Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found
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Westberg H., Egelrud L., Ohlson C.G., Hygerth M., Lundholm C.
Exposure to nitrous oxide in delivery suites at six Swedish hospitals
Occupational exposures to nitrous oxide in delivery suites in six Swedish hospitals were evaluated, together with various scavenging techniques. 8h time-weighted averages (TWAs) and short-term (15 min) peak exposures were determined for 36 midwives and assistant midwives. Diffusive samplers were used for monitoring, and analysed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect on exposure of different types of scavenging systems was studied by mixed model analysis. Findings are discussed. A large number of TWAs exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. Masks connected to scavenging systems significantly reduced exposures. Furthermore, using a forced general air ventilation system in addition to improved working methods substantially improved the air quality in the delivery suites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.829-836. 19 ref.
A review of the criteria for people exposure to radiant heat flux from fires
This article reviews the available literature on skin burns caused by radiant heat exposure. The associated thermal and spectral properties of human skin are discussed. The basis for the United States regulatory setting of 5kW/m2 for evaluating distances for the exposure of persons to radiant heat effects of large fires is discussed. An example calculation is provided to show the extent of reduction in the hazard distance to specified radiant heat flux from a fire when the spectral reflection and absorption properties of skin are considered, with and without the inclusion of the mitigating effects of clothing. The results indicate that hazard distances calculated including the reflective and band absorptive properties (in IR wavelength) of skin results in a reduction of between 30 and 50% in the hazard distances obtained using the current methodology.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Nov. 2008, Vol.159, No.1, p.61-71. Illus. 28 ref.
Larsson M., Boëthius G., Axelsson S., Montgomery S.M.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden - before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law
This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation in Sweden. A total of 91 volunteers working in casinos, bars and restaurants in Sweden participated in the study, among whom 71 out of 91 (14 smokers and 57 nonsmokers) also participated in the follow-up survey 12 months after the introduction of the smoking ban. Data concerning exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms and attitudes towards the ban were obtained by means of questionnaires. Participants were also subjected to a spirometry. Findings are discussed. The introduction of the smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2008, Vol.34, No.4, p.267-277. 45 ref.
Teschke K., Chow Y., Chung J., Ratner P., Spinelli J., Le N., Ward H.
Estimating nurses' exposures to ionizing radiation: The elusive gold standard
This study assessed ionizing radiation exposure in 58,125 nurses in British Columbia, Canada, in view of gathering data for use in a subsequent epidemiological study on cancer morbidity and mortality. It involved a survey of nurses in more than 100 hospitals and health care centers, together with a monitoring of the data reported to the National Dose Registry of Health Canada. Findings are discussed. The difficulty in exposure assessment likely arises because although fewer than 10% of nurses are exposed to ionizing radiation, the settings in which they are exposed vary tremendously. This means that careful hazard assessment is required to ensure that monitoring is complete where exposures are probable, without incurring the excess costs and lack of specificity of including the unexposed personnel.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2008, Vol.5, No.2, p.75-84. Illus. 26 ref.
McKernan L.T., Hein M.J., Wallingford K.M., Burge H., Herrick R.
Assessing total fungal concentrations on commercial passenger aircraft using mixed-effects modeling
The primary objective of this study was to compare airborne fungal concentrations onboard commercial passenger aircraft at various in-flight times with concentrations measured inside and outside airport terminals. Culturable and total spore samples were collected on twelve wide-body commercial passenger aircraft during various stages of the flight. Comparison samples were collected inside and outside origin and destination airport terminals. Overall, both total culturable and total spore fungal concentrations were low while the aircraft were in flight. Both culturable and total spore concentrations were significantly higher outside the airport terminal compared with inside the airport terminal and inside the aircraft. On the aircraft, most exposures occurred during the boarding and deplaning processes, when the aircraft utilized ancillary ventilation and passenger activity was at its peak.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2008, Vol.5, No.1, p.48-58. Illus. 22 ref.
Todd L.A., Mottus K., Mihlan G.J.
A survey of airborne and skin exposures to chemicals in footwear and equipment factories in Thailand
This research reports on an exposure evaluation study at four footwear factories and two equipment factories in Thailand. Workers in these factories were exposed through inhalation and dermal contact to a large number of organic vapors from solvents and adhesives that were applied by hand. In addition, these workers were exposed to highly toxic isocyanates primarily through the dermal route. A total of 286 personal air samples were obtained at the four footwear factories, where 64 samples were also collected from working and tool surfaces. Between 8% and 21% of the workers sampled in each footwear factory were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals from solvents and adhesives. Up to 100% of the workers performing specific job tasks were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals. Between 39% and 69% of the surface samples were positive for unreacted isocyanates. Many of the real-time measurements obtained in the equipment factories exceeded occupational exposure limits. Personal protective equipment and engineering controls were inadequate in all of the factories.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.169-181. Illus. 35 ref.
