Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found
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Methods for assessing occupational radiation doses due to intakes of radionuclides
Radioactive materials are used in many human activities. Whenever unsealed radioactive sources are present, intakes of radionuclides by workers can occur. Intakes can occur by a number of routes, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. This report contains practical advice on the interpretation of such monitoring results and the assessment of committed effective doses to workers. Glossary. A CD-ROM of data in tabular form is included.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2004. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM. Price: EUR 28.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1190/Pub1190_web.pdf [in English]
Mitchell R.H., Garner K.F., Vaghela S.
Health and Safety Executive
Implications of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive for SMEs
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the proposed vibration exposure action and limit levels specified within the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive (see CIS 02-24) on small to medium enterprises (SME's). Work involved a literature survey, a telephone survey and site visits. 16% of the 121 companies that participated in the survey were aware of the Directive. 29% were estimated to expose their employees to vibration levels of 2.8m/s2 or greater, and 44% to vibration levels of 2.5m/s2 or greater. It is concluded that HSE guidance publications would be useful.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 127p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr267.pdf [in English]
Auffarth J., Hebisch R., Karmann J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Exposure to harmful substances during furniture production
Stoffbelastungen bei der Möbelherstellung [in German]
Workers' exposure to hazardous substances during furniture production was determined in twelve small and three industrial-scale enterprises. Workplace measurements were carried out during both manual and automatic processing of wood and wood-based materials, as well as during the use of solvents. Results show that workers were mainly exposed to wood dust. Other respirable dusts as well as alveolar fraction contribute to workers' exposure to a far lesser extent. The occupational exposure limit for inhalable wood dust was frequently exceeded during manual grinding. Less-frequent excessive exposures were also observed during the mechanical processing of wood, mainly in the small enterprises. Industrial scale enterprises however have the ability to control the problem of wood dust. Exposures to solvent vapours occurred mainly during spray painting and cauterization, however remaining within occupational exposure limits.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 112p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: EUR 13.00.
Martí Veciana A.
Risk assessment of chemicals. Main sources of analytical methods
Evaluación de riesgos por agentes químicos. Principales fuentes de métodos analíticos [in Spanish]
This information note lists the contact details of the main European and United States agencies having published standardized methods for the evaluation of the exposure of workers to chemical contaminants. Besides the address and the phone number, the e-mail address and website are provided, together with a brief description of the available information. The appendix describes the general criteria for selecting the appropriate analytical method to be used.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 6p. 4 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_637.htm [in Spanish]
Rojas Picazo A., Ledesma de Miguel J.
Repetitive movements: Assessment methods. OCRA method: Update
Movimientos repetitivos: métodos de evaluación. Método OCRA: actualización [in Spanish]
This information note presents the OCRA (Occupational Repetitive Action) method used for the evaluation of the physical workload resulting from repetitive movements of the upper extremities, as well as the various elements that have been modified to improve its results. Contents: scope of application; advantages and disadvantages of the OCRA method; various aspects of the method that have been updated and new mode of computing the final index. A table provides a general overview of all methods for evaluating repetitive movements.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 5p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_629.htm [in Spanish]
Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation - Safety Guide
Ocenka professional'nogo oblučenija ot vnešnih istočnikov ionizirujuščego izlučenija - Rukovodstvo po bezopasnosti [in Russian]
Evaluation de l'exposition professionnelle due aux sources externes de rayonnements - Guide de sûreté [in French]
Evaluación de la exposición ocupacional debida a fuentes externas de radiación - Guía de seguridad [in Spanish]
This Safety Guide prepared jointly by the IAEA and the ILO gives general advice on the assessment of exposure to external sources of radiation in the workplace and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations. It also reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment. It further provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements as laid down in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (1996) (see CIS 96-1472). A CD-ROM containing this Safety Guide was already abstracted under CIS 03-411.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 1999. 89p. Illus. 55 ref. Price of print edition: EUR 14.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1076_web.pdf [in English]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1076s_web.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1076r_web.pdf [in Russian]
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1076f_web.pdf [in French]
Ministère des affaires sociales, du travail et de la solidarité
Guide to the identification of asbestos exposure by the occupational physician
Guide de repérage des expositions à l'amiante par le médecin du travail [in French]
Persons exposed to asbestos in France may apply for medical surveillance. In this context, the French Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Solidarity in collaboration with the National Medical Insurance Institution (CNAM) established a pilot project in three regions of France. The programme involved medical and radiological examinations of previously exposed volunteer subjects and an evaluation of their exposures. This guide is aimed at occupational physicians participating in the assessment of occupational exposure of workers and its classification into "high", "intermediate" and "low" exposure. It contains detailed questionnaires aimed at tracing the occupational history of employees and quantifying their exposure to asbestos. It also explains how to evaluate an individual's total occupational exposure to asbestos. See also CIS 06-317 and 06-319.
