Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found
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The effect of work practices on personal exposure to glutaraldehyde among health care workers
Glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory irritation and asthma among health care workers. In order to evaluate the effect of work practices and the ventilation system on exposure to glutaraldehyde, 42 breathing zone air samples were taken in five hospitals in Quebec, Canada. In addition, work practices and the presence or otherwise of local or general ventilation system were noted, and the rate of air change and the quantity of glutaraldehyde used were recorded. Geometric mean concentration of all samples was 0.025ppm. Statistical analysis indicated that work practice was the most important factor affecting the level of exposure to glutaraldehyde. In locations where poor or unsafe work practices were employed, the geometric mean concentrations were much higher (0.05 and 0.08ppm respectively). There was a higher prevalence of headache and itchy eyes among employees who worked where unsafe work practices were observed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.45, No.2, p.289-295. Illus. 24 ref.
Villalba Benavides E.
Evaluation of the exposure of electrotherapy care personnel to electromagnetic radiation
Evaluación de la exposición a campos electromagnéticos del personal de electroterapia [in Spanish]
Within the framework of a general evaluation of occupational hazards, an evaluation was undertaken on the exposure to electromagnetic fields among workers providing electrotherapy care. Following a description of electrotherapy equipment and techniques, and of the biological effects of magnetic fields, the evaluation procedure is described. Findings show that workers are exposed to levels of electromagnetic radiation far below threshold limit values. Recommendations are made concerning the surveillance of workers and the protective measures to be implemented.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2007, No.182, p.6-19. Illus. 7 ref.
http://documentacion.apa.es/pdfs/revista/P182_1.pdf [in Spanish]
Gaudin R., Marsan P., Baty G., Orivelle D.
Forestry and exposure to benzene - Survey findings
Bûcheronnage et exposition au benzène - Résultats d'une enquête [in French]
Benzene is a chemical agent that is potentially responsible for increased risks of leukaemia among certain categories of workers exposed to engine fuels. This article describes a study aimed at evaluating the exposure to benzene among loggers and forestry workers, using a biological sampling method. A total of 55 volunteers were subjected to urine sampling before and after a day of work. They also answered a questionnaire on their work and several personal factors, including their smoking habits. It was found that exposures were very moderate, well within permissible levels. This was equally true for smokers, despite the strong effect of smoking on biological markers of benzene exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.89-93. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_PR%2032/$File/pr32.pdf [in French]
Study of CMRs in hazardous waste
Etude des composés CMR dans les déchets dangereux [in French]
This article presents the findings of a study on the exposure of waste disposal workers to carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic agents (CMRs). A first part describes the methodology used for the survey. Next, the results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. A final section outlines proposed operating procedures for improving protection against risks posed by CMRs, including the formalization of information transfer to the parties concerned.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.73-88. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/HST_PR%2031/$File/pr31.pdf [in French]
Kauffer E., Vincent R.
Occupational exposure to mineral fibres - Analysis of the results referenced in the COLCHIC database
Exposition professionnelle aux fibres minérales - Analyse des résultats archivés dans la base de données COLCHIC [in French]
This article presents data on exposures to mineral fibres referenced in the COLCHIC database, which includes the records of all occupational exposure data collected by the French regional mutual occupational accident insurance institutions (CRAM) and the French National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (INRS). Altogether 8029 records were available on fibre concentrations, expressed in terms of the number of fibres detected by optical phase contrast microscopy. Data are presented by sectors of activity, enabling the highlighting situations where protective measures are the most needed. The analysis of exposure level trends from 1984 to 2004 shows that they were largely influenced by threshold limit values. The use of respiratory personal protective equipment by workers is also discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.59-71. 16 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202281/$File/ND2281.pdf [in French]
Poirot P., Lecler M.T., Galland B., Hubert-Pelle G., Nicot T., Grosjean J.
Profiles of perchloroethylene exposure in dry cleaning services
Profils d'exposition au perchloroéthylène dans le secteur du nettoyage à sec [in French]
This article describes the current situation with respect to the concentrations of perchloroethylene to which workers of dry cleaning services are exposed. Average exposure ranges between 25 and 60ppm in industrial dry cleaning services and approximately 10ppm in retail services. The use of direct reading instruments such as photoionization detectors which can be carried by workers enabled the highlighting of multiple exposure peaks of up to 1000ppm, especially when opening machine hatches or performing special operations on the equipment. Overall, 80% of exposure profiles feature at least one peak equal to or greater than 100ppm during one minute or more, with a clear prevalence in industrial dry cleaning services. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.43-58. Illus. 32 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202280/$File/ND2280.pdf [in French]
Hecht G., Hubert G., Subra I., Gagnaire F., Héry M.
Assessment of exposure to peracetic acid during disinfection operations
Evaluation des expositions à l'acide peracétique lors d'opérations de désinfection [in French]
Peracetic acid is widely used for the cold disinfection of surfaces and equipment in the food industry and the medical field, as well as for the chemical bleaching of paper pulp and effluent treatment. It is gradually replacing glutaraldehyde for disinfecting equipment that cannot be heat sterilized. This article describes the efforts undertaken by INRS for developing a sampling and analysis method for peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, evaluating workers' exposure in various use conditions and defining an exposure limit for peracetic acid.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.208, p.35-40. Illus. 13 ref.
