Fatigue - 430 entries found
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Arnold P.K., Hartley L.R., Corry A., Hochstadt D., Penna F., Feyer A.M.
Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers
Topics: Australia; dangerous occurrences; drivers; fatigue; hours of work; questionnaire survey; road transport; sleep deprivation; trucks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1997, Vol.29, No.4, p.471-477. 6 ref.
Marilat I., Muratet C., Lapeyre-Mestre M., Montastruc J.L.
Sleep, night work and drug use: Results of a case-control study in a work environment
Sommeil, travail de nuit et consommation médicamenteuse: résultats d'une enquête cas/témoin effectuée en milieu de travail [in French]
Topics: comparative study; drugs; France; night work; questionnaire survey; shift work; sleep disturbances.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1997, Vol.58, No.6, p.506-511. 23 ref.
Fatigue in the aviation environment: An overview of the causes and effects as well as recommended countermeaures
Topics: aircraft pilots; circadian rhythm; fatigue; literature survey; mental stress; sleep deprivation; sleep.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1997, Vol.68, No.10, p.932-938. 47 ref.
Porcù S., et al.
Acutely shifting the sleep-wake cycle: Nighttime sleepiness after diurnal administration of temazepam or placebo
In a laboratory simulation of an acute shift of the sleep-wake cycle, sleepiness was measured in 10 subjects during the night after a daytime administration of a benzodiazepine hypnotic temazepam or a placebo to obtain a prophylactic sleep. Temazepam proved to be an effective diurnal hypnotic, increasing sleep duration and not impairing sleep quality. No significant residual effects, such as increased sleepiness during the night, were detected. The drug may be used to induce sleep at unusual hours and thus avoid a dangerous increase of sleepiness during irregular operations.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1997, Vol.68, No.8, p.688-694. Illus. 33 ref.
Samel A., et al.
Two-crew operations: Stress and fatigue during long-haul night flights
Long-haul flight operations involving two pilots and a flight roster with two consecutive night flights and a short layover were investigated. Measurements of sleep, taskload, fatigue and stress were carried out before, during and after a series of 22 flights. Results indicated a loss of sleep and increased levels of fatigue. Motor activity, brainwave activity and heart rate indicated drowsiness and a low state of vigilance and alertness during both night flights. This type of duty roster may impose excessive demands on mental and physiological capacity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1997, Vol.68, No.8, p.679-687. Illus. 28 ref.
Breaking the glass ceiling
The health and safety implications of balancing work and family responsibilities are examined. The conflict between meeting the needs of children and the demands of work are discussed along with the potential effects of stress and fatigue on ill-health and occupational accidents. Examples of employers' initiatives in providing flexible working arrangements and career breaks are described. It is concluded that the implementation of sensitive work practices would reduce the effects of fatigue, anxiety and stress for working parents.
Health and Safety at Work, May 1997, Vol.19, No.5, p.10-12. 7 ref.
Salsi S., et al.
Contrast threshold changes during a long working session on visual display terminals
Variations du seuil de contraste au cours d'un travail de longue durée sur écran de visualisation [in French]
In order to evaluate the visual fatigue due to work on visual display units (VDUs), a contrast-threshold measurement method was developed. An experimental VDU workstation was set up in a laboratory. Test subjects performed data control tasks for a period of 3h. During this exercise, contrast thresholds, functional performance in a serial perceptual discrimination test and cerebral activity (by electroencephalogram) were measured every 30min. It is shown that contrast threshold increases may constitute an early warning sign of visual fatigue in VDU work.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1997, No.167, Note No.2051-167-97, p.275-284. Illus. 31 ref.
Mounstephen A., Sharpe M.
Chronic fatigue syndrome and occupational health
The nature and definition of chronic fatigue syndrome are reviewed and current views on its causation and management are discussed. Biological, psychological and social causal factors are examined and a practical approach to patient assessment, diagnosis and management is put forward. Implications for occupational health practice are discussed, in particular, the potential effects of the Disability Discrimination Act. It is argued that despite the continuing controversy about the status, aetiology and optimum management of this syndrome, much can be done to improve the outcome for patients.
Occupational Medicine, May 1997, Vol.47, No.4, p.217-227. 83 ref.
Wood D.D., Fisher D.L., Andres R.O.
