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Fatigue - 430 entries found

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  • Fatigue

1989

CIS 90-1035 Rosa R.R., Colligan M.J., Lewis P.
Extended workdays: effects of 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift schedules on performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychosocial variables
A newly instituted 3-4 day/12h rotating shift schedule was compared with the previous 5-7 day/8h schedule using standard laboratory-type measures of performance and alertness, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits. After 7 months adaptation to the new schedule, there were decrements in the laboratory-type tests of performance/alertness which could be attributed to the extra 4h of work per day. There were also reductions in sleep and disruptions of other personal activities during 12h workdays. However, increases in self-reported stress were attenuated by the shortened workweek. These results are discussed in terms of trade-offs between longer workdays and shorter workweeks.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1989, Vol.3, No.1, p.21-32. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 89-2082 Luberto F., Gobba F., Broglia A.
Temporary myopisation and subjective symptoms in video display terminal operators
Miopizzazione temporanea e sintomatologia soggettiva in operatori al videoterminale [in Italian]
A study of 64 female VDT operators showed a significant incidence of end-of-shift (temporary) myopia among operators with asthenopia, demonstrating VDT-related visual fatigue. Operators without asthenopia did not develop temporary myopia.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.155-163. 31 ref.

1988

CIS 91-430 Burnout
English-language version of a videotape defining the "burnout" syndrome as it appears in the workplace and suggesting ways of dealing with it.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. Videotape (PAL/SECAM/NTSC, VHS/Betamax/U-matic). 30min. Price: SEK 2800.00.

CIS 90-2084 Landström U., Törnros J., Nilsson L., Morén B., Söderberg L.
Interactions between noise, temperature, wakefulness and performance analysed in a simulator study
Samband mellan vakenhetsmått och prestationsmått erhållna vid körsimulatorstudie avseende effekter av buller och temperatur [in Swedish]
Correlation analyses were carried out on the effects of noise and temperature on wakefulness and performance of subjects driving a simulator. Wakefulness was analysed through electroencephalographs and performance through recording of speed-holding, road-holding and braking. A positive correlation in time was observed between EEG, pulse and performance. The result is discussed with respect to the interaction between exposure to high levels of infrasound and fatigue and exposure to high levels of high frequency noise and alertness.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 18p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 90-627 Takeda T., Östberg O., Fukui Y., Iida T.
Dynamic accommodation measurements for objective assessment of eyestrain and visual fatigue
A high-precision optometer system has been developed for dynamic measurement of the refractive power of the eye. With the use of individually chosen stimulus steps, a subject's accommodation performance can be unobtrusively assessed in about 3min. Three experiments using this assessment method are described: (1) visual search using a visual display terminal (VDT) and a matched hard copy display, (2) visual search using a VDT with 5 different cathode ray tube (CRT) phosphor colours, and (3) round-the-clock optometer testing with different lines of view. The results show that the new method is sensitive enough to detect both decreased accommodation performance in the course of a few hours of visual work and a circadian rhythm in baseline accommodation and dark focus. The method is thus a potentially useful tool in research on eyestrain and visual fatigue.
Journal of Human Ergology, Sep. 1988, Vol.17, No.1, p.21-35. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 89-1558 Harima M., Horiguchi S., Karai I., Takise S., Matumura S., Tojo F., Miki T.
Pupillary changes due to work using visual display terminals
Pupillary dynamics were measured in 26 subjects aged 19 to 37 before and after playing TV games for 30 minutes at indirect light levels of 100 lux. Results of measurements of pupil size and pupillary light reflex were found to reflect acute ocular fatigue due to the performance of tasks at visual display terminals. Changes in pupillary dynamics were traced to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.60, No.4, p.303-306. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 89-1388 Rosa R.R., Colligan M.J.
Long workdays versus restdays: assessing fatigue and alertness with a portable performance battery
A test battery for assessing psychological and behavioural fatigue was used to compare restdays to a workweek of five 12-h days at a simulated data-entry job. The observed increase in data entry errors across the workday and the workweek, as well as subjective reports of increased tiredness on workdays, indicated that the work regimen was fatiguing. Test battery performance results paralleled those observations. On workdays, grammatical reasoning was faster but less accurate than on rest days; digit addition was slower; simple, dual and choice reaction times were slower; hand steadiness decreased.
Human Factors, June 1988, Vol.30, No.3, p.305-317. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 89-1038 Ikeda T.
Workload evaluation scales for train drivers
Dōryokusha jōmuin no 'wāku rōdo hyōka sukeru' no kaihatsu [in Japanese]
Scales for evaluating train drivers' workload with off-duty hours taken into account were developed. The scales are based on Ohshima's Tables of Workload and of Sleep Effect as well as weighted by empirically estimated effects of duty types and rest conditions. Of the two sub-scales, one measuring fatigue effects and the other rest effects, the former showed high correlation with subjective ratings. Examining the validity of the latter and integrating the two sub-scales remain for further studies.
RTRI Report, Mar. 1988, Vol.2, No.3, p.17-24. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 89-1037 Ikeda M., Satō K., Oshima M.
Physiological workload of train drivers on a suburban commuter railway
Toshikinkō tsūkinsen densha untenshi no seirigakuteki-futando ni kansuru chōsa [in Japanese]
A study of the difference in physiological workload between two groups of motormen (drivers of electric trains). The first group consisted of those engaging in daytime duties (7:00-15:00) and the other of those on duty from 18:00 to 13:00 of the next day, including 5 hours sleep in the middle of the night. Critical flicker fusion frequency values for the second group were lower than those for the first and brain activity levels for the second group were also slightly lower than those for the first. Nevertheless, the physiological condition of those in the second group returned to their standard levels after working hours. Therefore, fluctuations in these values were within the permissible range.
RTRI Report, Mar. 1988, Vol.2, No.3, p.13-16. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 89-290 Rules of economising on movements and for reducing fatigue and the number of accidents in manual operations
Règles d'économie de mouvements, de fatigue et d'accidents dans les opérations manuelles [in French]
Application of these concise rules can lead to a reduction in fatigue and in the number of accidents, in particular in work involving materials handling, the manipulation of objects and transport. Six main categories of rules are developed, i.e. those involving the use of the body, object manipulation at the work station, layout of the work station, proper adaptation of tools and machinery, layout of the workplace and the organisation of materials handling.
Les éditions d'ergonomie, B.P. 138, 13267 Marseille Cedex 08, France, 1988. 16p. Illus. Price: FRF 85.60 (for non-subscribers).

