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Fatigue - 430 entries found

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CIS 09-473 Takayama L., Nass C.
Assessing the effectiveness of interactive media in improving drowsy driver safety
A total of 79 participants used a driving simulator while interacting with a language-learning system that was either passive (drivers merely listen to phrases in another language) or interactive (drivers verbally repeat those phrases). Participants included drowsy and non-drowsy drivers, on both monotonous and varied driving courses. Among the main findings: drowsy drivers preferred and drove more safely with interactive media; the interactive media did not negatively affect non-drowsy driver safety; drivers drove more safely on varied driving courses than on monotonous ones. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Human Factors, Oct. 2008, Vol.50, No.5, p.772-781. 65 ref.

CIS 09-478 LaBrash L.F., Pahwa P., Pickett W., Hagel L.M., Snodgrass P.R., Dosman J.A.
Relationship between sleep loss and economic worry among farmers: A survey of 94 active Saskatchewan noncorporate farms
Farm work involves seasonal peak busy periods with long hours of work and potential sleep loss. Social, technological and economic changes, and depressed commodity prices, have resulted in financial stress. The objective of this study was to examine the association between hours of sleep and economic worry among a population of farmers and their family members. It involved 195 persons from 94 active farms in two rural areas of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, who were interviewed by questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. During peak agricultural seasons, 31.6% of owner/operators reported less than six hours of sleep per night compared to 6.3% during the nonpeak season. A significant relationship (odds ratio 3.59) was observed between daily cash flow worry and impaired sleep during peak busy seasons.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.149-154. 24 ref.

CIS 09-463 Allen P., Wadsworth E., Smith A.
Seafarers' fatigue: A review of the recent literature
Fatigue has been noticeably under-researched in the maritime domain compared to other transport sectors. In a review of the literature 11 databases were searched in order to assess recent developments in the field and distil those issues of greatest concern and challenge to the seafaring community. Whilst diversity in the seafaring population has the potential to make global fatigue estimates meaningless, evidence of misrecorded working hours shows how commercial pressures are universally shared.
International Maritime Health, 2008, Vol.59, No.1-4, p.81-92. 37 ref.

CIS 09-336 Verster J.C., David B., Morgan K., Olivier B.
Validation of the Dutch occupational impact of sleep questionnaire (OISQ)
Sleep problems may have a profound impact on work performance. The purpose of this study was to validate the Dutch version of the Occupational Impact of Sleep Questionnaire (OISQ). A total of 555 adults with a regular daytime job completed the OISQ. In addition, they also completed various other sleep quality and sleepiness questionnaires. OISQ scores correlated significantly with scores on other questionnaires. It is concluded that Dutch OISQ is a suitable tool to examine the occupational impact of sleep among Dutch speakers.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.6, p.601-606. Illus. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-62 Talmage J.B., Hudson T.B., Hegmann K.T., Thiese M.S.
Consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnea: Evidence of efficacy
To validate the recently published consensus criteria for screening commercial drivers for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a large sample of commercial drivers was screened for OSA at an occupational medicine clinic and those screening positive were referred for overnight polysomnography. Among the 1443 individuals drivers examined, 190 (13%) of screened positive for OSA. Of these, 134 underwent polysomnography and 94.8% had OSA. The proposed screening criteria were found to have a high predictive value in this population. This study lends further support for mandatory screening of commercial drivers for OSA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.324-329. 9 ref.

CIS 09-215 Wilson J.R., Parsons K.C.
Contemporary research findings in shift work
This special issue contains 15 articles from an international symposium on shift work and working time held in August 2007, in Yeppoon, Australia. Topics covered: ageing workforce; review of studies that have used the Standard Shiftwork Index; impact of shiftwork on work and non-work indicators; sleep and its impact on fatigue and performance; impact of free-time activities on sleep, recovery and well-being; injury patterns by time of day among adolescents.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 2008, Vol.39, No.5, p.539-670 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-207 Hsu D.J., Sun Y.M., Chuang K.H., Juang Y.J., Chang F.L.
Effect of elevation change on work fatigue and physiological symptoms for high-rise building construction workers
This study investigates the environmental variables encountered by high-rise building construction workers as well as self-reported work fatigue and physiological responses among workers at a construction site. The objective was to investigate the effect of elevation change on the prevalence rates of subjective fatigue symptoms and physiological responses (calf circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, critical flicker fusion and strength) among workers. The measurement of environmental variables showed that wind velocity, temperature and level of ultraviolet light increase at successively increasing elevations. The post-shift prevalence rates of subjective fatigue symptoms and heart rate among these workers were found to increase at successively increasing elevations. The results of strength tests showed strength after work was greater than that before work. Work load or elevation change cannot well explain this unexpected change, and psychological factors may be involved. Thus, strength test is not a reliable indicator of work fatigue. Significant differences were found in critical flicker fusion value and calf circumference of both legs at various floor heights. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, June 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.833-843. 17 ref.