Minimizing fatigue during repetitive jobs: Optimal work-rest schedules
Grip strength was measured using a hand dynamometer for 20 women performing tasks consistent with different work-rest schedules (a low-, medium, and high-force schedule). The amount of physiological work remained constant across all schedules. The fatigue that developed in the medium-force schedule was significantly lower than that developed in either the low- or high-force schedule. A model was developed to predict work-rest schedules that minimize fatigue in a given repetitive job, thereby potentially increasing productivity and reducing the incidence of cumulative trauma disorders.
Human Factors, Mar. 1997, Vol.39, No.1, p.83-101. 37 ref.
Iwata N., Ichii S., Egashira K.
Effects of bright artificial light on subjective mood of shift work nurses
The effects of bright artificial light on the subjective mental state of ten female hospital nurses were assessed during two series of five consecutive workshifts: one normal, two night and two evening shifts. The subjects worked under normal lighting conditions (approximately 250 lux) during the first series, and were exposed to artificial light (brighter than 3,000 lux) for a total of 30min during the second series of shifts. Bright light tended to improve eagerness and reduce tension. Several psychological symptoms, such as vigour, eagerness, appetite and impairment, also improved in artificial light during the night shifts, but not during the evening shifts.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.41-47. Illus. 31 ref.
Matsuda S., et al.
A study of complaints of fatigue by workers employed in Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology
A questionnaire survey of 389 workers in 10 Vietnamese factories with newly imported technology revealed that about 60% of the workers were satisfied with their current working conditions. Heat, dust and noise were identified as the most important risks. Main complaints concerned machines and equipment which were too large for Vietnamese workers, the rapid work pace, and monotonous working conditions. Female workers complained of irregularity of menstruation. The prevalence rate of subjective fatigue complaints increased significantly after work. In general, these problems were more common among workers in textile and electronics factories. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.16-28. 27 ref.
Williamson A.M., Feyer A.M., Friswell R.
The impact of work practices on fatigue in long distance truck drivers
Topics: Australia; drivers; fatigue; perceptual-motor performance; pulse rate; road transport; subjective assessment; vigilance; work capacity; work time schedules; workbreaks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 1996, Vol.28, No.6, p.709-719. Illus. 30 ref.
Shiota M., Sudou M., Ohshima M.
Using outdoor exercise to decrease jet lag in airline crewmembers
The effects of outdoor exercise on urinary excretion of the 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), catecholamine rhythm, and sleep-wake patterns in cockpit crew members were studied before, during and after jet travel involving an 8h time difference. Results indicated a phase-advance shift of the circadian rhythm of 17-OHCS excretion in urine and of sleep-wake patterns on day 4 in the exercise group compared to a control group, suggesting that outdoor exercise has some effects in hastening resynchronization to a new time zone.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.67, No.12, p.1155-1160. Illus. 26 ref.
Kristal-Boneh E., Froom P., Ribak J.
Fatigue among Israeli industrial employees
In this cross-sectional study 3.785 employees of six industrial sectors were examined concerning the factors involving complaints of fatigue The results have shown that workers not performing sport activities at least once a week had an increased prevalence of severe fatigue. The same was observed in those subjects employed in non-temperature-controlled work stations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.38, No.11, p.1145-1150. Illus. 33 ref.
Schmittner H., et al.
The Arge Bau Study of painters in Heidelberg: Field study of health problems associated with organic solvents
Heidelberger Malerstudie der Arge Bau. Feldstudie zu lösemittelassoziierten Befindlichkeitsstörungen [in German]
In this epidemiologic study the prevalence of painters' symptoms associated with exposure to organic solvents was determined with the help of different questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered to a group of 366 painters with more than 10 years of occupational exposure to organic solvents. For comparison, a control group of 193 bricklayers and scaffold assemblers without occupational exposure to organic solvents was included in the study. Statistical evaluations of the answers in the questionnaires yielded a significantly higher prevalence of neurotoxic symptoms associated with organic solvents including headaches and fatigue among painters than among the control group.
Mitteilungen der Südwestlichen Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1996, No.1, p.29-33. Illus.
Landau K., Luczak H., Laurig W.
Ergonomics of sensorimotor activities
Ergonomie der Sensumotorik [in German]
Conference devoted to an overview of the influence of work and workplace design on sensorimotor activities. Specific subjects covered were: the influence of work design and work organization on circadian rhythm; sensorimotor activities and workplace design; results of motion studies and electromyographic examinations of selected muscles of the fingers, hand and arm.
Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich, Germany, 1996. xvi, 100p. Illus.
Wirth D., Marx G.
"Dynamic sitting" as compared with static sitting postures - An experimental study
"Dynamisches Sitzen" im Vergleich zu statischen Sitzhaltungen - eine experimentelle Studie [in German]
Muscular fatigue was measured by electromyography during office work in static and dynamic sitting postures on various types of chairs. The presence of neck, shoulder and back pain after the work was determined with a questionnaire. The office work comprised manual writing tasks and work on the computer. Dynamic sitting with free choice of the inclination of the back rest between 90 and 120 degrees produced much lower muscle fatigue and less back pain than static sitting. The extension of the range of back inclinations to 120 degrees for brief periods of time is recommended.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, Jan. 1996, Vol.50 (22 new version), No.1, p.51-54. Illus. 46 ref.
Mizoue T., Nishisaka S., Nishikuma K., Yoshimura T.
Occupational and lifestyle factors related to musculoskeletal and fatigue symptoms among middle-aged female workers in a frozen food processing factory
Reitō shokuhin kakōgyo ni okeru chūkōnen josei rōdōsha no kinkokkaku kei shōjō [in Japanese]
A self-administered questionnaire survey on musculoskeletal and fatigue symptoms related to individual and work-related risk factors was conducted among middle-aged female workers in a frozen food processing factory. The proportions of workers who frequently experienced, during the preceding month, stiff muscles or pain in the neck-shoulder, back and lower limb were 32.9%, 26.8% and 15.9%, respectively. The proportion for fatigue symptoms was 30.5%. Factors related to fatigue were: short duration of employment, low body weight, long hours of work at home, short sleep hours, walking to or from work. Factors correlated with back pain were: tall stature, low body weight. Factors correlated with lower limb pain were: working below hip height, working above shoulder height, tall stature, short stature. Workers' subjective evaluation of height of work table was significantly related to the body height. The ergonomic aspects of the work should be improved, taking individual characteristics into account. Advice on factors in workers' lives off the job may also be appropriate.
Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Sep. 1996, Vol.38, No.5, p.223-229. Illus. 18 ref.
Iskra-Golec I., Folkard S., Marek T., Noworol C.
Health, well-being and burnout of ICU nurses on 12- and 8-h shifts
Report on the effects of shift work schedules on the health, sleeping habits and the psychological and social well-being of two groups of intensive care unit nurses. The 12h shift nurses experienced more chronic fatigue and anxiety than those on 8h shifts. Job satisfaction was independent of shift duration.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.10, No.3, p.251-256. 25 ref.
Gerard M.J., Armstrong T.J., Foulke J.A., Martin B.J.
Effects of key stiffness on force and the development of fatigue while typing
Six subjects typed continuously for 2 hours on each of two keyboards (0.28N or 0.83N resistance keys). Keyboard reaction forces were measured and finger muscle activity was monitored using electromyography (EMG). While using the stiffer keyboard, subjects exerted 54% more peak force, 34% more peak finger flexor EMG, and 2% more peak finger extensor EMG. Subjects typed much harder than necessary to activate the keys. Fatigue was observed on the stiffer keyboard, but the trends were mild. It appears that electrical efficiency (ratio of typing force to flexor EMG) may not be a sensitive enough indicator of fatigue for low-force high repetition work.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.9, p.849-854. Illus. 21 ref.
Kamieńska-Żyła M., Prync-Skotniczny K.
Subjective fatigue symptoms among computer systems operators in Poland
A questionnaire survey of over 600 computer systems operators in Poland investigated 26 symptoms of subjective mental fatigue and musculoskeletal strain. Greatest discomfort among both men and women was in relation to eye strain, backache and headache. All symptoms, except visual fatigue, were more strongly experienced by women than by men, and younger workers complained more of all symptoms than did older ones. More attention should be paid to the ergonomic design of computer workstations.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1996, Vol.27, No.3, p.217-220. 2 ref.
Braam I.T.J., van Dormolen M., Frings-Dresen M.H.W.
