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Fatigue - 430 entries found

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CIS 02-1762 Cail F.
Work on screens and dryness of the eyes
Travail sur écran et sécheresse oculaire [in French]
The risk factors of visual fatigue during work on screens and the corresponding preventive measures are well understood. However, the preventive measures are not always implemented, no doubt because of the diversity of risk factors. Visual fatigue can appear in the form of physiological changes such as lengthening of the near point of accommodation at the end of the working day, or as complaints of ocular dryness. The objective of this review article is to highlight current understanding of the topic, based on a literature survey. Contents: description of the lachrymal system; methods for evaluating lachrymal secretion; work on screens and ocular dryness; causes of ocular dryness; preventive measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.131-135. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-1958 Neri D.F., Oyung R.L., Colletti L.M., Mallis M.M., Tam P.Y., Dinges D.F.
Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck
A major challenge for flight crews is the need to maintain vigilance during long, highly automated nighttime flights. A six-hour uneventful nighttime flight in a flight simulator was flown by 14 two-man crews. The 14 subjects in the treatment group received five short breaks spaced hourly during cruise; the 14 subjects in the control group received one break in the middle of cruise. During the latter part of the night, the treatment group showed significant reductions for 15min post-break in slow eye movements, theta-band activity and unintended sleep episodes compared with the control group. The treatment group reported significantly greater subjective alertness for up to 25min post-break, with strongest effects near the time of the circadian trough. The findings show the potential usefulness of short-duration breaks as an in-flight fatigue countermeasure.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.73, No.7, p.654-664. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 03-1460 Rajaratnam S.M.W.
Legal issues in accidents caused by sleepiness
This paper describes legal cases involving accidents attributed to sleepiness or fatigue, mainly as a consequence of shift-work or prolonged work hours, in the United Kingdom, USA and Australia, how the legal systems are dealing with such incidents and how this may change in the future. Accidents related to sleepiness may result in criminal prosecution, for example in charges of culpable driving. For acts involving motor vehicle accidents, the legal question of voluntariness may be raised. Employers may be deemed liable for injuries of third parties caused by wrongful acts of employees committed in the course of their employment. In the future, it is likely that employers will need to take greater precautions to reduce sleepiness and fatigue in the workplace, especially where the risk to public and environmental safety, health and productivity are significant.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.107-111. 19 ref.

CIS 03-1459 Kecklund G., Ekstedt M., Åkerstedt T., Dahlgren A., Samuelson B.
The effects of double-shifts (15.5 hours) on sleep, fatigue and health
The aim of this study was to investigate how "double-shifts" (15.5h) affect sleep, fatigue and self-rated health. The study involved 48 male construction workers working during two work periods, with each work period consisting of two consecutive double shifts. The subjects filled in a sleep/wake diary and responded to a questionnaire on several occasions during the course of a year. The results showed that sleepiness, and to a certain extent, mental fatigue, increased during double shifts and accumulated across days. The short rest time (8.5h) between days allowed an insufficient sleep period of approximately 5.5h. Questionnaire data showed that complaints of insufficient sleep, exhaustion on awakening and pain symptoms increased across the year. It was concluded that a shift system involving double shifts has a negative effect on fatigue, recovery and well-being.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.53-58. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-761 Mocci F., Serra A., Corrias G.A.
Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals
To examine the importance of psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs), a group of 212 subjects without organic vision disturbances were selected among a population of 385 bank workers. They were administered three questionnaires, the NIOSH job stress questionnaire, a questionnaire investigating subjective discomfort related to environmental and lighting conditions of the workplace, and a questionnaire on the existence of vision disturbances. Social support, group conflict, self-esteem, work satisfaction, and under-use of skills were found to be predictors of vision complaints. Social support also played a part as a moderating factor in the stress and strain model, which accounted for 30% of the variance. Subjective environmental factors were not found to be strong predictors of the symptoms. In conclusion, some of the complaints concerning visual health reported by VDT workers are likely to be indirect expressions of psychological discomfort related to working conditions.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.267-271. 36 ref.