CIS 08-892 Yoshioka E., Saijo Y., Fukui T., Kawaharada M., Kishi R.
Association between duration of daily visual display terminal work and insomnia among local government clerks in Japan
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between the duration of daily visual display terminal work and sleep disturbances. A total of 2417 Japanese local government office workers (2030 men and 387 women) were investigated. Sleep disturbances were evaluated using the Athens Insomnia Scale. Visual display terminal work of 6h or more per day was significantly associated with insomnia (odds ratio 1.62) and in particular, caused problems with total sleep duration and sleepiness during the day, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, n°2, p.148-156. 25 ref.


CIS 09-465 Gander P., Purnell H., Garden A., Woodward A.
Work patterns and fatigue-related risk among junior doctors
To evaluate the work patterns of New Zealand junior hospital interns, relationships between different aspects of work and fatigue-related outcomes were examined. A questionnaire dealing with demographics, work patterns, sleepiness, fatigue-related clinical errors, and support for coping with work demands was mailed to junior interns. The response rate was 63% (1366 questionnaires from interns working ≥40 hours a week). On fatigue measures, 30% of participants scored as excessively sleepy, 24% reported falling asleep driving home since becoming a doctor, 66% had felt close to falling asleep at the wheel in the past 12 months, and 42% recalled a fatigue-related clinical error in the past 6 months. Night work and schedule instability were independently associated with more fatigue measures than was total hours worked. Regular access to adequate supervision and support at work reduced the risk of fatigue.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.64, No.11, p.733-738. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-214 Forsman P., Haeggström E., Wallin A., Toppila E., Pyykkö I.
Daytime changes in postural stability and repeatability of posturographic measurements
The effect of daytime on balance, posturographic measurements and their repeatability was investigated in 30 healthy volunteers to develop a test for monitoring workplace sleepiness. Balance measurements were carried out at 8:30 am, 10:30 am, and 1:30 pm. The repeatability was assessed with morning trials once a week for one month. The posturographic test was performed on a static force platform. Balance worsened during the day, while morning balance remained unchanged during the month-long test. It is suggested to use balance scores recorded at 1:30 pm as reference values for sleepiness monitoring to prevent sleep-related accidents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.49, No.6, p.591-596. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 08-991 Ahola K.
Occupational burnout and health
In a study carried out in 1997, the prevalence of severe burnout cases in Finland was found to be 7%. Burnout is often accompanied by other health problems. The aims of this study were to investigate the current prevalence of burnout, the socio-demographic and occupational risk factors of burnout, relationships between burnout and psychiatric symptoms (mood and anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and somatic illnesses), work ability, sickness absenteeism and the use of health care services and medical treatment. It was carried out in the form of a population-based cross-sectional study, in which data on a representative sample 8028 persons was collected through interviews, questionnaires and health examinations. Findings are discussed.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1376 Bennett J.
Feeling sleepy?
Sleepiness is often related to the build-up of exhaled carbon dioxide in work premises. This article discusses what carbon dioxide is, how it can affect work performance and how safety and health practitioners can act to reduce uncomfortable levels. Topics addressed: natural and mechanical ventilation of work premises; threshold limit value of 5000ppm (8h TWA) for carbon dioxide at the workplace defined by United Kingdom regulations; monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in workplace atmospheres.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 2007, Vol.25, No.1, p.43-45. Illus. 15 ref.


