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Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found

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  • Exposure evaluation

2005

CIS 06-367 Bilban M., Bilban Jakopin C., Ogrinc D.
Cytogenic tests performed on operating room personnel (the use of anaesthetic gases)
The cytogenic effects of chronic exposure to small doses of anaesthetic gases was studied in a group of workers handling these gases in operating theatres. Results were compared with those from radiologists exposed to ionizing radiation and from a group of Slovene citizens who were never exposed to genotoxic agents. Tests included structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and the micronucleus assay (MN). The average frequency of SCAs in the study group was significantly higher than in the group of radiologists and Slovene citizens. The frequency of SCE and MN was also significant. These findings confirm those of previous studies, indicating that exposure to anaesthetic gases induces changes in human chromosomes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.60-64. 23 ref.

CIS 06-362 Exposures to carcinogens
Les expositions aux produits cancérogènes [in French]
This article summarizes the results of the Sumer 2003 survey of exposure to carcinogenic substances in France. The survey identified 28 carcinogens. Over two million workers were exposed to these substances, primarily male blue-collar workers who were four times more exposed than women. Among women, a large number of exposed workers were employed in health care and in the cleaning and domestic services sectors. During the last ten years, exposures to carcinogens rose slightly, but collective protection measures improved; however, they still remain unavailable to one third of the exposed workers. Eight substances were identified as the most common carcinogens responsible for over two-thirds of exposures.
Premières Informations et Premières Synthèses, July 2005, No.28.1, 10p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.travail.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/publication_pips_200507_n-28-1_expositions-produits-cancerogenes.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-176 Gerhardsson L., Balogh I., Hambert P.A., Hjortsberg U., Karlsson J.E.
Vascular and nerve damage in workers exposed to vibrating tools. The importance of objective measurements of exposure time
The aim of this study was to compare the development of vibration white finger (VWF) in workers in relation to different methods of exposure estimation. Nineteen male grinding machine operators completed a questionnaire and were subjected to a structured interview on their estimated hand-held vibration exposure. Neurophysiological tests were carried out to determine fractionated nerve conduction velocity in hands and arms, vibrotactile perception thresholds and temperature thresholds. The subjective estimation of the mean daily exposure-time to vibrating tools was 192 min (range 18-480 min). The estimated mean exposure time calculated from the consumption of grinding wheels was 42min (range 18-60min). Results indicate that objective measurements of the exposure time generally provide a more reliable basis for exposure estimation than self-assessments of exposure.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2005, Vol.36, No.1, p.55-60. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 05-664 Perrault G., Dion C.
Review of the literature on the use of asbestos fibres in bituminous coatings
Revue de littérature sur l'utilisation de fibres d'amiante dans les enrobés bitumineux [in French]
This literature survey on workers' exposure during the use of asbestos fibres in bituminous coatings is based on a critical analysis of scientific and technical articles and reports. The objective was to document the potential level of exposure of workers during operations related to the entire life cycle of asbestos-containing bituminous coatings: manufacture, use, recycling and disposal and dispersion into the environment. Possible exposures to other substances present in the bitumen were also examined. Recommendations on the implementation of an environmental surveillance programme for bituminous coatings are proposed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 20p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-413.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-663 Carrier G., Brunet R.C., Bouchard M., Gosselin N.H., Dumoulin M.J., Bonvalot Y.
Evaluation of human exposure to organophosphates and the associated risks by means of urinary biomarkers
Evaluation de l'exposition humaine aux organophosphorés et des risques associés à l'aide de biomarqueurs urinaires [in French]
Approximately 200 organophosphates are sold as insecticides and used by workers in agriculture, horticulture, public health pest control, forestry, landscape maintenance and various other sectors. No method currently exists for estimating the quantity actually absorbed following occupational exposure to these substances. Using modelling and a review of existing data, a simple and effective screening tool capable of detecting exposure levels below those causing toxic effects was developed. It consists of a urine biomarker test that evaluates the quantity of organophosphate actually absorbed by the worker. It may be used for prevention programmes, for developing exposure evaluation protocols and for establishing re-entry times after organophosphate exposure.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. vii, 73p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-406.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-605 Witschger O., Fabriès J.F.