CIS 02-970 Trinkoff A.M., Storr C.L., Lipscomb J.A.
Physically demanding work and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in registered nurses
Pain and fatigue are early indicators of musculoskeletal strain. This study examined associations among eight physical demands and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in 3727 working registered nurses. Among the demands, awkward head and arm postures were associated with each outcome (inadequate sleep: odds ratio (OR) 1.96; pain medication OR, 1.65; absenteeism OR, 1.60). A dose-response relationship was present; as the number of demands increased, the likelihood of each outcome increased. Odds ratios for eight demands versus no demands were as follows: inadequate sleep (OR 5.88), pain medication (OR 3.30), and absenteeism (OR 2.13). Adjustment using multiple logistic regression for lifestyle, demographics, and work schedule did little to alter the findings. Interventions to promote nurses' health should limit the physical demands of the work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.355-363. 33 ref.

CIS 02-460 Nussbaum M.A., Clark L.L., Lanza M.A., Rice K.M.
Fatigue and endurance limits during intermittent overhead work
An ergonomic evaluation of tasks requiring the hands to be used at or above shoulder level has been conducted first of all with a laboratory simulation of overhead assembly work. In this simulation the duty cycle (work/rest ratio), arm reach and hand orientation of a tapping task were varied. Females exhibited longer endurance times, delayed reports of discomfort and slower declines in strength. Influences of duty cycle were found on both endurance and fatigue times, which are presented as criteria for preliminary evaluation of overhead work.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.446-456. Illus. 90 ref.

CIS 02-484 Özkan-Rabret E.
8th Research day of the Inter-University Institute of Occupational Medicine of Paris-Ile-de-France: Sleep - vigilance - work
8ème Journée de recherche de l'Institut interuniversitaire de médecine du travail de Paris-Ile-de-France: sommeil - vigilance - travail [in French]
Review article on the topics presented at the 8th inter-university occupational medicine research day of Paris-Ile-de-France held in Paris, 23 March 2001. Contents: biological clocks and rules affecting alternating sleep and alert periods; insomnia and poor quality sleep, including evaluation tools; hypersomnia; drowsiness when driving; intake of medicines and drowsiness; drowsiness and aptitude for vigilance tasks; drowsiness assessment scales.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.189-202.


CIS 05-731 Gentile S., Pellissier V., Tézenas du Montcel S., Antoniotti S., Gérin O., San Marco J.L.
Impact of the working constraints of high speed ships on the health of seafarers
Retentissement sur la santé du personnel navigant des contraintes spécifiques à la navigation sur les navires à grande vitesse [in French]
This article examines the impact on tiredness, watchfulness and perceived health of constraints associated with work on high-speed ships. A study of 50 workers on two high-speed ships and one traditional ship was carried out in 1997. Results indicated that while the constraints of sailing in high-speed ships had a greater effect on the crew's tiredness and watchfulness compared to the traditional ship, the impact did not appear to cause any physiological changes that would threaten the security or health of those on board.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2000, Vol.61, No.5, p.297-303. 8 ref.

