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Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found

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CIS 07-408 Weeks J.L., Rose C.
Metal and non-metal miners' exposure to crystalline silica, 1998-2002
Crystalline silica is a well-known of cause silicosis and other diseases. Exposure is common in the mining industry and consequently, the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) regularly evaluates miners' exposure to silica to determine compliance with its exposure limit. MSHA exposure measurements were obtained for over 4000 mines between 1998 and 2002, and average exposure was calculated and classified by occupation and by mine. Evaluation criteria included whether average values exceeded MSHA's permissible exposure limit or the limit recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), whether there was a risk of exposure to freshly fractured silica, and whether there was a risk of a high rate of exposure to silica. It was found that miners in certain jobs are exposed to silica above permissible and recommended exposure limits. Some miners may also be exposed to freshly fractured silica.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.523-534. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 07-459 Liebers V., Brüning T., Raulf-Heimsoth M.
Occupational endotoxin-exposure and possible health effects on humans
This literature survey examines the impact of endotoxin exposure on health with particular reference to sampling at the workplace and methodological aspects of endotoxin determination. Endotoxins are commonly found at workplaces where large amounts of bioaerosols are generated. Since the German ordinance on occupational safety and health involving biological agents (Biostoff-Verordnung) became effective in 1999, threshold limit values have been the object of intense discussions. Endotoxin values are still measured with non-uniform methods and therefore values are of limited benefit for the classification of exposure groups. In Germany there is currently no threshold limit value for endotoxin. It is concluded that while the adverse health effects of endotoxins are well known, standardization of measurements is a necessity and exposure limits should be defined without further delay.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.474-491. Illus. 89 ref.

CIS 07-419 Roberge B., Grenier M., Gravel R.
Comparison of two exposure indices for diesel particulate matter
Comparaison de deux indices d'exposition à la matière particulaire de diesel [in French]
In Quebec, the Regulation concerning occupational health and safety in mines includes an exposure value for diesel fumes that is based on the respirable combustible dust (RCD) measurement index. It has been suggested that the use of the elemental carbon measurement method could be a more appropriate index. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using the elemental carbon measurement as an index of exposure to diesel particulate matter, to establish standardized sampling and analytical methods for elemental carbon and to document the work environment in two sectors of activity, namely mines and garages.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. vi, 44p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: CAD 7.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 07-482 Arnaudo B., Hamon-Cholet S., Waltisperger D.
Postural and osteoarticular constraints at work
Les contraintes posturales et articulaires au travail [in French]
This article summarizes the main findings concerning postural constraints drawn from the SUMER 2002-2003 survey of all occupational exposures in France. According to the survey, 32% of workers are exposed to physically tiring situations, including frequent walking, prolonged standing postures and repetitive movements carried out at a rapid pace. Twenty-one percent are required to adopt strenuous postures, either kneeling, with arms stretched upwards or with a twisted torso, and 10% are exposed to cervical constraints. In all, one worker in two is subjected to at least one postural constraint that can be considered high. Strenuous postures concern primarily craftsmen and trades workers, but also women employed in retail or in domestic housekeeping. Physically tiring postures concern primarily male workers in industry, while women working in industry are particularly exposed to repetitive movements, and women office workers and managers suffer cervical constraints.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.329-336. Illus. 7 ref.$File/TF152.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-447 Floury M.C., Rouxel C., Vinck L., Magaud-Camus I.
Manual handling: Mechanization hasn't solved everything
La manutention manuelle de charges: la mécanisation n'a pas tout réglé [in French]
This article summarizes the main findings concerning manual handling drawn from the SUMER 2002-2003 survey of all occupational exposures in France. The survey found that in France four out of ten employees handle heavy loads in the course of their work, with three out of ten exposed at least two hours a week. Construction workers, and to a lesser extent those in industry, are the most exposed, but workers in service sectors are not exempt, particularly those working in the retail sector and in health care. Manual handling is often associated with severe postural constraints and a high speed of work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.321-328. Illus. 3 ref.$File/TF151.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-434 Canetto P.
New regulations on noise at work
Une nouvelle réglementation sur le bruit au travail [in French]
The "Noise" Directive 2003/10/EC (see CIS 06-253) is to be transposed into the national legislation of the European Union member states during 2006. The new regulations have been extended to include reference to new general principles of occupational safety and health, as well as examples of solutions for reducing noise. This article presents these new aspects together with their implications for occupational safety and health. The most significant changes include the lowering of exposure levels that require preventive actions and the introduction of threshold limit values. The role of occupational physicians is confirmed and broadened. It is suggested that lack of clarity concerning the threshold limits, the acceptable hazard evaluation methods and the methods for taking into account attenuation by personal protective equipment are expected to figure among the main potential problems in implementing the regulations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.297-307. Illus. 16 ref.$File/TC110.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-290
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Working conditions in Hungary
In 2001, Hungary carried out its first survey on the state of occupational safety and health. The survey aimed to assess working conditions in order to promote the Hungarian national programme of occupational safety and health for improving quality of work and life, and to establish a database on working conditions that would be comparable with EU data. The results reveal that with regard to physical factors such as noise, vibration, temperature, uncomfortable working posture, heavy mental and/or physical workload, the proportion of employees affected is similar to that in the EU. However, in relation to exposure to chemicals, Hungary reports more than twice the exposure rate of the EU average.
Internet document, 2006. 10p. 5 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-417 Carter M., Margary A., Money C., Pizzella G., van Rijn R., van de Sandt P., Viinanen R., de Wilde P., Urbanus J.
Human exposure information for EU substance risk assessment of gas oil
This report presents information on inhalation and dermal exposures to gas oil for workers in manufacturing and distribution operations and for consumers. The data are for use in risk assessment according to European Union regulations. Workers outside the oil industry are also exposed to gas oils, but information on these exposures is more limited. Contents: principles of exposure estimation for risk assessment; substance characterization; activities involving exposure to gas oil; quantification of exposures.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Mar. 2006. v, 56p. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-406 Pontén A.
Formaldehyde in reusable protective gloves
Following clinical findings in a case of hand dermatitis, formaldehyde was suspected to be present in reusable protective gloves. Nine types of gloves were investigated with the semi-quantitative chromotropic acid method. It was found that six gloves emitted some formaldehyde and that four gloves emitted ≥40µg of formaldehyde. Most of the formaldehyde was found on the inside of the gloves. To get an indication of the clinical relevance, a comparison with a protective cream containing the formaldehyde-releasing agent diazolidinyl urea was performed by comparing areas of gloves with areas of cream layers with thickness 1-2mg/cm2. The amounts of formaldehyde emitted from the gloves were in the same range as those emitted from a layer of cream.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.268-271. 17 ref.