CIS 88-1728 Gobba F.M., Broglia A., Sarti R., Luberto F., Cavalleri A.
Visual fatigue in video display terminal operators: Objective measure and relation to environmental conditions
Female (28) and male (16) CRT data-acquisition operators in Italy were subjected to ophthalmological examinations. A questionnaire was administered to determine prevailing subjective ocular symptoms and discomfort. Workplace illumination, luminance and constrast between text and screen background were determined. In 10 (26.3%) subjects significant myopisation was observed. A significant correlation between reported eye discomfort, ocular asthenopia and myopisation existed. Illumination level, luminance and contrast were found to be of great importance for visual symptoms: neither asthenopia nor myopisation occurred at adequate lighting and contrast conditions.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1988, Vol.60, No.2, p.81-87. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 88-1689 Floru R., Damongeot A., Di Renzo N.
Vigilance and adverse physical factors - 2. Combined effects of noise and vibration on vigilance during driving - Experimental investigation
Vigilance et nuisances physiques - 2. Effets de l'association du bruit et des vibrations sur la vigilance du conducteur - Etude expérimentale [in French]
2h of simulated driving was employed to study the combined effects of noise and vibration on performance and physiological arousal. Overall performance did not change significantly with experimental conditions, whereas the cerebral and autonomic arousal levels increased with noise and vibration, alone or in combination; performance deteriorated over time, and the arousal level decreased from the beginning to the end of the sessions. Since the same overall performance is observed at a higher arousal level during combined exposure to noise and vibration, there is a compensatory attentional effort for coping with the task under stress. The decrements in performance and physiological arousal over time indicate that this compensatory effort cannot be maintained throughout a long driving task under environmental stress.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.130, Note No.1661-130-88, p.37-52. Illus. 30 ref.

1987

CIS 90-691 Agervold M.
New technology in the office: attitudes and consequences
This study examines the attitudes of office workers towards the introduction of new technology, the evaluation of the impact of that technology and the connection between work with new technology and stress. It is based on an investigation of a representative sample of 907 white-collar workers. Results showed that factors concerning both the quality of work and work load increased or remained the same as a consequence of the introduction of new technology. They showed, furthermore, that the incidence of mental fatigue, and stress and psychosomatic complaints was the same among those working with and without new technology. But where new technology had had a negative influence on factors such as work quality, personal influence, etc., there was a higher incidence of stress and stress related complaints. It is concluded that new technology cannot be considered in isolation, but has to be seen as a part of the total psychological working environment.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1987, Vol.1, No.2, p.143-153. 35 ref.

