
For volume II, see CIS 99-1629. Topics: biological threshold limits; toluene; hexane; ethoxyethanol; 2-ethoxyethyl acetate; carbon monoxide; dimethylformamide; carbon disulfide; trichloroethylene; description of technique; determination in biological matter; determination in blood; determination in exhaled air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; fluorides; list of occupations; manuals; metabolic process; metals; pesticides; solvents; toxic effects; urinary metabolites; WHO.
World Health Organization, Office of Occupational Health, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1996. xi, 300p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 30.00, USD 27.00; CHF 21.00 in developing countries.

CIS 97-1285
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Phenol: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to phenol and recommends an occupational exposure limit. Main conclusions: phenol and phenol solutions are caustic to human skin; the substance is absorbed through the skin; incidents of acute toxicity following dermal exposure in humans resulted in chemical burns and effects on the central nervous system; acute phenol poisoning may lead to respiratory failure and death. Recommended occupational exposure limit (8h TWA): 8mg/m3 (2ppm); a skin notation is advised. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1996. 86p. 194 ref.

CIS 97-1284
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
1,2-Ethanediamine: Health based recommended exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to 1,2-ethanediamine (ethylenediamine) and recommends an occupational exposure limit. Main conclusions: in humans, 1,2-ethanediamine is corrosive to the skin, and is a skin sensitizer and probably a respiratory sensitizer. Recommended occupational exposure limit (8h TWA): 18mg/m3 (7.2ppm). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1996. 70p. 105 ref.

CIS 97-1283
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Bisphenol A and its diglycidylether: Health based recommended occupational exposure limits
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to bisphenol A and its diglycidyl ether and recommends occupational exposure limits. Main conclusions: in humans, bisphenol A causes mild irritation of the skin, eyes, nose and throat; the diglycidyl ether is a skin sensitizer. Recommended occupational exposure limits for both substances (8h TWA): 10 mg/m3 for substances in the form of inhalable dust, and 5mg/m3 for respirable dust. Skin contact with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether should be avoided. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1996. 110p. 108 ref.

CIS 97-249
Senatskommission zur Prüfung gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe
Maximum allowable workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values for working materials 1996
MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 1996 [in German]
Definition of the notion of "maximum concentration at the workplace" (MAK) and discussion of its basis and usefulness (limited, in the case of pregnant workers), of verification and compliance, of the relation of time-weighted average MAKs to peak exposures, and of the special problems posed by mixtures, allergens and substances absorbed by the skin. List of about 350 substances with their chemical formulas and MAKs in ppm and mg/m3. This updated list of exposure limits contains 11 substances added to the list since 1995. For 37 substances in the list changes in the classification and/or proposed exposure limit have been made. Additional information is given on known or suspected carcinogens (about 150, including drugs and tobacco smoke), dusts, organic peroxides, petrol, turpentine and cutting fluids. "Indicative technical concentrations" (TRK) are given for carcinogens and mutagens for which no permissible exposure level can be established. "Biological tolerance values" (BAT) are defined and listed for some substances.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Postfach 10 11 61, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 1996. 188 + xxii p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-9 Commission Directive 96/94/EC of 18 December 1996 establishing a second list of indicative limit values in implementation of Council Directive 80/1107/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work [European Communities]
Directive 96/94/CE de la Commission du 18 décembre 1996 relative à l'établissement d'une deuxième liste de valeurs limites de caractère indicatif en application de la directive 80/1107/CEE du Conseil concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à une exposition à des agents chimiques, physiques et biologiques pendant le travail [Communautés européennes] [in French]
Directiva 96/94/CE de la Comisión de 18 de diciembre de 1996 relativa al establecimiento de una segunda lista de valores límite de carácter indicativo, mediante la aplicación de la Directiva 80/1107/CEE del Consejo, sobre la protección de los trabajadores contra los riesgos relacionados con la exposición a agentes químicos, físicos y biológicos durante el trabajo [Comunidades Europeas] [in Spanish]
This is a follow-up to the list established by Directive 91/322/EEC (CIS 92-1427) in implementation of Directive 80/1107/EEC (CIS 81-1610). It contains indicative limit values (8h time weighted average and 15min short-term limit) for 23 substances (expressed in mg/m3 and ppm), as well as skin notation where appropriate. The substances are: ethylamine; chlorodifluoromethane; propionic acid; 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; cumene; allyl alcohol; 2-methoxy-1-methylethylacetate; mesitylene; heptan-2-one; 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene; isopentylacetate; dimethylamine; N,N-dimethylacetamide; 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene; 1-methylbutylacetate; pentylacetate; 3-pentylacetate; tert-amylacetate; hydrogen chloride; orthophosphoric acid; dihydrogen selenide; hydrogen bromide; (2-methoxymethylethoxy)-propanol.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 28 Dec. 1996, Vol.39, No.L 338, p.86-88.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0094:FR:HTML [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0094:EN:HTML [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0094:ES:HTML [in Spanish]