Ultrafine particles and occupational health - 2. Sources and characterization of exposure
Particules ultra-fines et santé au travail - 2. Sources et caractérisation de l'exposition [in French]
As a sequel to the article analysed under CIS 05-604, which dealt with the essential characteristics of ultrafine particles, their interactions and their potential health effects, this article describes the sources of ultrafine aerosols in workplace atmospheres. It examines sources in the conventional technology and nanotechnology fields and describes techniques for the characterization of occupational exposures to ultrafine aerosols, including strategy, instrumentation and determination of the concentration in air in terms of number of particles, surface area and mass.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.37-54. Illus. 120 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/BC245F0741557B57C1257023004C3D2B/$FILE/nd2228.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-661 Boutin M., Lesage J., Ostiguy C., Bertrand M.J.
Identification and quantification of isocyanates generated in the thermal degradation of polyurethane-based automobile paint
Identification et quantification des isocyanates générés lors de la dégradation thermique d'une peinture automobile à base de polyuréthane [in French]
Most car paints consist of polyurethanes, polymers obtained by reacting isocyanates with alcohols. During their thermal degradation, polyurethanes may regenerate isocyanates, which can cause asthma, dermatitis, conjunctivitis and acute poisonings. Workers may be exposed to the thermal degradation products of car paints during welding, milling or cutting operations on car body parts. This report presents a systemic approach for studying the thermal degradation process of polyurethanes, in particular the formation of isocyanates and their emission into the air. The results obtained in the laboratory led to the identification of the isocyanates likely to be generated during combustion of the paint. This approach can be used to study the thermal degradation of other polymers such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride and formaldehyde-based polymers.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. 60p. Illus. 115 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-418.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-650 Duchaine C., Dutil S., Mériaux A., de Latrémoille M.C., Leduc A., Lazure L., Barbeau J.
Characterization of bioaerosols in dental surgeries
Caractérisation des bioaérosols en cabinets dentaires [in French]
The use of high-speed instruments such as turbines, ultrasonic descalers and air-water spray guns results in significant concentrations of bioaerosols being emitted into dental surgery environments. This study examined bioaerosol production and the composition and dispersion of these aerosols into the environment. It was found that under certain conditions, dental surgery staff and patients may be exposed to microorganisms present in the air, particularly bacteria from the mouth and from the water units. Repeated exposure of personnel suggests that there is a probable risk of contact between bacteria-containing aerosols and the respiratory system. With minimal ventilation, stopping treatments for two hours appears sufficient for the bioaerosol concentration to return to the level measured before treatment. The effectiveness of wearing a mask as a tool for exposure prevention remains to be determined.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iv, 46p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-407.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-635 Kumagai S., Koda S.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in serum samples of workers at an infectious waste incineration plant in Japan
In 1998-2000, concentrations of summed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the exhaust gas of an infectious waste incineration plant were found to be considerably in excess of the Japanese legal limit value of 80ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m3. The incinerator ceased operation in November 2000. This study investigated whether the incinerator workers were exposed to high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. Blood samples of five workers and five unexposed control subjects were collected one month and 16 months after the end of the occupational exposure. Ash remaining in the incinerator and dust deposited around the conveyer and incinerator areas was also collected; TEQ values were 44 and 10ng TEQ/g, respectively. A month after the end of occupational dioxin exposure, mean TEQ for the workers was 49.1pg TEQ/g lipid, 2.7 times higher than among the controls, while at 16 months, it was still 1.6 times higher than among the controls.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.120-125. 36 ref.