CIS 08-428 Folkard S., Lombardi D.A.
Modeling the impact of the components of long work hours on injuries and "accidents"
Many of the major industrial disasters of the last few decades occurred in the early hours of the morning. Follow-up investigations concluded that they were at least partially attributable to human fatigue and/or error. In this study, a "risk index" was developed based on published studies of the relationship between the risk of incidents and work schedules. The estimated risks of an incident for various standard work schedules are presented using the proposed model. It was found that the estimated risk of an injury or accident associated with any given number of weekly work hours varies substantially depending on how work hours are spread. The risk depends on the length and type of shift, as well as the frequency of rest breaks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.49, No.11, p.953-963. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 08-78 Iwasaki K., Takahashi M., Nakata A.
Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: Working hours, workers' compensation (Karoshi), and preventive measures
There is serious concern in Japan over health problems due to long working hours. National statistics show that more than six million people worked for 60h or more per week during years 2000 to 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of cerebrovascular or ischaemic heart diseases were recognized as being related to overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork-related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of working hours. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.537-540. Illus. 27 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-225 Caruso C.C.
Possible broad impacts of long work hours
This literature survey summarizes research linking long working hours to a wide range of risks to workers, families, employers and the community. The risks are theorized to stem from less time to recover from work, longer exposure to workplace hazards, and less time to attend to non-work responsibilities. Risks to workers include sleep deprivation, poor recovery from work, decrements in neuro-cognitive and physiological functioning, illnesses, adverse reproductive outcomes and injuries. Risks to families include delayed marriages and child bearing and obesity in children. Risks to employers include reduced productivity and increases in worker errors. Errors by fatigued workers have broad-reaching impacts to the community, including medical errors, automobile accidents and major industrial accidents that cause damage to the environment.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.4, p.531-536. 78 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1485 Wadsworth E.J.K., Allen P.H., Wellens B.T., McNamara R.L., Smith A.P.
Patterns of fatigue among seafarers during a tour of duty
The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of day to day fatigue among seafarers. Participants from the offshore support, coastal fishing and deep sea sectors of the United Kingdom completed daily diaries. Information on sleep and fatigue were collected each day on waking and retiring. Fatigue on waking was found to be a more sensitive measure of cumulative occupational fatigue than fatigue on retiring. Fatigue on waking increased between the start and end of the time spent on board. This increase took place in particular during the first week at sea and was most apparent among those on shorter tours of duty. Other findings are discussed. The diary method was found useful to identify times and activities associated with the greatest risk.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.49, No.10, p.836-844. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 07-1228 Teixeira L.R., Fischer F.M., Lowden A.
Sleep deprivation of working adolescents - A hidden work hazard
This review article discusses the sleep deprivation of adolescents and young workers, and its impact on their work and learning. Several studies have shown that working adolescents wake up earlier, have shorter nocturnal sleep duration and higher levels of sleepiness during wake time during the week than nonworking students do. These studies indicate that working students may have their learning ability negatively affected by being tired and sleepy. Therefore, on the basis of these results, it is recommended that educational programmes geared to sleep hygiene should be one of the priorities of the curriculum. At the same time, the hours of work of teenagers should be shortened in order to allow them to work and study during daytime and to have enough time at night for leisure and rest. These recommendations would improve the quality of life of the population that already is or will soon be participating in the job market.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.32, No.4, p.328-330. 15 ref.