La documentation française, 124, rue Henri Barbusse, 93308 Aubervilliers Cedex, France, [c2003]. 30p. Illus.
http://www.sante-securite.travail.gouv.fr/mediatheque/pdf/medecin%20travail.pdf [in French]
Ryan T.J., Burroughs G.E., Taylor K., Kovein R.J.
Video exposure assessments demonstrate excessive laboratory formaldehyde exposures
Following frequent complaints about room air quality in an anatomy laboratory using formaldehyde-preserved animals, formaldehyde concentrations were measured using a photo-ionization detector with an integral data logger and videotapes of laboratory tasks were recorded simultaneously. Use of this video monitoring method revealed very short-lived, excessively high peak exposure events, whereas conventional time-weighted averages indicated that the majority of personal exposures were below the OSHA limit of 0.75ppm. Transient peak formaldehyde concentrations could be responsible for the self-reported health effects (burning nose and eyes and eye irritation). Close dissection work, opening peritoneal cavities, and specimen selection activities were most likely the causes of elevated student exposures. Teaching assistants' exposures were the highest, exceeding OSHA limits on several occasions.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2003, Vol.18, No.6, p.450-457. Illus. 29 ref.
Proctor D.M., Panko J.P., Liebig E.W., Scott P.K., Mundt K.A., Buczynski M.A., Barnhart R.J., Harris M.A., Morgan R.J., Paustenbach D.J.
Workplace airborne hexavalent chromium concentrations for Painesville, Ohio, chromate production plant (1943-1971)
Data from a 1930s cohort of workers from a single chromate production plant has been used as the basis for assessing the carcinogenic potency of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). However, the exposure information for this cohort has several shortcomings. In an effort to provide better exposure information, this study takes into account recently identified historical exposure data for the workers of this plant. More than 800 measurements of airborne Cr(VI) from 23 surveys conducted from 1943 to 1971 are presented. Concentrations generally decreased in the plant over time. The average airborne concentration of Cr(VI) in the indoor operating areas of the plant in the 1940s was 0.72mg/m3, that from 1957 through 1964 was 0.27 mg/m3, and that from 1965 through 1972 was 0.039 mg/m3. These data are of sufficient quality to allow for exposure reconstruction for workers employed at this plant from 1940 to 1972 and to provide the basis for an improved cancer risk assessment.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2003, Vol.18, No.6, p.430-449. Illus. 49 ref.
Egeghy P.P., Hauf-Cabalo L., Gibson R., Rappaport S.M.
Benzene and naphthalene in air and breath as indicators of exposure to jet fuel
Benzene and naphthalene were measured in air and in the breath of 326 personnel in the US Air Force, who had been assigned a priori into low, moderate, and high exposure categories for JP-8jet fuel. In the moderate and high exposure categories, 5% and 15% of the benzene air concentrations, respectively, were above the 2002 threshold limit value (TLV) of 1.6 mg/m3. Multiple regression analyses of air and breath levels revealed prominent background sources of benzene exposure, including cigarette smoke. However, naphthalene exposure was not unduly influenced by sources other than JP-8. It is concluded that naphthalene in air and breath can serve as useful measures of exposure to JP-8 and uptake of fuel components in the body.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.969-976. Illus. 34 ref.
Henderson K.A., Matthews I.P., Adisesh A., Hutchings A.D.
Occupational exposure of midwives to nitrous oxide on delivery suites
Occupational exposure of midwives to nitrous oxide in delivery suites was investigated using environmental and biological monitoring. Environmental samples were taken in two hospitals over a period of four hours using passive diffusion tubes and urine measurements were taken at the start of the shift and after four hours. Environmental levels exceeded the legal occupational exposure standards for nitrous oxide (100 ppm over an 8h TWA) in 35 of 46 midwife shifts monitored. There was a high correlation between personal environmental concentrations and biological uptake of nitrous oxide for those midwives with no body burden of nitrous oxide at the start of a shift, but not for others. Greater engineering control measures are needed to reduce daily exposure to midwives to below the occupational exposure standard.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.958-961. Illus. 20 ref.
The application of a job-exposure matrix in the natural gas industry
This article describes the use of a job exposure matrix for the design, implementation and analysis of a questionnaire to profile jobs in natural gas pipeline operations with respect to possible hazardous exposures. The categories of chemical, physical, ergonomic, biological, and psychological hazards were surveyed. The first stage of the project was to formulate and confirm a list of hazardous agents present within the pipeline operations. The second stage involved the collection of data about whether a particular hazardous agent was present at a location, and if so, which workers were exposed to it, and at what intensity and frequency they were exposed. The final stage of the project was to critically examine and validate the data collected. Uses of the resulting database are discussed.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.806-814. 20 ref.
