ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Occupational exposure limits - 3,466 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Occupational exposure limits

1995

CIS 95-1731 Occupational health problems caused by asbestos
Les pathologies professionnelles liées à l'amiante [in French]
Asbestos is a general term that actually refers to two classes of minerals. The most important distinction to be made is that between chrysotile and the amphiboles. In fact the amphibole family is clearly linked to the health effects normally associated with asbestos. Present-day epidemiological studies of populations exposed only to chrysotile demonstrate the existence of a threshold value below which there is no significant increase in the incidence of asbestosis or lung cancer.
Travail et sécurité, May 1995, No.536, p.289.

CIS 95-1817
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Exposure standards for atmospheric contaminants in the occupational environment - Guidance note and national exposure standards
The first part of this document provides guidance on the interpretation of exposure standards for atmospheric contaminants in the occupational environment: unlisted substances, prohibition of the use of substances, workload considerations, exposure duration, excursion limits, monitoring of exposure, biological monitoring, odour thresholds, simple asphyxiants, effects on the skin, sensitizers, carcinogens, airborne particulates, mixtures of substances, refined petroleum solvent mixtures, fumes and gases from welding and cutting processes, thermal decomposition products of plastics, expression of exposure standards. The second part contains exposure limits recommended for adoption by federal and State governments (8h-TWA and 15min-STEL, ppm and mg/m3) for approximately 700 substances. Includes carcinogen category and other notes where applicable. (Replaces CIS 92-1296).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, May 1995. viii, 105p. 77 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/ascc/AboutUs/Publications/NationalStandards/GuidanceNoteontheInterpretationofExposureStandardsforAtmosphericContaminantsintheOccupationalEnviron.htm (NOHSC: 3008) [in English]
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/340A6A6A-AB80-4771-AB01-3A3D799838F1/0/ExposureStandards4AtmosphericContaminants.pdf (NOHSC: 1003) [in English]

CIS 95-1470 TLVsTM and other Occupational Exposure Values - 1995
CD-ROM containing the following databases of exposure limits and other chemical information: ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs); OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs); NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs); German Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAKs); the 6th edition of the documentation of ACGIH TLVs and BEIs; carcinogenicity designations; IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) values; CAS numbers; synonyms of chemical names; selected international occupational exposure limits from RTECS. Other information on the CD-ROM: 1946-1994 ACGIH TLV booklets; 1st-5th editions of the documentation of ACGIH TLVs and BEIs.
ACGIH, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45240, USA, 1995. 1 CD-ROM (available in DOS, Macintosh, Windows and Network versions). Price: USD 821.00 (for networks: USD 2880.00). Demonstration diskettes are available at no charge. ###

CIS 95-1184 Commission Decision of 12 July 1995 setting up a Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits to Chemical Agents [European Communities]
Décision de la Commission, du 12 juillet 1995, relative à la création d'un comité scientifique en matière de limites d'exposition professionnelle à des agents chimiques [Communautés européennes] [in French]
A committee of experts (no more than 21 members, drawn from all Member States) is to be established in order to supply the European Commission with opinions on matters relating to the toxicological examination of chemicals for their effects on the health of workers. In particular, the Committee shall provide advice on the setting of Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) based on scientific data, with proposals for 8h time weighted average (TWA), short-term limits/excursion limits (STEL) and biological limit values.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 9 Aug. 1995, No.L 188, p.14-15.