CIS 07-471 Eriksen C.A., Ĺkerstedt T., Nilsson J.P.
Fatigue in trans-Atlantic airline operations: Diaries and actigraphy for two- vs. three-pilot crews
The aim of this study was to compare intercontinental flights with two-pilot and three-pilot crews with respect to fatigue, sleepiness and sleep, as there is considerable economic pressure on airlines to use two-pilot crews. Twenty pilots participated. Data were collected before, during and after outbound and homebound flights using a diary and wrist actigraphy. The duration of flights was approximately 8h, and six time zones were crossed. Sleep, sleepiness, subjective performance, boredom, mood and layover sleep quality were assessed as having deteriorated in the two-pilot condition. It is suggested that time allotted to sleep in the two-pilot condition should be extended to improve alertness.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2006, Vol.77, No.6, p.605-612. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 07-1218 Otmani S., Rogé J., Muzet A.
Sleepiness in professional drivers: Effect of age and time of day
The effects of age and time of day on objective and subjective sleepiness in professional drivers were investigated during a simulated driving task. Thirty-six young and middle-aged professional male drivers, free from any sleep disorder, took part in two simulated driving sessions; one carried out in the afternoon, the other at night. Half of each age group drove in light traffic conditions while the other half drove in heavy traffic. Throughout the driving task, subjects' electroencephalogram and Karolinska sleepiness scale scores were recorded. Visual analogue scales measuring alertness and sleepiness levels were also completed before and after the driving. After each session, subjects filled out the NASA-TLX questionnaire and were asked if they had felt sleepy during the driving. The young drivers presented a significant decrease in alertness in the low traffic condition and a strong propensity to sleep during the night test in contrast to middle-aged drivers.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.930-937. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 07-1217 Bunn T.L., Slavova S., Struttmann T.W., Browning S.R.
Sleepiness/fatigue and distraction/inattention as factors for fatal versus nonfatal commercial motor vehicle driver injuries
A retrospective population-based case-control study was conducted to determine whether driver sleepiness/fatigue and inattention/distraction increase the likelihood that a commercial motor vehicle collision will be fatal. Based on the Kentucky Collision Report Analysis for Safer Highways (CRASH) electronic database, 1998-2002, cases were identified as commercial vehicle drivers who died following a collision accident and controls were drivers who survived an injury collision. Cases and controls were matched by vehicle and roadway type. Conditional logistic regression was performed. Driver sleepiness/fatigue, distraction/inattention, 51 years of age and older, and non-use of safety belts increased the odds of fatal commercial vehicle collision accidents. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.37, No.5, p.862-869. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 07-1216 Jones C.B., Dorrian J., Rajaratnam S.M.W., Dawson D.
Working hours regulations and fatigue in transportation: A comparative analysis
Fatigue is recognized as one of the most important safety issues in transportation. This article identifies and compares the laws and regulations of four English speaking nations that limit working hours for safety purposes, and evaluates them against eight fatigue-related criteria. In addition, International and European Union law are considered where relevant. Two different styles of regulation were utilized by the countries surveyed: a prescriptive "hours of service" approach, and a non-prescriptive "outcomes" approach. The advantages and disadvantages of these two models are discussed. A proposal for a hybrid approach between the prescriptive and non-prescriptive systems is presented.
Safety Science, Apr. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.225-252. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 06-976 Nishikitani M., Nakao M, Karita K., Nomura K., Yano E.
Influence of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on the physical and mental status of software engineers
To investigate the impact of overtime work, sleep duration, and perceived job characteristics on physical and mental status, this cross-sectional survey was conducted among 377 workers in an information-technology company. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, including the Job Content Questionnaire, and interviews with occupational physicians and subjected to statistical evaluation. Findings are discussed. Although overtime work was associated with physical and mental complaints, sleep duration and the job strain index seemed to be better indicators for physical and mental distress in overloaded workers.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.623-629. 27 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-975 Sallinen M., Härmä M., Mutanen P., Ranta R., Virkkala J., Müller K.
Sleepiness in various shift combinations of irregular shift systems
This study examined the prevalence of sleepiness in various shift systems ending with a night or morning shift. Sleep and work shift diary data were collected for three weeks from 126 train drivers and 104 rail traffic controllers. The prevalence of severe sleepiness varied between 25% and 62% in the schedules ending with a night shift and between 12% and 27% in the those ending with a morning shift. Factors that affect a risk for sleepiness at work include having a child, shift length and starting time, and individual sleep need.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.114-122. Illus. 21 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-974 Nakata A., Ikeda T., Takahashi M., Haratani T., Fujioka Y., Fukui S., Swanson N.G., Hojou M., Araki S.
Sleep-related risk of occupational injuries in Japanese small and medium-scale enterprises
This cross-sectional study evaluated the contribution of daily sleep habits to occupational injuries. 2,903 workers aged from 16 to 83 years employed in small and medium size enterprises in Japan responded to a self-administered questionnaire on sleep, symptoms of depression, occupational injury, demographics, presence of diseases and lifestyle factors. Both sleep and injury were assessed over the previous one-year period. One-third of workers answered that they had experienced injury. Workers with sleep disturbances had a significantly higher prevalence for injury after adjusting for multiple confounders.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.89-97 50 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-972 Takeyama H., Kubo T., Itani T.
The nighttime nap strategies for improving night shift work in workplace
Several studies have shown that nighttime naps among nightshift workers have beneficial effects on working conditions, work performance and occupational safety. Nevertheless, the introduction of nighttime sleep breaks has not been widely accepted. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nighttime napas, the effective length and timing of naps and the importance of individual differences. The use of a participatory method to improve the acceptance of nighttime naps is proposed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.24-29. 45 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-971 Doi Y.
An epidemiologic review on occupational sleep research among Japanese workers
This paper reviews 24 studies on sleep disorders among the Japanese working population, 13 for non-shift and 11 for shift workers. The prevalence of insomnia and other sleep disturbances varied from 5 to 45% for non-shift and from 29 to 38% for shift workers. Poor sleep quality was related to state of health, occupational activities and social factors. Risk factors of poor sleep include hypertension, lifestyle behaviours (diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption), job-related conditions (job stress, social support, job dissatisfaction, workload, shift schedules) and depressed mood.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.3-10. 41 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-736 Wright N., Powell D., McGown A., Broadbent E., Loft P.
Avoiding involuntary sleep during civil air operations: Validation of a wrist-worn alertness device
This study evaluated the effectiveness of an alertness device based on wrist inactivity to detect the onset of sleep among airline pilots during flight. The device was worn by 21 pilots during a long (9h) flight. The presence of sleepiness and sleep was determined by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings during the entire flight. The alertness device was found to be an effective method for preventing accidental sleep.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.76, No.9, p.847-856. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 06-733 Farbos B., Imbeau D., Nastasia I.
Shift work and its effects on occupational safety and health - Importance of individual differences
Le travail posté et ses effets sur la santé et la sécurité au travail - Incidence des différences individuelles [in French]
This article explores individual differences in the way in which shift workers adapt to their work schedules. These include differences in coping strategies (organizing family and social life around shifts, taking naps during the shift, physical exercise) and differences in the intrinsic capacity of the operator with respect to the amplitude of biological rhythms and the flexibility of sleep habits.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2005, Vol.21, No.4, p.34-37. 10 ref.