CIS 89-331 Mano Y.
Evaluation of diving stress: Implication of analysis of work loads
Sensui katsudōji ni okeru rōsakunō no hyōka hōhō [in Japanese]
Working conditions of 2,996 divers in Japan were studied. The study did not include divers in the fishing industry. Work load seemed to be far greater than expected. In laboratory experiments with 7 divers, measurement of oxygen consumption and energy expenditure during exercise on bicycle ergometers and during swimming with self-contained breathing apparatus showed that energy expenditure occurs largely in the leg muscles, so that fatigue sets in before the expected maximum oxygen consumption for whole body work is reached. Corrected regression equations were derived to relate observed oxygen consumptions to levels of fatigue experienced by the divers.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1987, Vol.29, No.3, p.202-209. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 88-1856 Kucenko G.I., Minčin B.N.
New apparatus for studying psychophysiological human functions at work
Pribor dlja izučenija psihofiziologičeskih funkcij čeloveka v processe trudovoj dejatel'nosti [in Russian]
Description of a new instrument permitting the study of changes in the main physiological functions of different parts of the central nervous system of workers by measurement of reflex reactions to light and sound stimuli, determination of critical flicker fusion frequency and muscle endurance. Other methods sensitive to fatigue are also used: determination of degree, division, concentration and steadyness of attention and of spatial coordination of hand movements. The instrument can be operated by remote control, to exclude the psychological influence of investigators upon subjects.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.43-45. Illus.

CIS 88-1918 Koleva M., Penkov A., Nikolova Ž., Cankova T., Karadžova N.
Hygiene and psycho-social characteristics of the work of laboratory workers at research institutes
Higiena i psiho-socialna harakteristika na truda na laboratorni rabotnici v naučni instituti [in Bulgarian]
The study covered toxicological, chemical, clinical, histomorphological, phytochemical, microbiological, and other laboratories. Microbial pollution of air and the concentrations of chemical compounds were measured. Microbiological data showed a seasonal dependence. Alcohols were found in the air, as well as nitrogen oxides and organic solvents at concentrations considerably above their MACs. The psycho-social study, carried out by a questionnaire method, showed that mental fatigue was more common than physical fatigue. Complaints of all kinds of fatigue were more common among the technicians (all women) than among the more highly trained specialists (men and women). Specialist women reported fatigue more often than specialist men. Better control of airborne contaminants and better organisation of work are recommended.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.5, p.44-48. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 88-2078 Draganova N., Dacov E.
Studies on working posture in videoterminal (VT) work - Data input
Izsledvane na rabotnata poza pri rabota na videoterminal (VT) - văveždane na danni [in Bulgarian]
The results obtained revealed that the proportions of workstations do not correspond to the anthropometric data of the female operators studied. The basic working angles depending on the proportions and arrangements of the workstation and the construction of the keyboard, produced forced positions of the hands, shoulders and back. The electromyogram of the flexors of the arm showed a considerable loading and fatigue of the muscular system. The percentage of subjective complaints in the upper extremities was high (especially with respect to the right side) in the region of the shoulders, back and sacrum. Proposals are presented for optimisation of working posture during data input on video terminals.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.2, p.23-29. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 88-1892 McIvor A.J.
Employers, the government, and industrial fatigue in Britain, 1890-1918
The evolution of the concept of industrial fatigue and the responses of employers and the government of the United Kingdom to research initiatives in this field of industrial medicine up to 1918 are explored. Discussions cover: the broader debate about the characteristics and dissemination of scientific labour management in Britain; attitudes towards human energy expenditure and overwork at that time; the shorter hours movement; a brief analysis of the progress in research into workers' health, fatigue, and efficiency. Conclusions: Before the First World War a wide gap existed between research findings, best practice, and the common workshop experience and, in general, British management neglected the human element in production, thus creating serious problems of mental and physical fatigue and overstrain.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.44, No.11, p.724-732. 23 ref.

CIS 88-1730 Gander P.H., Graeber R.C.
Sleep in pilots flying short-haul commercial schedules
To observe the effects of these flight operations on sleep, 74 pilot volunteers were monitored before, during and after three- or four-day duty schedules. Subjects kept daily logs of sleep patterns and they rated the quality of each night's sleep. Heart rate and the activity of the non-dominant wrist were recorded every 2 min throughout the study to be used as physiological indicators of sleep quality. Pilots flying scheduled short-haul commercial duties do experience sleep restriction. Evidence from other laboratory and field studies suggests that sleep restriction may have detrimental effects on subsequent daytime sleepiness, performance and mood.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1987, Vol.30, No.9, p.1365-1377. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 88-1369 Brunsz R., Bogusławaska M., Gadomska H., Gniewecki A., Sulej S.
Effects of television screen pulsation on visual performance
Badanie wpływu tętnienia światła ekranów telewizyjnych na pracę narządu wzroku [in Polish]
Visual performance at a television screen and at a screen emitting continuous lighting was compared with respect to precision and speed in locating gaps in Landoldt rings. Television screen pulsation reduced the precision and speed of performance after the 1st hour of work in relation to the control screen; this aggravation remained till the end of the experiment. The introduction of 5-minute breaks for relaxation improved the performance. It is recommended to limit the effective working time to 6 hours daily, to make relaxation breaks and to conduct ophthalmological examination of newly employed persons as well as routine examinations.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1987, Vol.37, No.132, p.15-27. 9 ref.