CIS 95-1460
Health and Safety Executive
Cobalt: Health and safety precautions
Contents of this data sheet: occurrence, properties and use of cobalt and compounds; health effects (pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, allergic dermatitis); risk assessment; prevention and control of exposure; maintenance, examination and testing of control methods; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; training, instruction and information; emergency procedures; statutory requirements.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. 6p. 25 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 95-1459
Health and Safety Executive
Beryllium: Health and safety precautions
Contents of this data sheet: occurrence, properties and use of beryllium and compounds; health effects (irritation, lung disease, may cause cancer by inhalation); risk assessment; prevention and control of exposure; maintenance, examination and testing of control measures; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; emergency procedures; statutory requirements. Replaces previous edition (CIS 80-746).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Feb. 1995. 7p. 23 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 95-1458
Health and Safety Executive
Cadmium: Health and safety precautions
Contents of this data sheet: occurrence, properties and use of cadmium and cadmium compounds; sources of exposure; health effects (emphysema, renal damage, irritation, may cause cancer in humans); risk assessment; prevention and control of exposure; maintenance, examination and testing of control methods; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; training, instruction and information; statutory requirements. Replaces previous edition (CIS 87-71).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Feb. 1995. 6p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 95-1439
Health and Safety Executive
Criteria document summaries - Synopses of the data used in setting occupational exposure limits
This document contains summaries of the data considered by the Health and Safety Commission of the United Kingdom in setting occupational exposure limits for 21 substances or groups of substances. The following information is provided: occupational exposure standards; properties; occurrence and use; exposure evaluation; methods of measurement; toxicokinetics; health effects; basis for setting the limit. Glossary.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. xiv, 70p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 7.00.

CIS 95-282
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational exposure limits 1995
This Guidance Note is revised and reprinted annually; this edition replaces Guidance Note EH 40/94. It gives details of the occupational exposure standards (OESs) (8h TWA and 15min STEL, in ppm and/or mg/m3, as appropriate) which should be used for the purposes of determining the adequacy of the control of exposure by inhalation to substances hazardous to health. These limits form part of the requirements of the COSHH Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-19). Contents: legal background; setting and application of OESs; mixed exposures; exposure monitoring; list of maximum exposure limits for 42 substances; list of approved occupational exposure standards for approx. 500 substances (principal change: withdrawn Sk notation [can be absorbed through the skin] from 11 substances); proposed withdrawals of OESs (6 hydrocarbons); 73 substances in the review process. In appendices: calculation of exposure with regard to the specified reference periods; methods of measurement of fibre concentrations of MMMFs; special comments on cotton dust, asphyxiants, lead, rubber fume and dust, grain dust, asbestos, carcinogens (with lists).
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 58p. 27 ref. Index. Price: GBP 6.50.

1994

CIS 02-41 Clavel T., Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O.
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Phtalate de bis(2-éthylhexyle) [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 81-1932. Synonyms: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-sec-octyl phthalate; DEHP, DOP. Acute toxicity: minor digestive disorders. Chronic toxicity: central, peripheral or autonomous neuropathy; haematological changes; carcinogen (excess lung cancer risk). Exposure limits (France): TWA = 5mg/m3. EEC number: No.204-211-0. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 01-993 Beausoleil C., Clavel T., Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O.
Dibutyl phthalate
Phtalate de dibutyle [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP. Acute toxicity: moderate irritation of the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract; conjunctivitis. Chronic toxicity: central neuropathy (narcosis), peripheral neuropathy (sensorimotor polyneuritis) or autonomous neuropathy; haematological effects; decrease of fertility in women and abnormal menstrual cycle. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 5mg/m3. EEC number : No.201-557-4. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. Replaces the 1972 information sheet abstracted as CIS 72-2550.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 4p. 21 ref.

CIS 98-1400
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Ethyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate and isobutyl methacrylate - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: butyl methacrylate; ethyl methacrylate; isobutyl methacrylate; criteria document; eczema; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 80p. 75 ref.

CIS 98-1399
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
1-, 2- and t-butanol - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: butanols; butyl alcohol; tert-butyl alcohol; sec-butyl alcohol; corneal damage; criteria document; eye irritation; irritants; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 91p. 90 ref.

CIS 98-1398
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Methyl methacrylate - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: allergic respiratory disorders; methyl methacrylate; criteria document; eczema; irritants; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; neurotoxic effects; sensitization; skin absorption; skin allergies; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 113p. 217 ref.

CIS 98-1397
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Carbon disulphide - Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
Topics: antifertility effects; carbon disulfide; cardiovascular disorders; criteria document; diseases of eyes and related structures; endocrine effects; limitation of exposure; Netherlands; neurotoxic effects; skin absorption; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 141p. 127 ref.

CIS 98-794
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Assessing human health risks of chemicals: Derivation of guidance values for health-based exposure limits
Environmental health criteria on the development of guidance values for health-based exposure limits (WHO), 1994. Topics: biological effects; criteria document; description of technique; determination of exposure limits; harmful substances; ILO; IPCS; threshold limit values; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 73p. Illus. 55 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries).

