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CIS 94-1959
Health and Safety Executive
Fatigue in dock work
This data sheet provides guidance on factors to be considered when assessing health and safety risks due to both mental and physical fatigue with particular reference to dockwork. These include: the need for concentration, length of the working day, intervals between working days, shift work, night work. The need for rest days at appropriate intervals is emphasized.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-2127 Aitken R.S.
Office safety. The case for active rest pauses
A number of studies have shown that users of display screen equipment undergo visual and muscular stress and fatigue. The provision of breaks and exercises have been shown to have benefits for both productivity and health in such workers. Recommendations are given for a suitable rest break system including micropauses, short and long pauses, workstation exercises and health and safety information.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 1994, Vol.12, No.5, p.25-29. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 94-1776 Dell'Erba G., Venturi P., Rizzo F., Porcù S., Pancheri P.
Burnout and health status in Italian air traffic controllers
Results of a questionnaire survey of 109 air traffic controllers are presented. Data indicate that burnout syndrome, defined as emotional-mental exhaustion, is closely and positively related to age, years spent in air traffic control, professional dissatisfaction and to work stressors, but not to nonwork stressors. Burnout was negatively correlated with social support provided by friends and family.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.65, No.4, p.315-322. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 94-1780 Parkes K.R.
Sleep patterns, shiftwork, and individual differences: A comparison of onshore and offshore control-room operators
A study was made of self-reported sleep quality and duration in offshore and onshore control-room operators during day-shift (D-S) and night-shift (N-S) work and during leave-periods (L-P). Offshore workers reported longer N-S sleep duration and lower D-S sleep quality than those onshore; L-P measures were the same for both groups. Age and neuroticism were negatively related to both duration and quality of sleep, and number of years of shiftwork was negatively related to sleep duration. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on shiftwork and sleep in general and the characteristics of the offshore environment in particular.
Ergonomics, May 1994, Vol.37, No.5, p.827-844. Illus. 53 ref.


CIS 95-1903 Koda S., Ogawa T., Kodera R., Oze Y., Aoyama H.
An experimental study of fatigue symptoms and the effects of inserting rest periods in the work schedule of cooks providing school lunch service
Kyūshoku chōri sagyō ni okeru kyūkei jikan sōnyū ni tomonau hirō jikaku shōjō no kaifuku kōka [in Japanese]
In response to reports of dermatitis, neck and arm disorders, finger deformations and low back pain among school lunch staff, the workload of the personnel of a kitchen serving several schools was assessed. Morning work (especially making lunch) was very active and put demands on the neck, arm and back muscles, while in afternoon tasks (especially dishwashing) put heavy static loads on the back. The staff were exposed to excessively hot and cold temperatures during the summer and winter. Introduction of a 30-min pause in the afternoon markedly reduced the fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders experienced by the workers.
Hirô to kyûyô no kagaku, 1 June 1993, Vol.7, No.1, p.51-61. 22 ref. Illus.

CIS 95-614 Gallimore J.J., Brown M.E.
Effectiveness of the C-Sharp - Reducing ergonomics problems at VDTs
An ergonomic analysis was made of the 'C-Sharp' device, a system of mirrors designed to minimize the visual strain of long-term VDT use by reducing the amount of muscular work associated with accommodation and convergence to near targets. The device is also designed to eliminate glare. The C-Sharp effectively reduces glare; it is not detrimental to operator performance; it allows bifocal wearers to keep their necks in natural postures rather than tilted backwards. However, postures are somewhat constrained and there is no evidence that the device will reduce temporary myopia caused by near work.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.327-336. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 95-305 Park H.S., Martin B.J.
Contribution of the tonic vibration reflex to muscle stress and muscle fatigue
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1993, Vol.19, No.1, P.35-42. Illus. 42 ref. ###

CIS 95-156 Society of Occupational Medicine of the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Corsica regions - Meetings of 29 September and 25 November 1992, 19 January and 12 February 1993
Société de médecine du travail de la région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur et de la région Corse - Séances des 29 septembre et 25 novembre 1992, et des 19 janvier et 12 février 1993 [in French]
Papers presented at the meetings of the Society of Occupational Medicine of the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Corsica regions (France, 29 Sep. and 25 Nov. 1992, 19 Jan. and 12 Feb. 1993): collectors' badges and epoxy resins - investigation after the reporting of a case of an occupational disease; in-plant management of smoking under French legislation concerning smoking in the workplace; sleep disturbances and the working population; classification of sleep disturbances; sleep physiology and the faculties of adaptation; postural deficiency syndromes; neurophysiopathogenic aspects of the postural system; ophthalmic posture and occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.669-681.