CIS 03-240 Chan R.F.M., Chow C.Y., Lee G.P.S., To L.K., Tsang X.Y.S., Yeung S.S., Yeung E.W.
Self-perceived exertion level and objective evaluation of neuromuscular fatigue in a training session of orchestral violin players
Fourteen professional violin players volunteered in this study to investigate the relationship between self-perceived exertion level and an objective measurement of muscle fatigue before and after rehearsal sessions. Training-induced exertion was evaluated by the Borg scale ratings. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the fatigue level of the upper trapezius muscles before and after a training session. Medium frequency (MF) signals were selected from the EMG recordings and used to document the fatigue rate of this muscle. A 79% prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal complaints was found, with the neck and shoulder region accounting for 57.1% of the areas reported. There was also a significant increase in self-perceived exertion fatigue after the training session. Regression analysis revealed no significant difference in the slopes of MF on both trapezius muscles, before and after the training sessions. The disparity in the subjective perception with the objective findings indicated that the violinists' self-perceived exertion arises from multiple sources.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 2000, Vol.31, No.4, p.335-341. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 03-183 Caccappolo E., Kipen H., Kelly-McNeil K., Knasko S., Hamer R.M., Natelson B., Fiedler N.
Odor perception: Multiple chemical sensitivities, chronic fatigue and asthma
Patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) often report heightened sensitivity to odours. Odour detection thresholds to phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) and pyridine (PYR) were evaluated for 33 MCS subjects, 13 chronic fatigue syndrome subjects, 16 asthmatic subjects and 27 healthy controls. Odour identification ability (based on University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification test results) and ratings in response to four supra-threshold concentrations of PEA and PYR were also assessed. Odour detection thresholds for PTA and PYR and odour identification ability were equivalent for all groups; however, when exposed to supra-threshold concentrations of PEA, MCS subjects reported significantly more trigeminal symptoms and lower aesthetic ratings for the substance. No group differences were found in response to supra-threshold concentrations of PYR.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.42, No.6, p.629-638. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1763 Bertini M., Fattorini E.
The effects of monotonous tasks on ultradian and circadian changes in alertness and mood and EEG levels of drowsiness for VDT work activities
Effetti della monotonia del compito sulle variazioni ultradiane e circadiane della vigilanza e dell'umore e sui livelli di sonnolenza EEG nelle attività lavorative ai videoterminali [in Italian]
The vigilance and wakefulness of six male workers on computer terminals were evaluated by examining electroencephalographic changes in their sleep patterns. The changes can be attributed to relaxed vigilance subsequent to the performance of monotonous work. This kind of work may result in unforeseeable periods of sleep during the performance of the task.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.25-34. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1963 Garbarino S., Nobili L., Beelke M., Balestra V., Carrea P., Ferrillo F.
Sleepiness and road accidents in Italian traffic policemen on shift-work: A study on the national autostrada network during 1993-1997
Sonnolenza ed incidenti stradali nei turnisti della polizia stradale italiana: uno studio sulla rete autostradale nazionale nel quinquennio 1993-1997 [in Italian]
In order to evaluate the time distribution and the possible role of sleepiness in highway accident causation among highway patrol personnel, a study was conducted of 1218 traffic accidents involving traffic police that occurred on the Italian autostrada (expressway/motorway) network during 1993-1997. Accidents occurring during the day were significantly correlated with traffic density, while those occurring during the night were not. During the 7 p.m. - 1 a.m. shift the number of accidents showed a progressively increasing trend with two significant peaks around 11 p.m. and 1 a.m. Information about sleep habits before starting night shifts was obtained by means of telephone interviews. The factors considered included circadian rhythms, homeostasis and fatigue. Long naps seemed to reduce the risk of accidents, however policemen seem to underestimate the risk of sleepiness during the 7 p.m. - 1 a.m. shift.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.486-493. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-1484 Ishikawa H., Yamazaki Y.
The effects of job and family conditions on cumulative fatigue of working mothers in double income family
The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and domestic factors which affect cumulative fatigue. It was hypothesized that the higher level of job-related stress and family related stress were both associated with a greater extent of cumulative fatigue, and that even if job related stress was high, the high quality of family life moderates the increase of cumulative fatigue. In the study sample consisting of 1018 working mothers with young children in double-income families who responded to a questionnaire, both hypotheses were largely supported. Higher scores of negative support, lower feeling of reward at workplace, work addiction, and higher family life stress were directly related to greater cumulative fatigue, although overtime working hours, husband's sharing of housework and childcare, and wife's sex-role orientation showed only indirect association with cumulative fatigue. Also, lower levels of family-life stress were found to moderate the increase of cumulative fatigue.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2000, Vol.76, No.3, p.1-15. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 02-971 Sluiter J.K., Frings-Dresen M.H.W., van der Beek A.J., Meijman T.F., Heisterkamp S.H.
Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work with different physical and mental demands
Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery were studied by measuring the urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol during and after three workdays and during and after two consecutive days off. The fifth day, or second day off, was considered baseline. The assessment was made in 60 Dutch male workers divided into three groups according to the mental, physical, and combined mental and physical demands of their work. Differences in main or interaction effects with time of day were found between the workers in combined mental and physical work and the two other groups of workers for cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion. In addition, the baseline levels of the 3 hormones were higher in the workers with combined mental and physical work. Unfavourable effects on cortisol and adrenaline reactivity or recovery was found for workers with combined mental and physical demands when compared with workers doing mainly mental or mainly physical work. The results of the present study are in accordance with the cognitive activation theory and the allostatic load model.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.306-316. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 02-454 Epstein R., Tzsischinsky O., Nave T., Nela C., Dov Z., Peretz L.
Sleep-wake cycles of medical residents working extended shifts in Israel
Schlaf- und Wachzyklen von Assistenzärzten mit langen Arbeitszeiten in Israel [in German]
In Israel residents in hospitals are on duty in shifts up to 32 hours. The purpose of this study was to provide specific information on their sleep-wake cycles. 78 residents completed a self-administered questionnaire survey and their sleep-wake cycle was monitored by a wrist-worn actigraph for one week at the beginning of the study, and after 6 and 12 months. It was found that residents slept significantly less during a night shift compared to a night at home. During the first year of residency, the residents worked at least 9-10 extended shifts a month and suffered from chronic sleep deprivation.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.324-329. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-453 Kundi M., Wöckinger G.
Psychosocial aspects of flexible shift work organization among hospital nurses
Psychosoziale Aspekte flexibler Diensteinteilung für das Pflegepersonal in Krankenanstalten [in German]
The influence of the shift work schedule on sleep duration and social life was determined by conducting a questionnaire survey among 134 nurses in various hospitals in Austria. The aim of the study was to assess possible benefits of flexible shift schedule arrangements compared to traditional 12-hour day or night shift and 8-hour 3-shift schedules. Nurses with flexible shift schedule reported less interference with family obligations and leisure time activities and higher sleep duration and quality. They were on average also more satisfied with their schedule. In both groups with fixed schedules, a significant correlation between interference with family and leisure activities and sleep was observed.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.306-310. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-445 Zużewicz K., Kwarecki K., Waterhouse J.
Circadian rhythm of heart rate, urinary cortisol excretion, and sleep in civil air traffic controllers
Ten civil air traffic controllers (ATCs), nine men and one woman, at Warsaw Airport (Poland) were subjected to 24-hr ECG monitoring. A further 19 ATCs, including 14 working 12-hr shifts and 5 performing 24-hr duties, were monitored for urinary cortisol every 4 hours. Finally 62 answered a questionnaire on the quality and duration of sleep and subjective fatigue. Results show that among ATCs, shift work modifies natural rhythms of the circulatory system and decreases the ability for intense mental work at night. 48% of the ATCs reported sleep disorders.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.383-392. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 01-1566 Basso A., Urbano M.L., Soleo L., Serio G., Trerotoli P., Scianaro S., Di Candia O., Ambrosi L.
Fatiguing work, ageing and health: A cross-sectional study of a group of anaesthesiologists
Lavoro usurante, invecchiamento e salute: studio trasversale in un gruppo di anestesisti [in Italian]
A general discussion of the fatigue concept, based on criteria retrieved from Italian laws, is presented. The results are then reported of a questionnaire survey in which 1438 Italian anaesthesiologists and resuscitators (mean age: 45.5 years) were asked if they considered their occupation as fatiguing. A high incidence of stress-related conditions and joint diseases was found, with a positive correlation with age. Other organic diseases did not appear to occur earlier than expected. Overall, the principal risk in this occupational group was that of neuropsychic disease due to physical and mental stress. This paper was presented at an International Seminar on Ageing and Work, held in Verona (Italy) on 7 Apr. 2000.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.91, No.4, p.354-365. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 01-592 Beurskens A.J.H.M., Bültmann U., Kant I., Vercoulen J.H.M.M., Bleijenberg G., Swaen G.M.H.
Fatigue among working people: Validity of a questionnaire measure
The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the "checklist individual strength" questionnaire (CIS) in the working population. This 20-item self-reported questionnaire has often been used in patients with chronic fatigue. The CIS was filled out by five groups of employees with expected differences in fatigue. The convergent validity was evaluated by comparing the results of the CIS with the results of three related measures: measured unidimensional fatigue, burnout and need for recovery. The CIS was able to discriminate between fatigued and non-fatigued employees in occupational groups. The expected agreement between the results of the CIS and related measures was confirmed. In conclusion, the CIS seems to be an appropriate instrument for measuring fatigue in the working population.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.353-357. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 01-431 Sluiter J.K., Frings-Dresen H.W., Meijman T.F., van der Beek A.J.
Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol: A systematic literature overview
A systematic literature search was performed on the topic of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as effect variables measured in blood, urine or saliva were taken into consideration. For reactivity and recovery up to 1 hour after performing the task, half of the studies considered physical tasks and more than two thirds showed incomplete recovery compared with baseline excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. Three days after the task was performed, recovery was often incomplete for cortisol after a combination of mentally and physically demanding tasks, and less often after solely mental or physical tasks.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.298-315. 109 ref.