Particulates dispersed in workplace atmospheres: A health hazard
Particules dispersées dans l'air des lieux de travail: un risque pour la santé [in French]
This article addresses the evaluation of exposure to airborne particulate matter at the workplace based on in situ measurements of aerosol characteristics. Following a brief review of the physical properties of aerosols (particle diameter, volume and movement), it outlines health aspects of respirable, thoracic and alveolar particle fractions and describes techniques for air sampling and exposure evaluation.
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 2003, Vol.XXX, No.3, p.22-28. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure to inhalable flour dust in Canadian flour mills
This study of the levels of exposure to flour dust in flour mills across Canada was conducted to verify existing conditions and to decide whether to adopt the proposed Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.5mg/m3 for flour dust with a sensitization notation. As part of the study, a relationship between flour dust concentrations obtained by using IOM samplers and closed-face 37mm cassettes was examined and the literature on the health effects of exposure to flour dust was reviewed. A total of 104 workers from 14 flour mills were sampled over an 8-hour work shift using IOM samplers. The results indicated that 101 employees (97.1%) were exposed to levels exceeding 0.5mg/m3, 66 employees (67.3%) to levels exceeding 5mg/m3, and 44 employees (42.3%) to levels exceeding 10mg/m3. Flour dust measurements were also taken in a highly automated flour mill using state-of-the-art technology. Results suggest that even with the most up-to-date technology and regular cleaning operations in place, the flour milling industry may not be able to reduce the flour dust levels to below the proposed TLV of 0.5mg/m3.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2003, Vol.18, No.12, p.1022-1031. Illus. 48 ref.
Short daily exposure to hand-arm vibrations in Swedish car mechanics
The aim of the study was to examine the daily exposure times to hand-arm vibrations in Swedish car mechanics, to test a sampling method for estimating the exposure time and to use the results for predicting the prevalence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) by the ISO 5349 model. A total of 51 mechanics working in six garages were observed, most of them on two different working days, yielding estimates for 95 days. The median effective exposure time was ten minutes per day, and most of the exposure time was attributable to fastening and loosening nuts. The within-worker and between-worker variability was high. Based on these observations, the ISO 5349 model predicts that only 3% of the car mechanics will suffer from VWF after 20 years of exposure. In contrast, a recent survey of VWF among car mechanics showed the prevalence to be 25%. These differences are discussed and proposals are made for improved observation.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.35-40. Illus. 24 ref.
Verma D.K., Finkelstein M.M., Kurtz L., Smolynec K., Eyre S.
Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment
An investigation of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in terms of elemental carbon was carried out within the Canadian railroad industry. Both personal and area samples were collected from three major operating divisions of the railways: mechanical service, transportation and engineering. A total of 255 elemental carbon samples are described. The results show that all but six elemental carbon concentrations are well below the 2001 proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value (TLV) of 20µg/m3. The concentration of diesel exhaust expressed as elemental carbon is much lower in the railroad industry than in some other major industries such as mining and forklift truck operations.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.25-34. 33 ref.
Overexposure to crystalline silica in a foundry operation
Foundry workers are known to be exposed to crystalline silica. In most foundries, metal castings are made through the use of sand moulds. Exposure to crystalline silica occurs during the moulding process, during shakeout operations and during metal finishing. This report describes the inspection made by NIOSH in a foundry. Personal sampling for respirable silica was conducted throughout the plant. This inspection discovered three cases of overexposure to crystalline silica and the employer was cited for various violations under existing U.S. regulations. A plan for reducing exposures was discussed and agreed with the employer. It involved various technical measures, including exhaust ventilation, and the supply of respirators and protective clothing as an interim measure.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.18-21. Illus. 6 ref.
Hazards associated with the manufacture and repair of neon lights
NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation from the owner of a small business that manufactures and repairs neon tubes for commercial signs or artwork. The owner, who was also the sole worker, was concerned about possible health effects related to his exposures to mercury, lead and cadmium. A site visit was carried out by a NIOSH health hygienist. A review of the worker's medical records showed that concentrations of mercury and cadmium were below occupational criteria and lead was not detected. A certain number of technical control measures and changes in work practices were recommended, primarily in the areas of exhaust ventilation, together with continued medical surveillance.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 40 ref.
Schlecht P.C., O'Connor P.F.
Third supplement to NIOSH manual of analytical methods (NMAM). 4th edition
Supplement to the fourth edition of the NIOSH manual of analytical methods for monitoring exposure to toxic substances published in 1994 (see CIS 98-217). Includes methods for the measurement of fibres, sampling and analysis of soluble metal compounds, aerosol sampling, monitoring of diesel particulate exhaust and the determination of airborne crystalline silica.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Mar. 2003. Loose-leaf sheets. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/default.html [in English]
Kennedy S.M., Koehoorn M.
Exposure assessment in epidemiology: Does gender matter?