CIS 94-1781 Rosa R.R., Bonnet M.H.
Performance and alertness on 8h and 12h rotating shifts at a natural gas utility
In a worksite study of extended workshifts, an 8h/4-7 day shift schedule was compared with a newly instituted 12h/2-4 day schedule. Results of performance tests and a questionnaire on sleep patterns revealed that after 10 months adaptation to the 12h schedule, there were decrements in performance and alertness attributable to the extra 4h on the extended shift. There were also reductions in sleep across the workweek which were most apparent on 12h night shifts. Results indicate that extra caution should be exercised when scheduling critical activities for extended workshifts, especially extended night shifts.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1993, Vol.36, No.10, p.1177-1193. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 94-1419 Stone B.M., Spencer M.B., Rogers A.S., Nicholson A.N., Barnes R., Green R.
Influence of polar route schedules on the duty and rest patterns of aircrew
The duty and rest periods of aircrew operating the polar route from London via Anchorage were recorded during five schedules which involved one, two or three-day sojourns in Japan. Sleep throughout each schedule was fragmented, with naps before duty and short sleeps after arrival at a new location. Sleep disturbance rather than cumulative sleep loss appeared to be the overriding problem, and the shorter schedules had the most marked disturbances in sleep during the trip and during the immediate recovery period.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1993, Vol.36, No.12, p.1465-1477. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-936 VDU work and the hazards to health
Contents of this manual: visual problems associated with VDU work (workstation design, job design, eyesight testing and long-term eye damage); skin problems (effects of environmental factors, static electricity and stress); reproductive hazards (menstrual disorders, infertility, miscarriage, epidemiological studies, mechanisms for effects); repetition strain injuries (RSI) (types and causes of RSI, diagnosis and treatment, prevention, compensation, organizing for safety); general health (stress, cancer, ion effects and electrostatic fields, electrical hypersensitivity, ozone from printers); screen technology (radiation and electromagnetic and electrostatic fields); VDU work and the law; workplace ergonomics and the Display Screen Equipment Regulations (CIS 93-24).
London Hazards Centre, Headland House, 308 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8DS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1993. ii, 136p. Illus. 58 ref. Index. Price: GBP 6.50.

CIS 94-886 Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances des 13 octobre, 10 novembre, 8 décembre 1992 et 12 janvier 1993 [in French]
Themes of papers presented at the meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France): the clothing industry in the centre of Paris (recommendation to include arthrosis of the navicular bone of the hand in the French Schedule as an occupational disease among garment-cutters); protection of garbage workers against risks due to medical refuse present in domestic waste; occupational lead poisoning in connection with the renovation of an older building; cholinesterases: value of isolated variations of their levels; one case of thallium poisoning in a mineralogy laboratory; a case of chronic transfusion hepatitis affecting a nurse; occupational stress: in-plant experimental approach; sleep apnoea and aptitude to work in fire brigades; comments on the Decree of 29 May 1992 pertaining to the prohibition of smoking at work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.587-606.

CIS 94-679 Leśnik H., Poborc-Godlewska J.
The relationship between ciliary muscle fatigue and the type of artificial light used to illuminate the area of visual work
The relationship between the degree of eye fatigue resulting from visual work and type of light source used to illuminate the field of work was assessed. The tests were performed using artificial light sources: fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, high pressure mercury (vapour) and high pressure sodium (vapour) lamps. The assessment was performed on two groups of 10 women each, of which one included women without, and the other with, refraction errors. On the basis of changes of nearer vision point and dispersing lens tolerance, it was found that sodium light produced the highest visual fatigue in the test women, especially in those with refraction errors.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.3, p.287-292. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1887 Chan O.Y., Gan S.L., Yeo M.H.
Study on the health of female electronics workers on 12 hour shifts
Health complaints, blood pressure, sleep and sickness absence experience were studied in 308 female electronics workers employed for at least one year on 12h shifts - 253 on permanent and 55 on rotating schedules. Seventy-five 8h day workers acted as controls. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between the controls and 12h shift workers, except for complaints of tiredness, with a higher proportion of the rotating shift group also having headaches. No significant differences in prevalence of hypertension were noted. Although subjects on the night shift had shorter sleep than controls and 12h day workers, only the group on rotating schedule had a higher proportion of workers who did not sleep well compared to the controls. Sickness absence was not increased in the 12h shift groups when compared to the controls. The results indicate no serious health problems among workers on 12h shift for over a year.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.143-148. 18 ref.