CIS 07-386 Lidén C., Skare L., Lind B., Nise G., Vahter M.
Assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt by acid wipe sampling and ICP-MS
This article describes a technique developed for the assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt based on sampling with cellulose wipes impregnated with 1% nitric acid. Chemical analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recovery of nickel, chromium and cobalt from arms and palms was 93%. The analytical result is expressed in terms of mass per unit area (µg/cm2). The developed acid wipe sampling technique was found to be suitable for determination of nickel, chromium and cobalt deposited on the skin. The technique may be used in workplace studies, in studies of individuals in the general population, in dermatitis patients, in identification of risk groups, as well as in developing preventive strategies and in follow-up after intervention.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.233-238. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-415 Practical guide - Chemical Agents Directive 98/24/EC
Guide pratique - Directive agents chimiques 98/24/CE [in French]
This document provides a guide to the practical implementation of Directive 98/24/EC (CIS 98-1094) on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work. It covers methods for measuring and evaluating atmospheric concentrations at the place of work for 63 chemicals with reference to occupational exposure limits specified in Directive 2000/39/EC (CIS 01-966) establishing a list of indicative occupational exposure limit values, hazard evaluation, and specific methods of prevention, protection and surveillance of the health of workers exposed to lead and its ionic derivatives.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2, rue Mercier, 2985 Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 2006. 282p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in French] [in French]