CIS 05-694 Patterson R.M., Bracken T.D., Alldredge J.R.
Assessing compliance with 60-Hertz magnetic-field exposure guidelines
Practical guidance for assessing compliance with exposure limits for magnetic fields in the extremely low frequency range (3 to 3000 hertz) is limited. To fill this gap, a statistically-based sampling and analysis methodology using 60-Hertz exposures in the electric utility industry as a model was developed. Using this methodology, specific compliance probabilities and their confidence intervals were estimated for various electric utility scenarios from available personal exposure measurements. This example of the application of the methodology showed that compliance with existing exposure limits may become an issue for certain tasks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.77-85. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 05-634 Boraiko C., Batt J.
Evaluation of employee exposure to organic tin compounds used as stabilizers at PVC processing facilities
This study was conducted to evaluate worker exposure to organic tin compounds at PVC processing facilities and to verify that these exposures were below the threshold limit value (TLV) set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (AGCIH) for organic tin. The principal concern is to minimize effects of airborne exposure to organic tin on the immune function and the central nervous system. Personal exposure monitoring was conducted following the National lnstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 5504 sampling method and a modified version of the NIOSH analytical method. No average exposure levels for the various tasks examined exceeded the organic tin TLV and 96% of the samples showed a result of less than 20% of the TLV. Only one sample of 102 exceeded the TLV and the individual was wearing appropriate respiratory protection.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2005, Vol.2, No.2, p.73-76. 9 ref.

CIS 05-439 Melton G.B.
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement and analysis of magnetic fields from welding processes
This research report comprises a review of information on magnetic fields associated with arc and resistance welding processes, an analysis of the spatially varying magnetic field levels to which welders are exposed during arc and resistance welding and a tabulation of magnetic field data from a range of welding processes. Magnetic field measurements were carried out under typical operating conditions and at varying distances from the welding equipment and cables. Results indicate that the reference levels for magnetic fields issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are likely to be exceeded for many resistance welding machines at the location where the operator would normally stand. These levels may also be exceeded for arc welding in some circumstances.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vii, 40p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr338.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-486 David G., Woods V., Buckle P.
Health and Safety Executive
Further development of the usability and validity of the Quick Exposure Check (QEC)
Improvements to the QEC method for assessing the exposure of workers to musculoskeletal risk factors were made using a participatory approach with input from health and safety practitioners and ergonomics experts. Experienced users were interviewed to explore the usability, strengths and weaknesses of the QEC and an improved version of the QEC and Reference Guide was tested with practitioners. Revisions based on these trials have provided an improved QEC, Reference Guide and on-line resource.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. v, 36p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr211.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-385 Cowie H.A., Hughson G.W., Creely K.S., Graham M.K., Hutchison P.A., Aitken R.J.
Health and Safety Executive
An occupational hygiene assessment of the use and control of isocyanates in the UK
Approximately 6200 motor vehicle repair (MVR) workshops in the United Kingdom use isocyanates, with around 15000 employees directly exposed. In the non-MVR sector, a further 1600 enterprises were estimated to use isocyanates, with around 7000 employees directly exposed. Enterprises carrying out work with the greatest potential for exposure were generally aware of the health hazards and had taken appropriate action to control workers' exposure. Workplace surveys confirmed that exposure levels were generally low and that it was possible to control air concentrations to below the existing exposure limits with basic exposure control measures. These results suggest that isocyanate related asthma cases could be due to momentary lapses in exposure controls rather than prolonged, high level exposure that might be attributed to ignorance of the health risks and the recommended control measures. Alternatively, it is possible that the existing exposure limits do not ensure the adequate protection of exposed workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 238p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr311.pdf [in English]