CIS 96-1863 Parisi A., Bonanni A., Loppa A.
Report on the doses of ionizing radiation received by employees of public health care institutions
Rapporto delle dosi da radiadiazioni ionizzanti ricevute dai lavoratori degli istituti pubblici di ricovero e cura [in Italian]
This survey on ionizing radiation doses received by Italian hospital workers during 1990 was carried out by ISPESL (Istituto Superiore Prevenzione Sicurezza Lavoro). Data were collected by means of a questionnaire addressed to 1,205 hospitals and other health-care institutions (data on 45,750 exposed workers were returned by 612 institutions). A distinction was made between professionally and occasionally exposed workers. In addition to summary information on national cumulative data, separate tables provide a breakdown of the results by professional category and by region. The analysis of the dose distributions shows that practically all (99.9%) the professionally exposed subjects received doses below the annual maximum value of 50mSv. For the occasionally exposed subjects, 99.8% received doses below the 50mSv limit.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.6, No.3, p.83-124. Illus.

CIS 96-811 Benvenuti F., Giambattistelli S., Scarselli R., Palmi S.
The highest permissible values for chemical pollutants in the work environment
I valori limite degli inquinanti chimici negli ambienti di lavoro [in Italian]
This survey reviews the history of various Italian legislative proposals to define the highest acceptable levels for concentrations of chemical substances used in industrial production processes. In recent years the Italian Superior Institute for Prevention and Work Safety (ISPESL), in collaboration with various Italian universities, planned a series of research projects resulting in the definition of the highest acceptable levels for about 70 substances. A comparison with ACGIH values has shown either an overlapping or even a lower level of values proposed in Italy. A new described ISPESL initiative aims at continuing this research with university institutes, coordinating it with programmes of the European Community.
Prevenzione oggi, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, No.4, p.69-84.

CIS 96-790 James R.C., Roberts S.M., Williams P.L.
Evaluation of the adequacy of the threshold limit value for cyclonite
The current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 8-h, time-weighted average threshold limit value (TLV) for cyclonite (RDX) is 1.5mg/m3. The present study has reviewed the human and animal toxicity literature available for RDX for the purpose of assessing the current RDX standard. Although the only available health study of occupational exposure to RDX finds no evidence of chronic toxicity in areas where the current TLV level was achieved, the evidence for the reported effectiveness of this TLV is of a very limited nature. The animal data are more extensive, and several chronic studies have been completed. When no observed adverse effect levels identified from the chronic animal studies are used to derive a TLV for RDX, and these derivations adopt relatively standard safety factors for this type of animal-to-human dosage extrapolation, the calculations suggest permissible air exposure levels for RDX between 0.03 and 0.3mg/m3.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 1994, Vol.9, No.7, p.485-492. 32 ref.