Certin J.F., Fayol M., Fauquet A.L., Héry M., Langlois E., Vincent R.
Results of the 2006 audit campaign entitled "labour inspection - Prevention of occupational hazards of the regional health insurance institutions" (with the technical support of the INRS) on the use of carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic agents in industry
Résultat de la campagne de contrôle 2006 "inspection du travail - prévention des risques professionnels des CRAM" (avec le soutien technique de l'INRS) sur l'utilisation des agents cancérogènes, mutagènes et toxiques pour la reproduction dans l'industrie [in French]
This campaign focussed on four sectors of activity, namely mechanical engineering, plastics processing, the manufacture of paints and varnishes, and the refractory ceramic fibres sector. It was concentrated on a limited number of products: trichloroethylene, lead compounds, phthalates, chromates, MBOCA and refractory ceramic fibres. Close to 2000 enterprises were visited, among which 900 reported using CMRs (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances). The survey attempted to define the practices adopted by enterprises with respect to the identification of CMRs, hazard analysis, substitution methodology and preventive measures.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.77-84. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/PR%2027/$File/PR27.pdf [in French]
Cutting fluid aerosol metrology
Métrologie des aérosols des fluides de coupe [in French]
Cutting fluids used in the machining of metals are known to cause skin pathologies including dermatitis and cancer, as well as respiratory diseases. These risks justify the adoption of preventive measures. The complex nature of these fluids and the large diversity of the resulting pollutant emissions considerably complicate the task of occupational hygienists responsible for evaluating the exposure of workers to these products. This article describes the methods used in France, the United States, Germany and Great Britain for the quantitative analysis of aerosols in cutting oils.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2007, No.207, p.7-11. 11 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202267/$File/ND2267.pdf [in French]
Protois J.C., Blachère V., Morèle Y.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)
Evaluation de l'exposition professionnelle au phtalate de di-(éthyl-2 hexyle) (DEHP) [in French]
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is mainly used as a plasticizer in the polyvinyl chloride industry. This article reviews the findings of various studies on the exposure to DEHP, together with the results of the analysis of personal and environmental air samples collected during visits to twelve French plastics processing enterprises. In general, exposures to DEHP were found to be low. Because certain forms of processing generate DEHP-rich dusts or fumes, it is advisable to equip these installations with local exhaust ventilation or more simply to accelerate the switch less-toxic phthalates or other classes of plasticizers which is already well underway in areas such as textile fabric coating.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2007, No.206, p.51-58. 13 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202266/$File/ND2266.pdf [in French]
Exposure of workers to CMR agents
Exposition des travailleurs aux agents CMR [in French]
Chemical agents that are carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic (CMRs) continue to be widely used in occupational settings. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries are the main primary users of these agents. French regulations require that employers take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety and health of employees who are either exposed or risk being exposed to CMRs or other dangerous substances at the place of work. This article comments the main findings of a study on the use of CMRs in France in 2005, based on a literature survey together with interviews of occupational hygiene experts and safety officers within enterprises.
Face au risque, May 2007, No.433, p.9-12. Illus.
Analysis of annual exposure to noise among private farmers according to production profile
Analiza całorocznej ekspozycji na hałas rolników indywidualnych w zależności od profilu produkcji [in Polish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to noise among farmers on family farms involved in three different types of farming in Poland (agriculture, livestock raising and mixed farming). Two acoustic parameters were determined on the basis of the time schedules of agricultural work activities and dosimetry measurements conducted during a whole year. Findings show that the highest noise exposure occurs on farms with plant and mixed production, whereas the lowest values occurred on animal farms. Measured values were found to considerably exceed standard values.
Medycyna pracy, 2007, Vol.58, No.2, p.97-103. Illus. 8 ref.
Blein Sánchez de León A., Arruga Laviña M.V.
Initial hygiene evaluation of acrylamide in air during the preparation of polyacrylamide (PAA) gel in a genetics laboratory
Evaluación higiénica previa de acrilamida en aire durante la preparación de gel de poliacrilamida (PAA) en un laboratorio de genética [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of acrylamide, classified by IARC as a type 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) in workplace air during the preparation of polyacrylamide gel in a genetics laboratory in Spain. Sampling and analyses were carried out using the NIOSH procedure PV2004 involving sorbent tubes, desorption and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography using an ultraviolet detector. The detected level of acrylamide in the weighing stage was found to be 723% of the TLV TWA and 145% of the TLV-C. No acrylamide was detected in the stirring stage. Based on these findings, several preventive measures were proposed for immediate implementation.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.47-52. 16 ref.
Ostiguy C., Fournier M., Petitjean-Roget T., Lesage J., Lajoie A.
