Fatigue - 430 entries found
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Bugard P., Caille E.J., Crocq L., Ely B., Henry M., Petrescu L., Reinberg A.
Stress, fatigue and depression in everyday life
Stress, fatigue et dépression dans la vie quotidienne. [in French]
General study of stress, fatigue, asthenia and depression in everyday life. Contents: Vol.1: muscular fatigue; sensorial fatigue; stress and fatigue; nervous, mental fatigue; ergonomics and fatigue; case studies; fatigue in nuclear plants; stress and fatigue in air pilots and cosmonauts; methods of studying stress and fatigue; Vol.2: traumatic neuroses (e.g. due to occupational accidents); neurophysiology of stress; various aspects of urban fatigue (asthenia, depression); mechanisms of pathogenic relationships (occupational medicine and fatigue, mental health and work, etc.); prevention and treatment of stress, fatigue and asthenia, etc. Some of the chapters and sections are of direct concern to the plant physician (mental fatigue and working environment; fatigue due to vigilance tasks), and give case studies illustrating the points covered: heat-exposed workers; vigilance required of train drivers, bank employees, radio and television workers; stresses in the work of air-traffic controllers, personnel of "hot" laboratories in nuclear plants, workers on assembly lines or performing fragmented or repetitive work.
Editions Doin, 8 place de l'Odéon, 75006 Paris, France, 1974. 2 vol. 295 and 302p. Illus. Approx. 1,100 ref. Price: FF.24.00. each vol.
Morgan B.B., Brown B.R., Alluisi E.A.
Effects of sustained performance on 48 hours of continuous work and sleep loss.
Work efficiency of 10 subjects aged 18 to 25 years was assessed with a battery of tasks before and during a 48-h period of continuous work and sleep deprivation and after a subsequent 24-h period of rest and recovery. Performance was found to be significantly influenced by the circadian rhythm. The first decrement occurred after 18h of continuous work and sleep loss, the lowest, of 33%, during the second night. 24h of rest were sufficient to permit performance efficiency to return to the baseline level.
Human Factors, Aug. 1974, Vol.16, No.4, p.406-414. Illus. 17 ref.
Effect of continuous work and sleep loss in the reduction and recovery of work efficiency.
The average performance of 3 groups of 10 subjects was determined using a test battery of 6 tasks following 36, 44 and 48 hours of continuous work and sleep loss. The reduction in over-all performance efficiency was found to be 15%, 22% and 34%, respectively. 12 hours of sleep are sufficient to ensure complete recovery of performance after 36 hours of continuous work. Subjects are able to perform continuously for 14-18h before significant decrements begin to appear in their performance. The time course of recovery varies according to the duration of the continuous work period, the amount of subsequent sleep and the disturbance of the circadian rhythm.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1974, Vol.35, No.1, p.13-20. Illus. 21 ref.
Estevez Bravo J.
Sleep and shift work (Relationship to pathology observed)
El sueño y la turnicidad (Relación con la patología observada) [in Spanish]
With the aid of 10 tables the author analyses a population of 1,099 workers engaged or not engaged in shift work. He studies, in particular, the interrelationships obtaining between the shift, insomnia, and pathological manifestations, these last being distinctly more common in shift workers.
Revista Seguridad, Apr.-June 1974, No.53, p.38-43. Illus.
Reinberg A., Chaumont A.J., Laporte A., Chambon P., Vincendon G., Skoulios G., Bauchart M., Nicolai A., Abulker C., Dupont J.
Circadian rhythm study of effects of change in working hours (autorhythmometry of 20 shift workers: 8-hour 3-shift weekly rotation)
Etude chronobiologique des effets des changements d'horaires de travail (autométrie de 20 sujets postés; système des 3 x 8 à rotation hebdomadaire). [in French]
The members of a group of 20 refinery workers individually carried out self-measurements of a medical and physiological nature, with instruments, during working hours and at home. The results are presented in diagrams (estimation of physical vigour and mood, oral temperature, muscular (grip) strength, peak expiratory flow rate, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, urinary variables, eye-hand co-ordination skill, quality of sleep). Apart from the physiological variables, the role of heredity and age in the faculty of adaptation to shift work is considered. 2 types of fatigue in relation to shift work are analysed: a feeling of exhaustion during the morning shift and a more subtle type of fatigue during the night shift (so-called "desynchronisation fatigue").