CIS 96-742 Maxim L.D., Kelly W.P., Walters T., Waugh R.
A multiyear workplace-monitoring program for refractory ceramic fibers
This paper summarizes interim results of a five-year workplace monitoring programme conducted by firms belonging to the Refractory Ceramic Fibers Coalition (RCFC) pursuant to a Consent Agreement with the US EPA. This paper reviews the refractory ceramic fibre (RCF) industry, findings of animal bioassay and epidemiological investigations, and the regulatory approach used by EPA. In brief, the programme will gather 720 time-weighted average (TWA) workplace concentration measurements annually, partitioned among eight functional job classifications, both from plants that manufacture and from those that process or use RCF. Statistical analyses reveal that: workplace airborne RCF concentration data are approximately log-normally distributed; 93% of workplace TWAs are beneath the industry's recommended exposure guideline of one fibre per cubic centimetre; there are significant differences in average workplace RCF concentrations among job types.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Dec. 1994, Vol.20, No.3, Pt.2, p.S200-S215. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 96-787 Viren J.R., Silvers A.
Unit risk estimates for airborne arsenic exposure: An updated view based on recent data from two copper smelter cohorts
The current unit risk for chronic lifetime exposure to airborne arsenic 4.29 x 10-3, was established by the US EPA in 1984. Using updated results from a cohort mortality study on Tacoma, Washington, smelter workers and recent findings from a cohort study of 3619 Swedish smelter workers, new unit risk estimates were developed for the respective cohorts. Methods were analogous to those used by the EPA in 1984, and all estimates were derived under an absolute risk model. A new unit risk 1.28 x 10-3, was estimated for the Tacoma smelter cohort which was a factor of five less than the EPA's earlier estimate, and a direct result of radically revised exposure estimates. A unit risk of 0.89 x 10-3 was estimated from the Swedish study. Pooling these new risk estimates with the EPA's earlier estimates yielded a composite unit risk of 1.43 x 10-3. Based on this estimate, the present unit risk may overestimate the effects of airborne arsenic by a factor of 3.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.2, p.125-138. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 96-899
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
1,2,3-Trichloropropane: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the effects of exposure to 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TriCP) and presents a risk estimate of the chance of cancer on exposure to the substance. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity); previous evaluations by (inter)national bodies; evaluation of human health risk. The committee uses linear extrapolation to calculate the additional risk of tumour development. It takes as starting point a study in which rats were exposed orally to 1,2,3-TriCP. Based on the tumour incidence in the lowest dose group and using linear extrapolation, a life-long risk for exposure at work was estimated. An additional incidence of tumours can be expected: 0.00004 at a 1,2,3-TriCP concentration of 1.08µg/m3 (0.18ppb), and 0.004 at a 1,2,3-TriCP concentration of 108µg/m3 (17.7ppb). The committee recommends a skin notation. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 91p. 88 ref.

CIS 96-897
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Methyl-t-butylether: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the effects of exposure to methyl-t-butylether (MTBE). Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity, irritation and sensitization); previous evaluations by (inter)national bodies; evaluation of human health risk. The assessment of health risk of occupational exposure to MTBE is difficult because of the limited human data available and the lack of long-term animal exposure studies. Three organ systems are found to be a target in exposure by inhalation: the upper respiratory tract, the central nervous system and the liver. Based on the data available the Committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for MTBE of 180mg/m3 (50ppm), to be averaged over an 8-hour working day (8h TWA). Also, a short term exposure limit of 360mg/m3 (100ppm), 15min TWA is recommended. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 75p. 34 ref.

CIS 96-896
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
1- and 2-Propanol: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the effects of exposure to 1-propanol and 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol). Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animals and man (acute toxicity, long-term toxicity/carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity, irritation and sensitization); previous evaluations by (inter)national bodies; evaluation of human health risk. The committee concludes that it cannot recommend a health-based occupational exposure limit for 1-propanol based on the available data. Based on an animal study in which no effects were observed at a concentration of 1925mg/m3 (770ppm) the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit of 650mg/m3 (250ppm) for 2-propanol, to be averaged over an 8-hour working day (8h TWA). Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1994. 117p. approx. 160 ref.

CIS 96-158 Cohen J., Kenny L.
Tuberculosis in the workplace: A labor perspective
It was not until several health care unions petitioned the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for a bloodborne pathogen standard in 1986 that OSHA began to play a major role in regulating the health care industry. The authors examine the Service Employees International Union's current effort to urge OSHA to develop a standard to protect workers from occupational exposure to TB. They also cover ramifications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised guidelines for preventing the transmission of TB in health care settings.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.659-670. 9 ref.

CIS 96-253 Lauwerys R.R.
Health-based occupational exposure levels to chemicals: Interpretation of human data
Health-based occupational exposure levels (OELs) to chemicals are mainly derived from three types of information: animal studies; epidemiologic studies; and, rarely, studies on volunteers. The aim of the paper is not to comment upon all the possible methodological biases involved in the different approaches, but to underline two particular aspects of human studies that require careful attention when setting up OELs. The first one concerns the identification of the causal agent and the second the health significance of the effect biomarkers. An approach combining appropriate experimental and epidemiologic studies may help interpret the human data. The paper is the 1994 Herbert E. Stokinger Lecture.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 1994, Vol.9, No.10, p.689-692. 38 ref.