CIS 88-869 Ciordia Prieto J.M., Gutiérrez García-Chico
Spain does not sleep
España no duerme/España no duerme [in Spanish]
In this study of the sleeping habits of 1,956 persons working for a Spanish enterprise it was clearly demonstrated that many of them did not sleep enough. In the management department, among those over 45 years old, 55.5% slept less than 7 hours a day (the lowest percentage in the survey), and among male office employees below 45 years old, this percentage was 74.1% (the highest percentage encountered). This lack of adequate sleep is mainly due to social factors in Spanish society (staying up late, television and entertainment services end very late at night, late meals etc.). The authors suggest that these social habits must change in order to diminish accident risks due to too little sleep.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1987, Vol.34, No.136, p.73-79.

CIS 88-333 Nicholson A.N.
Sleep and wakefulness of the airline pilot
Well-documented discussion of the design of schedules for aircrew on passanger aircraft. There are 2 main considerations: aircrew must be able to achieve an acceptable sleep pattern (involving short periods of sleep and naps), and the arrangement of work hours is affected by the fact that some duty time is taken up by relatively low levels of performance. Individual variation in the quality of sleep in pilots must also be taken into consideration.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 1987, Vol.58, No.5, p.395-401. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 87-717 Nomiyama K., Ōkubo T., Nomiyama H.
Characteristics of fatigue tests by long-term observation
Chōki kansatsu ni yoru kakushu hirō kensahō fuka zenchi no tokuchō no kentō [in Japanese]
Five tests for measuring fatigue such as tapping, colour calling, knee reflex, flicker and two-point discrimination test, were re-evaluated on 8 faculty members and technicians every morning for 4 years. In most cases, scores fluctuated widely for 5-10 days, then stabilised. However, the tapping and colour calling tests required up to one and a half years to become reproducible. Intra-personal variations were significantly less than inter-personal variations. No age trend, changes due to menstrual cycle, or seasonal pattern was observed. The only weekly pattern seen was a significantly greater coefficient of variation in the flicker test scores for Thursday and Friday. For individuals accustomed to these tests, the difference between pre- and post-stress performance may be a reproducible measure of fatigue.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Dec. 1984, Vol.39, No.5, p.831-840. Illus. 29 ref.

1986

CIS 90-696 Rahman M.
Performance, stress and strains in self-paced repetitive work
The present study was designed to assess the level of 41 high and 41 low performance self-paced repetitive workers and also to compare these 2 groups in respect of certain forms of strain. Results of the study reveal that the high performance workers expend more effort and experience more stress and strains as compared to the low performance workers. Results of the study also indicate that the high and low performance workers are well discriminated on the basis of health complaints and mental health status which collectively contributed 47.3% in the discrimination. The findings of the study suggest that in this type of work, high performance is attained at the cost of a greater degree of perceived effort, stress and strain, and that a work situation like this is not favourable for the quality of working life.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1986, Vol.15, No.2, p.123-130. 30 ref.

CIS 88-2083 Tomari T., Yanagihashi T., Wakisaka I.
A study on the fatigue of women who are engaged in making Oshima homespun pongee on the Amami Islands
Amami Shotō ni okeru ōshima-tsumugi ni jūjisuru fujin no hirō chōsa [in Japanese]
The study involved 236 women in Naze city, Kagoshima prefecture, who engaged in the hand weaving of Oshima homespun pongee. Data on working hours, workbreaks and posture were tabulated. Workers were interviewed before work, during work and after work. The complaint of 'tiredness of eyes' was most common (76.7% of all the subjects examined), followed by 'tiredness of legs', 'shoulder stiffness', sleepiness, 'dimness of sight' and 'cervical stiffness'. The symptoms in the trunk, limbs and sensory organs increased during the day. The symptoms seem to reflect acute, rather than chronic, problems.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Feb. 1986, Vol.33, No.2, p.81-86. 10 ref.