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar. 1974, Vol.35, No.3, p.373-394. Illus. 42 ref.
Gubéran E., Rougemont A.
Employment of women involving prolonged upright posture - Results of an epidemiological study on 531 saleswomen
Travail féminin et orthostatisme - Résultats d'une étude épidémiologique auprès de 531 vendeuses. [in French]
To study certain aspects of work involving standing, the authors divided the subjects into 3 groups: immobile standing posture, walking, seated. The highest percentages of pain in the legs (26%), feet (9%) and back (8%) and of prevalence of varicose veins were observed in the "immobile standing" group. Use of sleeping pills, considered as indirect evidence of fatigue, was also found to be more frequent among this group. Among a group of 35 female hospital employees observed in a preliminary survey, average increase in weight during the working day was significantly greater for the "immobile standing" category. The authors conclude that stimulation of the renin-aldosterone system occurs, and put forward the hypothesis of a process furthering the onset of various disorders such as arterial hypertension, cardiac insufficiency and oedema of various origins.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, July-Aug. 1974, Vol.19, No.4, p.279-283. Illus. 31 ref.
Evaluation of ergonomic factors by means of heart rate and sinus arrhythmia (Indicators of mental stress and fatigue)
Beurteilung ergonomischer Fragestellungen mit Herzfrequenz und Sinusarhythmie (Indicatoren von mentaler Beanspruchung und Ermüdung) [in German]
During various tracking tests, the heart rate and the corresponding sinus arrhythmia were determined as parameters for assessing the level of mental stress. The results are discussed in detail and compared with data from the literature. It is concluded that sinus arrhythmia is a more suitable parameter than heart rate for the quantification of mental stress in monotonous work.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Jan. 1974, Vol.32, No.4, p.261-287. Illus. 52 ref.
New aspects of the problem of resistance to noise
Das Problem der Lärmresistenz aus neuer Sicht [in German]
The author draws a distinction between the subjective phenomenon of "stimulation fatigue" (reduction of subjective sound loudness) in the course of noise exposure, and "hearing fatigue" (raising of threshold of hearing) following noise exposure. The experimental study described was intended to provide an answer to the question of whether adaptation and fatigue are the results of 2 phenomena or only one. The influence of the central nervous system on these 2 phenomena is examined. It appears that hearing fatigue is not conditioned by the central nervous system, as is the case with adaptation. A good degree of adaptability could give rise to the phenomenon designated as "resistance to noise". In conclusion, it is recommended that persons with a good degree of adaptability should be selected for employment in a noisy environment.
Sichere Arbeit, Dec. 1973, Vol.26, No.4, p.10-13. Illus.
Zolina Z.M., Gambašidze G.M., Jampol'skaja E.G.
Specific physiological changes in workers engaged in highly monotonous assembly-line work
Osobennosti fiziologičeskih sdvigov u rabotajuščih na konvejerah s vysokoj stepen'ju monotonnosti [in Russian]
Results of time studies and physiological examinations performed on a rubber footwear assembly-line moving forward periodically (period of 6-10s). This highly repetitive work, which consists of 27 simple operations, causes statistically significant electrocardiographic changes and a marked increase in sensorimotor reaction time from the 3rd hour of work. A new category is proposed for the classification of this work.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1973, No.11, p.8-11. Illus. 6 ref.
Fatigue, rest and circadian rhythms
Fatigue, sommeil et rythmes circadiens. [in French]
Recalls the different characteristic parameters of a biological rhythm (period, phase, amplitude, average level) and proceeds from this to analyse the temporal structure of the organisms and the different environmental factors or synchronisers liable to influence it, such as a long-distance transmeridian flight or a change in working hours. Variations of the temporal structure may result in fatigue, alterations in the rhythms of moods and physical wellbeing. Perturbations of the alternating sleep/wake periods should also be considered in interpreting variations in fatigue patterns and physical wellbeing.