CIS 00-1175 Mitchell R.J., Williamson A.M.
Evaluation of an 8 hour versus a 12 hour shift roster on employees at a power station
The objective of this study was to examine the changeover from an 8h roster to a 12h roster in a power station. On-shift performance, general health and well-being, sleep and mood behaviour, as well as absenteeism and accident data were examined. Results suggest that the domestic and social life of workers was markedly improved under the 12h roster. Improvements in physical health, sleeping behaviour and mood state of employees were also documented On-shift performance measures showed an increase in error rates at the end of a 12h shift.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.83-93. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 00-571 Farbos B., Bourgeois-Bougrine S., Cabon P., Mollard R., Coblentz A.
Sleepiness during night-shift - sleeping habits or melatonin rhythm? A laboratory study
The relationship between sleeping habits and sensitivity to sleepiness were examined in seventeen male volunteers selected according to their features of "morningness-eveningness" and the degree of flexibility of their sleeping habits. Subjective assessments were made of sleepiness, fatigue, mental performance and sleep, and the alpha attenuation test. The melatonin circadian rhythm was also measured. Data were compared between the following pairs of groups: evening-morning, flexible-rigid, evening-flexible, morning-flexible and morning-rigid, and groups with an advanced onset of melatonin production at 11 pm and with a delayed onset at 2 am. Results showed that morning, morning-flexible, morning-rigid and advance groups presented more adjustment difficulties than evening, evening-flexible and delay groups. Results suggest that melatonin production and a combination of the two dimensions "eveningness" and "flexibility" of sleeping habits could explain the capacity to adjust to night-work.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.25, No.3, p.283-294. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 00-575 Nakata A., Haratani T., Kawakami N., Miki A., Kurabayashi L., Shimizu H.
Sleep problems in white-collar male workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company in Japan
In order to clarify sleep habits and sleep disturbances among healthy male white-collar workers, a total of 1,161 employees of an electric equipment manufacturing company were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire. The workers were asked about 11 types of sleep habits. They were also divided into two sets of four groups according to age and job type: 23-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59; managerial, professional, technical and clerical. In this study, sleep problems were defined as having at least one of the following four characteristics: taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep; waking up during sleep (ADS) almost every night; early morning awakening (EMA) almost every day; and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at work almost every day. Analyses showed that sleep problems were present in 26.0% of workers, and that the problems were most serious among workers aged 50 years and above (36.0%). The findings suggest a need for increased attention to sleep problems in older workers as well as in younger workers with EDS.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.62-68. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 02-1494 Rogers A.S., Spencer M.B., Stone B.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Validation and development of a method for assessing the risks arising from mental fatigue
This report describes a programme of work to validate and develop further a procedure for assessing the risks associated with fatigue in a range of industries. The method involves a Fatigue Index, which incorporates five factors known to be related to the build-up of fatigue, namely the time of the day, shift duration, rest periods, breaks and cumulative fatigue.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1999. iii, 31p. Illus. 153 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 02-494 Colquhoun R.
Burnout in mental health professionals: A personal construct approach
Burnout is characterized by depersonalization, a decreased sense of personal accomplishment and physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. This research project used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the influence of affect states (anger, depression and good feelings), differences in work-related construct systems and socio-demographic variables on burnout. The study group consisted of 60 health care professionals, who were questioned on their working environment and personal life; the replies were transcribed and rated on a number of scales. A personal construct model of burnout was developed, according to which affect states were associated with levels of burnout and differences in content of work-related construct systems were predictive of levels of burnout. However, there were no significant differences in socio-demographical factors among professionals who showed burnout. Implications of the present research are discussed and ideas for future research are suggested.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.67-78. 45 ref.