CIS 06-469 Lamond N., Darwent D., Dawson D.
Train drivers' sleep and alertness during short relay operations
Within Australia, there has been a recent increase in relay working in rail transport operations. To address concerns about the amount of sleep by drivers in relay vans and resulting potential deficits in alertness, the current study assessed the sleep behaviour and alertness of 15 train drivers working short (<48h) relay operations. In total, drivers obtained 8-12h of sleep during the relay trip, which took approximately 40h. Overall, they reported that they felt more alert following each sleep period. Drivers were able to sustain attention during the 10-min vigilance tasks administered before and after each shift. These findings suggest that the amount of sleep obtained in crew vans during short relay operations is sufficient to maintain alertness during the trip. The importance of scheduling shifts to maximize the number of sleep opportunities between 10 pm and 7 am is emphasized.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2005, Vol.36, No.3, p.313-318. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 06-730 Tirilly G.
The impact of fragmented schedules at sea on sleep, alertness and safety of seafarers
El impacto de las jornadas fragmentadas en la mar sobre el sueńo, la capacidad de alerta y la seguridad de los marinos [in Spanish]
Most work schedules at sea rely on the watchkeeping system. This study examines the work/rest rhythm among seafarers and its effect on sleep and alertness. Two studies were conducted, one aboard a trawler and the other on an oceanographic vessel. Results indicate that sleep is fragmented into 2-3 episodes on the oceanographic vessel and 5-6 episodes on the trawler. Despite the fragmentation of the sleep, the 24h alertness rhythm was maintained, although with an impairment at night and a pronounced dip in the afternoon (coinciding with the need for a nap). The decreased alertness being linked to a much higher risk of accident, this risk factor is elevated at night. However the study shows that numerous work- and environmental-related factors play an important role in maintaining alertness level and have to be taken into account when addressing safety at sea.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2004, Vol.4, No.2, p.96-105. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 06-231 Rocha L.E., Debert-Ribeiro M.
Working conditions, visual fatigue, and mental health among systems analysts in Saő Paulo, Brazil
To evaluate the association between working conditions, visual fatigue and mental health among systems analysts in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a cross sectional study was carried out by a multidisciplinary team. It included ergonomic analysis of work, individual and group interviews and 553 self-administered questionnaires in two enterprises. The comparison population consisted of 136 workers employed in various other occupations. Among subjects, visual fatigue was associated with mental workload, inadequate equipment and workstation, low level of worker participation, being a woman and the subject's attitude to computer work. Mental health was associated with mental workload and with inadequate equipment, work environment and tools. Continuing education and leisure activities were protective factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.61, No.1, p.24-32. 35 ref.

CIS 06-225 van Amelsvoort L.G.M.P., Jansen N.W.H., Swaen G.M.H., van den Brandt P.A.., Kant I.
Direction of shift rotation among three-shift workers in relation to psychological health and work-family conflict
This study investigated whether the direction of shift rotation was related to the need for recovery, fatigue, sleep quality, work-family conflict, and leisure time among three-shift workers. Data for 95 workers in forward-rotating three-shift work and 681 workers in backward-rotating three-shift work were analysed over a period of 32 months. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out. A backward rotation schedule was related to an increased need for recovery (relative risk RR=2.88) and poor general health (RR=3.21), as compared with a forward rotation schedule. Furthermore, a forward rotation schedule was related to less work-family conflict and better sleep quality over the 32 months of follow-up. Finally, high levels of fatigue, need for recovery, poor sleep quality, poor general health, insufficient leisure time and work-family conflict were associated with an increased risk of leaving shift-work during the follow-up.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.30, No.2, p.149-156. 49 ref.

CIS 05-732 Hossain J.L., Reinish L.W., Heslegrave R.J., Hall G.W., Kayumov L., Chung S.A., Bhuiya P., Jovanovic D., Huterer N., Volkov J., Shapiro C.M.
Subjective and objective evaluation of sleep and performance in daytime versus nighttime sleep in extended-hours shift-workers at an underground mine
This study examined subjective and objective measurements of sleep and performance in a group of underground miners before and after the change from a backward-rotating 8-hour to a forward-rotating 10-hour shift schedule. The 10-hour nightshift workers reported more refreshing sleep, fewer performance impairments and driving difficulties than 8-hour nightshift workers. The results of the objective measures of sleep and performance on the 10-hour nightshifts were overall similar or possibly better than those measured on the 10-hour dayshifts. It is believed that these benefits are mostly the result of the timing of the new nightshift start and end times rather than other shift-schedule factors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.212-226. Illus. 124 ref.