2004

CIS 08-1226 Rouilleault H., Guérin F., Gilles M., Molinié A.F., Rousseau T., Rogez I.
Reducing work strenuousness
Réduire la pénibilité au travail [in French]
Collection of articles on work strenuousness. Topics addressed: forms and sources of strenuous work (repetitive physical efforts, exposure to heat or noise, work schedules and speed of work); negotiations on strenuousness in the context of changes to the law on retirement; opinions of various experts on issues including the definition of strenuousness, strenuousness indicators, the relationship between strenuousness and age, and the prevention of strenuous working conditions; evaluation of strenuousness among garbage collectors, women office workers and in the automobile industry; ageing and strenuousness; main points to consider with respect to the prevention of strenuous working conditions; further reading.
Travail & changement, Feb.-Mar. 2004, No.294, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC294.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-880 Stridsklev I.C., Schaller K.H., Langård S.
Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method
This study investigated exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welding of stainless steel. Seven FCW welders were monitored by measuring Cr and Ni in the workplace atmosphere, blood and urine. The welders were also questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni, the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The mean workplace air concentrations were 200µ/m3 for total Cr, 11.3µ/m3 for Cr(VI) and 50.4µ/m3 for Ni. For Cr in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25, 1.68 and 0.9µ/l respectively. For Ni, most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 and 2.50 µ/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. Monitoring of Cr in the urine may be a versatile method for evaluating the exposure of FCW welders to Cr(VI) in air. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding stainless steel is low in general.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.587-591. 12 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/88mwnwttk4jc835u/fulltext.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-864 Korhonen K., et al.
Occupational exposure to chemical agents in the paper industry
As part of an international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article summarizes the results of 3,873 measurements carried out in the production departments of paper and paperboard mills and recycling plants in 12 countries. In the paper and paperboard mills, most of the agents were measured in the pulping and refining departments and in on-machine coating and winding of paper/paperboard. Exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria, nitrogen dioxide, mineral dusts, paper dust, sulphuric acid and various solvents sometimes exceeded exposure limit values. Other findings in re-pulping and de-inking departments of recycling plants, at coating machines and at newsprint departments are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2004, Vol.77, No.7, p.451-460. 30 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/9p8c7y8xgwa1ly7d/fulltext.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-174 Schneider K., Hassauer M., Oltmanns J., Schuhmacher-Wolz U., Elmshäuser E, Mosbach-Schulz O.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Application of a probabilistic model for evaluating risks among employees
Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung als Hilfsmittel zur Wirkungsabschätzung bei Arbeitsnehmern [in German]
This report describes a probabilistic model for estimating the risk of worker exposure to harmful substances in the workplace. It also presents examples of application of the model to five substances (trimethyl pentene, aniline, dichloroaniline, vinyl acetate and dibutyl phthalate). Results of the probabilistic evaluation are compared with those of occupational hygiene reference values that require the implementation of protective measures at the workplace, obtained through a deterministic evaluation. The impact on regulations of the use of these methods is discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 281p. Illus. 81 ref. Price: EUR 22.00.
http://www.baua.de/nn_28502/sid_AB32F0E9451CB62CB8EE4664D192E5E0/nsc_true/de/Publikationen/Forschungsberichte/2004/Fb1012,xv=vt.pdf [in German]

CIS 06-1362 Tokarska-Rodak M., Toś-Luty S., Haratym-Maj A.
Selected parameters of immunological response in hop growers during the period of intensive application of pesticides
This study investigated selected parameters of immunological response among hop growers and farmers in conditions of intensive exposure to crop protection products. Laboratory tests covered the determination of selected morphological parameters, phagocytic test, NBT test, and myeloperoxidasis (MPO) concentration in blood serum of hop growers and farmers. A significant decrease was noted in the number of platelets in the general population of hop growers and in individual age groups, compared to the control groups of farmers. Analysis of individual sub-populations of leukocytes showed a significantly higher number of basophils and lymphocytes among hop growers, compared to farmers. It was concluded that changes observed with respect to certain haematological parameters are an evidence of exposure to pesticides.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2004, Vol.11, No.2, p.227-231. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/11227.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-442 Mołocznik A.
Time of farmers' exposure to biological factors in agricultural working environment
In a study of 30 farms, the duration of farmers' exposure to biological and other factors of the working environment was investigated using the Private Farmer Work Chart. Among 48 work activities contributing to the full annual work cycle, 15 activities were associated with 5 risk factors. These were mainly field activities (plant harvesting and fertilizing, chemical plant protection, cultivation activities). Exposure to agricultural dust and elements of the thermal environment were the most common risk factors, followed by contact with biological factors, noise, vibration and chemical agents. Biological factors were associated with nearly 60% of farm activities, mainly the spreading of manure, animal breeding and plant harvesting.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2004, Vol.11, No.1, p. 85-89. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/11085.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-441 Solarz K., Szilman P., Szilman E.
Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish Zoo
This study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period, 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analysed (89.8%). The examination revealed that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites that might cause allergies in workers.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2004, Vol.11, No.1, p.27-33. 41 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/11027.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-410 Behar A.., MacDonald E., Lee J., Cui J., Kunov H., Wong W.
Noise exposure of music teachers
A noise exposure study was performed to assess the risk of hearing loss to music teachers as a result of their activities. Noise exposure of 18 teachers from 15 schools was measured using noise dosimeters. The equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) of each teacher was recorded during single activities (classes) as well as for the entire day. A normalized 8-hour exposure, termed the noise exposure level (Lex), was also computed. The measured Leq exceeded the 85-dBA limit for 78% of the teachers. Lex exceeded 85 dBA for 39% of the teachers. Limited recommendations on how to reduce the noise exposures are provided. The need for a hearing conservation program is also emphasized.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2004, Vol.1, No.4, p.243-247. 10 ref.