CIS 00-1477 Howarth H.D., Pratt J.H., Tepas D.I.
Do maritime crew members have sleep disturbances?
Data obtained from surveys of two samples of maritime crew members were studied for differences in self-reported sleep lengths and sleep problems. The data addressed both on- and off-duty variables. Statistical analysis of the data found that on-duty sleep length was shorter than off-duty sleep length for both groups. The two groups' responses to various sleep-problem items were significantly different. Most responses were below the scale mid-point. The differences between on- and off-duty sleep-problem items were not significant. Following a factor analysis, selected sleep-problem items were combined to form a composite Sleep Disturbance Scale. Using this composite measure, the correlation between the composite and sleep length was not significant. Overall, the results indicate that caution should be exercised before labeling shift workers as having "disturbed sleep" or suffering from "sleep disorders." The results do confirm the previous findings that shiftwork reduces sleep length on workdays.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.95-100. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-872 Horne J., Reyner L.
Vehicle accidents related to sleep: A review
Falling asleep while driving accounts for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents under monotonous driving conditions. Circadian effects are profound, with sleepiness being particularly evident during night shift work and while driving home afterwards. Circadian factors are as important in determining driver sleepiness as is the duration of the drive, but only duration of the drive is built into legislation in the U.K. protecting professional drivers. Older drivers are also vulnerable to sleepiness in the mid-afternoon. Putative counter measures to sleepiness, adopted during continued driving (cold air, use of car radio) are only effective for a short time. The only safe countermeasure to driver sleepiness, particularly when the driver reaches the stage of fighting sleep, is to stop driving, and - for example - take a 30 minute break encompassing a short nap or coffee, which are very effective particularly if taken together. Exercise is of little use. More education of employers and employees is needed about planning journeys, the dangers of driving while sleepy and driving at vulnerable times of the day.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.56, No.5, p.289-294. 60 ref.