CIS 97-184 Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J., Rice C., Hertzberg V., Tseng C.Y., Anderson H.A.
Silicosis among foundry workers: Implication for the need to revise the OSHA standard
The incidence of pneumoconiosis in 1,072 current and retired workers of an American automotive foundry was investigated. Approximately half of these workers had worked at the foundry for 20 or more years. Sixty workers had radiographic evidence of pneumoconiosis. Twenty-eight workers had radiographs consistent with silicosis. The asbestos-related changes were not associated with increasing exposure to silica, but rather with being in the maintenance department. An increased risk of 1.45 was found for having a radiograph consistent with silicosis after 20 years of work at the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, and an increased risk of 2.10 after 40 years of work. The data show that the current OSHA standard (0.1mg/m3) is not sufficiently low to protect workers against the development of radiologic evidence of silicosis. Exposures at the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05mg/m3 already result in a lower prevalence (0.3-0.8%) of radiographic evidence of silicosis, suggesting that the OSHA standard is set at too high a value.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1996, Vol.144, No.9, p.890-900. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 96-2086 Occupational safety and health standards system, Part 1
Sistema standartov bezopasnosti truda, čast' 1 [in Russian]
Reissue of 13 State Standards of the former USSR that have been reconfirmed by the authorities of the Russian Federation: GOST 12.0.001-82 (main principles); 12.0.002-82 (terms and definitions); 12.0.003-74 (dangerous and harmful industrial factors - classification); 12.0.004-90 (organization of safety and health training - general rules); 12.0.005-84 (metrological support of occupational safety and health - main principles); 12.1.001-89 (ultrasound - general safety requirements); 12.1.002-84 (power-frequency electrical fields - permissible levels of field strength and workplace monitoring); 12.1.003-83 (noise - general safety requirements); 12.1.004-91 (fire safety - general requirements); 12.1.005-88 (general hygienic requirements for workplace air), which includes the official list of occupational exposure limits (PDKs); 12.1.006-84 (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - permissible levels in the workplace and monitoring methods); 12.1.007-76 (toxic substances - classification and general safety requirements); 12.1.010-76 (biological safety - general requirements). Tables from GOST 12.0.004-91 that show potentially hazardous materials which can and cannot be stored together are annexed.
IPK Izdatel'stvo Standartov, Kolodeznyj per. 14, 107076 Moskva, Russian Federation, 1996. 269p. + 3 inserts.