CIS 06-360 Taylor J.R., O'Shaughnessy P.T., Reynolds S.J.
Estimating personal exposures based on mass balance material usage rates: Validation of a ventilation model in a spray paint booth
This research examined the validity of a model for estimating airborne contaminant concentrations based on the mass rate of change of compounds used during an industrial process. A study of an industrial spray painting operation involved estimation of the effective ventilation rate, sampling for organic compounds and simultaneously measuring the mass usage of these compounds during painting. The results indicated that the model does appear to be a useful additional tool for estimating worker exposures. However, the characteristics of specific ventilation systems must be understood before modelling is conducted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2004, Vol.1, No.4, p.213-221. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 06-149 Schettgen T., Broding H.C., Angerer J., Drexler H.
Dimethyl sulphate; a hidden problem in occupational medicine
IARC has classified dimethyl sulfate as a group 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans). Blood levels of N-methylvaline were monitored in sixty-two workers with potential exposure to dimethyl sulfate in a chemical plant producing surfactants for the textile industry. Controls consisted of ten laboratory workers without exposure to methylating agents. While 52 of the 62 workers showed N-methylvaline levels similar to those of the control group, a large exposure to dimethyl sulfate was seen in a group of ten employees working in an area where the substance was processed. These workers exceeded the German exposure equivalent value for dimethyl sulfate (40µg/L blood) by up to four times. In contrast, dimethyl sulfate was not detectable in workplace air in this area. Skin contact was therefore considered to be the main route of uptake for this substance.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.61, No.1, p.73-75. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 06-143 Jirachaiyabhas V., Visuthismajarn P, Hore P., Robson M.G.
Organophosphate pesticide exposures of traditional and integrated pest management farmers from working air conditions: A case study in Thailand
Concentrations of organophosphate pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion, were measured in ambient air breathed by farmers in a region of Thailand. Exposure levels were assessed and a comparison was made between the levels of pesticide exposure of traditional and integrated pest management (IPM) farmers. Thirty-three air samples were collected during pesticide spraying. Traditional farmers were exposed to higher levels of the pesticides, with an average concentration of 0.19mg/m3, compared with 0.037mg/m3 for the IPM farmers. It was estimated that farmers would be exposed to 81-12,261mg of the organophosphate pesticides via inhalation throughout their lifetime. Moreover, traditional farmers absorbed more pesticides via inhalation than did IPM farmers.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.289-295. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Jirach.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-161 Benczek K. M.
The reliability of the results of measurements of chemicals in workplace air
Wiarygodność wyników pomiarów czynników chemicznych w powietrzu na stanowiskach pracy [in Polish]
This document describes control standards for equipment used in chemical air pollution measurement. Polish standards and projected European standards are listed. Requirements for the equipment and methods used in evaluating the exposure risk of employees to chemicals contained in the air are examined.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2004. 44p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 06-203 Rusnak J.M., Kortepeter M.G., Aldis J., Boudreau E.
Experience in the medical management of potential laboratory exposures to agents of bioterrorism on the basis of risk assessment at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
This article describes a review of potential exposures to infectious agents of bioterrorism (bacterial, viral, or rickettsial agents) at the research laboratories of the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) from 1989 to 2002. The evaluation of 234 persons (78% vaccinated) for exposure to 289 infectious agents revealed five confirmed infections. Postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis was given for most moderate- or high-risk bacterial exposures, most unvaccinated minimal-risk exposures and some vaccinated minimal-risk exposures. It was concluded that a multifaceted policy of personal protective measures, vaccination, early assessment and postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in minimizing morbidity and mortality in at-risk workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.801-811. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 06-202 Rusnak J.M., Kortepeter M.G., Hawley R.J., Boudreau E., Aldis J., Pittman P.R.
Management guidelines for laboratory exposures to agents of bioterrorism
This article examines measures for preventing exposure to potential bioterrorism agents in biodefence research laboratories. Guidelines issued by the Special Immunizations Program at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) are described. These include general safety measures and policies for vaccination and exposure evaluation. Results of evaluations of exposure to bacterial agents, viral agents and toxins are also analysed. It is concluded that a multifaceted policy of safety training, laboratory practices and procedures, personal protective measures, vaccination and early assessment of potential exposure with initiation of postexposure prophylaxis has been successful in minimizing the risk of disease in laboratory workers. Algorithms for evaluating and managing potential exposure are presented to provide guidance to other agencies.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.791-800. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 06-90 Goldstein D.A., Shelton P.E., Cullen M.R., Easterday P.A., Eppard P.J., Cabanilla B.R.
Responding to the challenge of novel technology: An industrial hygiene and safety program for antibody production in maize
This article examines the challenges to occupational hygiene and safety posed by biotechnology, in particular the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants. These challenges include: the widely varying potential for hazard depending on the activity of the protein and the nature and location of the target organ; limited data relating to industrial routes of exposure; and the inability to obtain relevant animal data because of high species-specificity. An approach to industrial hygiene and safety in this area is proposed based on the systematic assessment of employee risk using conservative assumptions and on the management of exposure. The method is described with reference to the production of monoclonal antibodies in maize.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.784-790. Illus. 32ref.