The work load of warehouse workers in three different working systems
The purpose of this study was to compare three working systems (highly mechanized (HM), moderately mechanized (MM), and slightly mechanized (SM)), concerning the time spent on tasks, activities during the working day, postures that occurred, physiological work load, perceived exertion and recovery from work. In the SM system more time was spent with the trunk flexed more than 75° than with the other two systems. This posture was very common during the lifting of objects, and lifting was done more often in this system than in the others. In the MM system the warehouse workers had the highest estimated oxygen uptake and reported the highest perceived exertion at the end of the working day. The workers in the HM system had a shorter working day and had less problems with recovery from work than the workers of the other two systems. Poor working postures like rotation and lateroflexion were commonly found in the HM working system. In conclusion, the HM system was considered most favourable when it concerned work load and recovery from work. The appliances used in the HM system, and especially the electric car, need to be designed according to ergonomic guidelines to avoid poor working postures.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1996, Vol.17, p.469-480. Illus. 25 ref.
Kitahara T., Taoda K., Nishiyama K.
Experimental study on the work load of continuous sign language interpretation
Renzoku shuwa tsūyaku sagyō no futan ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyū [in Japanese]
The workload of sign-language interpretation was evaluated in an experimental session with 20 sign-language professionals. Five of the subjects (Group I) had no health problems, nine had mild symptoms of cervicobrachial syndrome (Group II) and six had moderate symptoms (Group III). During a 50min period of interpretation, two workload tests were conducted every five minutes. Subjective symptoms and electromyographic (EMG) data on the upper trapezius muscles were recorded. The speed of onset and the intensity of local discomfort increased in the order I-II-III. The only statistically significant EMG difference between the groups was a higher root-mean-square amplitude of the signals in Group III.
Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, 20 Mar. 1996, Vol.38, No.2, p.59-69. Illus. 29 ref.
Understanding some of the more difficult research problems in maritime human factor research
Study of ship-board cultures and lifestyles in order to understand the human errors that occur in seafaring and the accidents that occur because of them. Results of four particular studies are summarized: fatigue at sea; coronary heart disease (CHD) among seafarers; deaths and injuries from accidents on board merchant ships; problems caused by the multicultural nature of ship crews and from the attendant failures of verbal and non-verbal communication. Extensive statistical tables are presented. Background material: fatigue on merchant ships (research data, current methods for fatigue reduction, the changing ship environment, causes and measurement of fatigue, circadian rhythms, microsleep, high risk times, desirability of rest days, fatigue monitoring, further research topics, conclusions); quality of sleep; CHD (project design, aims: data collection, risk estimation, proposals for prevention); multicultural problems and verbal and non-verbal on-board, ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication (background on intercultural relationships, sources of friction, development of standard maritime vocabularies; objectives of a project examining the problem from various angles).
International Research Centre for Seafarers Safety and Occupational Health, Department of Maritime Studies and International Transport, University of Wales, Cardiff CF1 3TS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1996. [59p.]. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Wide awake at odd hours: Shift work, time zones and burning the midnight oil
Survey on sleep-waking patterns, particularly of sleep disturbances and consequent risks of accidents due to irregular working hours, especially in connection with night or early morning work shifts. Jet-lag can induce similar alterations of sleep cycles. Jet-lag affects both flight crews and passengers and its symptoms disappear after a few days. Sleep processes are explained together with the phases of deep sleep and dream sleep (also known as REM, i.e. rapid eye movements). The requirements and quality of sleep and the effects of its loss are described, pointing out that napping is a very effective way of compensation. The role of circadian rhythm is emphasized: this is determined by a clock-like structure in the hypothalamus and it generates alertness and good functioning capacity, but poor sleep, during the daytime, while at night it provides good sleep, but poor functional capacity and low body temperature. Alertness increases at the peak of the rhythm (late afternoon: approximately 5 p.m.) and is reduced to its lowest point in the early morning (approximately 5 a.m.). Due to the corresponding increase in the level of tiredness, work between 4 and 7 a.m. should be avoided if possible. ILO Recommendations, Swedish laws, EU directives. Discussion of insomnia and other sleep troubles.
Swedish Council for Work Life Research, Box 1122, 1181 Stockholm, Sweden, 1996. 116p. Illus. 127 ref. Price: SEK 100.00.
Kapitaniak B., Bruneteau P.
Study of the physical workload involved in the handling of luggage trolleys in a Parisian airport
Etude de la charge de travail occasionnée par la manipulation des chariots dans un aéroport parisien [in French]
The results of this study show that having to push more than 350 trolleys over a distance of 50m or more than 150 trolleys over 150m per hour becomes a heavy workload for the worker; that pushing more than 20 or 30 trolleys at the same time should be avoided and that strapping the trolleys together does not reduce the hardness of the task.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1996, Vol.36, No.1, p.5-13. Illus. 7 ref.