CIS 96-2239 Blome H., Pflaumbaum W.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
1996 list of limit values - Occupational safety and health
Grenzwerteliste 1996 - Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
This list contains tables of the limit values for hazardous substances applicable in Germany (maximum workplace concentration [MAK], technical guidelines for exposure [TRK] and tolerance levels of exposure to biological agents [BAT] from the following directives (TRGS): TRGS 900 "Limit values relating to air in the workplace", TRGS 903 "Biological Tolerance values" and also the classifications of TRGS 905 "Index of substances which can cause cancer, genetic changes or have reproductive effects". Also included are limit values for air contaminants defined in other standards, noise, vibration, thermal stress, radiation, electricity, biomechanical stress and notes on the effects of biological agents.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1995. 213p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1943 Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation [Euratom]
Directive 96/29/EURATOM du Conseil du 13 mai 1996 fixant les normes de base relatives à la protection sanitaire de la population et des travailleurs contre les dangers résultant des rayonnements ionisants [Euratom] [in French]
Contents of this directive (to be implemented by Member States (MS) by 13.5.2000): definitions; scope (excludes exposure to radon in buildings or to natural levels of radiation); reporting and authorization of practices; justification, optimization and dose limitation for practices; dose limitation (min. age limit in gen.: 18yrs; limits for effective dose: 100mSv over 5yrs, maximum 50mSv in any single year; limits for equivalent dose: 150mSv/yr for the lens of the eye, 500mSv/yr/cm2 for the skin, 500mSv/yr for limb extremities); special protection during pregnancy and breastfeeding; dose limits for young persons; specially authorized exposures; dose limits for members of the public; exposure of the population as a whole; estimation of effective dose; fundamental principles governing operational protection of exposed persons at work (measures for the restriction of exposure, exposure assessment, medical surveillance, tasks of MS, operational protection of apprentices and students); significant increases in natural radiation exposure; radiation protection for the population in general; interventions. Annexes.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 29 June 1996, Vol.39, No.L 159, p.1-114. Illus.

CIS 96-1937
Secretaría de Salud
Official Standard. Establishes Maximum Permissible Biological Exposure Limits for organic solvents in occupationally exposed personnel [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana. Que establece los limites biológicos máximos permisibles de disolventes orgánicos en el personal ocupacional expuesto [México] [in Spanish]
Effective date of this standard: 22 Mar. 1997. Contents: aim of the standard; scope (all establishments in Mexico where solvents "of the type benzene, toluene and xylene" are handled); references to relevant standards already in force; definitions; abbreviations and symbols; procedures for the evaluation of health hazards; biological exposure limits (benzene - total phenols in end-of-shift urine: 50mg/g creatinine; toluene - hippuric acid in end-of-shift urine: 2.5g/g creatinine, toluene in end-of-shift venous blood: 1mg/L; xylene - methylhippuric acid in end-of-shift urine: 1.5g/g creatinine); criteria for the monitoring of workers' health. The values in this standard agree with those in the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposures Indices of the ACGIH in the US (latest in CISDOC: CIS 95-1956).
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 23 Sep. 1996, Vol.516, No.15, p.101-106. 16 ref.

CIS 96-2173 Jankovic J., Drake F.
A screening method for occupational reproductive health risk
The purpose of this study was to provide a reproductive health risk assessment for a large number of chemicals (213). Searching the literature for no observed adverse effect levels and lowest observed adverse effect levels for the reproductive toxicants, occupational reproductive guidelines (ORGs) were developed in the dose-response evaluation step. The majority of the chemicals (85%) have had a screening level dose-response assessment completed. Of these, 13% are greater than or equal to a threshold limit value (TLV). The remaining 87% do not have a TLV or ORGs below the TLV.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1996, Vol.57, No.7, p.641-649. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 96-1760 Soden K.J., Marras G., Amsel J.
Carboxyhemoglobin levels in methylene chloride-exposed employees
Methylene chloride is a volatile liquid used in a wide variety of industrial applications. The present OSHA permissible occupational exposure (500ppm, 8h TWA) is proposed to be reduced to 25ppm. This is due to the concern about potentially adverse cardiac effects related to high levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) consequent to the exposure. Exposure assessments of non-smoking employees of a plant exposed to methylene chloride in the production process was performed, comparing the levels of COHb found with those of smokers. Exposure values were similar in both groups, with individually measured methylene chloride exposures averaging up to 99ppm. COHb levels ranged between 1.7-4% in non-smokers and between 4.95-6.35% in smokers. A dose-response effect was seen only in the non-smoking group. It was concluded that the observed COHb levels, resulting from exposures to methylene chloride at or below the current permissible limit (ACGIH) of 50ppm (8h TWA) are at a sufficiently low level and unlikely to produce an adverse cardiac effect in humans.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.38, No.4, p.367-371. 12 ref.

CIS 96-1865 Cehn J.I.
Estimated dose to a flood clean-up worker
A case is discussed of a waste station worker accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation from 10 radium needles. She worked nearby for 2.5 days until the material was identified as a radioactive source. Her external exposure was reconstructed and estimated to be 1.25-1.75mSv (125-175mrem), but no medical concern or follow-up was indicated from this dose. If she were pregnant during this incident, since the regulatory dose limit for a pregnant radiation worker is 5mSv (500mrem) the dose to the foetus would also be within safe limits.
Health Physics, Jan. 1996, Vol.70, No.1, p.109-110. 1 ref.