CIS 05-654 Guide for the adjustment of permissible exposure values (PEVs) for unusual work schedules
The joint committee responsible for the revision of Annexe A of the Regulation Concerning the Quality of the Work Environment (Règlement québécois sur la qualité du milieu de travail - RQMT) mandated the IRSST to prepare a guide for the adjustment of time-weighted averages (TWAs) for non-traditional work schedules, using the Institute's research report of 1997 as a starting point and taking into account the committee's suggested modifications. This guide is a result of these efforts. It explains how to adjust the TWAs of each of the substances listed in the RQMT for work schedules other than the traditional one of eight hours per day, five days per week.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2nd rev. ed., 2004. 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 4.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/T-22.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-381 Proctor D.M., Panko J.P., Liebig E.W., Paustenbach D.J.
Estimating historical occupational exposure to airborne hexavalent chromium in a chromate production plant: 1940-1972
The findings of a retrospective exposure assessment for 493 workers who were occupationally exposed to airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at a chromate production plant from 1940 to 1972 are presented. Exposure estimates were based on a job-exposure matrix that related job titles with area monitoring data from 21 industrial hygiene surveys conducted from 1943 to 1971. Former workers were interviewed to determine activity patterns in the plant by job title. This information was combined with Cr(VI) monitoring data to calculate cumulative occupational exposure for each worker. The highest monthly 8-hour average exposures for each worker ranged from 0.003 to 4.1mg/m3. These exposure estimates were combined with mortality data for this cohort to assess the lung cancer risk associated with inhaled Cr(VI). A dose-response relationship was observed for increases in lung cancer mortality with Cr(VI) exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2004, Vol.1, No.11, p.752-767. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 05-19
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
IPCS Risk assessment terminology - Part 1: IPCS/OECD key generic terms used in chemical hazard/risk assessment - Part 2: IPCS glossary of key exposure assessment terminology
This publication consists of two parts: Part 1 contains internationally-harmonized generic terms used in hazard and risk assessment. This set of harmonized terms was developed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) after an extensive survey of the terms used by chemical risk assessment professionals. Part 2 consists of a glossary of exposure assessment terminology assembled by an IPCS exposure assessment working group. Implementation of these harmonized terms will help facilitate the mutual acceptance of hazard and exposure assessments of chemicals between countries, saving resources for both governments and industry.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2004. iii, 117p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 40,00, USD 36,00 (CHF 28.00 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/methods/harmonization/areas/en/ipcsterminologyparts1and2.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-629 Tchicaya A.F., Bonny J.S., Yeboue-Kouame Y.B., Wognin S.B., Kouassi M.Y.
Study of exposure to aromatic amines in the chemical industries in Abidjan
Etude de l'exposition aux amines aromatiques dans les industries chimiques à Abidjan [in French]
Aromatic amines are carcinogens. Prolonged exposure leads to bladder cancer. To assess the extent of this exposure, a prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among chemical industries in Abidjan. Interviews with workers were followed by job observations. Participants consisted of 362 workers (all male) of average age 34 years working in 12 companies where aromatic amines were used. Natural ventilation was the only form of ventilation in 75% of the cases. Monitoring of the working atmosphere was carried out in only 44% of the cases. Heavy nicotine addiction and urinary bilharziosis were found in 2% and 10.5% of the workers respectively. Personal protective equipment was insufficient and inadequate. Hygiene and working conditions safety committees were unknown or non operational and medical supervision was restricted to annual chest radiographs. These findings indicate the presence of bladder cancer risk and a poor enforcement of regulatory protection measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 2004, Vol.65, No.1, p.36-40. 17 ref.