CIS 93-2077 Sasaki M., Kurosaki Y.S., Spinweber C.L., Graeber R.C., Takahashi T.
Flight crew sleep during multiple layover polar flights
Changes in sleep were investigated in 12 airline pilots operating on multiple transmeridian flights. Results indicated that the sleep of such aircrews is disrupted during layovers and this effect persists during the two recovery nights. As a result, there is a marked cumulative sleep loss during multi-leg polar route trips in comparison to single leg flights. The findings suggest that following such extensive transmeridian trips, crews should have at least three nights of recovery sleep in their home time zone before returning to duty.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1993, Vol.64, No.7, p.641-647. 14 ref.

CIS 93-1509 Liévin D., François M.
Perceptual workload and visual fatigue in quality control tasks - Study in a bottling plant
Charge perceptive et fatigue visuelle dans le contrôle-qualité - Etude dans un atelier d'embouteillage [in French]
This study, conducted in a bottle-label inspection workshop, was designed to assess the visual fatigue of operators and their perceptual workload by various methods: analysis of operator activity (recording of eye movements with the Nac Eye Mark Recorder), inventory and quantification of the different parameters of the work situation, assessment of visual fatigue, (interviews and accommodation near point measurement). An increase in visual fatigue increased in two groups of operators during the week. Its extent depended on the functional and organisational working conditions on their respective production lines. There were no periods of overload, but there was strong interaction between visual strategies and work requirements. Methodological details are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1993, No.150, Note No.1912-150-93, p.63-77. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 93-1385 Gander P.H., De Nguyen B.E., Rosekind M.R., Connell L.J.
Age, circadian rhythms and sleep loss in flight crews
Age-related changes in trip-induced sleep loss, personality, and the pre-duty temperature rhythm were analysed in crews from various flight operations. Subjects aged 20-30 were shown to be more evening-type than subjects over 40, while the minimum of the baseline temperature rhythm occurred earlier with age and the amplitude of the baseline temperature cycle declined with age. Average daily percentage sleep loss during trips increased with age. These studies support previous findings that evening types and subjects with later peaking temperature rhythms adapt better to shift work and time zone changes. Age and circadian rhythm may be important considerations for duty schedules and fatigue countermeasures.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.64, No.3, Section 1, p.189-195. 33 ref.

CIS 93-860 Buck L., Lamonde F.
Critical incidents and fatigue among locomotive engineers
Studies of critical incidents and fatigue among locomotive engineers (train drivers) are reviewed. Most studies have defined critical incidents as infractions of operating regulations, particularly those relating to signals at danger or caution; others have defined them as locomotive engineers' reports of unsafe events. Both types of study have related incident rate to factors like signal design and work organisation. Studies of fatigue have shown how critical incidents are more likely to occur at certain times of day and at certain times within a duty period. Summaries in French and German.
Safety Science, Jan. 1993, Vol.16, No.1, p.1-18. Illus. 57 ref.


CIS 96-1894 Saito M., Asano S., Nozawa K.
Fire fighters' physical and mental fatigue in 24-hour shift work
24-Jikan kakujitsu kinmusha no hirō tokusei - shōbō taiin o taishō to shite [in Japanese]
Heart rate, blood pressure at rest, handgrip force, vertical jumping, body flexibility, physical working capacity, perceived exertion during bicycle exercise and subjective symptoms of 14 firefighters (aged 29-48) were measured for 10 consecutive days during which the subjects alternated between 24h on duty and 24hr off. The only statistically significant change over this period was a slight decrease in the height to which subjects could jump. Perceived exertion increased over the observation period for subjects in their 40s and decreased for the younger ones. Subjective symptoms of physical, mental and sensory fatigue increased over the 10 days, i.e., the 24hr off-duty period was insufficient for recovery. The 24hr shift, which involves mainly sedentary work at night, seems to produce psychological discomfort but to have little physical effect.
Hiro to Kyuyo no Kagaku, 1 June 1992, Vol.7, No.1, p.63-74. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 96-382 Monk T.H., Folkard S.
Making shiftwork tolerable
Contents of this manual: introduction to the nature and prevalence of shift work; sleep and the biological clock; social challenges to the shift worker; stress and strain (strain from the circadian system and sleep problems, social and domestic strain); health consequences (cardiovascular, psychiatric and gastrointestinal effects); performance and safety consequences; inter-individual differences; coping strategies for the worker; strategies for the employer (shift work schedules, bright lights at the workplace, shift work awareness programmes).
Taylor & Francis Ltd, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 94p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 11.50.