CIS 07-384 Nieboer E., Thomassen Y., Chashchin V., Odland J.Ø.
Occupational exposure assessment of metals
Ocenka professional'noj vrednosti metallov [in Russian]
The main hazards resulting from occupational exposure to inorganic nickel compounds are respiratory cancers (nasal and lung) and hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis). Following a literature review of toxicological and epidemiologic studies relating to nickel and its compounds, this article describes ongoing work on the monitoring of workers' exposure to nickel in a nickel refinery in the Kola peninsula in the Murmansk region of Russia.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2006, Vol.9, No.1, p.6-10 (English); p.12-16 (Russian). Illus. 40 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-383 Vincent R., Jeandel B.
Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in France: Information provided by the COLCHIC database
Exposition professionnelle au formaldéhyde en France: informations fournies par la base de données COLCHIC [in French]
Formaldehyde is a chemical that is widely used as a disinfectant and as a synthesis intermediate in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. It also enters into the composition of melamine and phenolic resins, glues and varnishes. This widespread use of formaldehyde in many industrial sectors is confirmed by analysis of formaldehyde exposure measurements in the French database of occupational exposure to chemicals (COLCHIC). Exposures exceeding recommended occupational exposure limits for this chemical agent are frequently encountered in hospitals, wood panel production facilities and foundries. Combustion and thermal degradation of certain materials also represent a significant cause of formaldehyde exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2006, No.203, p.19-33. Illus. 30 ref.$File/nd2247.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-273 Bouquet D., Dreux F., Leclercq G.
Accounting for occupational exposures in computerized databases of the ACMS medical centres
La prise en compte des expositions professionnelles dans les bases informatiques des centres médicaux de l'ACMS [in French]
This article describes the most recent release of a computer-based tool used by occupational physicians in medical and care centres in the French region of Ile-de-France. It brings together data concerning enterprises, hazards, occupations, medical inspections and work aptitude. Among data that can be extracted and published using this tool are the past exposures of each employee and the enterprise sheet, together with hazards related to occupations or sectors of activity and the list of workers exposed to a given type of hazard.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.2, p.163-169. Illus.

CIS 07-378 Gabriel S.
The BG measurement system for hazardous substances (BGMG) and exposure database of hazardous substances (MEGA)
German employers' insurance associations for occupational accident coverage (Berufsgenossenschafen) maintain a measurement system for hazardous substances, the so-called BGMG. The aim of the BGMG is to determine and document valid results of exposure measurements for prevention purposes. The data are collected systematically, in parallel with regular sampling within enterprises. Parameters that are expected to have an effect on exposure levels are documented. The MEGA database (documentation of measurement data relating to workplace exposure to hazardous substances) holds 1.629 million measurement values that have been compiled since 1972. The database offers a range of selection possibilities for assessments depending on the evaluation strategy.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1st quarter 2006, Vol.12, No.1, p.101-104. 17 ref.

CIS 07-370 Brooks E.
Isocyanate exposure in an autobody repair and collision center
This inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports on an overexposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) during the spray application of a protective coating for truck beds. The inspection was conducted at an automobile body repair shop that also operated a spray-on truck bed coating operation. The investigation was initiated as a complaint inspection and was limited to the complaint allegation. The employee alleged that workers were exposed to harmful vapours during application of the truck bed liner. Site visits and sampling confirmed exposures to MDI in excess of the threshold limit value of 0.20mg/m3. A number of recommendations aimed at lowering the level of exposure were made and successfully implemented by the employer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2006, Vol.3, No.3, p.D24-D27. 3 ref.

CIS 07-169 Hurtado J., Gonzales G.F., Steenland K.
Mercury exposures in informal gold miners and relatives in southern Peru
Subjects working in or living near informal gold mining and processing in southern Peru were studied to determine mercury exposures from two tasks: amalgamation and amalgam smelting. The authors collected 17 airborne and 41 urinary mercury levels. The mean urinary levels were 728 (range: 321-1,662) and 113 (45-197)µg/L for working in smelters and living near smelters, respectively. A third group working in amalgamation had a mean 18µg/L (range 8-37). People living in the mining town but with no mining activities had 8µg/L (5-10), while a control group outside the town had 4µg/L (2-6). Mean airborne mercury exposure was 2,423µg/m3 (range 530-4,430) during smelting, 30.5µg/m3 (12-55) during amalgamation, and 12µg/m3 (3-23) in the mining town. Smelters are highly contaminated with mercury, as are the people living around smelters.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.340-345. Illus. 25 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-164 Rodríguez T., Younglove L., Lu C., Funez A., Weppner S., Barr D.B., Fenske R.A.
Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua
Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPY and IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0µg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168µg/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: 1) monitor children's activities during applications; 2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; 3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; 4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.312-320. Illus. 37 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-173 Derache V., Fontaine B., Buisset C., Couplet G.
Endocrine disruptions during an alfalfa production run
Perturbations endocriniennes lors d'une campagne de luzerne [in French]
Alfalfa contains a phyto-oestrogen that can cause feminizing effects in cattle when consumed in large quantities. Literature surveys have not identified any human effects. This study involved workers in a food processing plant working in the vicinity of a drying tower occasionally used for producing alfalfa powder as a protein supplement in cattle feed. It involved twelve male workers, including nine potentially exposed workers and three unexposed controls, who were subjected to medical examinations and biological sampling before and after an alfalfa powder production run. No feminizing effects were noted among the long-term potentially exposed workers, neither were there any differences between potentially exposed subjects and controls. However, in view of the small sample size, no final conclusions can be drawn and further work will be required.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.105, p.61-64. Illus. 8 ref.$File/TF147.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-161 Iavicoli I., Carelli G.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to N-nitrosamines in a rubber-manufacturing industry
This study sought to determine volatile N-nitrosamines levels in the air of the rubber-manufacturing industry and to measure urinary N-nitrosamines concentrations among exposed workers. Personal monitoring of 34 workers was performed by sampling nine airborne N-nitrosamines in four Italian factories that manufactured rubber drive belts for automotive engines. Urinary N-nitrosamine levels were determined in all exposed workers and 26 controls. Analyses were conducted by capillary gas chromatography and thermal energy analyser. It was found that airborne and urinary N-nitrosamines levels were very low and, in most cases, below the limit of detection (0.06µg/m3 and 0.1µg/L respectively). However, it is recommended that workers should still be monitored constantly because some of these substances are known to be genotoxic and carcinogenic.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.195-198. 31 ref.