CIS 05-243 Boyer C., Manillier P., Marchon-Jourdan M.F., Meyer A., Ouallet C., Trimbach M., Wargon C., Montéléon P.Y.
Evaluation of sleep and vigilance disturbances in a population of employees of SMEs in Ile-de-France
Evaluation des troubles du sommeil et de la vigilance dans une population de salariés de PME de l'Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep and vigilance disturbances in a group of employed persons and to explore possible relationships between these disturbances and the conditions of work. An anonymous standardized questionnaire was submitted to randomly-selected workers. The insomnia criteria defined in DSM IV were used and vigilance was expressed according to the Epworth scale. The responses were subjected to statistical analysis. 1410 workers (32.2%) suffered from insomnia. Occupational factors responsible for this insomnia included having very physically-demanding work (relative risk RR=2.25), very stressful work (RR=2,20), monotonous work (RR=1.65) and a noisy environment (RR=1.22). 16.1% of workers showed an Epworth score greater than 10, which is indicative of reduced vigilance.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.2, p.157-179. 40 ref.

CIS 04-476 Iwakiri K., Mori I., Sotoyama M., Horiguchi K., Ochiai T., Jonai H., Saito S.
Development of action checkpoints for comfortable computer work
A manual and a checklist for undertaking measures to prevent fatigue in visual display terminals (VDT) workers are presented. Problems related to VDT work can be recognized by using the checklist which allows self-evaluation by the workers. The manual helps the workers to consider measures for improvement by themselves.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.42, No.2, p.292-301. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 04-312 Weijman I., Kant I., Swaen G.M., Ros W.J.G., Rutten G.E.H.M., Schaufeli W.B., Schabracq M.J., Winnubst J.A.M.
Diabetes, employment and fatigue-related complaints: A comparison between diabetic employees, "healthy" employees, and employees with other chronic diseases
Work factors and fatigue-related complaints of 141 employees with diabetes were compared with 8941 healthy employees and 1883 employees with other chronic diseases. Baseline data from a Dutch Cohort Study on Fatigue at Work were used to test differences in background variables, work factors, lifestyle factors and fatigue-related complaints. Odds ratios were calculated for prolonged fatigue, the need for recovery, burnout, and psychological distress. Results showed that employees with diabetes work more daytime hours and work less overtime than the other groups. If they have no co-morbidity (no additional chronic diseases), they are no more likely to report fatigue-related complaints than healthy employees. However, co-morbidity is associated with increased fatigue-related complaints.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.828-836. 54 ref.

CIS 03-1952 Axelsson J., Ĺkerstedt T., Kecklund G.
Tolerance to shift work - How does it relate to sleep and wakefulness?
There is limited knowledge as to why some individuals tolerate shift work and others do not. This study evaluates whether dissatisfaction with the shift system is related to alterations of the daily pattern of sleep and sleepiness. 36 male and 20 female shift workers of a paper and pulp factory were selected according to their satisfaction with their shift schedule. The shift schedule included seven work periods with only 8-9 hours off between shifts. Sleep length was reduced after night shifts (4.8h) and afternoon shifts (5.4h) and sleepiness increased during all shifts, particularly night shifts. There were few gender differences. Dissatisfied workers reported much higher sleepiness; this problem was increased across the shifts. They also had more performance lapses at the end of the night shift.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2004, Vol.77, No.2, p.121-129. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 03-1947 Watanabe M., Akamatsu Y., Furui H., Tomita T., Watanabe T., Kobayashi F.
Effects of changing shift schedules from a full-day to a half-day shift before a night shift on physical activities and sleep patterns in single nurses and married nurses with children
Nurses (12 single, 18 married nurses with children) in a Japanese hospital were investigated. Subjects worked two different shift patterns consisting of a night shift after a half-day shift (HF-N) and a night shift after a day shift (D-N). Physical activity levels were recorded. The duration of sleep before a night shift was significantly shorter for married nurses than that of single nurses for both shift schedules. Changing shift from the D-N to the HF-N increased the duration of sleep before a night shift for both groups, and made wake-up time earlier for single nurses only. Detailed statistical analysis showed that the effects of a change in shift schedules seemed to have less effect on married nurses than single nurses. These differences might be due to the differences of their family and domestic responsibilities.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.42, No.1, p.34-40. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 03-1462 Saitō Y.
Six essential issues concerning study methods of workers' fatigue
Rōdōsha no hirō no kenkyū-hōhō ni kansuru shomondai [in Japanese]
Six main factors of fatigue in Japanese workers are explored: definition of fatigue and its relationship to work and other activities; changes in study methods and the concept of "burden"; physiological and psychological results of fatigue and the concept of recovery; biological aspects of fatigue; social aspects of fatigue; over-fatigue.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 2004, Vol.80, No.1, p.30-37. 11 ref.