CIS 95-2152 Lindelof B., Almkvist O., Göthe C.J.
Sleep disturbances and exposure to organic solvents
A significant correlation between solvent exposure and sleep disturbances was found in this Swedish case-control study of 112 solvent-exposed people with health disturbances and 99 controls.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.47, No.2, p.104-106. 12 ref. ###

CIS 95-2319 Schaufeli W.
Burnout in the health-care sector: A European perspective - Report of a EUROPEDOP workshop held in Luxembourg on 4 March 1992
L'épuisement anxio-dépressif ('Burnout') dans le secteur des soins de santé: Une perspective européenne - Rapport sur la journée d'étude EUROFEDOP du 4 mars 1992 à Luxembourg [in French]
Report of a workshop devoted to the subject of the "burnout" syndrome (characterized by anxiety and depression) among workers in the health-care sector, held in Luxembourg on 7 March 1992. Main points covered: introduction (psychological problems of occupational origin); definition and causes of "burnout" (social, personal, and task- and organization-linked factors); consequences and incidence of "burnout"; means of prevention (person- and organization-related strategies); conclusions.
Psychologisch Laboratorium, University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 1992. 22p.

CIS 94-1082 Aptel M., Wild P., Boehm R., Bergaminelli M.
Effect of different work rhythms on the sleep, eating habits and non-occupational activities of shift workers
Incidence de différents rythmes de travail sur le sommeil, les repas et les activités extra-professionnelles de salariés postés [in French]
The effect of work rhythm on sleep, eating habits and extra-professional activities is still not known very well. This study presents the results of a survey carried out on 148 shift workers in a firm manufacturing plastic packages. It appears that work rhythm has little influence on the quality and duration of sleep or the number of meals taken. Moreover, distribution of extra-professional activities seems not to be influenced by the work rhythm either. However, factors like age, sex and other sociocultural variables have a greater influence on the individual experience of shift work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.627-638. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-384 Leung L., Becker C.E.
Sleep deprivation and house staff performance - Update 1984-1991
All English-language studies since 1984 of sleep deprivation and house staff performance are reviewed. Manual and computer surveys identified 14 such studies. The goal of the review is to examine whether the current literature supports the hypothesis that sleep deprivation significantly impairs house staff performance. It is found that the current data remain inconclusive. The causes for this uncertainty include different methodologies in assessing performance, the arbitrary definitions of sleep-deprived and rested states, and lack of separation of the effects of acute and chronic sleep deprivation. The review notes striking difference in reported effects of sleep deprivation depending on medical specialty. Surgical studies most frequently show little effect of sleep deprivation. All studies since 1990 support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation significantly impairs performance. Most studies support the impairment of physician mood with increasing sleep deprivation. An editorial House staff = Shift workers by Scott A.J. compares the problems of house staff with those of shift workers in general.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.34, No.12, p.1153-1163. 22 + 56 ref.

CIS 93-1396 Makowska Z., Kluge G., Sprusińska E.
The influence of occupational and non-occupational factors on chronic fatigue of women
The aim of this study was to assess the significance of different types of loads to which working women are subjected in relation to reported chronic fatigue. The investigation involved 255 women workers from two different occupational groups. The first group was employed at knitting and the second at assembly lines. Their level of chronic fatigue was assessed. The influence of 30 variables on fatigue level were also analysed. These concerned: a) physical and psychological workload, b) organisational (social) climate at work, and c) demographic and family factors. It was found that the most important factor influencing chronic fatigue was "experiencing emotional tension" resulting from family problems. Other factors, having substantial significance for the development of increased fatigue level were also associated with emotional tension and resulted from the social climate in the workplace.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1992, Vol.5, No.4, p.323-333. 13 ref.

CIS 93-1392 Cail F., Salsi S.
Visual fatigue
La fatigue visuelle [in French]
Review of the last 10 years' work on visual fatigue. Principal themes: subjective symptoms, physiological changes (pupillary diameter, accommodation, ocular movement, blinking, vergence, phorias, critical flicker fusion frequency, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual evoked potentials), visual performance, persistence of fatigue, methodological bias. Summaries of results are presented for each theme. They show that visual fatigue takes many forms, and its appearance depends on many factors.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1992. 58p. Illus. 238 ref.