CIS 88-1036 Castillo González J.
CRT display terminals and visual discomfort
Pantallas de rayos catódicos y molestias oculares/Pantallas de rayos catódicos y molestias oculares [in Spanish]
The first part of this article gives a brief outline of general ergonomic problems associated with work at CRT display terminals (visual fatigue, sitting posture, mental tension due to monotonous tasks). The second part describes an investigation of 100 display terminal operators which was made with the intention of detecting possible visual alterations for this type of work. All of the operators were women, from 25 to 55 years old, and worked 7 hours a day. The visual discomfort was approximately the same for the operators who used glasses as for those who did not (56% for the first group and 50% for the second). The most frequent complaints concerned lighting, followed by uncomfortable reflections from the desks. No visual alterations that could be attributed to display work were found.
Salud y trabajo, Mar.-Apr. 1986, No.54, p.49-54. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 88-672 Hasegawa T., Kumashiro M., Mikami K.
Bad work posture and work load in a manufacturing industry
Shokushusa ni tomonau shisei no henka to sagyō futan [in Japanese]
This study investigated the relationship between work postures and physical load in male workers who are engaged in 3 kinds of jobs with relatively long work cycles (70-110s) and 2 kinds of jobs with relatively short work cycles (5s). The 5 tasks were operations in the building up of tire carcasses from sheet rubber. Feelings of fatigue were reported at higher rates by the workers performing tasks with a short cycle time. Walking from one place to another was the major cause of fatigue among the long-cycle workers, whereas bending and twisting was the major cause among the short-cycle workers.
Japanese Journal of Human Posture, Oct. 1986, Vol.6, No.2, p.125-131. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 88-339 Sleep and wakefulness in international aircrews
Special issue devoted in its entirety (6 major articles) to the problem of sleep and wakefulness patterns and circadian rhythm in aircrew subject to many time-zone shifts in the course of their work.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1986, Vol.57, No.12 (Section II), p.B1-B64. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-332 Tůma V.
Is eyeball temperature related to fatigue?
A study was made to determine whether eye temperature changed as a consequence of blood flow changes. Measurements on railway workers indicate a relation between temperature and fatigue.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 1986, Vol.17, No.3, p.215-217. Illus.

CIS 88-330 Misawa T., Shigeta S.
An experimental study of work load on VDT performance - Part 2. Effects of difference in input devices
VDT sagyō ni okeru sagyō futan ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyû. Dai-2-hen. Nyûryoku hōshiki no sōi ni yoru eikyō [in Japanese]
The subjects of the experiment were 8 healthy male college students. In an experimental word processing task, the subjects searched for e's in given sequences of letters displayed on the CRT and converted them to 5's by input device operations (keyboard or lightpen). Critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF), near point distance, accommodation time, subjective fatigue symptoms, blinking counts, pupillary reflex, electromyogram in upper limb, neck and shoulder and performance score were measured. Decrease in CFF was observed under both experimental conditions. Increments in complaints of subjective fatigue related to visual function were seen in both cases. A higher error rate was observed with use of the lightpen than with the keyboard. The frequencies of blinking and pupil-size changes were lower in the subjects using the lightpen. This suggests that the time spent looking at the VDT screen is longer with the lightpen. More complaints of subjective fatigue in the upper body, and also greater electromyogram amplitudes in upper limb, neck and shoulder muscles were observed in the subjects using the lightpen. This suggests that the muscular load on the upper limbs and the restriction of posture is greater in the case of the lightpen.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.462-469. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 88-329 Misawa T., Shigeta S.
An experimental study of work load on VDT performance - Part 1. Effects of polarity of screen and colour of display
VDT sagyō ni okeru sagyō futan ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyū. Dai-1-hen. VDT gamen no hyōji-kyokusei to hyōji-shoku no eikyō [in Japanese]
Eight healthy male college students searched for e's in given sequences of letters displayed on a CRT and converted them to 5's by keyboard operations. Four levels of screen image (positive and negative screens and green and white coloured displays) were adopted and 2h were given for each operation. Critical flicker fusion frequencies (CFF), near point distance, accommodation time, subjective fatigue symptoms, heart rate, electromyogram in upper limbs and performance score were measured. Decrease in CFF, extension of near point distance and increase in complaints of subjective fatigue related to visual function were observed under all experimental conditions. Greater extension of near point distance and more complaints of subjective fatigue were observed in subjects using the green display than in those using the white display. This suggests that the visual load using the green display is larger than that using the white display. A larger decrease in CRT and greater complaints of subjective fatigue occurred with negative screens than with positive screens. This suggests that the visual load using the negative screen is larger than that using the positive screen.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.420-427. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 88-328 Sugita M., Minowa H., Ishi M., Etoh R.
Factors affecting subjective symptoms of VDT workers
Sagyōsha no jikaku shōjō no uttae ni eikyō o oyobosu inshi [in Japanese]
285 (male: 129, female: 156) VDT workers and 60 (male: 30, female: 30) control subjects were examined. Biological information (e.g. sex, age), life histories, information about VDT work, tests (e.g. visual acuity), symptoms and interferences with daily life of VDT workers and control subjects were collected. Female VDT workers experienced more fatigue from commuting to work, stiffness in shoulders, blurred distance vision and higher scores of ocular complaints than did female control subjects. Only among female VDT workers was there a positive correlation between working hours and ocular symptoms. A clear relationship was observed between psychological stress factors (e.g. self-control of VDT work, sensation of excessive VDT work) and subjective symptoms of the VDT workers (both sexes). In particular, VDT workers who considered VDT work to be excessive had greater subjective symptoms than those who did not.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1986, Vol.28, No.6, p.409-419. 21 ref.