Wide awake at odd hours: Shift work, time zones and burning the midnight oil
Vaken på udda arbetstider: Om skiftarbete, tidszoner och nattsudd [in Swedish]
The causes of sleep disturbances, their consequences during a person's waking hours and what can be done to minimize their effects are described. Research results and facts about sleep and its importance for people with irregular working hours are compiled. Contents: the effects of working at odd hours (sleep, reduced alertness, safety, performance, gastro-intestinal and cardiac condition, social effects, jet-lag); sleep (the sleep process, tiredness, lack of sleep); circadian rhythm; mechanism (predicting one's own sleeping and waking); organization of irregular hours; individual strategies; regulations (Swedish law, European directives, ILO standards); clinical sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia, parasomnia). An English-language edition of this book was abstracted as CIS 96-1903.
Swedish Council for Work Life Research, Box 1122, 111 81 Stockholm, Sweden, 1995. 124p. Illus. 127 ref..
Eye strain and response. Study based on log book, measurements of eye movements and number of blinking during eye-straining work
Augenermüdung und Beanspruchung. Untersuchungen mit Augensymptomtagebüchern, Messung der Augenbewegungen und der Lidschlaghäufigkeit bei visuell belastenden Arbeiten [in German]
The psychophysiological effects on the eyes caused by the introduction of the computer at the workplace were studied. Volunteers in a telephone exchange in Vienna where an electronic database was introduced and volunteers in two small firms where the use of computer-aided design was inaugurated participated in the study. Indicators of visual fatigue such as frequency of eye blinking and saccadic eye movement velocity were measured. In addition, volunteers kept a diary of subjectively perceived symptoms of eyestrain such as red and burning eyes. The physiological parameters were found to reflect the effort rather than visual fatigue.
Peter Lang AG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1995. 167p. Illus. 226 ref. Index. Price: DEM 51.00.
Nishiyama K., Fukutome K., Yamashita H., Taoda K., Kitahara T., Watanabe S.
Night and shift work conditions and health in the Japanese chemical and allied industries: Results of a questionnaire study
Kagaku kōgyō kanren rōdōsha no shin'ya kōtai kimmujōken to kenkō: shitsumonshi chōsahō ni yoru kentō [in Japanese]
Survey of members of a union representing about 7% of the regular workers in the sector. Data were obtained from the union, and from 4045 male workers, including 1844 shift workers, and 873 women, including 16 shift workers. Because of the small sample of female shift workers, the study focused on the male group. There were 79 rotating shift systems and 4 regular night duty systems. Although shift workers complained more frequently than day workers of cumulative fatigue and expressed more anxiety about their health, there was no difference between the groups in health status. Shift workers complained more often of problems with work schedules and of shortcomings in the work environment. The proportion of smokers was higher among the shift workers. Both shift and day workers averaged 6.7h/day of sleep at home, but the former reported poor environments for daytime sleeping after a night shift. Those who could nap for more than 2h during a night shift reported less fatigue than other shift workers. Workers in the 5-team, 3-shift system promoted by the Japanese union movement did not necessarily enjoy better health or better working conditions. Where such systems were adopted without increasing the number of shift workers, increases were reported in work intensity, working hours, double shifts and duty calls on days off.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Aug. 1995, Vol.71, No.8, p.311-333. Illus. 10 ref.
Shimaoka M., Hiruta S., Ono Y., Yabe K.
Relationship of task strain and physical strength to end-of-work fatigue among nurses at social welfare facilities
Ninety-nine nurses who performed night duty at the public social welfare facilities of a Japanese city underwent physical examinations and interviews. Their ages were 20-49 years. The 40-49-year age group had the highest indices of muscle strength, in contrast to the decline in strength with age seen in standard values for the Japanese population. Maximal oxygen uptake, flexibility of the body and skinfold thickness were used in addition to strength as measures of fitness. When the nurses were divided into high-fatigue and low-fatigue groups on the basis of reported post-shift symptoms, there was general correlation of lower fatigue with higher fitness. However, when the subjects were asked to rate the fatigue associated with individual patient-care tasks the correlation was not consistent. This shows that promoting fitness among nursing staff will not be sufficient to combat fatigue: ergonomic measures to reduce the strain of some tasks will also be necessary.