Results of the chemical analyses produced at the IRSST for 2001-2005
Workplace air samples of workers exposed to chemical substances collected by labour inspectors and occupational health professionals are analyzed in the IRSST's laboratories. The interpretation of the results of these analyses determines which substances are present at high concentrations and in which activity sectors. This information has been compiled for members of the review committee of the standards of the Regulation respecting occupational health and safety (ROHS), the Commission for occupational safety and health (CSST), the health network as well as joint sector-based associations. These efforts led to a series of documents enabling interested parties to establish regulatory, strategic and operational priorities, while identifying potential research priorities. It is part of a process to monitor and identify substances that should be the subject of research or of measures to control worker exposure.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. iii, 42p. 27 ref. Price: CAD 8.48. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-504.pdf [in English]
Fournier M., Ostiguy C., Lesage J., Huu V.T.
Method for the simultaneous evaluation of various amines in the work environment
Méthode pour l'évaluation simultanée de différentes amines en milieu de travail [in French]
Amines are present in several chemicals, paints, adhesives, polymers and rubbers used in workplaces and pose various health risks to exposed workers. In an earlier project, researchers had identified a reagent for simultaneously sampling three different amines and for carrying out a quantitative analysis. This report describes an analytical method using the same reagent to collect and analyze seven amines that are among those most likely to be used in Québec workplaces. This new approach, which can be used in evaluating workplace ambient air quality, has the advantage of including a unique sampling system, independent of the amine to be quantified, and that can be used at a sufficient flow rate to sample not only vapours, but also aerosols.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. iv, 39p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: CAD 7.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-503.pdf [in French]
Breysse P., Melius J., Carol C.
Proceedings of the Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Emissions from Asphalt/Bitumen Symposium June 7-8, 2006, Dresden, Germany
Proceedings of a symposium on the health effects of occupational exposure to emissions from asphalt held in Dresden, Germany, on 7-8 June 2006. A total of nineteen full papers and seven posters were accepted by the selection committee, with an emphasis on studies that contribute towards evaluating exposures and carcinogenic risks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2007, Vol.4, Sup.1, p.1-248 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Albrecht A., Kiel K., Kolk A.
Strategies and methods for investigation of airborne biological agents from work environments in Germany
During 2004-2005, a European project was carried out to support Polish occupational safety and health institutions in putting into practice Directive 2000/54/EC regarding the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (CIS 03-1046). It involved the information and training of persons responsible for the sampling and analysis of biological agents, and the assessment of the results of workplace atmosphere measurements. This article describes the activities carried out during the project, together with information on the standards for bioaerosol measurements commonly used in Germany within the framework of European guidelines.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2007, Vol.13, No.2, p.201-213. 28 ref.
Carbon monoxide emissions by propane-fed fork-lifts - Technical guide for health and safety specialists (Revised version)
Monoxyde de carbone émis par les chariots au propane - Fiche technique pour les intervenants en santé au travail (version révisée) [in French]
Existing Canadian regulations do not require a preventive maintenance programme for propane-powered forklift trucks and do not specify optimal ventilation conditions for industrial premises where they are used. A study was undertaken to establish a uniform strategy for evaluating carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from propane-powered forklift trucks and to highlight the importance of regular engine maintenance. CO concentrations were determined in forklift truck exhaust gases and in the workers' breathing zones at several companies, and their relationship with various conditions of engine maintenance was analysed. The results of this study are summarized in this technical guide that provides industrial hygienists with a proper tool to evaluate CO emissions from propane-powered forklift trucks.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal H3A 3C2, Quebec, Canada, 2007. 9p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: CAD 3.96. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RF2-102.pdf [in French]
Acaíno Lara J., Solís Vega R., Quintanilla Barros P.
Study of exposure to silica - Chile 2004-2005
Estudio de la exposición a sílice - Chile 2004-2005 [in Spanish]
The Public Health Institute of Chile carried out an evaluation of the level of exposure of workers to silica in the country. 132 companies involved in various fields of industry were assessed, from which a total of 394 air samples were analyzed. It was found that 35% of the samples exceeded the weighted average permissible limits . The percentage of workers with a high probability of exposure to silica (working more than 30h per week in the presence of silica) was estimated using a job-exposure matrix developed by industrial hygiene experts. It is concluded that 5.4% of the employed workforce has a high risk of exposure to silica. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2006, 94p. Illus. 32 ref.
Estudio_de_la_exposición_a_sílice_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]
Goglia V., Gospodaric Z., Filipovic D., Djukic I.
Influence on operator's health of hand-transmitted vibrations of a single-axle tractor
The operators of the single-axle tractors are especially exposed to hand-arm transmitted vibrations. These vibrations can cause complex vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, collectively named hand-arm vibration syndrome. Among these, the most common disorder is vibration-induced white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). The vibration levels were measured in three tractor working conditions, namely idling, transportation and soil tillage. The frequency-weighted acceleration, given in m/s2, was calculated. Findings are discussed with reference to daily exposure limits recommended by ISO 5349. Results showed that 10% of workers are exposed to a risk of vibration-induced white finger disorder of the hands after relatively short periods (3-4 years), if the tractor is used eight hours per day in soil tillage and transportation at full load. Considering the criteria of the ISO 5349, the daily working time with the single-axle tractor should be limited in order to protect the operator and work schedules should be arranged to include vibration-free periods.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.33-38. Illus. 21 ref.