CIS 95-1946 Decree 1248-94 of 17 Aug. 1994: Regulation modifying the Regulations on the quality of the working environment [Canada - Quebec]
Décret 1248-94, 17 août 1994 - Règlement modifiant le Règlement sur la qualité du milieu de travail [Canada - Québec] [in French]
This Regulation modifies the existing Quebec regulations concerning the quality of the working environment (see CIS 95-4). It makes minor changes in provisions dealing with exposure to carcinogens and isocyanates, personal protective equipment and sampling methods. In addition, it introduces a new Annex A containing the complete list of exposure limits for gases, dusts, fumes, vapours and mists in the working environment. This Annex contains definitions of TWA and short-term TLVs, excursion and ceiling limits, carcinogens, respirable fibres and simple asphyxiants. It contains a list of approx. 850 substances, together with their CAS number, TWA and short-term TLV and skin and carcinogenicity notation (if any). It also contains calculation methods for exposure to chemicals of workers with several workplaces, or exposed to several substances. There are also lists of substances that may not be recycled, or exposure to which must be kept to a minimum (carcinogens C1 and C2, isocyanates).
Gazette officielle du Québec, 7 Sep. 1994, Vol.126, No.37, p.5453-5491.

CIS 95-1858 Smith P.A.
Probabilistic laser safety - Ocular damage models for Q-switched neodymium and ruby lasers
International standards for eye protection from laser radiation define a distance beyond which an individual would not be expected to suffer any adverse biological effects. This nominal ocular hazard distance, and any associated hazard zones, are calculated using a deterministic technique. This technique does not consider the likelihood that an eye will be irradiated, or the probability that if any eye is exposed, then some ocular damage will result. An alternative, probabilistic, method of hazard assessment does so. An important element in this assessment is an ocular damage model which predicts the probability with which a laser exposure will cause permanent eye damage. This paper describes a rationale for the use of the minimum ophthalmoscopically visible lesion as a threshold criterion for the development of ocular damage models.
Health Physics, Apr. 1994, Vol.66, No.4, p.414-419. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 95-1857 Wilson O.J., Young B.F., Richardson C.K.
Cosmic radiation doses received by Australian commercial flight crews and the implications of ICRP 60
Surveys of the cosmic radiation doses received by Australian commercial flight crews were carried out in 1982-1983 and 1991. The results indicated that the average annual doses to domestic crew members were between 1.0 and 1.8mSv. They also indicated that an increase in annual doses had occurred since 1983. A method of estimating doses from flight records was developed and the results compared favourably with the measurements from both surveys. By the use of this method, annual doses up to 3.8mSv were estimated for international crew members, representing a significant increase since 1983. ICRP Publication 60 recommended that the new occupational annual dose limit of 20mSv should now apply to flight crews. This represented a dose limit of at least four times that which was previously permitted. The use of an annual dose limit of 5mSv is suggested for Australian commercial flight crews.
Health Physics, May 1994, Vol.66, No.5, p.493-502. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-1856 Marshall W.J.
Comparative hazard evaluation of near-infrared diode lasers
Hazard evaluation methods from various laser protection standards differ when applied to extended-source, near-infrared lasers. The differences among laser standards are most apparent when determining the hazard class of a laser. Hazard classification is based on a comparison of the potential exposures with the maximum permissible exposures in the 1986 and 1993 versions of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1, and the accessible emission limits of the US federal laser product performance standard. Necessary safety design features of a particular system depend on the hazard class. The ANSI Z136.1-1993 standard provides a simpler and more accurate hazard assessment of low-power, near-infrared, diode laser systems than the 1986 ANSI standard. Although a specific system is evaluated, the techniques described can be readily applied to other near-infrared lasers or laser training systems.
Health Physics, May 1994, Vol.66, No.5, p.532-539. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1756 Olsen E., Jensen B.
On the concept of the "normal" day - Quality control of occupational hygiene measurements
Occupational hygiene measurements are often performed on a single day or over a few days. When quantitative exposure data from the same exposure period are lacking, the representativeness of the measurement days must be assessed based on non-quantitative exposure data. This article describes a quantitative method for verifying whether or not the data collected are representative for a longer period than a single day or over a few days. The method consists of a categorical description of the working days by workers keeping logs concerning when, and for how long a time, they perform a set of predefined processes. By assigning a concentration level to each process, the time-weighted average concentration (TWAC) for the shift can be calculated for each day. The underlying assumption of all occupational hygiene measurements that measurement days are normal can be evaluated by comparing the TWACs calculated for the measurement days with the calculated TWACs for a log period of sufficient length.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.245-255. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1190 Lasers [Sweden]
Laser [in Swedish]
This directive came into force 1 Oct. 1994. It covers the use and design of lasers. In an annex are lists of exposure limits for different types of exposure and equipment. Guidelines for compliance with the directive as well as for general understanding of the hazards of lasers are given. Directive AFS 1981:9 (CIS 83-1604) on lasers is abrogated.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 10 May 1994. 23p.