Cohen H.J., Van Orden D.R.
Asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles
This study was conducted to assess historical asbestos exposures of mechanics performing clutch service on motor vehicles. Personal and area air samples were collected during the removal of asbestos-containing clutches from 15 manual transmissions obtained from salvage facilities by an experienced mechanic. Clutch plates and debris were analysed for asbestos using EPA and ISO published analytical methods. More than 100 personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos fibres using NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. A separate study involved a telephone survey of 16 automotive mechanics that began work prior to 1975. The incremental contribution of this task to mechanics' 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) asbestos exposures was estimated to be 0.0016 fibres/cc, ranging from 3.75x10-5 fibres/cc to 0.03 fibres/cc. The mean value of 0.0016 fibres/cc is below background levels of asbestos that have been reported in garages during this time and below the current OSHA PEL of 0.1 fibres/cc.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.148-156. 28 ref.
NIOSH nanotechnology metal oxide particle exposure assessment study
This information sheet announces a NIOSH research programme on exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. It describes the background, objectives, conditions for participation and benefits to participating companies. NIOSH researchers will visit the facilities of each participant to carry out personal sampling of exposure to nanoparticular metal oxides. The data collected will be used to determine the extent to which metal oxide exposure is occurring in the nanotechnology industry.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2008. 4p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008-122/pdfs/2008-122.pdf [in English]
Scarselli A., Binazzi A., Ferrante P., Marinaccio A.
Occupational exposure to wood dust in Italy 1996-2008
The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure levels to wood dust in Italy and to examine some exposure determinants. Data on exposure measurements on wood dust were extracted from the SIREP (Italian Information System on Occupational Exposure to Carcinogens) database between 1996 and 2006. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables using univariate analyses. The prevalence of elevated exposure levels was estimated overall and for some industrial sectors. A multifactorial analysis of variance was performed to determine which factors influenced exposure levels to wood dust. A total of 10,837 exposures were reported, with a geometric mean of 0.97mg/m3. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.65, No.8, p.567-574. Illus. 40 ref.
Luna Mendaza P., Pujol Senovilla L.
Technical guide: Noise and mechanical vibrations
Guías técnicas: ruido y vibraciones mecánicas [in Spanish]
Presentation of the main points of two technical guides on noise and mechanical vibrations recently published by the INSHT. They aim to help implement the Royal Decrees on the protection of occupational safety and health of workers exposed to noise (RD 286/2006) and to mechanical vibration (RD 11311/2005).
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2008, No.48, p.38-43. Illus.
Alonso Espadalé R.M., Solans Lampurlanés X., Constans Aubert A.
Occupational exposure to fungi in a coffee processing plant
Exposición laboral a hongos en una planta de procesamiento de café [in Spanish]
Green coffee often reaches processing plants contaminated by fungi, which can cause allergic reactions and respiratory diseases among workers. The objective of this study was to determine the fungus concentrations to which workers are exposed during the various operations in coffee processing plants. Air samples were collected from the workplace environment and analysed. Very high airborne fungal concentrations of over 1200CFU/m3 were found in coffee bean unloading operations. Furthermore, potential exposure to mycotoxins produced by these fungi cannot be excluded.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2008, Vol.LIV, No.211, p.31-37. 30 ref.
http://www.isciii.es/htdocs/centros/medicinadeltrabajo/revistamedicinatrabajo/Medicina_211.pdf [in Spanish]
http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?pid=S0465-546X2008000200005&script=sci_arttext [in Spanish]
Asbestos hazards: Construction sector workers on the front line
Risque amiante: les professionnels du BTP en première ligne [in French]
Topics addressed in this article on the prevention of occupational hazards due to asbestos in the construction sector: jobs exposed to hazards; data on the number of exposed workers in France, cases of compensated occupational diseases and fatalities caused by asbestos; personal protective equipment; diseases caused by asbestos (asbestosis; pleural plaques; bronchopulmonary cancers, mesothelioma); account of a retired electrician suffering from pleural lesions and asbestosis; viewpoint of an asbestos victims' defense association.
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2008, No.106, p.48-51. Illus.
Fournier M., Bernier J., Brousseau P., Cyr D., Viel G., Sauvé S.