Influence_on_operator's health.pdf [in English]
Merciéca P., Bernon J., Rouilleault H., Sarazin B., Jaouën M., Rousset S., Boisson-Spychala C., Delabroy C., Négroni P., Viaud-Jouan A.
Work units: A method for the evaluation of occupational hazards
Unité de travail: une méthode pour évaluer tous les risques professionnels [in French]
Collection of articles on the evaluation of occupational hazards. Topics addressed: definition of a work unit, which consists of a set of similar situations with respect to the tasks carried out and their related hazards; opinions of occupational physicians, workers' representatives and government agencies on hazard evaluation; approaches adopted by a hospital, an ambulance service, a cheese manufacturer, a building materials supplier and a metalworking shop; main points to consider with respect to hazard evaluation; review of a publication on the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards; further reading.
Travail & changement, Sep.-Oct. 2006, No.310, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC310.pdf [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Measurement of noise levels that staff are exposed to at live music events
More stringent noise at work regulations came into force for general industry in April 2006. The live music sector was granted a two-year period to develop sector-specific guidance on compliance, but was meanwhile required to comply with existing noise regulations. Local Authorities also have responsibilities concerning monitoring and compliance. This study was carried out to assess the current noise exposure of groups of people within the sector and the impact of the new regulations on live music concerts. This report contains details of the personal exposures of a cross section of workers at twelve events throughout the year. It explores the control measures in place and makes recommendations for improvements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. 164p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr517.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
The assessment of different metrics of the concentration of nano (ultrafine) particles in existing and new industries
This report describes work carried out in order to determine which metric for very small particles best relates the exposure measurement to health hazards. An experimental rig was constructed in which it was possible to measure concentrations of ultrafine particles of varying chemical composition and particle shape. The relationships between the mass, count and active surface area of these particles, and how they are affected by chemical composition and morphology were investigated. Findings are discussed. No simple relationship was found for predicting active surface area and mass from the results of size and number measurements. The findings indicate that it is unlikely that nanoparticles will be present in a working environment in an unattached state.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 72p. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr513.pdf [in English]
White J., Coldwell M., Davies T., Helps J., Piney M., Rimmer D., Saunders J., Wake D.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanate exposure, emission and control in small motor vehicle repair premises using spray rooms: Phase 1
A mock up spray room was constructed within the Health and Safety Laboratory with dimensions, ventilation conditions and extraction rates set to represent typical car body spray room conditions. A robotic sprayer was used to simulate paint spraying of car parts under a range of conditions; including spray orientation relative to the extraction duct, spray gun type, ventilation set up and extraction rates. Real-time monitors were used in conjunction with standard methods for airborne isocyanate (NCO) concentration monitoring. The main findings were: high NCO levels are present in spray rooms during spraying; airborne NCO levels were homogeneous throughout the spray room; factors affecting the amount of airborne NCO include gun type, gun condition, spray pattern and NCO formulation; airborne NCO took a significant time to clear the spray room. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. x, 111p. Illus. 29 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr496.pdf [in English]
Creely K.S., Van Tongeren M., While D., Soutar A.J., Tickner J., Agostini M., de Vocht F., Kromhout H., Graham M., Bolton A., Cowie H., Cherrie J.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Trends in inhalation exposure - Mid 1980s till present
Various United Kingdom datasets were reviewed to investigate the long-term changes in inhalation exposure to toluene, wood dust, flour dust, respirable dust and quartz exposure in quarries, and dust and fume exposure in the rubber manufacturing industry from the mid 1980s onwards. Data were also obtained from 28 companies where exposure evaluations to toluene, wood dust, respirable dust and quartz had been collected over 10 years ago. During these visits, employees were interviewed in an attempt to identify factors that could have resulted in changes in exposure during the study period. Overall, downward trends in exposure were observed for all the substances except flour dust. Interviews with company personnel suggested that legislation, both health and safety related and environmental, had a positive impact on reducing exposures. Other factors mentioned were improvements in process equipment and control technology, as well as market forces.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 125p. Illus. 77 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr460.pdf [in English]
Pronk A., Yu F., Vlaanderen J., Tielemans E., Preller L., Bobeldijk I., Deddens J.A., Latza U., Baur X., Heederik D.
Dermal, inhalation and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters
The objective of this study was to evaluate exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers among car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. A total of 95 personal samples were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial paint shops and analysed using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitrile rubber gloves submerged into a solution of DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Urine samples collected from 55 workers were analysed for hexamethylene diamine (HDA) by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Findings are discussed. HDA was detected in urine of 25% of the spray painters. In addition, HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. Although painting with lacquers containing isocyanates results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks are significantly exposed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.63, No.9, p.624-631. Illus. 37 ref.
Renström A., Mattsson M.L., Blidberg K., Doekes G., Bogdanovic J., Tovey E.