Gazette médicale de France, 21 Sep. 1973, Vol.80, No.28, p.4475-4490. 21 ref.
Kovalenko I.G., Zoz N.I., Taubkina A.A.
Physiological and health characteristics of the visual tasks of stereophotogrammetrists
Fiziologo-gigieničeskaja harakteristika zritel'noj raboty stereofotogrammetristov [in Russian]
Study of the visual tasks of photogrammetrists using stereoscopes for analysing aerial photographs and physiological evaluation of their visual peformance. It was found that a number of functions (temporary chromatic stability threshold, muscular equilibrium of the eyes, strength of afferent and efferent muscles) are severely affected during a day's work. Physiological changes found in those working on the 2nd shift were even more pronounced. To counteract the causes of fatigue and stress, the authors suggest improved lighting, measures against direct glare, better layout of workposts and a rationalisation of work/rest schedules.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.22-25. 3 ref.
Sleep and irregular working hours
Sommeil et horaires de travail irréguliers. [in French]
This thesis is devoted to a study of sleep disturbances caused by the irregular hours worked by main-line train drivers, postal sorting workers and Paris Transport Authority workers. An account of how paradoxical sleep particularly suited this study and which quantities were used to measure it is followed by the results of measurements of day and night sleep made on 24 subjects. The 1st part describes how sleep, taken in its entirety, organises itself when it is artificially displaced in the daily cycle (hours of sleep, duration, overall percentages of various stages, temporal structure). The 2nd part centres on paradoxical sleep, its relation to the internal organisation of sleep and to the circadian rhythm. In conclusion, an account is given of the studies which have helped to approach the notion of internal sleep organisation, which seems to be closely linked to the organisation of the entire daily cycle. Based on the results obtained, the author examines the effect on this organisation when one artificially modifies the sleeping schedule and discusses modifications in terms of the schedule.
Université des sciences et techniques de Lille, France, 1973. 103p. Illus. 66 ref.
About noise in 14 plant canteens and restaurants
A propos du bruit dans 14 cantines et restaurants d'entreprise. [in French]
This MD thesis gives an account of a study to determine if the noise recorded in plant canteens and restaurants during lunch was harmful or merely uncomfortable for the workers. The study of noise and its characteristics, its perception by man and its consequences for the individual is followed by an account of the conditions in which the worker has lunch, which should be a period of relaxation for him. The sound level he is subjected to at that time depends on numerous factors and is, for the restaurants studied, between 65 and 70 dB, occasionally 80 dB. Despite the difficulty of establishing standard levels not to be exceeded, the author concludes with the necessity of acting against noise in restaurant halls, even if noise is only a minor complaint of the users. He reviews the French legislation and the means of reducing this noise, which is an important discomfort and fatigue factor.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker-Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1973. 147p. Illus. 55 ref.
An evaluation of the use of visual and auditory flicker fusion as measures of mental fatigue.
A brief review of previous studies of mental fatigue is followed by a detailed account of experiments carried out to assess the applicability of visual and auditory flicker fusion tests in steelworks. It is concluded that visual flicker fusion is not a reliable technique for this purpose and that auditory flicker fusion is completely unreliable.
Corporate Development Laboratory, British Steel Corporation, Hoyle Street, Sheffield S3 7EY, United Kingdom, 1973. 7p. Illus. 16 ref.
A theory of fatigue.
Paper delivered at the 9th Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society of Australia and New Zealand (Adelaide, 24-25 Aug. 1971). Early research on fatigue in industry dealt almost exclusively with variation in productive output which resulted from prolonged work. Later research, typified by studies of pilot performance, developed methods of measurement which were more sensitive to time-correlated variations in performance and were applicable to tasks which involved little physical effort. Neither approach has been outstandingly successful in ascertaining the nature of fatigue phenomena. Recent research has taken a broader view of fatigue as a generalised response to stress over a period of time, and has been successful in explaining the paradoxical results of earlier studies in terms of activation theory. This approach requires the time scale of fatigue studies to be extended greatly, to allow for cumulative effects over periods of days, weeks or months and for the effects of disturbed sleep habits, which appear to be very important. Fatigue effects are closely related to the effects of sleep deprivation. The importance of such long term effects suggests that the time required for recovery may be a useful method of quantifying severity of fatigue.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1973, Vol.16, No.5, p.633-648. 39 ref.