CIS 04-637 Duchaine C., Cormier Y., Mériaux A., Pageau P., Chabot M., Israël-Assayag E., Goyer N., Cloutier Y., Lazure L.
Air quality and respiratory health of workers in Quebec peat processing plants equipped with dust control systems
Santé respiratoire des travailleurs et qualité de l'air des tourbières du Québec possédant des systèmes de dépoussiérage [in French]
Although peat bogs are one of Quebec's important natural resources, few scientific data exist on these workplaces which employ approximately 700 workers. These workers are exposed to high concentrations of microorganisms that could affect their respiratory health. In this study, the biological contaminants contained in the peat moss and their effects on health are identified and the air quality in processing and packaging plants equipped with dust control systems is evaluated, together with the health status of the workers. The results show that the levels of exposure to various contaminants often exceed the permissible limits. For various reasons, the control systems at source do not maintain the dust emissions at acceptable levels. The report concludes with a series of recommendations to improve the working conditions in peat bogs.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. v, 132p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: CAD 10.70. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-363.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA12-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-654 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Plastics converting industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la transformation des matières plastiques [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of plastics converting industry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 52p. Illus. 52 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA11-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-653 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Textile finishing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de finition textile [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of textile finishing industry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-654 and CIS 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 24p. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA10-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-652 Henderson M.H., Lipscombe R.P., Blakley K.C.
Method for monitoring exposure to LPG containing small amounts of 1,3-butadiene
This report provides a detailed validation of a sampling and analytical methodology based on gas chromatography for occupational exposure monitoring of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and its components, including trace amounts of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Dec. 2004. iv, 35p. 3 ref.
http://www.concawe.org/Content/Default.asp?PageID=31 [in English]

CIS 04-651 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Funeral service industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie des services funéraires [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of funeral service workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-650 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 42p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA9-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-650 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Pathology laboratories
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Laboratoires de pathologie [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in pathology laboratories in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-649, CIS 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 38p. 40 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA8-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-649 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Lobo Gutierrez C.L., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Foundries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Fonderies [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of foundry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-648, CIS 04-650 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 56p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA7-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-648 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resin manufacturing industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industries de fabrication de formaldéhyde et de résines à base de formaldéhyde [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resin manufacturing industries in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-647, CIS 04-649 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 54p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA6-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-647 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Wooden furniture manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de meubles en bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wooden furniture manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-646, CIS 04-648 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 50p. 35 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA5-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-646 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Other wood industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Autres industries du bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wood product industries other than furniture and particle-board manufacture in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-645, CIS 04-647 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 49p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA4-386.pdf. [in French]