CIS 93-818 Cail F.
Field methods for the assessment of visual fatigue
Méthodes de terrain pour l'investigation de la fatigue visuelle [in French]
When undergoing field tests, operators often complain of high degrees of visual fatigue, whether working with visual display terminals (VDUs) or optical instruments. Symptoms of this fatigue might be subjective or objective (physiological modifications of vision). The confirmation of visual fatigue requires a number of medical tests therefore. This article describes a number of such tests used by occupational physicians during visits to enterprises. Such tests may also be useful during the initial medical examination of newly-hired VDU operators. Sample questionnaire.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1992, No.50, p.159-166. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 93-1038 Poole C.J.M., Evans G. R., Spurgeon A., Bridges K.W.
Effects of a change in shift work on health
Aspects of health were studied in a sample of factory workers who changed their pattern of working from "fortnight about" to three advancing shifts. Within the same factory and doing similar work there was a comparison group who were working permanent days only. The change in shifts was associated with more difficulty with sleep, more indigestion, higher alcohol consumption, reduced alertness and a worse social life. There was more minor psychiatric disturbance in those who worked three shifts than in those who worked days only.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.42, No.4, p.193-199. 23 ref.

CIS 93-477 Watten R.G., Lie I.
Time factors in VDT-induced myopia and visual fatigue - An experimental study
In an experimental design with two matched groups (n=13 and n=17) working for 2h and 4h respectively, followed by a 15min restitution time, the study examined the effect of continuous VDT work on: (1) visual acuity, refraction and oculomotor functions (ZCSV: zone of clear, single vision) and (2) the effect of 15min restitution time on the oculomotor functions (ZCSV). In both groups there was a significant reduction in visual acuity, refraction changes in myopic direction and reduced ciliar and vergence muscle capacity. The ZCSV changes were temporary and a 15min restitution period restored approximately half of the ZCSV changes. There were no significant differences between 2h or 4h of VDT work on any of the variables examined.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.13-20. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 93-680 Sakai K.
Improvement of midnight driving operations
This editorial presents the results of research on the fatigue issues of long-distance truck driving and it describes major factors in the workload of driving at night. Immediate improvement of safety and working conditions for night and long-distance truck driving is suggested.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-2.

CIS 92-2064 Knutsson A., Akerstedt T.
The healthy-worker effect - Self-selection among Swedish shift workers
Report of a study on the 'healthy-worker effect' as it is related to shift work. The study sample comprised 53 male applicants for blue-collar jobs. The subjects who applied for shift work (n=30) did not differ from those who applied for day work (n=23) regarding previous illnesses or current symptoms. However, data on self-reported sleep behaviour indicated that a higher percentage of prospective shift workers had a less rigid sleep pattern than did prospective day workers. The results suggest that there might be a self-selection to shift work by individuals with specific sleep behaviours that might facilitate future coping with unusual work hours.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.6, No.2, p.163-167. 12 ref.


CIS 93-1384 Luque Nuñez R.
Human factors in plane accidents. Flight fatigue
El factor humano en los accidentes de aviación. Fatiga de vuelo [in Spanish]
Discussion of "flight fatigue" of aircraft pilots, a common human factor causing plane accidents. Definition, causes and consequences of fatigue are outlined, as well as physical and mental symptoms. Causes of flight fatigue are presented, including flight conditions, duration and frequency of flights, aircraft ergonomic factors, and irregularities in the pilot's circadian rhythm. The importance of recognising signs and symptoms of flight fatigue with a view to its prevention is emphasised.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.38, No.153, p.51-54. 9 ref.