Neuropsychiatric stress and fatigue in crews of diesel-electric locomotives
Solicitarea neuropsihică şi oboseala la personalul ce lucrează pe locomotiva Diesel electrică [in Romanian]
Checks were made on the cardiovascular system, the autonomous nervous system, visual perception, cortical excitation and vigilance. Among the factors contributing to the fatigue of diesel-electric locomotive drivers are: disruption of eating habits, excessive consumption of cold food at irregular intervals, a diet containing too much fat, excessive use of tobacco. Among the subjects in the sample, the authors noted: a tendency to lowered arterial blood pressure, especially at the end of the run; the lowering of the critical fusion frequency of light images at the end of a period on duty; reduced ability to concentrate at the end of the run and changes in the response of the thermal-control centres. The fatigue of these drivers results from a combination of several factors: sustained attention while driving, visual stress, monotony inducing sleep, psychological strain due to hazards and increased responsibility, "time pressure", static effort without energetic over-stress, rotating shifts, noise and vibrations, lighting with great variations, occasionally thermal discomfort.
Igiena, July 1973, Vol.22, No.7, p.421-430. Illus. 19 ref.
Mortagy A.K., Ramsey J.D.
Monitoring performance as a function of work/rest schedule and thermal stress.
The performance of 108 subjects carrying out a visual vigilance task was investigated under 6 work/rest schedules and 3 levels of heat stress (23, 28 and 32°C effective temperature). The work periods were 20, 40 and 60 min, and the work/rest ratios 2/1 and 3/1. Although increasing ambient temperature caused some decline in performance, it was found that effective temperature, work period and work/rest ratios of the levels used did not, by themselves, affect vigilance to a high degree. When acting in combination, however, these factors resulted in a disproportionate decrease in performance. It is recommended that vigilance tasks should not be performed as a rule at effective temperatures exceeding 28°C.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1973, Vol.34, No.11, p.474-480. Illus. 13 ref.
Interindividual differences in circadian fatigue patterns of shift workers.
Data from 37 computer operators (28 input and 9 output handlers), working on discontinuous 8-16-24 alternating shifts, were collected in the morning, evening and night shifts during a one-year period. The study was directed to interindividual differences in the worker's circadian patterns of activity, sleep, oral temperature, time estimation, physical fitness and food intake. It was concluded that the "morning" type of subjects had the most difficulty in adapting to the shift system practised. A refinement of the questionnaire used, on preferences and habits of activity and time of day, should result in a tool for assessing a person's circadian type.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1973, Vol.30, No.4, p.341-351. Illus. 36 ref.
Localized muscle fatigue - Definition and measurement.
A review of the functional problems associated with both sustained and frequently-repeated contractions of specific muscle groups. Under certain contraction states, skeletal muscle function changes. A theory is put forward to explain performance changes and concomitant surface electromyographic frequency shifts. Various common conditions of work are described in terms of the average fatigue produced. Some design recommendations are made, regarding workplace layout and tools.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1973, Vol.15, No.4, p.346-354. Illus. 17 ref.
The "pulse rate/working metabolic rate" ratio as a factor in the assessment of muscular fatigue under normal working conditions
Der Puls-/Energieumsatzquotient als Faktor zur Bewertung der Muskelermüdung unter Betriebsbedingungen [in German]
Introductory discussion of physiological principles and the evaluation of work and muscular fatigue. It is assumed that the ratio of pulse rate to working metabolic rate may be used as a measure of muscular fatigue, since endurance diminishes with an increase in pulsations per calorie of energy expenditure. Application of this ratio to the evaluation of various jobs in the building trade. In a test of finger activity, however, no relationship could be established between muscular fatigue and increase in pulse rate.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Aug. 1973, Vol.23, No.8, p.237-242. 19 ref.