CIS 99-2084 McPherson G.
Too tired to stay alert
The offshore environment is a dangerous home to workers who may, for half their lives, work 12-hour shifts for up to 14 consecutive days. Their particular job and lifestyle is designed to be repetitive but this habitual life can lead to fatigue which has been cited as a cause of a significant number of accidents offshore. Research into fatigue within this specific occupational community indicates the extent to which alertness is affected by fatigue. The results have implications for those working in a wider field. Topics: conditions of work; fatigue; offshore oil extraction; relaxed vigilance; shift work; work time schedules.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 1999, Vol.17, No.5, p.16-18. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-1711 Tucker P., Smith L., Macdonald I., Folkard S.
Distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems: Impacts on health, wellbeing, and on shift alertness
The effects of distribution of rest days in 12 hour shift systems were investigated. An abridged version of the standard shiftwork index which included retrospective alertness ratings was completed by a large sample of industrial shiftworkers. The respondents worked 12 hour shift systems that either did or did not incorporate breaks of >24 hours between the blocks of day and night shifts. Systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts were associated with slightly higher levels of on-shift alertness, slightly lower levels of chronic fatigue, and longer sleep durations when working night shifts and between rest days. Early changeovers were associated with shorter night sleeps between successive day shifts, but longer and less disturbed day sleeps between night shifts. The distribution of rest days in 12hour shift systems had only limited effects on the outcome measures, although the few modest differences that were found favoured systems which incorporated rest days between the day and night shifts. Topics: fatigue; questionnaire survey; shift work; sleep; social aspects; state of health; vigilance; work-rest schedules.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.56, No.3, p.206-214. Illus. 24 ref.


CIS 01-1841 Kristjuhan Ü., Reedik V., Tähemaa T.
A device for preventing occupational diseases of the lower legs
Physiological processes characteristic of the fatigue of legs mainly appear when the worker's activity requires standing. If the processes are intensive and regular, various diseases of legs, such as varicose veins and musculoskeletal disorders of legs and feet, can develop. Therefore, it is important to develop methods of reducing the fatigue of legs. Air jet massage technique was developed, and a prototype massage device was built. The massaging device's head turns around the lower leg and moves up and down, gradually covers the leg's surface. To determine the efficiency of the massage, fatigue processes were studied. These studies showed that jet massage effectively reduces both the subjective and objective fatigue symptoms. The device is convenient for use in industry, services, and at home.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1998, Vol.4, No.1, p.69-74. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-2090 Hartley L.
Managing fatigue in transportation
Topics: alcohol consumption and accidents; circadian rhythm; cognitive performance; conference; drivers; fatigue; legislation; perceptual-motor performance; road transport; safety rules; sea transport; shift work; sleep; taxis; transport industry; work time schedules.
Elsevier Science Limited, The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom, 1998. xv, 458p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: NLG 227.00, USD 130.50.