Journal of Occupational Health, 20 July 1995, Vol.37, No.4, p. 227-233. Illus. 22 ref.
Driving and fatigue: Driver impairment, driver fatigue and driving simulation
Proceedings of a conference held in Fremantle, Australia, 16-17 September 1993. Papers are presented under the following headings: fatigue in the transport industry (managing driver fatigue in long-distance road transport, driver fatigue and alertness, role of fatigue research in setting driving hours regulations); the epidemiology of fatigue-related crashes (Australian accident statistics, drugs, driving and enforcement, interaction between driver impairment and road design in the causation of accidents); preventive measures (vehicle deceleration indicators, alcohol and drugs education programme, profile line-marking and noise, detecting fatigued drivers with vehicle simulators); empirical analysis of the impact of fatigue; theoretical considerations in research into driving.
Taylor & Francis Ltd, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1995. xi, 278p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 34.95.
VDT workstations: Layout and lighting
Postes de travail avec terminal à écran de visualisation: disposition et éclairage [in French]
These guidelines address the factors affecting physical and visual demands on people working with video display terminals (VDTs). Contents: workstation layout (position of keyboard and monitor, use of hand-held input devices, spectacle wearers, adjustable seating and working surfaces); lighting levels and the reduction of glare; task design; checklist for VDT workstations.
Publications Section, Ontario Ministry of Labour, 400 University Avenue, 9th Floor, Toronto M7A 1T7, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 1995. 10p. Illus. 3 ref.
Aronsson G., Strömberg A.
Work content and eye discomfort in VDT work
A questionnaire survey of Swedish public employees with frequent and different types of VDT work was conducted. Eye discomfort was statistically related to aspects of work organization. The highest levels of discomfort were reported by computer-aided design, data entry and word processing groups; groups with mixed VDT tasks displayed the lowest level of symptoms. Time spent at a VDT, low degree of work control, time pressure and high pace of work were all associated with relatively high levels of eye discomfort.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.1-13. 16 ref.
Matsumoto K., Harada M.
The effects of night-time naps on recovery from fatigue following night work
Topics: fatigue; Japan; night work; questionnaire survey; shift work; sleep pattern; subjective assessment; work capacity; workbreaks.
Ergonomics, May 1994, Vol.37, No.5, p.899-907. Illus. 25 ref.
Highway heroes in trouble
Highway-Helden in Not [in German]
Subjects covered in this publication of a doctoral thesis are: conditions of work including safety and health risks of long-distance truckers; stress factors and social aspects of the work of long-distance truckers.
Edition Sigma, Heimstrasse 14, 10965 Berlin, Germany, 1994. 344p. 386 ref. Price: DEM 35.00.
The influence of the microclimate in commercial vehicles on the driver's performance
Der Einfluss des Mikroklimas im Nutzfahrzeug auf die Leistungsfähigkeit des Fahrers [in German]
The results of simulation tests are used to illustrate the effects of temperature rises in the driver's cab. An increase to 30°C increased the number of errors by 28%. At an increase to 35°C the errors rose by 40%. Present air conditioning systems for commercial vehicles are helpful in maintaining a comfortable climate that neither lowers the attention-span of drivers nor increases their reaction time.
ATZ, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.96, No.7-8, p.406-410. Illus. 7 ref.
Härmä M., Suvanto S., Partinen M.
The effect of four-day round trip flights over 10 time zones on the sleep-wakefulness patterns of airline flight attendants
Forty flight attendants kept daily logs on sleepiness, the time they went to bed, and sleep quality during a four-day round trip flight over ten time zones. The autonomic sleep phases of 21 subjects were studied using the static charge sensitive bed method. Most flight attendants suffered significant disturbances in sleep quality. Sleep disturbance increased after both westward and eastward flights, but differed from each other in specific features. Recovery from the four-day trip took on average four days.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1994, Vol.37, No.9, p.1461-1478. Illus. 24 ref.
Kluth K., Böhlemann, Strasser H.