CIS 92-2065 Jørgensen K., Jensen B.R., Kato M.
Fatigue development in the lumbar paravertebral muscles of bricklayers during the working day
The study investigated whether the fatiguability of trunk extensors was changed during the working day in a group of eight bricklayers. During the day heart rate (HR) and lumbar back rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. HR and RPE increased significantly from the start of the working day to noon, but no changes occurred during the afternoons. The isometric endurance of the trunk extensors at 30% maximal isometric strength (MVC) decreased significantly from 4.88 to 3.99min over the day. During the day three standardised 90 seconds isometric 30% MVC trunk extensor contractions were performed: before work, before lunch, and immediately after work. The following recordings were made: bilateral surface electromyography (EMG) from the lumbar part of the trunk extensors, HR, blood pressure, and RPE from the paravertebral muscles. The EMG-MSF (mean spectral frequency) from test contractions decreased significantly from 139 to 129 during the day. The RPE showed a significant increase of approximately two from morning to the lunch break.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Nov. 1991, Vol.8, No.3, p.237-245. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 92-2074 Mital A., Bishu R.R., Manjunath S.G.
Review and evaluation of techniques for determining fatigue allowances
A person's work performance capability, whether physical or mental, generally declines as the day progresses. The decline in capabilities is particularly noticeable in the case of highly repetitive and demanding jobs, and is primarily due to `fatigue' - a physical and/or psychological process. To avoid the detrimental effects of fatigue, rest allowances are provided. Considerable variations exist in industrial time standards with respect to determining rest allowances. Rest allowances which are fixed as an arbitrary percentage of possibly incorrect times are either inadequate or excessive. This paper reviews the various subjective and objective methods of determining rest allowances that are available to industrial engineers and ergonomists. The merits and demerits of the techniques available to determine physiological, psychological and environmental fatigue allowances are also discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1991, Vol.8, No.2, p.165-178. 45 ref.

CIS 92-1171 Åkerstedt T., Kecklund G., Knutsson A.
Spectral analysis of sleep electroencephalography in rotating three-shift work
Fourteen male workers on a rotating three-shift schedule were subjected to 24-h ambulatory polysomnographic recording in connection with morning, afternoon, and night shift work (at home and at work). The content of the sleep cycles did not differ between shifts. The sleep before the morning shift was characterised by subjectively increased difficulties of sleep initiation and sleep termination, as well as by insufficient recuperation. The night shift was characterised by increased subjective difficulties of maintaining sleep, but also by increased ease of sleep initiation. It was concluded that both morning and evening shifts interfered with sleep, although no effects of sleep deprivation were found.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1991, Vol.17, No.5, p.330-336. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 92-669 Spencer M.B., Stone B.M., Rogers A.S., Nicholson A.N.
Circadian rhythmicity and sleep of aircrew during polar schedules
Sleep and circadian rhythms of aircrew were studied during a 7 day polar schedule operated between London and Tokyo. Inversion of the circadian rhythm with respect to both the sleep-wake and the light-dark cycles, together with reduced circadian amplitude led to a prolonged disturbance of the circadian rhythm. The cumulative effect of this disturbance was reflected in the increased levels of tiredness experienced by the crews at the end of the schedule. Realignment of circadian rhythms was attained by an advance of the circadian phase in 8 aircrew and by a delay in 3, and resynchronisation was achieved in all cases within 6 days.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.62, No.1, p.3-13. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 92-95 Brown D.A., Mitchell R.
The pocket ergonomist - Industrial/retail version: A supervisor's guide to the causes and reduction of muscle fatigue at work
Illustrated brochure aimed at supervisors, providing basic information on how to prevent excessive muscle fatigue among workers.
Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1991. 8p. Illus.

CIS 91-2083 Rosa R.R.
Performance, alertness, and sleep after 3-5 years of 12h shift: A follow-up study
Control room operators at a continuous processing plant have been working a 12h/3-4 day rotating shift schedule for over 3 years. After 7 months on this schedule, initial assessment indicated decrements in performance and alertness, and a mild to moderate sleep debt, when the 12h shift schedule was compared to the previously-worked 8h shift schedule. In an effort to track long-term adaptation to the schedule, a 3-5 year follow-up evaluation using the same set of measures was conducted. Long-term follow-up testing revealed persistent decrements in performance and alertness attributable to 12h shifts, and 1-3h reduction in total sleep time after 12h night shifts. Little deterioration in performance or alertness was observed across the workweek, which suggested day-to-day recovery from the extended workshift. The popularity of the 12h shift schedule at this worksite indicates that the workers are willing to tolerate extra fatigue to derive other benefits from this schedule.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1991, Vol.5, No.2, p.107-116. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 91-1747 Rubin R., Orris P., Lau S.L., Hryhorczuk D.O., Furner S., Letz R.
Neurobehavioral effects of the on-call experience in housestaff physicians
Sixty-three medical residents were tested on a battery of computer-based, self-administered neurobehavioural tests before and after a 36-hour in-hospital call plus postcall day to assess the central nervous system effects of the call experience and its accompanying sleep deprivation. Statistically significant decreases in performance were found postcall on tests of sustained visual attention (p<0.0001), speed and coding ability (p<0.0001) and short-term recall (p<0.0001). Hand-eye coordination improved (p<0.02).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1991, Vol.33, No.1, p.13-18. 21 ref.