CIS 96-1864 McKetty M.H.
Study of radiation doses to personnel in a cardiac catheterization laboratory
The objective of this study was to determine the reasons for the high personal dosimetry readings for staff in a cardiac catheterization laboratory and to implement corrective measures to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Twelve physicians were double badged (at waist and collar level), while all other routinely monitored personnel continued to be single badged (at waist or collar level, with respect to the lead apron used). With few exceptions, the monitored badges exceeded the Level 1 of ALARA limits, because dosimeters were either improperly used or not always worn by all personnel. Other variables affecting dosimeters exposure such as position of personnel during the procedure, position of x-ray beam and haphazard use of shielding devices were also taken into account.
Health Physics, Apr. 1996, Vol.70, No.4, p.563-567. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 96-1436 Limit values for occupational exposure to dangerous substances recommended by the ACGIH in the United States and the MAK Commission in Germany
Valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle aux substances dangereuses de l'ACGIH aux Etats-Unis et de la Commission MAK en Allemagne [in French]
French translations of excerpts of publications entitled 1995-1996 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Maximum Concentrations at the Workplace for Working Materials 1995 of the MAK-Kommission. This note comprises three parts: 1) An introduction presenting the respective policies of the two organizations, and definitions of the types of values given and their limitations. 2) A synoptic table of mean exposure limit values recommended by the ACGIH (United States) and the MAK Commission (Germany). The table also mentions carcinogenicity, the possibility of skin penetration, the risk of allergy and the types of particle considered (inhalable or alveolar). 3) An appendix containing all the relevant details for optimum use of the data provided. For the ACGIH: limit values for mixtures, dusts, carcinogens, dangerous substances of variable composition. For the MAK Commission: carcinogenic substances, mixtures, pregnancy, TRK values (technical reference concentrations), substances that alter the genetic heritage, metals dusts and compounds, smoking.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.163, Note No.2022-163-96, p.197-227. 4 ref.

CIS 96-1434
Health and Safety Executive
EH64 summary criteria for occupational exposure limits
This loose-leaf document contains summaries of toxicological data considered by the Health and Safety Commission of the United Kingdom in setting occupational exposure limits for 130 substances hazardous to health. Data includes: chemical identity and properties; occurrence and use; exposure; measurement; metabolism; animal and human health effects; maximum exposure limit or occupational exposure standard; and the basis for setting the limit. Proposals for consultation are given for a further seven substances. Annual updates are planned.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 315p. (looseleaf). Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 19.50.

CIS 96-891
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Chlorine dioxide: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to chlorine dioxide and recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, short-term toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity); previous evaluations by other national and international bodies; hazard assessment. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for chlorine dioxide of 0.3mg/m3 (0.1ppm). Since the gas's critical effects are related to its locally corrosive characteristics, the committee recommends that this limit be applied to the concentration averaged over a fifteen-minute period. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1996. 57p. 41 ref.

CIS 96-306
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational exposure limits 1996
This annual guidance note replaces EH 40/95 (CIS 95-282). It lists maximum exposure limits (MELs) for 42 substances, and occupational exposure standards (OESs) for approximately 500 substances for use with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-19). Values are given for both long-term exposure (8-hour TWA reference period) and short-term exposure (15-minute reference period). Main changes to the previous edition include: the addition of biological monitoring guidance values for six substances; a revised list of carcinogens; withdrawal of an OES for carbaryl; and a list of proposed reductions in the OESs for respirable dusts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. v, 60p. 26 ref. Index. Price: GBP 6.50.

1995

CIS 05-253 Joint assessment of commodity chemicals No.34: Acrylic acid (CAS No. 79-10-7)
Conclusions of this criteria document on acrylic acid (AA): no deaths or serious effects have been reported in humans exposed to acute doses of AA. The main potential exposures are through the dermal and inhalation routes. The pungent odour and the irritating properties of AA act as a deterrent. Undiluted AA is corrosive to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Exposure to industrial atmospheres containing AA may produce eye, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract irritation. Pure AA is not a skin sensitizer. Current occupational exposure limits protect workers against potential adverse health effects.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1995. 67p. 175 ref.