Nasal air sampling for measuring inhaled wheat allergen in bakeries with and without facemask use
In this study, novel intranasal air samplers (INAS) were used to assess wheat allergen exposure and evaluate respiratory protection in bakeries. Two models of INAS (INAS-M1 and INAS-M2) were compared with the usual method of personal air sampling of inhalable dust (filters mounted in the breathing zone of subjects carrying portable air pumps), both with and without facemasks. Wheat allergen levels were measured using a sandwich immunoassay. Allergenic particles were immuno-stained for microscopic visualization. Personal air sampling correlated well with INAS-M1 and INAS-M2. INAS-M2 collected particles more effectively than INAS-M1. Facemasks reduced inhalation of wheat allergen by 96% and 93% measured using INAS-MI and INAS-M2, respectively. In conclusion, nasal air sampling can complement personal air sampling to measure short-term exposure and evaluate respiratory protection. To prevent baker's asthma, facemasks may be an effective solution in addition to improving workplaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.48, No.9, p.948-954. Illus. 25 ref.
Tepper A.L., Burr G.A., Feng H.A., Singal M., Miller A.K., Hanley K.W., Olsen L.D.
Acute symptoms associated with asphalt fume exposure among road pavers
Although asphalt fume is a recognized irritant, previous studies of acute symptoms during asphalt paving have produced inconsistent results. Between 1994 and 1997, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated workers' exposure and health at seven sites in six States. Exposures of workers to total (TP) and benzene-soluble particulate (BSP) polycyclic aromatic compounds, and other substances were determined. Their peak expiratory flow was measured. Symptom questionnaires were administered pre-shift, every two hours during the shift and post-shift to exposed and non-exposed workers. Strong associations were observed between irritant symptoms and TP and BSP exposures, even at concentrations below 0.5mg/m3. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.49, No.9, p.728-739. Illus. 28 ref.
Kakooei H., Shahtaheri S.J., Karbasi H.A.
Evaluation of workers' exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in an automobile manufacturing company, Iran
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the inhalation exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among 39 employees working in the window assembly unit of an automobile manufacturing company in Iran. Controls consisted of 117 unexposed workers in other departments of the plant. MDI was determined with a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 590nm. Lung function was assessed with a digital spirometer. The average concentration of MDI in the window fixation and window glue workplaces were 34.53 and 27.37µg/m3, respectively, which were lower than the threshold limit value recommended by the ACGIH of 51µg/m3. However, there was a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms and a significantly lower lung capacity in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.443-449. 22 ref.
Assessing the need for radiation protection measures in work involving minerals and raw materials
All mining or materials processing operations have the potential to increase the radiation dose received by the workers, due to the fact that all minerals and raw materials contain natural radionuclides. However, only in a limited number of cases does the situation warrant the introduction of radiation protection measures. This report provides information on the expected exposure levels encountered in various industrial activities, identifies the activities for which radiation protection regulatory controls are most likely to be needed and suggests the most appropriate regulatory approach.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2006. 56p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: EUR 32.00.
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1257_web.pdf [in English]
Chalbot M.C., Vei I., Lykoudis S., Kavouras I.G.
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations
The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the various steps of paper manufacture. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8 to 41.4ng/m3) and the mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons were measured in all samples, while n-alkanes from n-C220l to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (180.6 to 4297.9ng/m3). Total benzo[α]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of particulate PAHs, which varied from 323 up to 1104pg/m3, provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs, posing a long-term threat to their health.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.2, p.742-751. Illus. 49 ref.
Doctor R.P., Bhagia L.J., Derasari A.Y., Vyas J.B., Amin R.J., Ghosh S.K.
A preliminary study on Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their endotoxins in a gin house in India
Byssinosis, an occupational disease found among cotton mill workers, results from exposure to cotton dust. This study was carried out in a gin house in western India to evaluate the exposure of workers to cotton dust. Airborne dust concentrations were found to be very high in the working environment, 2.11mg/m3 in ginning and 0.95mg/m3 in the press department, higher than OSHA's permissible exposure limit for respirable dust of 0.2mg/m3 in yarn manufacturing, 0.75mg/m3 in slashing and weaving, and 0.5mg/m3 in nontextile industries using cotton. These samples also showed high concentrations of airborne endotoxin in ginning and pressing (2.77 and 1.52µg/m3 respectively). Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were also recovered in high numbers. Among the GNB, Enterobacter agglomerans was the dominant species. Results indicate that gin and press workers are occupationally exposed to airborne GNB and endotoxins, and therefore should wear masks.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2006, Vol.3, No.12, p.707-712. 21 ref.
Wernli K.J., Astrakianakis G., Camp J.E., Ray R.M., Chang C.K., Li G.D., Thomas D.B., Chekoway H., Seixas N.S.
Development of a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the textile industry in Shanghai, China
This article describes the work leading to the development and application of a job exposure matrix (JEM) for the Shanghai textile industry constructed along three axes: industry sector, textile process and hazardous agent. Thirty-five categories of dust, chemical and physical agents were assessed for 149 textile processes within nine industry sub-sectors: cotton, cotton/synthetic, cotton/other (nonsynthetic), wool, silk, synthetic, mineral fibres, other blends (such as wool/synthetic) and nonproduction. Work involved an a priori assessment of the textile process by a team of United States industrial hygienists, followed by an assessment of the prevalence of exposures by Chinese industrial hygienists in specific textile processes within the factory. The JEM was applied to assess exposures in an ongoing nested case-control study of cancer in women textile workers. Some findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2006, Vol.3, No.10, p.521-529. 20 ref.