A system for a strain-oriented analysis of the layout of assembly workplaces
A measuring system for the analysis of muscular strain at assembly workplaces is described. The system incorporates electromyography, synchronous recording of hand-arm-shoulder motions by means of ultrasonic signals and a calibration apparatus for the recording of maximum forces of several hand-arm-shoulder muscles during dynamic arm movements. The application of the system for the analysis of different work rates and a worker-friendly assembly area is illustrated.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1994, Vol.37, No.9, p.1441-1448. Illus. 8 ref.
Lie I., Watten R.G.
VDT work, oculomotor strain and subjective complaints: An experimental and clinical study
In an experimental study, two groups of workers performed three hours of continuous VDT work, one group watching the visual display and the other looking out of the window. There were significant group differences in work-related effects on the eyes' ciliary and extraocular muscles and on subjective symptoms; not only visual symptoms but also muscle pain in the head, neck and upper back may result from near-point induced oculomotor strain. The effect of optical correction was examined in 14 symptomatic workers. There was a significant reduction in symptoms, indicating that visual anomalies contribute to work-related symptoms.
Ergonomics, Aug. 1994, Vol.37, No.8, p.1419-1433. Illus. 38 ref.
Hasegawa T., Kumashiro M.
A study on the work hour for data entry work with VDT
Dēta nyūroku sagyō o rei to shita VDT sagyō ni okeru ichi renzoku sagyō jikan ni tsuite no jikkenteki kentō [in Japanese]
The performance and fatigue levels of volunteers were measured before, during and after a 60min simulated data entry job. When the work was interrupted at 10-30min intervals by 2-10min of rest, the overall performance of the subjects in entering data was better than in a 60min period without a break. When a sorting task was substituted for rest during the intervals, performance was even better, but the subjects' reaction time and visual fatigue increased.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, 15 Dec. 1994, Vol.30, No.6, p.405-413. Illus. 13 ref.
Sleep and hours of work - Survey conducted in the framework of an industrial physician's work plan
Sommeil et horaires de travail - Enquête réalisée dans le cadre du plan d'activité du médecin du travail [in French]
Study conducted by 16 industrial physicians on the prevalence of sleep disturbances among the 25,000 workers of the national commodity/food market at Rungis, France. Occupations vary greatly from wholesale trade, transport, restaurants, self service food stores, retail stores, warehouse work to construction, tertiary sector (banking, insurance, computer work, etc.). Work patterns also vary greatly, as do hours of work (day-work, night-work, shift work (2 X 8, 3 X 8) as well as irregular shifts). The prevalence of sleep disturbances is high whether it relates to sleep quantity or quality, and is related to other disorders such as overweight, stress, high blood pressure, alcoholism, pathopsychologic disturbances and disruptions in family and social life.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.281-288. Illus. 16 ref.
Watten R.G., Lie I., Birketvedt O.
The influence of long-term visual near-work on accommodation and vergence - A field study
A study of the influence of sustained, visual near-work on a set of oculomotor functions (ZCSV, Zone of Clear Vision) was carried out in a group of young, female accountants engaged in full-time work using a video display terminal. PRA (Positive Relative Accommodation), NRA (Negative Relative Accommodation), PRC (Positive Relative Convergence) and NRC (Negative Relative Convergence) were measured before work and at the end of the working day. There were significant reductions in the four ZCSV components over the working day; vergence reductions accounted for over 60% of the changes.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.27-39. 49 ref.
Summala H., Mikkola T.
Fatal accidents among car and truck drivers: Effects of fatigue, age, and alcohol consumption
A study was made of fatal road accidents in Finland. When excluding alcohol-related cases, trailer-truck drivers who either fell asleep or were tired to a degree that contributed to the accident were younger than those involved in the other fatal accidents. For car drivers, the proportion of fatigue-related cases was approximately constant in each age group, but increases were seen for young drivers (18-20 years old) between midnight and 6:00am and in older drivers (56 and older) during the late afternoon hours. Fatigue and alcohol appeared to be less of a problem for truck drivers than for car drivers.
Human Factors, June 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.315-326. 51 ref.
Evidence for the effects of certain factors on fatigue, performance decrement and accident risk is reviewed with particular reference to road safety and the professional driver. Such factors include: length of continuous work spells and daily duty periods; time available for rest and continuous sleep; arrangement of duty, rest and sleep periods within each 24 hour cycle. The study shows that fatigue is insufficiently recognized and reported as a cause of road accidents and that its effects stem largely from prolonged and irregular working hours rather than from time spent at the wheel.
Human Factors, June 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.298-314. 65 ref.