CIS 07-160 Toppila E., Forsman P., Pyykkö I., Starck J., Tossavainen T., Uitti J., Oksa P.
Effect of styrene on postural stability among reinforced plastic boat plant workers in Finland
Many substances are vestibulotoxic and may impair balance. Styrene is both ototoxic and neurotoxic, but its effect on balance has been little studied. This study evaluated the effect of exposure to low concentrations of styrene on balance among Finnish manufacturers of fibreglass-reinforced plastic boats. Postural stability and urinary mandelic acid concentrations were determined for 252 male employees. Postural stability was evaluated by means of force platform and photographic recording. Individual exposure to styrene in the breathing zone was measured for 148 workers. It was found that the postural stability of laminators was worse than that of other workers. This impairment was observed already in young workers, and tended to worsen with age.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.175-180. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 07-155 Lewné M., Nise G., Lind M.L., Gustavsson P.
Exposure to particles and nitrogen dioxide among taxi, bus and lorry drivers
The objective of this study was to investigate differences in exposure to motor exhaust between taxi, bus and truck drivers. A total of 121 drivers were included in the study: 39 taxi drivers, 42 bus drivers and 40 truck drivers. Personal exposure measurements were performed during one working day. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured with passive diffusive samplers. Particles were measured using a monitoring instrument detecting particles between 0.1 and 10µm in size. It was found that truck drivers experienced the highest exposure and taxi drivers the lowest with bus drivers in an intermediate position, regardless of whether NO2 or particles were used as exposure indicator. The levels of both NO2 and particles were higher for bus drivers in the city than for those driving in the suburbs. Using diesel or petrol as a fuel for taxis had no influence on the exposure for the drivers, indicating that the taxi drivers' exposure mainly depends on exhaust from surrounding traffic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.220-226. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 06-1418 Boutin M., Ostiguy C., Dufresne A., Charette M., Lesage J.
Determination of the airborne concentration of isocyanates during the thermal degradation of automobile paint in body repair shops
Détermination de la concentration d'isocyanates aéroportés pendant la dégradation thermique de peinture automobile dans les ateliers de réparation de carrosserie [in French]
Earlier studies showed that the thermal degradation of polyurethane-based car body paints could generate isocyanates, which are potentially harmful substances. An in situ sampling system was devised for the air sampling of isocyanates produced during the thermal degradation process. However under field conditions, various factors can affect the sampling efficiency. The purpose of this study was to validate the sampling technique under actual working conditions and to establish an indicator for evaluating the overall exposure of workers to the isocyanates generated by the thermal degradation of paints. Measurements carried out in three car body repair shops confirmed the reliability of the method.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. 24p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 06-1407 Guthrie G., Dilworth M., Sen D.
Reducing mercury exposure in fluorescent lamp manufacture - A workplace case study
Based on job observations and exposure evaluations in a fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant, this study concludes that there is considerable risk of mercury exposure of workers. By virtue of its volatility and a tendency for spilled metallic mercury to break up into small globules, thereby increasing the surface area available for vaporization, controlling exposure at the workplace can be difficult. Although the study focused on a single workplace, the findings and recommendations apply equally well to other workplace settings where mercury is used and handled in its metallic form, for example, the repair and manufacture of thermometers and gauges.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2006, Vol.3, No.2, p.D15-D18. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 06-1157 Schneider O., Brondeau M.T.
Biological exposure indices
Indices biologiques d'exposition [in French]
Biological exposure indices are reference values corresponding to concentrations of chemical substances, chemical metabolites in biological fluids or exhaled air, and to biological response to a specific chemical substance. These indices can be used to assess worker exposure to chemical substances and should be considered complementary to threshold limit values in air. This article provides definitions of biological exposure indices proposed by ACGIH in the United States (BEI) and DFG in Germany (BAT). It discusses the advantages and the limitations of each of these indices, whose 2005 limit values are provided in tabular form. Replaces CIS 04-152.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.202, p.49-66. 5 ref.