This article explores whether the potential for gender-related differences should be taken into account in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies. Evidence from previously-published studies and data from the investigators' own research were examined to investigate whether or not there were theoretical bases of gender bias in exposure assessment. Sources of bias examined included: practical differences in job tasks despite identical job titles; differences in exposure due to differences in protective equipment, body size or other factors related to exposure sources; differences in estimated exposure arising from study methods or design. Evidence was found for gender differences (and thus potential bias) from all these sources, but the magnitude and direction of the potential bias cannot be predicted.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.44, No.6, p.576-583. Illus. 23 ref.
de Oliveira M.L., Machado Neto J.G.
Work safety in the use of pesticides on citrus trees: Application with an air-assisted sprayer and preparation of the spray formulation in a 2.000-L tank
Segurança no trabalho com agrotóxicos em citros: aplicação com o turbopulverizador e preparo de calda em tanque de 2.000 L [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to quantify skin and inhalation exposure of workers while spraying pesticides on lemon trees using a pneumatic sprayer and during the preparation of the formulation in a 2000-litre tank. The study also aimed to determine the parts of the body most exposed and to evaluate protective measures. Results indicate that the most effective protective measures for limiting the exposure of tractor drivers and pesticide sprayers is the use of a "Real" type of cab and the wearing of "AZR" clothing: they lower the exposure by 94.9% and 88.9% respectively compared to exposures in the absence of protection. The parts of the body that were the most exposed during pesticide spraying and the preparation of the formulation were the hands.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.9-17. 16 ref.
Menezes Filho J.A., de Carvalho W.A., Spínola A.G.
Assessment of occupational exposure to lead in a metallurgy plant - A cross-sectional study
Avaliação da exposição ocupacional ao chumbo em uma metalúrgica - Um estudo transversal [in Portuguese]
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occupational exposure to lead in a smelting plant. It involved 195 workers of a primary lead refining plant and an unexposed control group of 65 persons. In both groups, determinations of blood lead, urinary d-aminolvulinic acid, zinc protoporphyrin and haemoglobin were made. Compared to the control group, levels of all these indicators were significantly higher in the metallurgy workers, even among persons working in administrative services; the highest levels were recorded among workers assigned to sintering.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.63-72. Illus. 39 ref.
Susitaival P., Flyvholm M.A., Meding B., Kanerva L., Lindberg M., Svensson Å., Ólafsson J.H.
Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): A new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposure
Questionnaire studies are often needed to collect additional data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. A new tool entitled "Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire" (NOSQ-2002) for use in surveys on occupational skin diseases and exposures is described. Two NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled on the basis of existing questionnaires and practical experience. NOSQ-2002/SHORT is a ready-to-use 4-page questionnaire for screening and monitoring occupational skin diseases in a population or workplace. The long version, NOSQ-2002/LONG, contains in addition a pool of questions tailored to specific populations. In addition to the questionnaires, the NOSQ-2002 report includes a comprehensive manual for researchers on planning and conducting a questionnaire survey on hand eczema and relevant exposures. The use of NOSQ-2002 will benefit research on occupational skin diseases by providing more standardized data for comparisons between studies and countries.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2003, Vol.49, No.2, p.70-76. Illus. 46 ref.
Gobba F., Righi E., Fantuzzi G., Roccatto L., Predieri G., Aggazzotti G.
Perchloroethylene in alveolar air, blood, and urine as biological indices of low-level exposure
The reliability of biological indices for monitoring perchlorethylene (PCE) exposure was studied at low environmental concentrations. Environmental monitoring was performed by personal sampling and biological monitoring by measuring PCE in alveolar air (PCE-Alv), blood (PCE-B) and urine (PCE-U) in 26 low-exposed dry-cleaners. Correlation coefficients between environmental PCE and PCE-B, PCE-Alv and PCE-U were 0.94, 0.81 and 0.67 respectively. A high correlation was also found among biological indices, with values of 0.96 between PCE-B and PCE-Alv, 0.95 between PCE-B and PCE-U, and 0.87 between PCE-Alv and PCE-U. The biological indices proved sensitive enough for biological monitoring of low exposure to PCE. Furthermore, PCE-Alv offers some advantages because it correlated better with exposure and is analytically simpler.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1152-1157. Illus. 29 ref.
Van-Wendel-de-Joode B., Brouwer D.H., Vermeulen R., Van Hemmen J.J., Heederik D., Kromhout H.
DREAM: A method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment
This paper describes a new method of structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents (DREAM). Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a truck manufacturer show how the method allows a characterization of the tasks and provides insight into exposure mechanisms. It supplies estimates for exposure levels on the external clothing layer and on the skin, as well as for the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and persons, it provides information for sampling strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.71-87. Illus. 42 ref.
Vincent J.H., Werner M.A.
Critical evaluation of historical occupational aerosol exposure records: Applications to nickel and lead
This paper describes a model for evaluating individual data sets for occupational aerosol exposures in terms of their usefulness in hazard evaluation or standards setting. Reported occupational exposures to airborne nickel and lead are used as examples. It was found that published data sets are highly inconsistent in terms of the criteria by which the data were obtained, and are notably lacking in the essential details of the methods that were used. The evaluation model described in this paper provides not only a basis for the evaluation of historical exposure data but also guidelines for exposure assessments to be carried out in the future.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.49-59. Illus. 16 ref.