CIS 06-222 Goode J.H.
Are pilots at risk of accidents due to fatigue?
There is concern in the aviation community that pilot schedules can lead to fatigue and increased chance of an aviation accident. Yet despite this concern, there is little empirical analysis showing the relationship between pilot schedules and commercial aviation accidents. This study attempts to demonstrate an empirical relationship between pilot schedules and aviation accidents. Data for human factors-related accidents and pilot work patterns were identified. The distribution of pilot work schedule parameters for the accidents was compared to that for all pilots using a chi-square test to determine if the proportions of accidents and length of duty exposure were the same. It was found that there is a discernible pattern of increased probability of an accident as duty time increases for commercial aircraft pilots in the United States. The analysis suggests that establishing limits on duty time for commercial pilots would reduce risk.
Journal of Safety Research, 2003, Vol.34, No.3, p.309-313. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 04-747 Benvenides Pereira A.M.T., das Neves Alves R.
Persons providing care are also in need of care: Understanding and preventing burnout
Quem cuida também merece cuidados: Conhecendo et prevenindo o burnout [in Portuguese]
This booklet on burnout and its prevention is aimed at persons caring for seropositive patients. It describes burnout symptoms, defines stress and burnout and provides guidance for avoiding burnout or mitigating its symptoms. It also includes relaxation and stretching exercises for relieving tension and emphasizes the importance of getting help from professionals when the person providing care can no longer cope with the symptoms alone.
Universidade Estadual de Máringá, Departamento de Psicologia, Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco118, CEP 8702-900 Máringá, Brazil, 2003. 19p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 03-1958 van Dijk F.J.H., Swaen G.M.H.
Fatigue at work
Fatigue is a common complaint in the working population. 20% of workers report symptoms of fatigue, and acute and chronic fatigue have an adverse impact on workers' health. Main topics covered in this issue: assessment of fatigue among working persons and comparison of different scales for the measurement of fatigue; fatigue and burnout; epidemiological approach of fatigue; acute and chronic job stressors among ambulance personnel; work schedules and fatigue; need for recovery from work related fatigue; fatigue as a predictor of sickness absence; physiological factors of fatigue (blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol responses); fatigue as a risk factor of occupational accidents; fatigue in employees with diabetes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, Suppl.I, p.i3-i106 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-1678 Salanova M., Llorens S., García-Renedo M.
What causes burnout among teachers?
żPor qué se están "quemando" los profesores? [in Spanish]
The results of a survey carried out among secondary school teachers in two Spanish provinces, aimed at analysing burnout symptoms in this occupation, are summarized. Various factors were taken into consideration, including: negative aspects (technical and social obstacles, mental and emotional overload); positive aspects (autonomy, social support and work atmosphere); effects on psychological well-being; personal resources of teachers. The study shows in particular that women present more symptoms of depression and burnout than men and that the 43-47 age groups have increased depression symptoms and lower job satisfaction. It highlights the importance of preventive actions and proposes the contents of prevention and intervention programmes.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.28, p.16-20. Illus. 16 ref.


CIS 06-221 Lilley R., Feyer A.M., Kirk P., Gander P.
A survey of forest workers in New Zealand - Do hours of work, rest and recovery play a role in accidents and injury?
This study explored the relationship between fatigue and accidents in a group of 367 forestry industry workers in New Zealand. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Fatigue was commonly experienced at work, with 78% of workers reporting that they experienced fatigue at least "sometimes." Certain groups of workers reported long working hours, reduced sleep, compromised recovery time, and intensely paced work. Logistic regression analysis showed that recent sleep, number of breaks taken during the workday, and specific tasks were independently associated with reporting of high fatigue levels at work. Near-miss events were significantly more common among those reporting a high level of fatigue at work. Accidents and lost-time injury were associated with length of time at work, ethnicity, and having had near-miss injury events. These results suggest that fatigue is associated with compromised safety for forest workers.
Journal of Safety Research, 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.53-71. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 05-476 Ĺkerstedt T., Knutsson A., Westerholm P., Theorell T., Alfredsson L., Kecklund G.
Work organisation and unintentional sleep: Results of the WOLF study
Falling asleep at work is receiving increasing attention as a cause of work accidents. This study investigates which variables (related to work, lifestyle, or background) are related to the tendency to fall asleep unintentionally, either during work hours, or during leisure time. 5589 individuals responded to a questionnaire, and a multiple logistic regression analysis of the cross-sectional data was used to estimate the risk of falling asleep. The prevalence for falling asleep unintentionally at least once a month was 7.0% during work hours and 23.1% during leisure time. The risk of unintentional sleep at work was related to disturbed sleep, shift work, and higher socioeconomic group. Being older, a woman and a smoker were associated with a reduced risk of unintentionally falling asleep at work. Work demands, decision latitude at work, physical load, sedentary work, solitary work, extra work, and overtime work were not related to falling asleep at work. With respect to falling asleep during leisure time, disturbed sleep, snoring, high work demands, being a smoker, not exercising, and higher age (>45 years) became risk indicators.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.59, No.9, p.595-600. 55 ref.