Seminar manual: Occupational injuries.
Collection of papers on all aspects of occupational injury presented at a seminar held at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons on 28-30 Mar. 1973, covering the following subjects: definition of injury; epidemiology; cost of occupational injuries; fatigue; direct injuries; industrial disasters; environmental hazards; work strains and problems; effect of the legal process on disability; government agencies and accident prevention; role of management; safety engineering techniques; ergonomics.
The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Spring Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia, 1973. 249p. Illus. 511 ref. Price: Aus-$10.00.
Weber-Tschopp A., Jermini C., Grandjean E.
Relationship between objective and subjective methods of assessing experimental "fatigue"
Beziehung zwischen objektiven und subjektiven Messmethoden bei experimentell erzeugter "Ermüdung" [in German]
Description of a laboratory experiment to determine the correlation between critical flicker frequency and the subjective evaluation of fatigue, assessed by a bipolar questionnaire; fatigue was induced by a tranquilliser (Diazepam). Results show that subjects with a marked drop in critical flicker frequency also reported a marked increase in subjective fatigue.
Zeitschrift für Präventivmedizin - Revue de médecine préventive, Sep.-0ct. 1973, Vol.18, No.5, p.279-283. Illus. 8 ref.
Ganchev G., Draganova N.
Considerations on the problem of phase changes in working capacity.
Results of ergometric tests carried out to confirm data published on the phenomenon of a phase of latent fatigue which appears after a period of constant effort and before the onset of manifest fatigue. The authors studied the reaction of the cardiovascular system (duration of the R-R interval) to an additional load of up to 600kgm/min during 15s, the basic load being 600kgm/min. It was found that the rate of heart-beat acceleration in response to the additional load is almost uniform over the entire period of exercise. Recovery at the end of the observation period is delayed; this is thought to be a consequence of a decrease in working capacity.
Works of the United Research Institute of Hygiene and Industrial Safety, 1972, Vol.23, p.7-10. 5 ref.
Critical study of methods of assessing fatigue for occupational health purposes
Etude critique des méthodes d'appréciation de la fatigue en médecine du travail. [in French]
M.D. thesis. Part 1: physiopathological study of fatigue (muscular, sensorial, cerebral, mental). The examination of various exploratory and measurement fatigue tests (energy expenditure, physiological, muscular, sensorial, chemical, psychotechnical, psychological and mental tests), which is the subject of chapter 2, enables the author to conclude that at the present time there do not exist, for all practical purposes, any objective and unchallengeable criteria of fatigue. Part 3 describes the methods used and the results of a recent physiological study on the degree of physical stress of mine work in a highly mechanised pit with self-advancing roof support. This study, carried out by monitoring the recovery pulse, confirms the theory that valid tests for investigating physical load exist in medicine. However, factors causing variability are so numerous that the results obtained are approximate. They could nevertheless be used to some extent to improve working conditions.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine St-Antoine, Paris, France, 1972. 88p. 62 ref.
Aspects of human efficiency - Diurnal rhythm and loss of sleep.
Proceedings of a conference sponsored by NATO and held at Strasbourg, France, in July 1970. The volume consists of 22 papers and the discussion which followed (mostly on physiology and applied psyschology) and presents a cross-section of the contemporary state of knowledge on the subject of human efficiency as it is affected by abnormal hours of work and rest. There are a number of papers on the effects of shift work and sleep deprivation on performance. One paper is devoted to the sleep pattern of train drivers, and another on current trends in the arrangement of working hours in the United Kingdom. Future research needs were considered in an open forum, the salient points of which are summarised. There is no general subject index.
The English Universities Press, Saint Paul's House, Warwick Lane, London EC4P 4AH, United Kingdom, 1972. 344p. Illus. 343 ref. Price: £6.00.