Tinnerberg H., Heikkilä P., Huici-Montagud A., Bernal F., Forni A., Wanders S., Welinder H., Wilhardt P., Strömberg U., Norppa H., Knudsen L., Bonassi S., Hagmar L.
Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study
This article presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. The study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, giving rise to an increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. An independent Spanish occupational hygienist team coordinated harmonization of the assessment criteria and the quality control procedure. Variations in exposures assessed by the different assessors are discussed, together with the implications for the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.37-47. Illus. 24 ref.
Thorne P.S., Bartlett K.H., Phipps J., Kulhankova K.
Evaluation of five extraction protocols for quantification of endotoxin in metalworking fluid aerosol
Occupational exposures to endotoxin-contaminated, water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) are thought to contribute to cases of respiratory illness. The method most commonly used to quantify endotoxin is the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and this is the basis for the ASTM method E2144-01. In this study, multiple samples with similar mass and endotoxin loading were generated in order to compare four alternative extraction methods with the ASTM method. Aerosols with three concentrations of endotoxins (4.5, 350 and 1141EU/m3) were collected simultaneously on multiple filter samples using an exposure chamber system that provides a uniform distribution of MWF mist. It was found that the ASTM method yielded comparable estimations of MWF endotoxin aerosol concentrations but with higher variability than the four other extraction methods. In particular, extraction into pyrogen-free water at 25°C was more precise and simpler than the ASTM method.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.47, No.1, p.31-36. Illus. 29 ref.
Schneider O., Brondeau M.T.
Biological exposure indices
Indices biologiques d'exposition [in French]
Biological exposure indices consist of reference values corresponding either to concentrations of chemicals or their metabolites in biological fluids or exhaled air, or to biological responses to chemical substances. These indices can be used to assess workers' exposure to chemicals and must be considered as complementary to threshold limit values in air. This article provides definitions of biological exposure indices proposed by the ACGIH in the United States (BEIs) and the DFG in Germany (BAT), and describes their advantages and limitations. The limit values for 2002 are provided in tabular form.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.191, p.29-46.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of personal exposure of metalworking machine operators to airborne water-mix metalworking fluid - Elemental marker method using flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry
This method for the determination of hazardous substances describes an elemental marker method for measurement of personal exposure of metalworking machine operators to airborne water-mix metalworking fluid, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The sampling time for which the method is suitable is dependent on the sensitivity of the analytical technique used for measurement of the marker element, the concentration of the marker element in the machine sump fluid and the fluid dilution. A sampling time in the range of two to eight hours is recommended when boron or potassium is used as marker element, and eight hours is recommended when sodium is used as marker element.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2003. 19p. 31 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Boucher R., Hanna C., Rusch G.M., Stidham D., Swan E., Vazquez M.
Hepatotoxicity associated with overexposure to 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)
When 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) was introduced as a precision cleaning agent in a controlled operation, marked elevations in serum alanine transaminase and serum aspartase transaminase were noted in exposed workers. Personal and area samples collected after the liver abnormalities were identified ranged from 5-12ppm. Exposure data were not available for the period when the abnormalities are suspected to have developed. Modeling using the entire building as a homogenous box estimated 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) exposures of 10-35ppm. Modeled estimates of work area and air exchange rates indicated that exposed workers in the degreaser area could have experienced peak levels of 635-2100ppm (8-hour TWA).
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2003, Vol.64, No.1, p.68-79. Illus. 12 ref.
Occupational exposure to mechanical vibration in Poland and in member States of the European Union
Ocena zawodowej ekspozycji na drgania mechaniczne w Polsce i w krajach Unii Europejskiej [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to mechanical vibration may be harmful to workers' health. For evaluating workers' exposure, one needs to measure vibration at workstations. Depending on the results, the risk to workers may need to be reduced. This paper presents a comparison of methods for measuring and evaluating vibration, as well as the regulations on vibration exposure limit values in effect in Poland and in member States of the European Union.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 2003, No.6, p.20-24. 9 ref.
Cherrie J.W., Tickner J., Friar J., Creely K.S., Soutar A.J., Hughson G., Rae R., Warren N.D., Pryde D.E.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation and further development of the EASE model 2.0
This study examines the underlying structure and philosophy of the Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) model version 2.0, developed by the HSE. EASE is used by regulators for assessing new and existing substances. The report provides a critical assessment of the utility of its performance to date. Basic information was firstly gathered by interviewing personnel involved in its creation and development. Next, 27 stakeholders participated in structured interviews on issues such as the limitations of the model, suggestions for improvement, accuracy and precision. The report outlines recommendations for the structure of a revised exposure model.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 127p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr136.pdf [in English]
Delgado Cobos P., Porcel Muñoz J., Abril Muñoz I., Torres Prieto N., Terán Rodríguez A., Zugasti Makazaga A.