CIS 01-354 Montelius J.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals - 118. Cyanoacrylates
Cyanoacrylate-based adhesives are widespread in many industrial and domestic as well as medical applications. The most apparent effect of exposure to their vapours is acute irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Cyanoacrylates cause skin sensitization and asthma. They are mutagenic in the Ames test and are suspected to be carcinogenic and to induce peripheral neuropathy. Exposure limits (2ppm = 8-10mg/m3 in most jurisdictions) are based on the irritant effect.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. v, 48p. 182 ref.

CIS 01-353 Aitio A.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals - 119. Nickel and nickel compounds
Nickel is the most common allergen in patch testing. People sensitized to nickel are at elevated risk of hand eczema. Inhalation of soluble nickel and nickel oxides and sulfides causes nasal and pulmonary cancer whereas metallic nickel dust does not seem to be carcinogenic.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. vi, 61p. 259 ref.

CIS 00-1227 Grand-Ducal Regulation of 10 July 1995 on fixing limit values for the protection of workers from the risks resulting from exposure to chemicals during work [Luxembourg]
Règlement grand-ducal du 10 juillet 1995 relatif à la fixation de valeurs limites concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à une exposition à des agents chimiques pendant le travail [Luxembourg] [in French]
Regulation amending the Law of 20 May 1988 on the protection of workers against risks of exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents during work (CIS 92-1404). It establishes new exposure limits for 7 substances.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 7 Aug. 1995, A-No.63, p.1532.

CIS 96-1201
Secretaría de Energía
Official Standard. Annual Limits of Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of radionuclides for occupationally exposed personnel [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana. Límites anuales de incorporación (LAI) y Concentraciones derivadas en aire (CDA) de radionúclidos para el personal ocupacionalmente expuesto [México] [in Spanish]
Standard issued in accordance with Mexican laws regulating nuclear safety (effective: 17 Feb. 1996). It defines the various measurement units used in nuclear safety, in particular ALI and DAC. It provides tabular presentations of the exposure limits for radioactive substances, both by oral and inhalation exposure. In most cases, individual elemental isotopes are listed, but where necessary, specific types of compounds in which these isotopes are found have their own exposure limits given.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 16 Feb. 1996, Vol.509, No.11, p.4-82. 6 ref.

CIS 96-898
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Methyl chloride: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the effects of exposure to methyl chloride (chloromethane). The committee has worked closely with the Nordic Expert Group, a body which advises the governments of the Scandinavian countries. The joint report of the health implications of exposure to methyl chloride published in Sweden in 1992 is included in its entirety in Part 2 of this document (Arbete och hälsa 1992:27, see also CIS 93-2003). In part 1, various other data are discussed; based on the data available a health-based occupational exposure limit is recommended of 52mg/m3 (25ppm), averaged over an eight-hour working day (8h TWA). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 70p. 3 ref.

CIS 96-895
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
1,1,1-Trichloroethane: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane and recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit. The report is an update of the committee's report on the same substance that was published in 1981 (RA 3/81). Attention is given to: existing guidelines, standards and evaluations; biological limit values; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity); evaluation of human health risk. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for 1,1,1-trichloroethane of 555mg/m3 (100ppm, 8 hours TWA). A biological exposure limit based on the 1,1,1-trichloroethane concentration in urine of 235µg/L urine is recommended. However, this BAT value should be interpreted with caution and be used as an indication only, as corroboration (and validation) is needed. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 62p. 44 ref.