CIS 91-1382 Jaschinski-Kruza W.
Eyestrain in VDU users: viewing distance and the resting position of ocular muscles
The purpose of this study was to test whether eyestrain during near work depends on the individual's position of convergence and/or accommodation in darkness. A VDU task which placed a predominantly static load on the ocular muscles was performed at two viewing distances. Visual strain at a viewing distance of 50cm was greater than at 100cm. The more distant the individual's dark convergence, the greater was the visual strain at the 50cm viewing distance. When subjects were free to adjust the viewing distance to their comfort level, they chose distances between 51 and 99cm (mean 74cm) with characters 5mm tall.
Human Factors, Feb. 1991, Vol.33, No.1, p.69-93. Illus. 36 ref.


CIS 91-1745 Ott E.
The strain of commuting to work
Belastungsdimensionen arbeitsbedingten Pendelns [in German]
Census data of 1988 are used to show that in the Federal Republic of Germany about 10.5 million employees commute more than 50km and/or more than 60min to work. This represents an increase of 90% within the last ten years. The stress and strain aspects are discussed in the light of an empirical regional study. Of 308 commuters using the train from Fulda to Frankfurt 63% rated the perceived strain unbearable or heavy. Details are given on: profession; reasons for commuting; physical, mental, social, temporal and economic implications of commuting.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1990, Vol.44, No.4, p.234-239. 15 ref.

CIS 91-1733 Münzberger E., Schultz K., Weyer C.
Experimental studies of the influence of rest pauses on physiological strain and on perceived discomfort in overhead work
Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Erholzeiten auf die systemische Beanspruchung und das Diskomforterleben bei Überkopfarbeit [in German]
The heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 16 volunteers performing overhead drilling work. Two work-rest schedules were applied: 60s drilling and 60s rest as well as 60s work and 30s rest. Perceived muscular and skeletal discomfort was determined by a standardised rating system. Physiological strain and discomfort were significantly lower when a schedule of 60s work 60s rest was followed.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Dec. 1990, Vol.44, No.4, p.222-226. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 91-1371 Çakir A.
Light and health - Impairment through artificial illumination
Licht und Gesundheit - Beeinträchtigung durch künstliche Beleuchtung [in German]
The influence of artificial and natural lighting at the workplace on irritability, fatigue, eye strain, vision, headaches, and concentration ability of 1000 randomly selected employees was studied in Germany on the basis of a questionnaire survey. Recommendations taken from existing German standards were used as a basis for establishing the questions used in the survey. Based on the responses it is concluded that there is no substitute for natural lighting. Recommendations in the standards were not found to be always relevant.
Fortschrittliche Betriebsführung und Industrial Engineering, 1990, Vol.39, No.5, p.269-271. Illus.

CIS 91-1392 Åkerstedt T.
Psychological and psychophysiological effects of shift work
The psychophysiology of shift work is mainly related to circadian rhythmicity and sleep-wake phenomena. Individuals on a rotating three-shift or similar system work the night shift at the low phase of circadian rhythm. On retiring to bed in the morning they fall asleep rapidly but are prematurely awakened by their circadian rhythm and exhibit severe sleepiness and reduced performance capacity. In connection with the morning shift the circadian psychophysiology makes it difficult to fall asleep as early as needed during the preceding night. Around 04:00 to 05:00hrs, when the individuals should rise, they have difficulties awakening because of the sleep loss and the circadian rhythm, which at that point is at its lowest. Subsequently, day work is characterised by sleepiness and reduced performance. It should be emphasised that it does not seem possible to improve one's ability to adjust over time, even with permanent night work. Older age and "morningness" personality are related to higher than average problems in adjusting.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1990, Vol.16, Suppl.1, p.67-73. Illus. 76 ref.

CIS 91-475 Arnetz B.B., Åkerstedt T., Anderzen I.
Sleepiness in physicians on night call duty
Little is known about how physicians' feelings of sleepiness and sleep patterns are affected by night call duties. This pilot study covered a group of staff (hospital) physicians during and following night call duties. Feelings of sleepiness and sleep patterns were recorded every third hour. Results show measurable effects on the sleepiness scale with residual effects lasting up to two days after the actual night call duty. The authors suggest that increased attention should now be given to studies of the psychophysiological effects of both present and alternative work schedules for physicians.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1990, Vol.4, No.1, p.71-73. 7 ref.