Case study - Comparison of occupational exposures among painters using three alternative blasting abrasives
This article presents the results of a comparison between specular hematite and other commonly-used blasting abrasives used by painters, namely coal slag and steel grit. Worker exposure monitoring was carried out over three consecutive summers on footbridge repainting projects in New Jersey. Personal breathing air samples were taken during blasting operations and analysed. All methods performed well in the removal of paint. All three abrasives created elevated exposures to lead, respirable silica and cadmium. Of particular concern is the presence of beryllium associated with the use of coal slag. Other findings are discussed. Specular hematite was found to be associated with lower concentrations of silica and heavy metals when compared to sand and metal abrasives, respectively. However, engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation and hygiene measures such as showers are recommended in all cases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2006, Vol.3, No.9, p.D80-D84. 11 ref.
Iavicoli I., Carelli G., Bergamaschi A.
Exposure evaluation to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an Italian airport
The aim of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biphenyl in an Italian airport. In winter 2005, 12 air samples were taken at 120L/min during 24h in three different areas of the airport. PAH levels were found to be generally low. In all investigated areas, the highest concentrations were found for naphthalene (130-13,050ng/m3), followed by 2-methylnaphthalene (64-28,500ng/m3), 1-methylnaphthalene (24-35,300ng/m3), and biphenyl (24-1610ng/m3). However, in some instances, the levels found for benzo[i+j+k]fluoranthenes and benzo[α]pyrene, two high-boiling PAHs, (54.2ng/m3 and 8.6ng/m3, respectively) are a cause of concern.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.815-822. 32 ref.
Koistinen T., Ruoppi P., Putus T., Pennanen S., Harju A., Nuutinen J.
Occupational sensitization to storage mites in the personnel of a water-damaged grocery store
The objective of this study was to investigate occupational exposure and sensitization to storage mites (SM) in sales staff working in a moisture-damaged building and three healthy reference buildings. The study population consisted of all 12 employees of the moisture-damaged grocery store and twelve symptom-free controls working in three healthy reference groceries, matched by age, sex and occupation. Dust samples from each building were examined for mites. The clinical study consisted of an otorhinolaryngological examination and a determination of IgE reactivity to three SMs and two house dust mites. Prick tests were made to the same five mites and to five common aeroallergens. If sensitization to any of the SMs was detected, a nasal provocation test was also performed. SMs were found in all buildings. Seven cases and four control subjects showed IgE-mediated reactivity. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.602-606. 29 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p303n44j40h4368t/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Neitzel R.L., Berna B.E., Seixas N.S.
Noise exposures aboard catcher/processor fishing vessels
Commercial fishing workers have extended work shifts and potential for 24h exposures to high noise. Noise exposures aboard two large fish catching and processing vessels were assessed using dosimetry and sound-level mapping, together with self-reports of work tasks and hearing protection device (HPD) use. These data were combined to estimate work shift, non-work, and 24h overall exposure levels. The length of time during which HPDs were worn was also used to calculate the effective protection received by crew members. Nearly all workers had work shift and 24h noise levels that exceeded current limits. After HPD use was accounted for, half of the 24h exposures remained above the limits. Non-work-shift noise contributed nothing to 24h exposure levels. HPDs reduced the average exposure by about 10dBA, but not all workers wore them consistently.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.624-633. Illus. 29 ref.
Akkurt İ., Önal B., Demir A.U., Tüzün D., Sabır H., Ulusoy L., Karadağ K.Ö., Ersoy N., Çöplü L.
Respiratory health in Turkish asbestos cement workers: The role of environmental exposure
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the respiratory health effects of occupational asbestos exposure and the contribution of environmental asbestos exposure. Investigations included asbestos dust measurements in the workplace and application of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a chest X-ray and spirometry. Information on birthplace of the workers was obtained in 406 workers and used to identify environmental exposure to asbestos, through a map of geographic locations with known asbestos levels. Asbestos dust concentration in the ambient air of the work sites (fibre/mL) ranged between 0.2 and 0.76. Environmental exposure to asbestos was determined in 24.4% of the workers. After adjustment for age, smoking, occupational asbestos exposure and potential risk factors, environmental asbestos exposure was associated with small irregular opacities grade ≥1/0 and decreased pulmonary function. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.609-616.27 ref.
Goyer N., Bégin D., Beaudry C., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Lavoué J., Noisel N., Gérin M.
Prevention guide - Formaldehyde in the workplace
Guide de prévention - Le formaldéhyde en milieu de travail [in French]
For three years, the IRSST carried out a study to evaluate the economic and health effects of lowering the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde in Quebec. The aim of this guide and collection of safety data sheets is to bring together all the safety and health aspects related to formaldehyde. Contents: general information on formaldehyde; health effects and first aid; regulations; exposure measurement; control of exposure; recommendations for specific sectors of the economy.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. 51p. 55 ref. Price: CAD 21.20. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-471.pdf [in French]
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RG-473.pdf [in English]
Rytkönen E., Sorainen E., Leino-Arjas P., Solovieva S.