CIS 99-1694 Chi C.F., Lin F.T.
A comparison of seven visual fatigue assessment techniques in three data-acquisition VDT tasks
Methods of measuring visual fatigue (accommodation power, visual acuity, pupil diameter, critical fusion frequency (CFF), eye movement velocity, subjective rating of visual fatigue, and task performance) were compared for their sensitivity to visual load. Ten participants performed a monitoring task at two viewing distances, read articles under two levels of screen contrast, and tracked visual targets at two different speeds. The techniques were also compared by extending the task time from 20 to 60min with the same tasks to test for possible improvement in sensitivity. Results indicated that sensitivities of accommodation power, visual acuity, and CFF were greatly improved by a longer task period, but these techniques did not distinguish among tasks. Pupil diameter, eye movement velocity, and subjective rating of visual fatiguewere sensitive in differentiating tracking from reading and monitoring tasks. Eye movement velocity and subjective rating were sensitive to the changes in target velocity of the tracking task. Task performance helped to ensure that participants maintained the same performance level by devoting more resources to the high-load conditions. Topics: comfort assessment; CRT display terminals; data processing equipment; evaluation of technique; visual acuity; visual comfort; visual fatigue; visual flicker fusion; visual performance; visual tasks.
Human Factors, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.577-590. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 99-1221 Nibel H.
Does work on visual display terminals really make you sick?
Macht Bildschirmarbeit wirklich krank? [in German]
Eyestrain before and after introduction of work on CRT display terminals was assessed by telephone operators, computer-aided designers and bank employees. All participants kept a diary of their eye problems. In addition frequency of blinking was determined. Telephone operators complained most frequently of eyestrain while bank employees had the lowest frequency of complaints. Reported eyestrain was highest during or after private conflicts. The ergonomic conditions on the workplace had little influence on the frequency of eyestrain. Topics: banking and insurance; computer aided design; computer terminals; CRT display terminals; eyes; fatigue assessment; subjective assessment; telephone exchanges; visual fatigue.
Personal, Mar. 1998, Vol.50, No.3, p.122-127. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1019 Lowden A., Åkerstedt T.
Sleep and wake patterns in aircrew on a 2-day layover on westward long distance flights
Sleep/wake patterns associated with a westward transmeridian flight and short layover were investigated. 42 aircrew were monitored for 9 days with activity monitors and diary before, during and after flight. Westward flights were associated with extended wake spans during layover, increased sleepiness and slow recovery on return home. Strategic sleeping may counteract the effect somewhat, but individual differences are few. Topics: air transport; circadian rhythm; sleep disturbances; sleep pattern; work time schedules.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.69, No.6, p.596-602. 25 ref.

CIS 99-326 Konz S.
Work/rest: Part I - Guidelines for the practitioner; Part II - The scientific basis (knowledge base) for the guide
Topics: arousal; biological effects; cardiovascular system; circadian rhythm; fatigue; hours of work; motivation; muscular work; nervous fatigue; physical fatigue; shift work; sleep; vigilance; work organization; work-rest schedules; workbreaks.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 1998, Vol.22, No.1-2, p.67-99. Illus. 132 ref.

CIS 99-330 Onishi N.
Study on electromyographic activities during repetitive upper arm work and physical fitness in female workers
Summary in English. The purpose of the study was to investigate the degree of the muscle loading by repetitive manipulative tasks and its effects on the development of chronic fatigue as well as the relation of such muscle loading with physical features. Topics: cashiers and ticket clerks; cross-sectional study; electromyography; endurance limit; fatigue; measurement of load on muscles; muscle contractor activity; muscular strength; physical fitness; pulse rate; repetitive work; shoulder; upper extremity disorders; women; work posture.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Apr. 1998, Vol.74, No. 4, p.135-155. Illus. 61 ref.

CIS 98-1729 Greenwood K.
Shiftwork: Working towards solutions
Selection of papers presented at an international symposium on night and shift work held in Connecticut, USA, June 1995. Topics: adaptation of man to work; artificial lighting; circadian rhythm; cognitive performance; conference; fatigue; health hazards; mental stress; mental work capacity; night work; occupational accidents; shift work; sickness absenteeism; sleep deprivation; sleep; social aspects; vigilance; work organization; work time schedules.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1998, Vol.21, Nos.3-4, p.165-340. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-1549 Darby F., Walls C.
Stress and fatigue: Their impact on health and safety in the workplace
Topics: biological effects; fatigue; implementation of control measures; job dissatisfaction; legislation; mental stress; mental workload; New Zealand; physical workload; responsibilities of employers; shift work; social aspects; stress factors.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Jan. 1998. 51p. Illus. 74 ref. Price: NZD 20.00.