CIS 06-1123 Sawicki Dr.
Dental technician
Prothésiste dentaire [in French]
This data sheet describes the main characteristics of the job of dental technician and provides a sample checklist for the evaluation of personal exposure to various hazards. The job involves the design and production of dentures and orthodontic equipment and requires the mastery of various techniques and the use of a range of materials, including wax, plaster, dental alloys, composites, ceramics and resins.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.1, p.55-56.

CIS 06-1162 Roberge B., Cloutier Y., Malo J.L.
Profile of the use of acrylate-based products in Quebec workplaces
Portrait de l'utilisation des produits à base d'acrylates en milieux de travail québécois [in French]
Widely used in many industrial sectors, acrylates can cause allergic sensitization, rhino-conjunctivitis and occupational asthma. This study was carried out as part of a broader IRSST programme aimed at developing safe bronchial provocation tests. It consisted of identifying processes using acrylates, documenting the types and names of the acrylates used in Quebec, prioritizing the most important acrylates for study in terms of their health effects and documenting existing methods of sampling and analysis. Next steps involve the establishment of a strategy for investigating these compounds and their related health problems and the development of methods for diagnosing respiratory diseases attributable to acrylates.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. v, 27p. 51 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (pdf format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 10-0827
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Ordinance on the protection against dangerous substances
Verordnung zum Schutz vor Gefahrstoffen (Gefahrstoffverordnung - GeffSoffV) [in German]
This booklet contains the full text of the Ordinance on the protection against dangerous substances (GeftoffV) of 23 December 2004, which came into force in Germany on 1 January 2005. It supersedes the version of 1986, taking into account technological advances and the current state of scientific knowledge. Appendices include European Union legislation, specific regulations on information, packaging and labelling, information on specific hazardous substances and activities, substances that are prohibited from sale and distribution, and medical screening.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2005. 104p. Illus. Price: EUR 13.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Verordnung_zum_Schutz.pdf [in German]

CIS 09-590 Zhao T., Li D., Zou C.
National Organizing Committee for 10th ICORD (NOC), Ministry of Health of China
Occupational respiratory hazards in the 21st century: Best practices for prevention and control
Proceedings (in print and on CD-ROM) of the 10th International Conference on Occupational Respiratory Diseases (10th ICORD) held in Beijing, China, from 19 to 22 April 2005. Papers are grouped under the following headings: epidemiology; pathogenesis and experimental studies; diagnosis and treatment; imaging diagnosis of pneumoconiosis; asbestos-related diseases and man-made fibres; occupational asthma and allergy; occupational health surveillance; prevention and control of pneumoconiosis; intervention effectiveness of occupational hazards; studies on pneumoconiosis.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. 793p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 08-688 Scarlett A.J., Stayner R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration on construction, mining and quarrying machines: Evaluation of emission and estimated exposure levels
This study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emission and likely operator daily exposure levels associated with the normal operation of various types of machines used in the construction, earthmoving, quarrying and mining industries. WBV measurements were made on 16 machines to provide representative samples of WBV time-histories. Vibration frequency analysis and direct observation provided information on the potential for reducing operator WBV exposure in each instance, by appropriate selection and use of suspended seats. It was found that the most important factors in controlling/reducing operator exposure to WBV were adequate information and appropriate training in best practices. Maintenance of haul roads and other operating surfaces can also help to reduce machine WBV levels, but only if vehicle travel speeds are controlled.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 163p. Illus. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1458 Pereira Santos M., Sebben V.C., Farenzena P.R., Dexheimer C.F., Pereira Santos C., Steffen V.M.
Exposure to chemical agents and noise in the leather industry
Exposição a agentes químicos e ruído em indústria de couro [in Portuguese]
This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and the occupational exposition to noise and toluene. Seventy-three tannery workers were divided into three groups: exposed to noise, exposed to noise and chemicals and unexposed. Data on the workers' clinical and occupational histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Exposure to toluene was evaluated by environmental and biological monitoring. Noise level and audiometric tests were also conducted. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Findings are discussed. The hearing losses found in the noise group and noise and chemical agents group were significant when compared to the control group.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.111, p.51-56. 17 ref.