Dermal exposure to chemical substances - Quantitative study in automobile paint shops
Exposición dérmica a sustancias químicas - Estudio cuantitativo en talleres de pintura de coches [in Spanish]
Following a review of the various forms of dermal exposure and the key factors involved in the skin absorption of chemical substances, this article presents the results of a quantitative study on skin exposure carried out in automobile paint shops. Exposures were determined for the various tasks including filling the spray gun, spraying and spray gun cleaning. Hand exposures are much higher during spray gun filling and cleaning than during spraying (920 and 926mg/h as compared to 159mg/h). Body exposure is higher during spraying than during spray gun cleaning; during both of these tasks, the lower extremities are the most exposed.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.27, p.26-33. Illus. 12 ref.
Ostiguy C., Tranchand S., Lesage J., Huu V.T.
Exploratory development of an approach for the evaluation of amines in the workplace environment and identification of the industrial processes that use these substances
Développement exploratoire d'une approche pour l'évaluation des amines en milieu de travail et documentation des procédés industriels utilisant ces substances [in French]
The first part of this report presents an inventory of the main amines used in industry in the Province of Quebec and to estimate the quantities consumed. The most frequently-used products include 2-amino ethanol, diethanolamine, diethylene triamine and morpholine. The second part of the report describes a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method that allows the simultaneous detection of various classes of amines in the vapour phase. This method requires further testing with a broader range of amines and further validation in occupational settings. It could then constitute a simple method for evaluating occupational exposure to amines.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, May 2003. 44p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: CAD 7.49.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-338.pdf [in French]
Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: A survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data
The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead in the state of Washington, estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting, describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing data from the state's official blood lead reporting registry and by conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that 226 workers in Washington (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Only 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (≥25µg/dL) reported to the state's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of the health effects of lead, appropriate industrial hygiene controls and the requirements of the Lead Standard.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.45, No.7, p.724-733. Illus. 17 ref.
Lindsay F., Cherry J.W., Robertson A.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a method to assess biologically relevant dermal exposure
Dermal exposure is evaluated using dermal samplers that consist of patches that simulate human skin and that collect volatile liquids by diffusion. This study investigates the feasibility of developing a dermal sampler for toluene. This prototype dermal sampler developed by the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) consists of an adsorbent material sandwiched between a permeable membrane and an impervious backing. Toluene on the membrane surface diffuses towards the adsorbent. The concentration of toluene on the membrane surface may be estimated from the mass on the adsorbent and the known permeation rate of toluene through the membrane. The sampler was evaluated in laboratory and field tests, with promising results.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 51p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr117.pdf. [in English]
Austin C.C., Roberge B., Arbarétaz J., Goyer N.
Interferences on battery-powered electrochemical detectors
Les interférences sur les détecteurs à piles électrochimiques [in French]
Battery-powered electrochemical detectors are used for determining the concentrations of various gases in air, in particular those of carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. However, the presence of other substances may cause interference, and manufacturers generally provide a limited list of known cross-sensitization. Users continue to report unexpected interferences caused by other substances, in particular by solvents. The objective of this study was to quantify non-documented effects on the readings of detection systems. Several widely-used models of detectors were exposed in an experimental chamber to substances likely to interfere with the reading for a maximum of 120min. The results are expressed in the form of plots showing the response as a function of time. Evaluating the exposure of workers to gases in the presence of substances that may alter the reading therefore requires selecting the least sensitive instrument and recording the result after a suitable time lag.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 3C2, Canada, Jan. 2003. 37p. Illus. 17 ref. CD-ROM containing the PDF version of the document is included (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader).
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-323.pdf [in French]
Ruiz Figueroa M.J., García Puente N.E.
Prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing
La prevención del riesgo biológico en la ganadería [in Spanish]
The livestock rearing sector is subject to the provisions of Royal Decree 664/1997 of 12 May on the protection of workers against biological hazards (see CIS 98-411). Following a brief overview of legal requirements with respect to the prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing and a presentation on the current situation of the sector in Spain (types of farms and production data), this document, aimed at occupational health services goes on to provide information enabling the qualitative evaluation of biological hazards and the control of preventive measures in the sector. Topics covered: definitions of biological pathogens, risk groups and occupational risk classification; tables showing the hazards associated with certain tasks in various sectors mentioning the biological hazards to which workers are exposed, the hazard group and the disease caused; clinical, biological or functional diagnosis of all diseases caused by biological agents; technical and medical prevention measures for various biological hazards; recommendations for the prevention of hazards in livestock rearing.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 140p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: EUR 3.44.