CIS 87-1112 Belickij I.V., Kovalenko I.G., Smaragdov D.D., Žilov Ju.D., Nazarova E.N., Liman A.D., Budjanskaja E.P.
Methods for determining parameters of visual fitness for work - Methodological recommendations
Metody opredelenija pokazatelej zritel'noj rabotosposobnosti - Metodičeskie rekomendacii [in Russian]
These recommendations of the USSR All-Union Central Scientific Research Institute for Labour Protection give methods for determining visual acuity, rate of processing of visual information, critical flicker fusion frequency and oculomotor reflexes.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda, VCSPS, Obolenskij per.10, 119829 Moskva, USSR, 1986. 13p. Price: Rbl.0.10.

CIS 87-487 Cail F., Méreau P.
1st Colloquium on work at visual display units, Paris, 7 December 1985
1er colloque Travail sur écran, Paris, 7 décembre 1985 [in French]
Organised by the Syndicat national des ophtalmologistes de France, this colloquium was attended by about 1000 persons, mainly from medical fields. Summaries of the sessions are given under the headings: display colours; visual and postural fatigue; organisation of working time; aptitude for VDT work and corrected vision; visual function tests; trends and new technologies.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, July 1986, No.26, p.151-157. Appendices.

CIS 87-712 Onishi N.
Arm and shoulder muscle load in various keyboard operating jobs
Kiibōdo operēshon sagyō no kinteki-futan [in Japanese]
Mechanisation in manufacturing and offices has reduced the physical workload on workers but at the same time it has led to simpler and more repetitive tasks. Most of these tasks demand less energy expenditure than before and cleaner workplaces. In addition to the mental and visual fatigue caused by concentrated and speedy data processing, a great many operators, especially women, suffer from local fatigue in the upper limb regions. This study involved the EMGs and fatigue measurements of the arms and shoulders of keyboard operators of a data input system. Their mean body height was 156.9cm, their keyboard height 77.87cm and the seat height was mostly 45.49cm. More than 60% of them complained of pain and stiffness in the shoulder and arm muscles. Their feelings of eyestrain and shoulder fatigue increased during the day's work more markedly than those of general office workers. It is essential for the prevention of this kind of chronic fatigue to improve ergonomic keyboard layout and to insert short rest pauses as frequently as possible.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Apr. 1986, Vol.22, No.2, p.75-80. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 87-709 Vidaček S., Kaliterna L., Radošević-Vidaček B., Folkard S.
Productivity on a weekly rotating, shift system: circadian adjustment and sleep deprivation effects?
The productivity of 53 female workers and sleeping habits of 30 of them from an electronics component factory were studied. The circadian adjustment to night work appears to be the dominant factor in increased productivity for the first 3 or 4 successive night shifts, then sleep deprivation results in a decrease of productivity. Sleep deprivation may also affect productivity during the morning shift.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1986, Vol.29, No.12, p.1583-1590. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 87-349 Leger J.
Medical study of shift work
Enquête médicale sur le travail posté [in French]
To study the effects of shift work on the health of railway workers, 39% of the staff of SNCF (French National Railway) were followed up for 1 year. A personal medical record, taking into account 48 pathological conditions, was set up for each worker taking part in the survey. The analysis of the results enables us to estimate the prevalance of 34 categories of medical conditions among 4 occupational categories: train drivers, guards, sedentary staff on shift schedules, sedentary staff on non-shift schedules. Sleeping disorders are the most common among shift workers, nervous and digestive problems among guards and "feelings of tiredness" among workers in both of these categories.
SNCF - Informations médicales, Jan.-Feb.-Mar. 1986, No.148, p.2-13.

CIS 86-1965 Valencia F.
Local muscle fatigue - A precursor to RSI?
Presentation of a hypothesis, based on the available literature, that the condition known as repetitive strain injury (RSI) is due to local muscle fatigue caused by an excessive load on the musculoskeletal system.
Medical Journal of Australia, 6 Oct. 1986, Vol.145, No.7, p.327-330. 56 ref.

CIS 86-983 Cushman W.H.
Reading from microfiche, a VDT, and the printed page: subjective fatigue and performance
Subjects read continuous text for 80min. Visual fatigue was greater when subjects read from negative microfiche (light characters, dark background) projected on a metal screen or from the screen of a video display terminal (VDT) with positive-appearing images (dark characters, light background), than when they read from print. When they read from microfiche projected on a high-reflectance matte screen or from the screen of a VDT with negative images, visual fatigue was not significantly greater than that reported for printed material. Reading speeds tended to be slower for the negative image conditions, but reading comprehension scores were similar for all conditions.
Human Factors, Feb. 1986, Vol.28, No.1, p.63-73. 28 ref.