CIS 07-1390 Wells D., Greenall A.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluating the effectiveness of legislation, technology and working methods for reducing occupational exposure in the foundry industry
This project was designed to exploit the wealth of historical dust, fume and gas occupational exposure data in the foundry industry of the United Kingdom, available in the archives of a foundry technology research organization. Over 50,000 data points were extracted from archived reports and transferred to an electronically-analyzable database to provide an insight into the effects of legislation, sector guidance, technology and working methods on the reduction of occupational exposure in the foundry industry. The results confirmed that United Kingdom legislation including the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023) together with industry efforts had profound beneficial effects on exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 91p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 07-696 Schneider E., Paoli P., Brun E.
Noise in figures
This report is part of a series of risk thematic reports dedicated to a specific risk, sector or group of workers. It sets out to describe the situation in Europe as regards exposure to noise at work, to identify groups at risk and to highlight trends and emerging issues of concern. These activities are part of a larger project aiming at the earlier identification of emerging trends and risks at work in order to assist in better targeting of resources and to enable more timely and effective interventions. Contents: exposure to noise at work; health effects; European Agency survey on risks related to noise; European Agency data collection methodology; legislation; conclusions.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2005. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 07-675
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Principles of characterizing and applying human exposure models
This report describes general rules for modelling exposure to environmental pollutants, such as industrial chemicals, pesticides, household chemicals and combustion products (from heating, cooking, traffic, etc.), as well as food additives. The report describes some published exposure models to illustrate both the principles and practices of exposure modelling, but it does not attempt to provide a comprehensive list of existing exposure models. Rather, the focus of this report is on discussing general properties of exposure models and how they should be described. The characteristics of different modelling frameworks are examined, and ten principles are recommended for characterizing, evaluating and using exposure models in order to help model users select and apply the most appropriate models. The report also discusses issues such as validation, input data needs, time resolution and extrapolation of the model results to different populations and scenarios.
WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. iv, 70p. Illus. 109 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-176 Costa J.C., Dias A.M., Peixoto A.R., Botelho Chaves A., Silva Ribeiro C., Malheiros L.F., Maia e Costa H.
Occupational exposure to chemicals in the Portuguese foundry industry
Esposição profissional a agentes químicos na indústria da fundição portuguesa [in Portuguese]
Chemical occupational exposure profiles were defined for the ferrous and nonferrous metal subsectors of the foundry industry in Portugal. The study involved 15 foundries. Chemicals considered included crystalline silica, metal dusts and fumes, total dusts and mineral oils. The study enabled the characterisation of 148 exposure profiles, based on hazard evaluation. Several recommendations for improved occupational exposure risk management that comply with legal requirements in this sector are proposed.
Instituto para a Segurança, Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho (ISHST), Rua Barata Salgueiro, 37, 5° 1250-042 Lisboa, Portugal, June 2005. 224p. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 06-1151 Williams P.R.D., Robinson K., Paustenbach D.J.
Benzene exposures associated with tasks performed on marine vessels (circa 1975 to 2000)
Twenty-five industrial hygiene studies that describe exposure during the marine transport of benzene-containing products were analysed. Benzene air concentrations typically ranged from 0.2-2.0 ppm during closed loading and 2-10 ppm during open loading operations. When compared with contemporaneous occupational health standards, the review indicates that most activities performed on marine vessels from the 1970s to 1990s did not usually result in benzene exposures that exceeded these standards. The information and data presented here may be useful for quantitatively estimating or reconstructing historical exposures of workers during the marine transport of benzene-containing cargo provided that details of their work history in the maritime industry are available.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2005, Vol.2, No.11, p.586-599. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 06-980 David G.C.
Ergonomic methods for assessing exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders
This literature review describes the range of methods that have been developed for the assessment of exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The methods are categorized under three main headings: self-reports from workers; observational methods that include simple techniques for systematically recording workplace exposure or more advanced techniques using video recording or computer analysis; direct measurements using monitoring instruments that rely on sensors attached to the subject for the measurement of exposure variables at work. The choice of method depends on the task and the objectives of the study.
Occupational Medicine, May 2005, Vol.55, No.3, p.190-199. 70 ref.