CIS 91-333 Collins M., Brown B., Bowman K., Carkeet A.
Workstation variables and visual discomfort associated with VDTs
The effects of a range of workstation factors upon the visual symptoms experienced by a group of 92 visual display terminal (VDT) users were investigated. Subjects in the study kept a diary over 5 consecutive workdays in which they recorded the types of visual and postural symptoms which occurred and the types of work tasks being performed. Each subject's workstation was analysed for screen legibility and stability, discomfort and disability glare, and required head postures. By the use of multiple regression techniques the relative contribution of these factors to the symptoms reported by the users of these workstations was considered. Screen legibility significantly influenced the occurrence of symptoms of ocular discomfort and vertical head movements significantly affected the incidence of postural/headache symptoms.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1990, Vol.21, No.2, p.157-161. 14 ref.

CIS 90-2089 Chidester T.R.
Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul flight operations
A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-day trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. Examination of the impact of 2 personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1990, Vol.61, No.2, p.132-138. 20 ref.


CIS 90-2078 Libert J.P.
Data sheet on healthy working conditions - 2. Environmental factors, work and quality of sleep
Fiche d'hygiène de vie au travail - 2. Nuisances de l'environnement, travail et qualité du sommeil [in French]
Physical workload and daytime exposure to environmental factors can disturb sleep the subsequent night. This induces impairment of the body recovery processes following a physical or a mental task, and could have a negative effect on safety at work. The present paper recommends what is to be done in order to protect or improve the sleep of workers. These recommendations deal with the protection of workers' health against physical hazards at the workplace (mainly heat and noise), and work organisation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1989, No.137, Note No.1754-137-89, p.607-611. 28 ref.

CIS 90-1392 Krueger G.P.
Sustained work, fatigue, sleep loss and performance: A review of the issues
The physiological and psychological stressors associated with sustained work, fatigue, and sleep loss affect worker performance. This review describes findings relating to sustained work stresses commonly associated with advanced technology. Researchers report reductions in sustained performance as a function of fatigue, especially during and following one or more nights of complete sleep loss, or longer periods of reduced or fragmented sleep. Sleep loss appears to result in reduced reaction time, decreased vigilance, perceptual and cognitive distortions, and changes in affect. Sleep loss and workload interact with circadian rhythms in producing their effects. These interactions are a major source of stress in work situations requiring sustained work in continuous operations and have implications for theoretical models of sustained perceptual and cognitive functioning.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1989, Vol.3, No.2, p.129-141. 100 ref.

CIS 90-1036 Lavie P., Chillag N., Epstein R., Tzischinsky O., Givon R., Fuchs S., Shahal B.
Sleep disturbances in shift-workers: a marker for maladaptation syndrome
The present study investigates the association between sleep disturbances in shift workers and their general adaptation to the shift system. 316 refinery and 55 aluminium factory shift-workers participated in this study. In both plants, sleep disturbances were significantly associated with age, with dissatisfaction with working conditions and the quality of domestic life, with increased morbidity and increased high blood pressure. The association between high blood pressure and morbidity and sleep disturbances remained significant after adjusting for age. Shift workers complaining about their sleep also had higher blood pressure values than day workers with sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that periodic evaluation of sleep quality in rotating shift workers can provide useful information regarding their general level of adaptation to the shift system.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1989, Vol.3, No.1, p.33-40. 25 ref.

CIS 90-1035 Rosa R.R., Colligan M.J., Lewis P.
Extended workdays: effects of 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift schedules on performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychosocial variables
A newly instituted 3-4 day/12h rotating shift schedule was compared with the previous 5-7 day/8h schedule using standard laboratory-type measures of performance and alertness, and a questionnaire on sleep patterns and other personal habits. After 7 months adaptation to the new schedule, there were decrements in the laboratory-type tests of performance/alertness which could be attributed to the extra 4h of work per day. There were also reductions in sleep and disruptions of other personal activities during 12h workdays. However, increases in self-reported stress were attenuated by the shortened workweek. These results are discussed in terms of trade-offs between longer workdays and shorter workweeks.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1989, Vol.3, No.1, p.21-32. Illus. 17 ref.

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