CIS 96-894
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Acetone cyanohydrin: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to acetone cyanohydrin (ACNH) and recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for this substance. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, short-term toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity); previous evaluations by national and international bodies; evaluation of human health risk. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for acetone cyanohydrin of 3.5mg/m3 (1ppm) as an eight-hour TWA. For short-term exposure a fifteen minute health-based occupational exposure limit of 35mg/m3 (10ppm) is recommended. A skin-notation is recommended. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 96p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 96-893
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Cadmium and inorganic cadmium compounds: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd) and its inorganic compounds. This assessment is an update of the criteria document published by the committee in 1980 (RA 5/80). Attention is given to: present guidelines and standards; chemical and physical characteristics; environmental and biological monitoring; toxicodynamics (including: non-tumorigenic effects on the respiratory tract, lung cancer risks, effects on the kidneys, and miscellaneous effects); previous evaluations by national and international bodies; evaluation of human health risk; recommendations for research. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for cadmium and its inorganic compounds of 5µg/m3 (as Cd) as an eight-hour TWA. Epidemiological data show that below this level no increased lung tumour incidence is to be expected. For biological monitoring purposes, the committee recommends to use a concentration of 4µg Cd/g creatinine in urine as an upper limit. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 92p. 98 ref.

CIS 96-888
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Man made mineral fibers (MMMF): Health based recommended occupational exposure limits
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the effects of occupational exposure to man-made mineral fibres (MMMF). The committee distinguishes six groups of MMMF depending on composition: continuous filament fibre glass, glass wool fibres, rock wool fibres, slag wool fibres, refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), and special purpose glass fibres. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; occupational guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity, carcinogenicity); previous evaluations by (inter)national bodies; evaluation of human health risk. Based on the data available the committee recommends the following health-based occupational exposure limits: continuous filament fibre glass: reduction of skin and mucous membrane contact as far as possible; glass wool, rock wool, slag wool and special purpose glass fibres: for all types a HBR-OEL of 3 respirable fibres/mL, 8h TWA; refractory ceramic fibres: based on a non-genotoxic mechanism for their carcinogenicity a HBR-OEL of 1 respirable fibre/mL, 8h TWA. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 152p. approx. 210 ref.

CIS 96-892
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Formamide and dimethylformamide: Health based recommended occupational exposure limits
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to formamide and dimethylformamide (DMF) and recommends health-based occupational exposure limits for these substances. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, short-term toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity); previous evaluations by national and international bodies; evaluation of human health risk. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for formamide of 16mg/m3 (9ppm) as an 8h TWA concentration. For dimethylformamide the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit of 15mg/m3 (5ppm) as a 8h TWA concentration. Since skin absorption can contribute substantially to total body burden, a skin notation is recommended. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 128p. Illus. 84 ref.

CIS 96-991 Radiation protection in industry. ALARA, or the culture of residual risk
Radioprotection dans l'industrie. ALARA ou la culture du risque résiduel [in French]
Of the workers in the industrial sector who are exposed to radiation, more than 8% receive doses greater than 15 milliSieverts, while only 5.8% of the workers in the nuclear power sector exceed that value. The ALARA method aims to optimize protection and minimize risk, starting with the design of an installation. Likely exposures are predicted and the most effective protective measures for reducing exposure to target levels are identified, with economic and social factors taken into account. An information-gathering system must be maintained to monitor exposure during operation of the installation, so that corrective measures can be taken if necessary. Practical examples are given.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 1995, No. 538-539, p.423-430. Illus.

CIS 96-308
Health and Safety Executive
Asbestos - Exposure limits and measurement of airborne dust concentrations
This revised guidance note (see CIS 91-232 for previous edition) concerns employers' responsibilities under the Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 1987 (see CIS 89-1418). Contents: Outline of the Regulations and approved codes of practice; asbestos control limits and action levels; when monitoring of airborne asbestos is necessary; approved measurement method as detailed in MDHS 39/4; air monitoring during asbestos removal; selecting laboratories for sampling and analysis. Current control limits: for chrysotile alone, 0.5 fibres/mL air averaged over any continuous period of four hours; 1.5 fibres/mL for a period of 10 minutes; for any other form of asbestos, either alone or in mixtures, 0.2 fibres/mL (4 hours), 0.6 fibres/mL (10 minutes).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed. Nov. 1995. 10p. 16 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 96-251 Hesbert A., Schneider O.
Biological exposure indices
Indices biologiques d'exposition [in French]
Biological exposure indices are reference values corresponding either to concentrations of chemicals or their metabolites in biological fluids or exhaled air or to biological response to a chemical substance. These indices can be used to assess workers' exposure to chemicals and must be considered as complementary to occupational exposure limits in the air. This paper presents the definitions of biological exposure indices given by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists in the United States (BEI) and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Germany (BAT), describes their advantages and limitations; adopted 1994-1995 values are given in table form. It cancels and replaces the previous one (CIS 93-1944).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.160, Note No.1996-160-95, p.355-367.