Bloswick D.S., Gerber A., Sebesta D., Johnson S., Mecham W.
Effect of mailbag design on musculoskeletal fatigue and metabolic load
Based on the results of a pilot study, two types of mailbag were developed as alternatives to the conventional US postal mailbag, which hangs over one shoulder. Both included waist supports and one split the load into two parts. Tests indicated that use of the alternative mailbags resulted in no significant change in metabolic load compared with the conventional mailbag, but did result in significantly less lateral trunk muscle fatigue. It is proposed that this reduction in fatigue would result in reduced musculoskeletal stress and reduced potential for back injury.
Human Factors, June 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.210-218. Illus. 13 ref.
Okogbaa O.G., Shell R.L., Filipusic D.
On the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of knowledge worker mental fatigue using the EEG signal
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1994, Vol.25, No.6, p.355-365. Illus. 57 ref. ###
Gur S., Ron S., Heicklen-Klein A.
Objective evaluation of visual fatigue in VDU workers
Accommodation and convergence tests were carried out on 16 VDU workers and 13 controls before work at the beginning of the week and again four days later at the end of the working day. VDU workers showed a significant decrease in both accommodation and convergence range compared with controls; workers with high values of these variables at first examination showed a greater decrease. It is suggested that accommodation and convergence measurements can be used to evaluate visual fatigue objectively in VDU workers.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.44, No.4, p.201-204. Illus. 19 ref.
Williamson A.M., Gower C.G.I., Clarke B.C.
Changing the hours of shiftwork: A comparison of 8- and 12-hour shift rosters in a group of computer operators
In a study of 75 computer operators, the effect of changing from a predominantly 8 hour per shift irregular roster to a 12 hour per shift regular roster was investigated. Data were collected by questionnaires, diaries and examination of error records on the computer system. The results showed that changing to the 12 hour shift produced improvements in health, particularly in psychological health, improved sleep quality and quantity and reduced feelings of tiredness. The change had no significant ill-effects on personnel-related factors such as absenteeism and staff turnover or on productivity.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1994, Vol.37, No.2, p.287-298. Illus. 16 ref.
Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France - Meeting of 22-23 October 1992
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séance des 22 et 23 octobre 1992 [in French]
Main subjects treated at the meetings of 22 and 23 Oct. 1992 of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: economic outlook for road transport in France - repercussions on working conditions; selection criteria for tramway drivers; study of simple auditive and visual reaction time in bus drivers in Abidjan (Ivory Coast); adequate techniques for the monitoring of chrome plating workers: air sampling or determination in urine; assessment of exposure to noise during random events - two methods, two sets of results; early osteonecrosis and determination of the aptitude to work - study of one case; vaccination against hepatitis in the workplace; multidisciplinary approach to the design of workplaces; ergonomic approach applied to two teams of operators using the same machinery for post-driving and lifting; a pragmatic approach to workplace acoustics; drinking and driving: an experiment; sleep apnoeas: repercussions in the transport sector; cardiac rhythm disorders in a truck driver - medico-legal comments on one case.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.53-70.
Solomon J., Bishop P., Bomalaski S., Beaird J., Kime J.
Responses to repeated days of light work at moderate temperatures in protective clothing
This study assessed workers' ability to sustain work output over four consecutive workdays in encapsulating protective clothing (PC). Six subjects wearing a two-piece PC ensemble cycled at a work rate of 38W in a 29/22°C (dry/wet bulb) ambient temperature. Work continued until rectal temperature (Tre) reached 38.3°C or fatigue forced the subject to stop. Subjects then rested without PC in a 21°C room until Tre reached 38.0°C to simulate micro- or macro-environmental cooling during rest. Work was alternated with rest for a total time of four hours. Contrary to expectations, mean work time did not diminish on succeeding days. Subject responses to the repeated exposures were highly variable and in no case changed significantly from day one to day four. Subjects tolerated well repeated four hour exposures with controlled elevations in Tre. There was no clear evidence of either increased or decreased tolerance of this work-rest paradigm across days.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.16-19. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Fatigue in dock work
This data sheet provides guidance on factors to be considered when assessing health and safety risks due to both mental and physical fatigue with particular reference to dockwork. These include: the need for concentration, length of the working day, intervals between working days, shift work, night work. The need for rest days at appropriate intervals is emphasized.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1993. 2p.
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