1985

CIS 88-291 Wickström G., Hasan J., Jalonen J., Järvinen R., Mikola H., Soini S., Toivonen S., Vaahtoranta K., Viljanen V.
Effects of vibration and noise on vigilance and sleep in icebreaker personnel
Tärinän ja melun vaikutus vireyteen ja uneen jäänmurtajilla [in Finnish]
Exposure to vibration and noise was measured on 4 icebreakers. Vigilance and sleep were monitored in 10 of the catering staff on 2 icebreakers before, during and after the icebreaking season; 10 catering workers ashore served as a control group. The icebreaker personnel was exposed to vibration and noise for 24h a day. Vibration was strongest on the bridge (the highest part of the ship), while noise levels were highest in the hull. Vigilance seemed to be a little lower and sleep somewhat shorter among the icebreaker personnel than among those working ashore. Determination of possible long-term effects of vibration and noise would require prolonged monitoring of the workers' psychophysiological functions.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1985, Vol.3, No.3, p.314-323. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 86-2046 Muroya H., Tada M., Sato K., Ikeda M.
Mental effect and fatigue of JNR employees caused by inspection work of rails and bridges by helicopter
To prevent railway accidents on the Japanese National Railways, employees inspect the rails and bridges by helicopter. To learn about the psychological impact of this work, 148 questionnaires were delivered and collected. In addition, 15 of these employees were checked for usual heart rates. 22% of the respondents reported no fatigue after getting out of the helicopter; 78% registered fatigue. Mental effects were reported for the evenings before the employees' scheduled flights. The mental effects were most marked in employees in their twenties. Mental effects were not due to the helicopter itself, but to the type of work involved. The reason why most of the employees in their twenties and thirties registered fatigue after work is because of the filming and changing of films that is necessary.
Bulletin of the Railway Labour Science Research Institute, Nov. 1985, No.39, (Offprint) p.37-50. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 86-1377 Podlešák K., Matoušek O., Gilbertová S.
Work load on female stone grinders
Pracovní zátěž brusiček kamenů [in Czech]
Among women who grind stones for jewellery, the fast pace, monotonous operation and other factors contribute to a one-sided load of the locomotor apparatus, particularly the upper limbs. Subjects were examined objectively by electromyography. Subjective responses were assessed by interviews. Electromyographic activity correlated with subjective fatigue. Fatigue increases during the shift, especially in the lumbar area. The frequent incidence of vertebrogenic disorders indicates a hazard of illness from overload. Recommended measures are: medical examinations on entry and periodically thereafter, rehabilitation, a regimen of work and rest, and a better work environment, particularly adjustable work tables and seats.
Pracovní lékařství, 1985, Vol.37, No.1, p.9-15. Illus.

CIS 85-1775 Elias R.
Mental workload, psychosocial stress and fatigue. The role of computers
La charge pyschique, le stress psychosocial et la fatigue. Le rôle de l'informatique [in French]
Review of recently published literature on fatigue, stress and mental health - the emphasis is on the relationship between psychosocial stress and new technologies such as those using computers. A global approach to these concepts leads to a more encompassing ergonomic analysis of working conditions. The usefulness of epidemiologic methods in the prevention of psychosocial stress is demonstrated.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, Note No.1538-120-85, p.325-330. 42 ref.

1984

CIS 90-1740 Reading V.M., Weale R.A.
Objective signs of potential physical stress and fatigue in visual display unit operators
The aim of this report presented in 2 parts was to investigate objective, physiological changes which occur in the human body when subjected to stressors at work, such as working with a video display unit (VDU), and to correlate these objective measures with psychophysical data collected simultaneously on the speed and accuracy of performance responses. The investigated subjects (7 in the first part of the report and 29 in the second) worked either with a VDU and keyboard or with pencil and paper on specific closely defined tasks. Coverage: methodology (psychophysical tests, electrophysiological measurements); observer data; protocols; results; trainee VDU operator study.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 97p. Illus.

CIS 88-699 Andersen E.
Guidance note on psychological fatigue
Vejledning om psykisk træthed [in Danish]
In order to function well in daily work, a person needs an adequate stimulation of the central nervous system. Too much stimulation can lead to mental stress or psychological fatigue. This information note explains the causes and symptoms (exhaustion, irritability, general mental instability) of psychological fatigue and the consequences it can have on work performance (difficulties in taking decisions, the quality of work goes down, irrationality, difficulties with the coordination between the eye and the hands). It also gives some recommendations concerning how the problem should be solved.
Arbejdstilsynet, Direktoratet, Landskronogade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Sep. 1984. 3p.