CIS 96-235 Craig D.K., Davis J.S., DeVore R., Hansen D.J., Petrocchi A.J., Powell T.J.
Alternative guideline limits for chemicals without environmental response planning guidelines
Since Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are currently available for relatively few chemicals, a methodology was developed for the selection of reasonable interim values for chemicals without ERPG values. A hierarchy of alternative exposure-limit parameters is presented based on a detailed analysis of all the concentration-limit parameters found for 86 extremely hazardous chemicals. Use of this hierarchy, in the order presented and on the basis of availability of parameters for the chemicals of interest, is recommended when ERPG values are not available. A summary of ERPG or ERPG-equivalent values for 30 chemicals derived using this methodology is included.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1995, Vol.56, No.9, p.919-925. 13 ref.

CIS 95-1948 Administrative standards for atmospheric pollutants at the workplace - 1995 [Norway]
Veiledning - Administrative normer for forurensning i arbeidsatmosfære - 1995 [in Norwegian]
List of threshold limit values for some 750 substances (CAS number, exposure limits in ppm and mg/m3, special codes). Dusts and mineral fibres are included in the list. The introduction contains information on the significance of an exposure limit, use of the list, the units of measurement, mean values, ceiling values and combination effects. Special letter codes are used for particular effects: H - Skin absorption; K - Carcinogens; M - Mutagens; R - Reproductive effects; A - Allergens. In annex: modifications and additions involving 20 substances proposed for the next publication of the list. Previous edition abstracted by CIS: CIS 90-1077.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo, Norway, 9th ed., 1995. 23p. 12 ref.

CIS 95-2148 Lemesch K.
Occupational exposure limits for chemical substances in Israel
The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle encounters in Israel less opposition than elsewhere; as a result, for some substances the TLV values adopted in Israel are different (usually lower) than the values recommended by ACGIH. Examples of such substances are (in parentheses - the Israeli TLV/TWA): benzene (0.6ppm); styrene (20ppm); 1,1,1-trichloroethane (200ppm); vinyl chloride (1ppm). In addition, there are substances for which there is no ACGIH-recommended value, but there is an Israeli TLV, e.g., kerosene (100mg/m3 TLV/TWA); isoflurane (2ppm, ceiling), and hard metals (0.2mg/m3, TLV/TWA).
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.33-34.

CIS 95-1810 Pflaumbaum W., Blome H., Kleine H., Stamm R.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
List of dangerous substances - Limit values, classification, labelling and technical rules
Gefahrstoffliste 1995 - Grenzwerte, Einstufungen, Kennzeichnungen, Vorschriften [in German]
List of over a thousand harmful and dangerous substances with the following information when available: name, CAS and EINECS numbers, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, anti-fertility effects, risk and safety phrases for labelling, (for preparations, 2 columns indicate maximum percentages), classification and labelling; exposure limits (MAK, TRG, recommended, temporary EC values, sensitizing properties); measurement methods, BEI (biological Exposure Index); medical surveillance by occupational physicians; directives and technical rules (VBG and TRG). Appendices: biological exposure limits, exposure equivalents for carcinogenic substances. List of over a hundred carcinogens and substances with genotoxic or anti-fertility effects. Update of document abstracted under CIS 93-1985.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Apr. 1995. 613p. Illus.

CIS 95-1731 Occupational health problems caused by asbestos
Les pathologies professionnelles liées à l'amiante [in French]
Asbestos is a general term that actually refers to two classes of minerals. The most important distinction to be made is that between chrysotile and the amphiboles. In fact the amphibole family is clearly linked to the health effects normally associated with asbestos. Present-day epidemiological studies of populations exposed only to chrysotile demonstrate the existence of a threshold value below which there is no significant increase in the incidence of asbestosis or lung cancer.
Travail et sécurité, May 1995, No.536, p.289.

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