OSHA Fact Sheet - Asbestos
OSHA Hoja Informativa - Asbesto [in Spanish]
Contents of this information sheet on asbestos: definition; health hazards; exposure risks; OSHA standards; permissible exposure limits; responsibilities of employers with respect to exposure monitoring, restricted areas, limitation of exposure, respiratory protection, protective clothing, hygiene facilities, medical supervision and recordkeeping; sources of additional information.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2002. 2p.
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AsbestosFacts/asbestos-factsheet-spanish.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AsbestosFacts/asbestos-factsheet.pdf [in English]
Safety in the use of mineral and synthetic fibres
Arabic translation of the working document and report of the Meeting of Experts on Safety in the Use of Mineral and Synthetic Fibres, held in Geneva (Switzerland), 17-25 Apr. 1989 (see CIS 90-1646). The fibres discussed are: 1. man-made mineral fibres (MMMF): continuous filament (glass), insulation wool (glasswool, rockwool, slag wool), refractory fibres (ceramic and others), special-purpose fibres (glass microfibres); 2. natural mineral fibres (other than asbestos): erionite, attapulgite, wollastonite, etc.; 3. synthetic organic fibres (aramid fibres, carbon and graphite fibres, polyolefin fibres, etc.). The characteristics, manufacturing methods, occupational and non-occupational exposure of each type are reviewed. Information on health effects (irritation, respiratory symptoms, fibrosis, cancer) is also reviewed. Other topics: monitoring of airborne dust; preventive and control measures; law and practice in selected countries. In annexes: ILO resolution (1986) concerning health risks of occupational exposure to fibres; report of the meeting; list of participants.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. 122p. Bibl.ref.
Safety in the use of mineral and synthetic fibres
Arabic translation of the working document and report of the Meeting of Experts on Safety in the Use of Mineral and Synthetic Fibres, held in Geneva (Switzerland), 17-25 Apr. 1989 (see CIS 90-1646). The fibres discussed are: man-made mineral fibres (continuous filament, insulation wool, refractory fibres, special-purpose fibres); natural mineral fibres (other than asbestos); and synthetic organic fibres. The characteristics, manufacturing methods, occupational and non-occupational exposure of each type are reviewed. Information on health effects (irritation, respiratory symptoms, fibrosis, cancer) is also reviewed. Other topics: monitoring of airborne dust; preventive and control measures; law and practice in selected countries. In annexes: ILO resolution (1986) concerning health risks of occupational exposure to fibres; report of the meeting; list of participants.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. xiv, 122p. Bibl.ref.
Ando H., Noguchi R., Ishitake T.
Frequency dependence of hand-arm vibration on palmar sweating response
In this study on the effects of hand-arm vibration frequency on palmar sweating, sweating was measured on the right palm of six healthy men, before and during exposure of the left palm to various vibration frequencies during three minutes. The control condition consisted of grasping a handle without vibration. As an indicator of the state of activation of the central nervous system, plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) was measured before and immediately after each vibration exposure. Each vibration condition induced a palmar sweating response. Among the six vibration conditions, frequencies of 125Hz and 63Hz caused large palmar sweating responses compared with those of 315Hz and the control condition. Plasma MHPG did not increase significantly after either kind of vibration exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.28, No.5, p.324-327. Illus. 13 ref.
Park D.U., Paik N.W.
Effect on blood lead of airborne lead particles characterized by size
Worker exposure to airborne lead particles was evaluated for a total of 117 workers of four different industries in Korea. The particle sizes were measured using 8-stage cascade impactors worn by the workers. Mass median aerodynamic diameters and size distributions as a function of airborne lead (PbA) concentration were determined by type of industry. Blood lead (PbB) levels of workers were also examined. The results indicate PbB correlated better with respirable lead concentrations than with PbA which implies that the contribution of respirable lead particles to lead absorption is greater than that of PbA. This study concludes that the measurement of PbA only may not properly reflect a worker's exposure to lead particles with diverse characteristics. For the evaluation of a worker's exposure to various types of lead particles, it is recommended that respirable lead particles as well as PbA be measured.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.237-243. Illus. 22 ref.
Vasconcelos Rêgo M.A., Campos Sousa C.S., Kato M., Barreto de Carvalho A., Loomis D., Martins Carvalho F.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and organic solvents
Organic solvents have been suggested as a possible risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This article describes a study of 109 NHL incident cases and 276 controls with other cancers between 1990 and 1996 in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Occupational exposure to organic solvents was evaluated through standardized questionnaires, taking into account individuals' lifetime occupational history. An association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and NHL was observed (odds ratio OR=1.67), especially among individuals below the age of 64 (OR=1.91), and among those who used domestic insecticides (OR=2.24). Odds ratios were similar for nodal and diffuse NHL.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.874-881. 79 ref.
Thorn J., Beijer L., Jonsson T., Rylander R.