CIS 86-1251 Dreyer V., Jensen S., Pedersen V., Petersen E., Richter A.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The working environment at visual display units - A field study
Study of the working conditions in the offices of the Copenhagen (Denmark) telephone company, equipped with VDUs. Description of the methods used; evaluation of the attitude of workers towards VDU work; measurement; lighting; visual fatigue; temperature; ergonomic and psychological aspects.
Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Dublin, Ireland, 1984. 108p. Illus.

CIS 86-1181 Fujiwara O., Kakimoto Y., Okane M., Nakamura A., Aruga M., Takeuchi Y., Tajima F., Sakurai I., Shimizu S.
Fatigue of shiftworkers in air traffic control and weather service groups in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Subjective fatigue, critical fusion flicker value, urinary corticosteroid excretion, heart rate and sleep were used for fatigue assessment. Fifty-two air traffic controllers and forty-three weather service personnel working in shifts were selected as subjects. Twenty-four working during daytime were selected for the control group. At the same time, the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) and a fatigue survey by questionnaire were carried out for 2174 of the subjects. Fatigue resulting from one cycle of shiftwork (morning, afternoon, swing and midnight) was mostly recovered by off-duty rest. Normal circadian rhythms were maintained in controllers for whom it was possible to sleep briefly, but were frequently disturbed in weather observers and teletype operators who had to work through midnight without sleep. There had been no difference in average sleeping time between daily workers and shiftworkers (mean: 7 hours). Shiftworkers tended to sleep long on off-duty days (8-9 hours) and compensate the lack of sleep during shiftwork. Fatigue complaints resulting from shiftwork increased in workers over 41 years old. Workers older than 41 may be unfit for midnight work. 3.6% of the air traffic controllers and weather service personnel falling in Category 4 of the Cornell Medical Index, people diagnosed as neurotic, tended to have stronger feelings of fatigue and more dissatisfaction with their sleep.
Reports of the Aeromedical Laboratory - JASDF, June 1984, Vol.25, No.1-2, p.65-85. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 86-1179 Kumashiro M., Nagae S.
Workers' subjective feelings of fatigue and attitude towards work - Effects of age and job difference
To disclose the relationships between attitude towards work and subjective feelings of fatigue, a field study was conducted in a large electric company. The subjects were 1,376 male workers. The complaint rate of fatigue in younger workers (18-29 years) was higher than that of older workers (30-66 years). Workers who had a high complaint rate of fatigue were less favourably disposed towards their work and felt an increase in boredom, loneliness and monotony. Moreover, work mode influences the onset of self-reported stress.
Journal of UOEH, Sep. 1984, Vol.6, No.3, p.273-281. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 86-828 Sasaki M., Endō S., Takahashi T., Ōtaki T., Mori A.
A chronobiological study on the relation between time zone changes and sleep
Nocturnal sleep after transmeridian flights were studied by polygraphy. The subjects of this study were ten healthy adult males who spent their baseline nights in a sleep laboratory in Tokyo. After time zone changes, 4-10 consecutive nights of polygraphic studies were undertaken in cities in Europe and on the west coast of the USA. After eastward flight, REM (rapid eye movement) sleep decreased as a percentage of total sleep time, while slow wave sleep increased. After westward flights, there was enhancement of REM sleep, especially in the 1st half of nocturnal sleep, though slow wave sleep did not change. Sleep latency and REM sleep latency were significantly abbreviated.
Japanese Journal of Biometeorology, Apr. 1984, Vol.21, No.1, p.43-51. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 86-73 Žilov Ju. D., Nazarova E.N.
Visible radiation and its standardisation in occupational hygiene
Vidimaja radiacija i ee normirovanie v gigiene truda [in Russian]
Standards for visible radiation as a factor of the working environment are set in terms of minimal ("no less than") values. Available data suggest that 600cd/m2 is an optimal brightness value; the eye can adjust to variations around this value by means of the pupillary reflex. It is proposed that visible radiation be evaluated in terms of brightness. There is one optimal brightness level at which the basic visual functions - light sensitivity and visual acuity - do not change over a working day, regardless of the visual task, and there is an allowable optimal brightness of the field of adaptation at which accommodation comes into play as required by the nature of the visual task, that is, by the size of the object being viewed.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1984, No.9, p.13-17. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 85-1276 Beljaeva N.M., Rjabov Ju.S.
Fitness for work and fatigue in a coloured environment
Rabotosposobnost' i utomlenie v cvetovom okruženii [in Russian]
Volunteers manipulated colourless objects in a testing chamber in which the hue, saturation and apparent angle of the surfaces could be varied. After an exposure period averaging 1h, the volunteers were subjected to psychological and physiological tests. Under the conditions of the experiment, he had no effect on performance or fatigue at a given level of saturation. Saturations of 40-60 times the threshold intensity and angles of 50-70° gave optimal performance and/or minimal fatigue; values above or below these ranges were less favourable.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.18-21. Illus. 9 ref.

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