CIS 98-1513 Rosa R.R., Bonnet M.H., Cole L.L.
Work schedule and task factors in upper-extremity fatigue
Topics: assembly-line work; fatigue; night work; shift work; upper extremity disorders; work time schedules; work-rest schedules.
Human Factors, Mar. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.150-158. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 98-1021 Seafarer fatigue: Wake up to the dangers
Topics: dangerous occurrences; fatigue; hours of work; relaxed vigilance; responsibilities of employers; sea transport; survey; work-rest schedules.
International Transport Workers' Federation, ITF House, 49-60 Borough Road, London SE1 1DS, United Kingdom, 1998. 20p. Illus.


CIS 01-1268 Richter G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Mental load and strain - Stress, mental fatigue, monotony mental exhaustion
Psychische Belastung und Beanspruchung - Stress, psychische Ermüdung, Monotonie, psychische Sättigung [in German]
Topics: behaviour prediction; behaviour study; check lists; Germany; mental stress; monotonous work; nervous fatigue; neuropsychic stress; stress factors.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Bürgermeister-Smidt-Str. 74-46, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. viii, 92p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 00-1200 de Arquer M.I.
Mental workload: Fatigue
Carga mental de trabajo: fatiga [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; diet; mental workload; motivation; nervous fatigue; physical fitness; sickness absenteeism; Spain; workbreaks.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 4p. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1375 Wessely S.
Chronic fatigue syndrome: A 20th century illness?
The history and meaning of chronic fatigue syndrome is reviewed. Other terms previously used for the disease include myalgic encephalomyelitis and immune deficiency syndrome. Relevant research linking chronic fatigue syndrome with somatization is also reviewed. Topics: chronic diseases; diagnosis; fatigue; history; immunodeficiency syndrome; literature survey; neurasthenia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1997, Vol.23, Suppl.3, p.17-34. 192 ref.

CIS 98-1004 Panton D., Eitzen G.
Dynamic rosters: Addressing fatigue and recovery issues in the workforce
Topics: fatigue; shift work; work organization; work time schedules.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1997, Vol.13, No.5, p.487-492. 4 ref.

CIS 98-1003 Fletcher A., Dawson D.
A predictive model of work-related fatigue based on hours of work
Topics: fatigue; hours of work; night work; shift work; sleep deprivation; work organization.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1997, Vol.13, No.5, p.471-485. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 98-1038 Andrieu F., Ducouret B., Guinel P., Knab A.
Employee fatigue: A descriptive approach to the phenomenon
La fatigue des salariés: une approche descriptive du phénomène [in French]
Topics: age-linked differences; fatigue; France; hours of work; mental stress; questionnaire survey; risk factors; sex-linked differences; sleep disturbances; social aspects.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, No.2, p.157-163. 13 ref.

CIS 98-709 Ulfberg J., Carter N., Talbäck M., Edling C.
Occupational exposure to organic solvents and sleep-disordered breathing
Topics: apnoea; exposure evaluation; functional respiratory disorders; organic solvents; questionnaire survey; sleep disturbances; Sweden.
Neuroepidemiology, 1997, Vol.16, p.317-326. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 98-989 Feyer A.M., Williamson A., Friswell R.
Balancing work and rest to combat driver fatigue: An investigation of two-up driving in Australia
Topics: Australia; drivers; fatigue; pulse rate; road transport; trucks; work capacity; work-rest schedules.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1997, Vol.29, No.4, p.541-553. 25 ref.

CIS 98-988 Dalziel J.R., Job R.F.S.
Motor vehicle accidents, fatigue and optimism bias in taxi drivers
Topics: Australia; drivers; fatigue; hours of work; occupational accidents; questionnaire survey; road transport; taxis; workbreaks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1997, Vol.29, No.4, p.489-494. 22 ref.

CIS 98-987 Arnold P.K., Hartley L.R., Corry A., Hochstadt D., Penna F., Feyer A.M.
Hours of work, and perceptions of fatigue among truck drivers
Topics: Australia; dangerous occurrences; drivers; fatigue; hours of work; questionnaire survey; road transport; sleep deprivation; trucks.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1997, Vol.29, No.4, p.471-477. 6 ref.

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