CIS 95-1056 1994-1995 Threshold Limit Values for chemical substances and physical agents and Biological Exposure Indices
New material or revisions for 1994-95 include: proposal of a TLV for benzoyl chloride, revisions of 13 listings on the TLV list, transfer of 28 substances from the Notice of Intended Changes list to the Adopted list of TLVs, proposal of a BEI for vanadium pentoxide, revision of the BEI for lead in blood, adoption of biological determinants for acetone, 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate, adoption of TLVs for light and near-infrared radiation, noise, radiofrequency/microwave radiation, static magnetic fields, sub-radiofrequency magnetic fields and sub-radiofrequency static electric fields. The sections on "Particulates Not Otherwise Classified (PNOC)" and "Unlisted Substances" in the introduction to the chemicals section have been rewritten, and three items have been added to the list of physical agents under study: contact currents, lifting (formerly ergonomics) and repetitive motion stresses.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Technical Affairs Office, Kemper Woods Center, 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45240, USA, 1994. vi, 119p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-807 European Parliament and Council Directive 94/60/EC of 20 Dec. 1994 amending for the 14th time Dir. 76/769/EEC on the approximation of laws... on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations [European Communities]
Directive 94/60/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil portant 14e modification de la Dir. 76/769/CEE...concernant la limitation de la mise sur le marché et de l'emploi de certaines substances et préparations dangereuses [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This directive lays down concentration limits which apply to substances and preparations contained in products to be placed on the market for sale to the general public. The substances involved are listed in annex: substances classified as toxic for reproductive purposes, substances which may cause heritable genetic damage, substances containing one or more of specific creosote components or chlorinated solvents, carcinogens and mutagens.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 31 Dec. 1994, Vol.37, No.L 365, p.1-9.

CIS 95-856 Hydrogen sulfide
Sulfure d'hydrogène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; asphyxia; respiratory insufficiency; pulmonary oedema; cardiovascular disorders; arrythmia; metabolic disturbances. Chronic toxicity: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); irritation of the eyes, skin (dermatitis) and respiratory tract (bronchitis); digestive disorders; may increase the risk of abortion. French exposure limit: 10ppm (14mg/m3) (VLE).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1994. 4p. 20 ref.

CIS 95-848 Benzyl chloride
α-Chlorotoluène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; chemical burns; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Chronic toxicity: irritation of the skin and respiratory tract; hepatic disorders. French exposure limit: 2ppm (11mg/m3) (VLE).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1994. 4p. 17 ref.

CIS 95-995 Catalina M.J., Catalina P., Pépin D., Alfieri R., Chamoux A., Gabrillargues D.
Contribution to the study of urinary cobalt in workers exposed to atmospheric concentrations close to exposure limit values and to the setting of new biological exposure indices
Contribution à l'étude des cobalturies de salariés exposés à des concentrations atmosphériques proches des valeurs limites d'exposition et à la fixation d'index biologiques d'exposition [in French]
Results of research undertaken with a view to set biological indices for daily occupational exposure to inhaled microparticles of metal cobalt. The studied population was divided into two groups of workers, one exposed to a mean daily concentration of 0.05mg/m3, the other to 0.10mg/m3. Results were compared with those of unexposed controls. The urinary cobalt measured in group A at the end of the working day was not significantly different from the controls'. It was, however, significantly higher in group B. The concept of limit biological index of exposure is discussed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.249-256. 14 ref.