CIS 04-645 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Duguay P., Gely O., Gérin M., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Particle-board manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de panneaux agglomérés [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the particle-board manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-644, CIS 04-646 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA3-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-644 Perrault G., Baril M., Lefebvre P.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Costs of a respiratory protection programme
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Coûts d'un programme de protection respiratoire [in French]
The objective of this study was to calculate the cost to enterprises of a lowering of threshold limit values for formaldehyde to levels that would require the implementation of a prevention plan, the adoption of technical preventive measures and the use of personal protective equipment. Based on hypotheses concerning occupational safety and heath organization, the size of enterprises and the number of exposed workers, the study concludes that the cost per worker would be CAD 656 for the first year and CAD 101 in subsequent years. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see also CIS 04-642, CIS 04-643, CIS 04-645 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 18p. 5 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA2-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-643 Carrier G., Bouchard M., Noisel N., Bonvalot Y, Fradet S.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Impacts of formaldehyde exposure on human health
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Impacts de l'exposition au formaldéhyde sur la santé humaine [in French]
This study consists of a literature survey on the dose-response relationships between exposure to formaldehyde and the incidence of health effects. Findings indicate that exposures to formaldehyde concentrations below 0.75ppm are unlikely to cause severe or moderate irritation of the eyes, nose or throat. Between 0.75 and 1ppm, 6.3% of subjects may present signs of moderate eye irritation. At formaldehyde concentrations of between 1 and 2ppm, this proportion increases to 10.1%. There is limited data on the carcinogenic effects of formaldehyde. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642, CIS 04-644 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iii, 120p. Illus. 32 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA1-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-642 Goyer N., Perrault G., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde [in French]
The objective of this research programme was to evaluate the socio-economic and health impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure level for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. The gains for workers' health and the costs and economic advantages for enterprises were evaluated. An approach combining expertise with a classic industrial hygiene approach was adopted in order to develop a matrix linking activity sectors and formaldehyde exposure concentrations. The addition of data on workstations and emission sources made it possible to consolidate the results obtained by sector, manpower and distribution of exposed workers. This project has also resulted in the acquisition of knowledge on a large number of economic activity sectors in Quebec as well as expertise on the evaluation of occupational health and safety impacts. Results for various sectors of activity are published in a series of reports (see also CIS 04-643 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. vi, 99p. Illus. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-278 Exposure assessment
Collection of articles on exposure assessment and other topics of relevance to Nordic countries and Russia. Topics covered: risk assessment for cold work; Russian system of classification of workplaces according to their risk level; occupational safety and health in small enterprises in Russia; evaluating the exposure to chemicals in small enterprises; assessment of workers' exposure to wood dust in the European Union.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2004, Vol.7, No.1, p.3-31 (whole issue). Illus. 34 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/FC67C387-2229-4242-9444-CBFF28764AED/0/barents04_1.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-357 Kirrane E.F., Hoppin J.A., Umbach D.M., Samanic C., Sandler D.P.
Patterns of pesticide use and their determinants among wives of farmer pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study
Using questionnaire data from a cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses, this study investigated patterns of pesticide use among 31,173 farmers' wives. 36% reported having never used pesticides during their lifetimes, whereas the 10% heaviest pesticide users reported lifetime use of three or more agricultural pesticides plus several commonly-used residential pesticides. Five categories were defined based on the degree of pesticide use, for which risk factors associated with each category were studied using logistic regression. Among the findings, farm women who reported the heaviest pesticide use could risk further pesticide exposure by engaging in household hygiene practices involving pesticides.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.856-865. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 04-206 Methods for assessing occupational radiation doses due to intakes of radionuclides
Radioactive materials are used in many human activities. Whenever unsealed radioactive sources are present, intakes of radionuclides by workers can occur. Intakes can occur by a number of routes, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. This report contains practical advice on the interpretation of such monitoring results and the assessment of committed effective doses to workers. Glossary. A CD-ROM of data in tabular form is included.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2004. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM. Price: EUR 28.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1190/Pub1190_web.pdf [in English]

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