Critical study of fatigue-evaluation techniques in occupational medicine
Etude critique des méthodes d'appréciation de la fatigue en médecine du travail [in French]
M.D. thesis. Following a review of physiological and pathological fatigue and its causes (physical and environmental factors, psychological and social factors, physiological conditions at the workplace), the author reviews various fatigue evaluation tests: energy tests, physiological tests (oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure); muscle tests (neuromuscular excitability, dynamography, sthenometric testing, piezo-electric quartz panel); sensorial tests (vision, hearing); chemical tests (blood, Donaggio urine reaction); psychotechnical, psychological and mental tests. These tests, although valuable, are not without their defects and cover only a partial aspect of fatigue. Finally, recent studies in mines are reviewed: physiological studies on work arduousness at a highly mechanised face with self-advancing roof support.
Faculté de médecine, Paris, France, 1972. 88p. Illus. 64 ref.
Globus G.G., Phoebus E.C., Boyd R.
Temporal organisation of night workers' sleep
The temporal organisation of sleep in night workers (day sleepers) was compared with that of day workers (night sleepers) in terms of period and amplitude of sleep cycle. There were no significant differences among the 2 groups in this respect but a highly significant increased variability in period across sleep sessions was noted, with the night workers showing instability in the temporal organisation of sleep over time. When there is a shift back and forth between night and day sleep, there is a disruption of the normal circadian rhythm.
Aerospace Medicine, Mar. 1972, Vol.43, No.3, p.266-268. Illus. 10 ref.
Knauth P., Rutenfranz J.
Sleep research in experimental shiftwork
Untersuchungen zum Problem des Schlafverhaltens bei experimenteller Schichtarbeit [in German]
A comparison of day and night sleep with or without disturbance from child crying and traffic noise. The sleep of 5 subjects aged 21-24 years was studied polygraphically for 40 days and nights. Undisturbed day sleep was significantly shorter than undisturbed night sleep; disturbance by noise had an unfavourable effect on both day and night sleep. The results are discussed in relation to the types of shift work employed in industry. The authors recommend shift rotas with only occasional night shifts to allow day sleep deficit to be compensated by the subsequent night sleep. Qualitative and quantitative sleep analysis can be used as an objective criterion for assessing shift rotas.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 2 Oct. 1972, Vol.30, No.1, p.1-22. Illus. 44 ref.
Rohmert W., Laurig W.
Relationship between stress and strain parameters in flight controllers in air traffic control
Zusammenhang zwischen Belastungs- und Beanspruchungsparametern bei Fluglotsen in der Flugverkehrskontrolle [in German]
The terms "stress" and "strain" are defined and suitable units of measurement for their evaluation are discussed. The results of telemetric pulse-rate measurements in 34 flight controllers are reproduced and discussed. The number of aircraft controlled correlates with the subjective sensation of the difficulty of the air-traffic-control activity and with the pulse rate (which is used as a parameter of strain).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Sep. 1972, Vol.7, No.9, p.252-257. Illus. 17 ref.
Bugard P., Manquene J., Rosay J.
Fatigue in a nuclear research centre
La fatigue dans un centre d'études nucléaires [in French]
In the "hot" laboratories of nuclear research laboratories, the staff is subject to non-radioactive stress resulting from the work environment (heat, artificial lighting and ventilation, negative atmospheric pressure, noise, vibration) or from the conditions and the type of work (work with glove boxes or in pressurised suits, use of manipulators). The subjective and non-specific symptoms of fatigue due to worl in "hot" laboratories are, in decreasing order of importance: asthenia; sleepiness; headache; vertigo; nervousness; memory, vigilance and sleep disorders. At the French Atomic Energic Authority, these symptoms were approached in 3 ways: by a comparative study of exposed and unexposed workers; subjective analysis of fatigue in informal interviews with a sample of the personnel; the objective measurement of environmental factors and stress at the workpost. It was found that humidity was too low, noise levels were too high (negative-pressure ventilation, pumps, etc.), and that work in glove boxes raised ergonomic problems.
Le concours médical, 7 Oct. 1972, Vol.94, No.40, p.6464-6472. 4 ref.
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