CIS 03-972 Kraft N.O., Inoue N., Mizuno K., Ohshima H., Murai T., Sekiguchi C.
Physiological changes, sleep and morning mood in an isolated environment
The objective of this project was to examine physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood and complaints during confinement. Six male and two female subjects spent seven days in an isolation chamber simulating the interior of the Japanese Experimental Module. Each 24h period included 6h of sleep, three meals and 20min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed questionnaires on the quality of their sleep. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume and body weight were measured two days before and after confinement and sleep motor activity was recorded during confinement. Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine and sleep motor activity showed significant differences during confinement. Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.73, No.11, p.1089-1093. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-880 Sust C.A., Lazarus H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Work at computer screens and noise
Bildschirmarbeit und Geräusche [in German]
This report describes an experiment conducted over a five-day period during which 32 participants carried out several typical office tasks of varying complexity while being subjected to five levels of noise (from 35 to 70dB). Results indicate that the performance (time necessary for completion and quality of work) was reduced with increasing task complexity and noise exposure. Participants also felt an increasing need to rest. In situations where the tasks were highly complex and involved a large amount of information, and where the noise levels are high, there was a tendency to cease work or to carry out only part of the task.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 108p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: EUR 11.50.

CIS 03-465 Liu Y., Tanaka H.
Overtime work, insufficient sleep, and risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in Japanese men
The objective of this case-control study was to examine the relation between working hours and hours of sleep on one hand, and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the other. Cases consisted of 260 Japanese men aged 40-79 admitted to hospitals with AMI during 1996-8. Controls consisted of 445 men free from AMI, matched for age and place of residence. It was found that hours worked per week were related to progressively increased odds ratios of AMI in the past year as well as in the past month, with a twofold increased risk for overtime work (weekly working hours ≥61) compared with working hours ≤40. Short time sleep (daily hours of sleep ≤5) and frequent lack of sleep (two or more days/week with less than five hours of sleep) were associated with a two to threefold increased risk. Frequent lack of sleep and few days off in the recent past showed greater odds ratios than those in the past year. It is concluded that overtime work and insufficient sleep may be related to increased risk of AMI.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.447-451. 33 ref.

CIS 03-486 de Croon E.M., Blonk R.W.B., de Zwart B.C.H., Frings-Dresen M.H.W., Broersen J.P.J.
Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: Towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control
Based on Karasek's model, this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload and occupation-specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. Information on job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, supervisor demands, fatigue and job dissatisfaction was gathered through questionnaires from 1181 lorry (truck) drivers. Data were subjected to multiple regression analyses. Inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%). Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control dampened the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of occupation-specific job control and job demand factors gives occupational stress researchers a better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and well-being.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.59, No.6, p.356-361. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 02-1967 Takahashi M., Nakata A., Arito H.
Disturbed sleep-wake patterns during and after short-term international travel among academics attending conferences
To examine variations in sleep and wakefulness associated with international travel, ten academics in Japan were studied while traveling abroad to participate in conferences. Destinations included the USA and Canada to the east (8 to 11h time difference; mean stay of 6.8 days) and Europe to the west (7 to 8h time difference; mean stay of 6.0 days). For eastward-travelling subjects, the total sleep time was shorter and the mean activity during sleep was greater at the destinations than before departure. These sleep disruptions persisted until the second day after the subjects had returned home. No significant disruptions in the main sleep were found in westward travellers, although these subjects took a longer nap immediately after their return. The beginning and end of sleep occurred earlier until the second day after the subjects had returned from eastward trips, but occurred later until the fifth day after return from westward trips. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to facilitate recovery from disturbed sleep wake patterns at home after travel.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.435-440. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1762 Cail F.
Work on screens and dryness of the eyes
Travail sur écran et sécheresse oculaire [in French]
The risk factors of visual fatigue during work on screens and the corresponding preventive measures are well understood. However, the preventive measures are not always implemented, no doubt because of the diversity of risk factors. Visual fatigue can appear in the form of physiological changes such as lengthening of the near point of accommodation at the end of the working day, or as complaints of ocular dryness. The objective of this review article is to highlight current understanding of the topic, based on a literature survey. Contents: description of the lachrymal system; methods for evaluating lachrymal secretion; work on screens and ocular dryness; causes of ocular dryness; preventive measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.131-135. Illus. 31 ref.

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