CIS 06-892 Mutetwa B., Chikonyora M., Dozva R., Mazibuko D.
The evaluation of chrysotile asbestos fibre levels in major chrysotile cement manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe mines chrysotile asbestos and manufactures asbestos cement pipes and sheets, brake linings and gaskets. The objective of this study was to assess exposure levels in the chrysotile manufacturing industries. A total of 40 personal and environmental samples were collected at two manufacturing sites. Only one area was found to have fibre levels above the acceptable limit of 0.2 fibres/ml set voluntarily by the Zimbabwean industry and all samples were below the proposed threshold limit value of 0.5 fibres/ml.
On Guard, Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.7-11. 8 ref.

CIS 06-889 Ghasemkhani M., Jahanpeyma F., Azam K.
Formaldehyde exposure in some educational hospitals of Tehran
Formaldehyde exposure was investigated in pathology laboratories, surgery rooms and endoscopy wards in eight large hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 air samples were collected in various environments. It was found that the concentration levels of formaldehyde in pathology laboratories exceeded the recommended AGCIH threshold limit value of 0.3ppm. It is recommended that local exhaust ventilation be installed to minimize workers' exposure to formaldehyde.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2005, Vol.43, No.4, p.703-707. Illus. 12 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-945 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Jahangir-Blourchian M.
Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators
UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate exposures to UVR among university faculty members, research staff and students of a higher education institution using UV-transilluminators. Findings suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding and personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2005, Vol.2, No.10, p.493-496. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 06-532 Gawęda E., Kondej D.
Recommendations for health protection at heavy metal refining plants
Zalecenia dotyczące profilaktyki na stanowiskach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Chemical hazards likely to be encountered at heavy metal refining plants are listed, including carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, and the provisions of occupational health standards are explained. Includes recommendations for occupational exposure assessment and for methods of collective and personal protection.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 36p. 20 ref.

CIS 06-658 Gawora-Ziółek M., Jurewicz J., Hanke W.
Exposure to pesticides among pregnant women working in agriculture
Ekspozycja na pestycydy kobiet w ciąży pracujących w rolnictwie [in Polish]
A survey of potential pesticide exposure was carried out among pregnant women working in agriculture. The women provided information about their work in the field, pesticide spraying, preparation of spraying equipment and pesticide mixtures and washing of clothes after spraying. The survey revealed potential hazards to the women resulting from their exposure to pesticides both at work and at home. Results indicate the need to estimate actual exposure using biological monitoring.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.3, p.197-204. 22 ref.

CIS 06-651 Rice C.H., Levin L.S., Borton E.K., Lockey J.E., Hilbert T.J., LeMasters G.K.
Exposures to refractory ceramic fibres in manufacturing and related operations: A 10-year update
Refractory ceramic fibre is a man-made vitreous fibre used for its insulating properties. This study updates the results of previous exposure estimates. Since 1987, the work environment of approximately 800 persons employed in production operations directly related to fibre manufacturing in three plants in the United States was regularly monitored to evaluate exposure levels. Samples were collected quarterly from the breathing zones of randomly-selected workers. The measurements from those working in areas of similar activities and exposure controls were then used to calculate a mean exposure during identified time periods. Thus 3213 measurements were used to estimate exposure for 130 job titles. Exposure estimates for various job titles are tabulated. The majority of exposure estimates (53%) remained stable over the operational history of the plant. For 32 job titles (25%), exposures decreased, while exposures increased for 28 job titles (22%).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.462-473. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 06-696 Bracken T., Senior R., Dudman J.
60-Hertz electric-field exposures in transmission line towers
This study investigated 60-Hz electric field exposures among line workers in 230 to 765-kV transmission line towers. The exposures were based on computations of the unperturbed electric field along climbing routes and at work positions on the towers and on insulated ladders suspended in towers. Computed exposures are generally expressed in terms of the unperturbed electric field averaged over the body surface as stipulated by guidelines. However for realistic on-tower positions, the worker's posture, the uniformity of the field, and the field orientation differ from the guideline exposure scenario of standing erect in a vertical uniform field. The average electric-field exposure during climbing ranged from 10kV/m for a 230-kV tower to 31kV/m for a 765-kV tower, occasionally exceeding the 20kV/m limit given in the recently adopted IEEE Standard C95.6 2002.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.444-455. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 06-609 Liu Y., Woodin M.A., Smith T.J., Herrick R.F., Williams P.L., Hauser R., Christiani D.C.
Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler
The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500µg/m3. As part of a larger occupational epidemiological study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (controls) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Time-weighted average exposures were significantly higher for boilermakers than for utility workers for ash particles less than 10µm in diameter and for vanadium, nickel and iron. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 ACGIH threshold limit value.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2005, Vol.2, No.9, p.435-443. 22 ref.