Hand-arm vibration exposure of dentists
The vibration of 22 dental handpieces was measured with an accelerometer during normal work. The weighted vibration and the total acceleration of high frequency vibration in the frequency range of 1.6-10kHz were analysed. Non-contact vibrations were also measured during idling with a portable digital vibrometer, and the findings compared with those of the accelerometer. A group of 295 female dentists aged 45-63 years responded to a questionnaire on working conditions, lifestyle, and state of health. It was found that the daily vibration exposure of dentists was below the exposure action value of the Vibration Directive of European Union (CIS 02-24). However a long work history in dental filling and root treatment as well as high body mass index seem to be associated with frequent finger symptoms perceived as vibration-related by the dentists.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.521-527. Illus. 19 ref.
Roussel O., Guibala A., Belhadj-Tahar H., Sadeg N.
Exposure to cytostatic drugs - Toxicological risk in hospital settings
Exposition aux cytostatiques - Risque toxicologique en milieu hospitalier [in French]
This study examines the toxic hazard linked to the exposure of health care personnel to cytostatic drugs in hospitals. The urinary presence of various cytostatic drugs was determined for three categories of staff of a large hospital in the Paris region: physicians and their assistants; nurses and assistant nurses; unexposed controls. Urinary and blood antiradical defence capacities were also determined. Two contaminations were observed in the nurse and assistant nurse category, but their cause is unclear. Other findings are discussed. An appendix includes the prevention protocol implemented in the hospital.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2006, No.108, p.461-478. Illus. 35 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20153/$File/TF153.pdf [in French]
Inventory of chemical CMR agents used in France in 2005
Inventaire des agents chimiques CMR utilisés en France en 2005 [in French]
A survey was commissioned by the French Ministry of Labour to identify chemical CMR agents (carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic agents) widely used in France in occupational settings, together with the number of potentially-exposed workers by sector of activity. National and European statistics and information collected from a representative sample of 2000 enterprises involved in 30 sectors were analysed to evaluate the annual consumption of 324 chemical CMR agents and several hundred petroleum derivatives. Findings are discussed. They show that 4.8 million tons of chemical CMR agents were consumed in France in 2005. Ten agents were consumed in quantities above 100,000 tons/year, while for 168 agents, consumption was very low or nil. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries were the main consumers of primary chemical CMR agents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2006, No.205, p.83-96. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/PR%2026/$File/PR26.pdf [in French]
Fournier M., Lesage J., Ostiguy C., Van Tra H.
Validation of a global sampling and analysis methodology for the evaluation of occupational exposure to amines
Validation d'une méthode d'échantillonnage et d'analyse globale pour l'évaluation de l'exposition à des amines en milieu de travail [in French]
Evaluation of occupational exposure to amines poses a major practical challenge since the sampling and analytical methods available are substance-specific and are often complicated to use or not very efficient. This article presents the optimization and validation of a sampling system and an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven amines among the most likely to be encountered at the workplace: diethanolamine, ethanolamine, methylamine, isopropylamine, morpholine, dimethylamine and aniline. Sampling is by means of cassettes with impregnated glass fibre filters, while the analysis is based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. This system, independent of the amine to be analyzed, was found to be simple and reliable.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2006, Vol.22, No.4, p.26-31. Illus. 27 ref.
Colman R., Coleman A.
Unexpected cause of raised benzene absorption in coke oven by-product workers
Urinary biological monitoring for benzene (by measuring benzene metabolites) in coke oven by-product workers produced the unexpected result that two out of ten employees had significantly raised urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid. However, simultaneous personal air sampling showed no excessive airborne exposure. Possible causes for this finding were investigated having excluded inhalation as the route of uptake. It was suspected that skin absorption via contaminated overalls was the possible mechanism and a standard frequency for overall change was introduced. It was found that changing overalls after every four shifts reduced uptake levels to less than the equivalent of the 1ppm inhaled dose for all employees. It is concluded that skin absorption of benzene from contaminated overalls in coke oven by-product workers can be significant and therefore overalls should be changed on a regular and frequent basis.
Occupational Medicine, June 2006, Vol.56, No.4, p.269-271. 4 ref.
Karpowicz J., Gryz K.
Health risk assessment of occupational exposure to a magnetic field from magnetic resonance imaging devices
Health care personnel who operate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices are exposed to magnetic fields at levels depending both on the type of the magnet and on the ergonomic design of the MRI device. This article presents methods used for measuring and assessing workers' exposure. It also discusses the results of inspection measurements carried out next to several MRI devices. The variability of workers' exposure supports the need for monitoring occupational exposure. International exposure assessment standards and guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the European Commission and Poland are compared.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.155-167. Illus. 19 ref.