Measurement strategies for the determination of airborne bacterial endotoxin in sewage treatment plants
The purpose of this study was to evaluate strategies for determining airborne bacterial endotoxin in sewage plants. Measurements of airborne endotoxin were performed in April-May and September-October 2001 at sewage plants in three municipalities in western Sweden using personal and stationary samplers. Air sampling times ranged from 60 to 444min. In both stationary and personal sampler measurements, the amounts of airborne endotoxin detected were generally low. At specific worksites, however, higher endotoxin values were identified, with the highest values at worksites located indoors. The results suggest that the exposure is relatively stable at specific worksites but that higher values may be observed where agitation of wastewater occurs. The results further suggest that airborne endotoxin exposure situations in sewage treatment plants are complex and that many factors need to be considered in order to obtain relevant exposure determinations and establish preventive measures from a health risk perspective.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2002, Vol.46, No.6, p.549-554. 30 ref.
Pandya G.H., Dharmadhikari D.M.
A comprehensive investigation of noise exposure in and around an integrated iron and steel works
An environmental noise exposure study was carried out at a major iron and steel plant surrounded by residential and commercial areas. Traffic activity near the plant was significant and added to the background noise level. Considering the variety of noise sources in the plant area and in the neighbourhood, a practical approach to measure noise equivalent level in the plant and in the residential, commercial, industrial, and silence zone was adopted. Worker exposure was assessed by determining the speech interference level (SIL), loudness level, and noise rating level at one of the major sources located in the power plant of the steel works. The results indicate that SIL was 94dBA, loudness level was 112 phons, and the noise rating was in the range of 85-95dbA. A traffic noise index also was determined near the plant gates and was in the range of 68-96dBA. The impact on the community is significant. Some mitigation measures for noise control are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.172-177. Illus. 7 ref.
Dykeman R., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith T., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Piacitelli G.M., Hu H., Hernandez-Avila M.
Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers
Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers employed in 31 repair shops, 12 members of their families (four children and eight wives) and 36 unexposed working controls. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe analyses. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed, detailed questionnaires were administered and blood lead levels were measured. The mean values for blood lead of the radiator repair workers was 35.5µg/dL, compared to 13.6µg/dL for controls. Air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99µg/m3 with a mean value of 19µg/m3. The strongest predictors of elevated blood lead levels were smoking, the number of radiators repaired per day and the use of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4µg/dL, 1.95µg/dL/radiator/day, and 16.4µg/dL, respectively. Uniforms were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoirs of contamination on which workers frequently wiped their hands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.179-187. Illus. 23 ref.
Kerr S.M., Muranko H.J., Vincent J.H.
Personal sampling for inhalable aerosol exposures of carbon black manufacturing industry workers
The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of the exposure to inhalable aerosols compared to total aerosols in the carbon black production industry and to evaluate different types of inhalable aerosol samplers for carbon black aerosol measurement. It was found that inhalable aerosol exposures for workers in carbon black production and packing areas were almost three times higher than the corresponding total aerosol exposures measured by conventional sampling techniques, implying the presence of significantly coarser aerosols than previously thought based simply on knowledge of the carbon black production process. The fact that the aerosols collected in different stages of the process comprised high proportions of particulate composed of other substances than elemental carbon was thought to be responsible. The GSP sampler emerged as a good alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable aerosols in the carbon black industry.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2002, Vol.17, No.10, p.681-692. Illus. 31 ref.
Bakke B., Stewart P., Wijnand E.
Determinants of dust exposure in tunnel construction work
The aim of this study was to measure dust exposure in tunnel construction work and to propose control measures. Personal exposures to total dust, respirable dust, and α-quartz were measured among 209 construction workers divided into eight groups according to the tasks performed. The mean values of exposure to total dust, respirable dust, and α-quartz for all tunnel workers were 3.5mg/m3, 1.2mg/m3 and 0.035mg/m3, respectively. 15% of the total dust measurements, 5% of the respirable dust and 21% of the α-quartz exceeded the Norwegian occupational exposure limits. Job groups with the highest exposure to total dust were shotcreting operators (6.8mg/m3), tunnel boring machine workers (6.2m3) and shaft drilling workers (6.1m3). The use of ventilated, closed cabs appeared to be the single most important control measure for lowering exposures.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.17, No.11, p.783-796. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Fume emissions from resistance welding through adhesives and sealants
Modern manufacturing practices, especially in the automotive industry, often involve resistance welding through adhesives and sealants. During welding, fumes that are possibly harmful to health may be inhaled by workers. Little is known about the concentration or composition of the fumes emitted, making it difficult to assess the risks to health arising from welding activities. In this study, fume composition data were generated for resistance welding through a representative range of epoxy-based adhesives and polybutadiene-based sealants for the purpose of enabling a comprehensive risk assessment. Benzene, 1,3-butadiene and acrylonitrile were the most harmful compounds identified. However, concentrations were low. Concentrations of carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons were also low, less than 1µg/m3.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2002. vi, 26p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01388.pdf [in English]
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