CIS 06-636 Poirot P., Hubert-Pelle G.
Solvent exposure profiles and comparison with short-term limit values
Profils d'exposition aux solvants et comparaison aux valeurs limites de courte durée [in French]
This article describes employee exposures to solvents in industrial enterprises with reference to short-term exposure limit values. Use of Direct reading Portable Instruments (DPIs) allowed exposure profiles to be determined and exposure peaks to be displayed. Long-term exposure was assessed in parallel by conventional air sampling and exposure peaks were quantified. While long-term reference limit values were only exceeded during special operations, DPI measurements showed that employees may be exposed to peak concentrations of varying intensity and duration, depending on the work performed. Overall, more than two thirds of exposure profiles determined for 109 employees in nine enterprises exceeded the short-term threshold limit values (TLVs) at least once.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2005, No.200, p.83-93. Illus. 12 ref.$File/ND2235.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-611 Burdorf A.
Identification of determinants of exposure: Consequences for measurement and control strategies
A worker's exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents in the workplace is never constant over time. Workers within groups with similar tasks and working environments are rarely uniformly exposed. Hence, assigning workers to "exposed" and "unexposed" groups or to exposure categories is often difficult. The design and interpretation of epidemiological studies and the implementation of workplace intervention programmes requires a knowledge of the reasons why exposure variability exists, how large this variability is, and which factors determine differences in exposure levels among workers. This article presents statistical techniques that have become available in recent years that allow simultaneous evaluation of the magnitude of variance components as well as determinants of this variability.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2005, Vol.62, No.5, p.344-350. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 06-294 Kullman G., Boylstein R., Jones W., Piacitelli C., Pendergrass S., Kreiss K.
Characterization of respiratory exposures at a microwave popcorn plant with cases of bronchiolitis obliterans
Eight former workers from a popcorn packaging plant were reported to have severe obstructive lung disease consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Investigations into respiratory exposures were carried out at the plant. Air samples were collected to assess airborne particulate concentrations, particle size distributions, endotoxins, nitrogen oxides and other chemicals. Bulk corn and flavoring components were also analyzed for endotoxins and culturable bacteria and fungi. Findings confirm that workers involved in popcorn packaging can be exposed to a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds from flavouring ingredients. Animal studies show that diacetyl can cause airway epithelial injury, although the contribution of other specific compounds associated with obstructive respiratory disease remains unresolved.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2005, Vol.2, No.3, p.169-178. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 06-293 Blomqvist A., Düzakin-Nystedt M., Ohlson C.G., Andersson L., Jönsson B., Nielsen J., Welinder H.
Airway symptoms, immunological response and exposure in powder painting
Powder coating is an alternative to solvent-based spray painting. Powder paints may contain organic acid anhydrides (OAAs), which are irritants to the airways and may cause sensitization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and immunological response among powder coaters and to describe their exposure to OAAs. Participants included 93 exposed and 26 formerly exposed workers, and 86 unexposed workers who completed a questionnaire on working conditions and symptoms and underwent medical examinations. Although the exposure to OAAs was estimated to be low, IgG antibodies to OAA were observed in some subjects. There was a relatively high prevalence of eye and airway symptoms among the powder coaters that were clearly related to exposure. The symptoms were probably caused by the irritating properties of powder paint dust.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.123-131. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 06-315 Nieuwenhuijsen M.J.
Design of exposure questionnaires for epidemiological studies
Questionnaires are frequently used in epidemiological studies for occupational exposure assessment. This article discusses some of the issues that need to be taken into account when designing such questionnaires, namely: use of self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaires; use of open ended or closed ended questions; use of proper wording; examples of poorly-worded questions; format of the questionnaire; useful complementary questions; pilot testing; translation; validity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.62, No.4, p.272-280. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 06-367 Bilban M., Bilban Jakopin C., Ogrinc D.
Cytogenic tests performed on operating room personnel (the use of anaesthetic gases)
The cytogenic effects of chronic exposure to small doses of anaesthetic gases was studied in a group of workers handling these gases in operating theatres. Results were compared with those from radiologists exposed to ionizing radiation and from a group of Slovene citizens who were never exposed to genotoxic agents. Tests included structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and the micronucleus assay (MN). The average frequency of SCAs in the study group was significantly higher than in the group of radiologists and Slovene citizens. The frequency of SCE and MN was also significant. These findings confirm those of previous studies, indicating that exposure to anaesthetic gases induces changes in human chromosomes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.60-64. 23 ref.

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