Directive 2002/44/EC on vibrations - A challenge for operators and manufacturers of earthmoving equipment
Die Vibrationsrichtlinie 2002/44/EG - eine Herausforderung für Betreiber und Hersteller von Erdbaumaschinen [in German]
Directive 2002/44/EC on vibrations (see CIS 02-24) sets minimum requirements for the protection of operators of earthmoving equipment from vibration and requires that employers evaluate the vibration exposure of the operators. The manufacturers of earthmoving equipment are required to supply the necessary data. This summary of Report ISO DTR 25309 of 2006 provides instructions on how to determine the daily vibration exposure on earthmoving equipment such as bulldozers, loaders, dredgers, scrapers and soil compacting equipment. It describes an extensive and a simplified method for calculating the daily vibration exposure.
Tiefbau, Fachzeitschrift der Berufsgenossenschaft der Bauwirtschaft, 2006, Vol.118, No.9, p.488-492. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Vitali M., Ensabella F., Stella D., Guidotti M.
Exposure to organic solvents among handicraft car painters: A pilot study in Italy
This study evaluated exposure to solvents in eight Italian car painting workshops using environmental sampling and personal sampling with charcoal samplers, and urinary determination of unmetabolized solvents. A simple regression analysis was performed to evaluate relationships between the three series of data. The solvents analysed were toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,2-dichloropropane, n-butylacetate, n-amylacetate, xylene isomers, ethylacetate and benzene. Benzene was found in all shops, at levels around or higher than the 8h time-weighted average limit (8h TWA). Other solvents were found at various levels, from 10-2 to 10-1 times the 8h TWA. Air concentrations of toluene, n-butylacetate, xylenes, and benzene were positively correlated with their urinary levels, while a negative correlation was found for ethylbenzene. The health implications of these exposure levels are discussed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.310-317. 49 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_2_310.pdf [in English]
Katagiri H., Suzuki T., Aizawa Y., Kadowaki T.
Indoor glutaraldehyde levels in the endoscope disinfecting room and subjective symptoms among workers
This study measured glutaraldehyde (GA) levels in the work environment during the disinfection of endoscopes and also investigated the subjective symptoms of the workers engaged in that work. Eight rooms for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopy equipment were surveyed at six hospitals in the Tokyo and Kanagawa area. The geometric mean environmental GA levels in the eight rooms were 1.3 to 19.6ppb. The personal exposure levels at the time of replacing the antiseptic solution containing GA in two of the disinfecting rooms were 94.2 and 84.9ppb. Subjective symptoms such as ophthalmic, nasal, respiratory and pharyngeal symptoms and nausea were more prevalent among workers than controls as evidenced from the questionnaire survey.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.225-229. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.jniosh.go.jp/old/niih/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_2_225.pdf [in English]
Sakai K., Hisanaga N., Shibata E., Ono Y., Takeuchi Y.
Asbestos exposures during reprocessing of automobile brakes and clutches
This study investigated asbestos exposures of workers in three small factories reprocessing automobile brakes and clutches in Japan. Airborne asbestos was collected on a membrane filter using an air sampler. Asbestos counting was performed on 295 samples using phase contrast microscopy. Only chrysotile asbestos was detected. Workers who reprocessed automobile brakes and clutches were exposed to asbestos concentrations of between 0.025 and 76.4 fibres/cm3. Geometric mean asbestos concentrations during attaching linings to brake shoes and attaching facings to clutch disks were 0.859 and 0.780 fibres/cm3, respectively. Concentrations during stripping worn brake linings and clutch facings were 0.484 and 0.382 fibres/cm3, respectively. Machine grinding and levelling of new brake lining surfaces represent potential sources of heavy asbestos exposures, unless enclosures and local ventilation are efficient.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.95-105. Illus. 29 ref.
Sandino J.P., Demange M.
Speciation issues when evaluating occupational exposure to chemicals
Les problèmes de spéciation en évaluation de l'exposition professionnelle aux agents chimiques [in French]
Threshold limit values are set for molecules or chemical forms specified according to their toxicity. Pollutant quantification for inorganic substances is very often performed using elemental analytical techniques, but the need for speciation analysis of the different chemical forms is increasingly felt, despite the fact that the required methods are not always available. This article explains the meaning of speciation (determination of the chemical form in which an element is present in a given sample), provides examples of potential problems (e.g. in the areas of galvanization, and exposure to silver and chromium compounds) and proposes a prevention approach in cases for which there are no analytical methods.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2006, No.204, p.33-39. Illus. 23 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202253/$File/ND2253.pdf [in French]
Weeks J.L., Rose C.
Metal and non-metal miners' exposure to crystalline silica, 1998-2002
Crystalline silica is a well-known of cause silicosis and other diseases. Exposure is common in the mining industry and consequently, the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) regularly evaluates miners' exposure to silica to determine compliance with its exposure limit. MSHA exposure measurements were obtained for over 4000 mines between 1998 and 2002, and average exposure was calculated and classified by occupation and by mine. Evaluation criteria included whether average values exceeded MSHA's permissible exposure limit or the limit recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), whether there was a risk of exposure to freshly fractured silica, and whether there was a risk of a high rate of exposure to silica. It was found that miners in certain jobs are exposed to silica above permissible and recommended exposure limits. Some miners may also be exposed to freshly fractured silica.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.523-534. Illus. 42 ref.
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