CIS 95-1028 MIACC lists of hazardous substances 1994
This document contains lists of hazardous substances and the threshold quantities at or above which a risk assessment of a site or activity is recommended as a matter of priority. There are 3 lists: top priority substances, potentially hazardous substances and other hazardous substances which may present environmental or long-term risks. Data provided include name of substance, usual physical state, identification numbers, transport of dangerous goods class and threshold quantity.
Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada, 265 Carling Avenue, Suite 600, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 2E1, Canada, Oct. 1994. iv, 37p. Price: CAD 15.50.

CIS 95-655 Lafontaine M., Delsaut P., Morele Y., Taiclet A.
Exposure to aflatoxins in a branch of the animal feed manufacturing industry - Sampling and analysis
Aflatoxines. Prélèvement et analyse dans une filière de fabrication d'aliments pour animaux [in French]
Based on a newly developed "aflatoxin sampling and analysis" protocol, atmospheric aflatoxin concentrations were determined in a specific branch of the French agri-food industry: unloading and storage of contaminated peanut cake, detoxification in special units, animal feed formulation. While exposure levels are low in detoxification and animal feed formulation units (reaching the limits set forth in the protocol), pollution is high during unloading of ships and storage, particularly in holds, where considerable dust is generated (pollution levels >500mg of dust and 300ng of aflatoxin B1 per m3 of air). In the absence of occupational hygiene regulations concerning exposure to atmospheric aflatoxins, a limit of 1ng/m3 for aflatoxin B1 is recommended, a realistic level if regulations on grain dust are applied.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.156, Note No.1965-156-94, p.297-305. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 95-629 Gagnaire F., Azim S., Bonnet P., Hecht G., Héry M.
Irritant potential of chlorine and nitrogen trichloride in the mouse
Pouvoir irritant du chlore et du trichlorure d'azote chez la souris [in French]
Nitrogen trichloride is one of the major components of chlorine pollution in swimming pool air, and could be responsible for eye and airway irritations among pool supervisors. The irritant potential of chlorine and nitrogen trichloride has been assessed in the mouse using a test based on the reflex decrease of respiration rate (reflex bradypnea) in the event of exposure to an irritant. At present there is no exposure limit value for nitrogen trichloride. Based on recommendations made by American hygienists, a limit value for nitrogen trichloride of 0.1RD50, or approximately 1.5mg/m3, and a "comfort" limit value of 0.03RD50, or 0.5mg/m3 are recommended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.156, Note No.1964-156-94, p.293-295. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-680
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (USA)
NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards
Tabulation of data for workers, employers and occupational health professionals; 677 chemical substances or groups of substances are listed. All those with recommended exposure limits (RELs) established by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or permissible exposure limits (PELs) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration are included. The tables give names and synonyms, structures or formulas, CAS and RTECS numbers, conversion factors, exposure limits, physical and chemical properties, measurement methods, personal protection and sanitation, respirator selection, route of entry, symptoms, first aid and target organs.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, USA, June 1994. xxxvi, 398p. Index.

CIS 95-671 Ethyl acrylate CAS No.140-88-5
Ethyl acrylate is irritant to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes and may cause skin sensitization in experimental animals and humans; cross-sensitization may also occur to other acrylic acid esters. It is of low to moderate toxicity and no systemic effects have been observed. There is no evidence of teratogenic, embryotoxic or mutagenic effects in laboratory studies. The substance is not considered to represent a human carcinogenic hazard.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte.6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1994. ii, 61p. 168 ref.

CIS 95-670 n-Butyl acrylate CAS No.141-32-2
Butyl acrylate is irritant to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes and may cause skin sensitization in susceptible animals and humans; cross sensitization may also occur to other acrylic acid esters. Animal experiments have shown that the substance is of low to moderate toxicity; no systemic toxic effects have been reported following prolonged or repeated exposure. Butyl acrylate is maternally toxic and embryotoxic in mice and rats, but at the currently accepted occupational exposure limits, represents no reproductive risk to man. No evidence of genotoxic or carcinogenic potential has been reported.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte.6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Aug. 1994. ii, 47p. 112 ref.

CIS 95-668 1-Chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC 124) CAS No.2837-89-0
1-Chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane is a non-flammable colourless gas that is currently under development as a chlorofluorocarbon alternative and is not yet available commercially. It has a low order of acute inhalation toxicity (the 4h LC50 in rats is between 1,283,400 and 1,674,000mg/m3 = 230,000 and 300,000ppm). The main toxicological action is weak anaesthesia. Cardiac sensitization in dogs is observed above 26,000ppm. No mutagenicity or developmental toxicity has been observed in laboratory experiments. No effects on human beings have been reported. An occupational exposure limit (8h time-weighted average) of 1000ppm is recommended by producers.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte.6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, July 1994. ii, 23p. 38 ref.

CIS 95-696 Dow's chemical exposure index guide
This guide describes the Chemical Exposure Index (CEI) which provides a simple method of rating the relative acute health hazard potential to people in neighbouring plants or communities from possible chemical release incidents. Contents: procedure for CEI calculations; scenarios for estimation of airborne release rates; emergency response and exposure planning guidelines; estimating the amount of material becoming airborne following a release of a gas or liquid; CEI and hazard distance calculation. Example CEI calculations are included.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1994. 38p. Illus.

CIS 95-326 Hughes D.
Notes on exposure limits for non-ionising radiations
Contents of this handbook: basic physics of non-ionizing radiation; biological effects of ultraviolet (UV), visible and infrared (IR) radiations (effects on the eye and the skin) and of microwave, radiofrequency (RF), low-frequency (LF) and static fields; limits for UV, visible and IR radiations and for RF, LF static fields. Appendices cover pacemakers, lasers, UV lamps and spectra, and optical quantities and units.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 73p. Illus. 92 ref. Index.

CIS 95-254
European Commission
Occupational exposure limits. Recommendations of the Scientific Expert Group 1991-92
This document contains recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Group for a series of 26 substances on which the Group gave its advice in 1991-92. Information provided includes: substance identification; occurrence and use; health significance; recommendation (critical effects, key studies, uncertainty factors and proposed occupational exposure limit); key bibliography.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1994. ix, 85p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 11.50.

CIS 95-127
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Exposure limit list 1994. Safety and health protection at work
Grenzwertliste 1994. Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
An unofficial collection of exposure limits for chemical, biological and physical agents drawn from German and international sources for the benefit of small and medium-sized enterprises. The classification and labelling information found in BIA-Report 1/94 on chemicals (see CIS 95-246) is not included. The biological agents considered are microorganisms, microbial products and pollen. The physical agents are noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, radiation and loads (lifting and carrying).
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, Postfach 2052, 53757 Sankt Augustin 2, Germany, Aug. 1994. 182p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-215 Limit values for concentrations of dangerous substances in workplace air: USA (ACGIH) and Germany (MAK-Werte)
Valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle aux substances dangereuses de l'ACGIH aux Etats-Unis et de la Commission MAK en Allemagne [in French]
French translation of excerpts of publications entitled 1993-1994 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Maximum Concentrations at the Workplace for Working Materials 1993, the English version of the German MAK-commission's annual report. This note provides details on the limit values adopted by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and the MAK Commission in Germany. The American and German values are listed with CAS number for more than 1000 substances in ppm and mg/m3. Further information on carcinogenic substances, mixtures and dust is appended for the two countries.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1994, No.155, Note No.1962-155-94, p.223-252. 4 ref.

CIS 94-2076 Sułkowski W.J., Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska M.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to noise from the hearing conservation point of view
The classification of noise according to parameters considered to be responsible for potential hearing damage is described. Polish and international standards for noise assessment at work and for permissible levels of audible noise, infrasound and ultrasound in the workplace are discussed. Basic instruments for noise measurement are described and methods used for the reduction of exposure to noise and for hearing protection are outlined.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.7, No.2, p.167-175. 20 ref.

CIS 94-2019
Health and Safety Executive
Criteria document summaries - Synopses of the data used in setting occupational exposure limits
This document contains summaries of the data considered by the Health and Safety Commission of the United Kingdom in setting occupational exposure limits for 27 substances or groups of substances. The following information is provided for each substance: occupational exposure standard or maximum exposure limit; identity and properties; occurrence and use; exposure evaluation; measurement method; toxicokinetics; health effects in animals and humans; basis for setting the limit; bibliographic references. Glossary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. x, 88p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

< previous | 1... 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 ...70 | next >