Development of markers and validation of diagnostic tools for screening for beryllium induced hypersensitivity
Développement de marqueurs et validation d'outils de diagnostic pour le dépistage de l'hypersensibilité induite par le béryllium [in French]
Known for its high toxicity, beryllium can cause berylliosis, a serious pneumopathy, or chronic beryllium disease. The lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) commonly used for detecting a worker's sensitivity to this metal offers little predictive value for the risks of contracting berylliosis. Knowing that this disease can take up to 30 years to develop in a sensitized worker, it is essential that a new effective detection tool be developed. By exploring experimental approaches, this research was able to determine the feasibility of methods for the selective characterization of target cells and the use of protein signatures on blood samples. A technique was also developed for quantifying beryllium in plasma, and the potential of complexing agents for displacing it and reversing its toxicity in cell cultures was tested. These new tools will allow a follow-up programme to be implemented for sensitized workers, mainly by providing a more precise diagnosis of the determination of their exposure to beryllium. It will also be possible to validate current standards or to define new ones based on firm assumptions.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. v, 20p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-556.pdf [in French]
Edwards J.A., Webster S., Van Laar D., Easton S.
Psychometric analysis of the UK Health and Safety Executive's Management Standards work-related stress Indicator Tool
In the United Kingdom, the HSE's Management Standards Indicator Tool is increasingly used by enterprises to monitor working conditions that can lead to stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of this tool. Data were collected from 26,382 employees at 39 enterprises in the United Kingdom and used to perform a first-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the original 35-item seven-factor measurement scale. The results showed an acceptable fit to the data for the instrument. A second-order CFA was also performed to test if the tool contained a higher order one-dimensional measure of work-related stress. These findings also revealed an acceptable fit to the data, suggesting that it may be possible to derive a single measure of work-related stress. Normative data comprising tables of percentiles from the organizational data are provided to enable employers to compare their averages against national benchmarks.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2008, Vol.22, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 20 ref.
Glindmeyer H.W., Rando R.J., Lefante J.J., Freyder L., Brisolara J.A., Jones R.N.
Longitudinal respiratory health study of the wood processing industry
This 5-year longitudinal study examined non-malignant respiratory effects of wood processing dust exposure. Personal dust samples were collected from ten wood processing plants. Spirometric tests were conducted on 1164 workers from these plants, who also responded to questionnaires on their state of health, smoking and occupational exposures. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of exposure on annual change in FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75, and FEV1/FVC. It was found that exposure to wood solids was not associated with significant adverse effects. However the respirable fraction of other particulate matter was associated with obstructive or restrictive effects in some cases. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2008, Vol.51 No.8, p.595-609. Illus. 47 ref.
Verma D.K., Ritchie A.C., Muir D.C.F.
Dust content of lungs and its relationships to pathology, radiology and occupational exposure in Ontario hardrock miners
Autopsied lungs from 29 hard rock miners were investigated to determine possible relationships between pathology and radiology findings, and occupational exposure. There was a good agreement between radiological and pathological findings. Positive correlations were seen between hydroxyproline (as an index of fibrosis), silica dust, non-silica inorganic dust, radiographic category of pneumoconiosis and pathologic grade of silicosis. Smokers lost on average seven years of life compared to non-smokers. Silica appeared to be concentrated in lungs and lymph nodes. Silica in the lymph nodes was on average 2.4-fold higher than in the lungs. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2008, Vol.51, No.7, p.524-531. Illus. 20 ref.
NIOSH, nanotechnology, and occupational safety and health research - Frequently asked questions
Answers to frequently-asked questions on nanotechnology and nanomaterials, including production, uses, NIOSH research, number of workers exposed, effects on health, exposure evaluation, exposure tests and sources of additional information.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, May 2008. HTML document.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/faq.html [in English]
Caro J., Gallego M., Montero R.
Current state of the control of exposure to volatile organic compounds in occupational settings
Estado actual del control de la exposición a compuestos orgánicos volátiles en el medio laboral [in Spanish]
This article reviews the topic of controlling exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in occupational settings. Main points addressed: most common modes of exposure; INHST method for the determination of organic vapours in air and its limitations; alternatives to the adsorption, desorption and steps allowing for more reliable results; biological exposure evaluation of workers to VOCs (determination in exhaled air, blood and urine).
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2008, No.46, p.10-19. Illus. 18 ref.
de Sousa Uva A.
Occupational diseases: New challenges for their prevention
Enfermedades profesionales: nuevos desafíos en su prevención [in Spanish]
According to ILO estimates, some 5000 workers die each day worldwide from occupational related diseases. This article explains how occupational safety and health evolved from the time of the industrial revolution to the current system of hazard evaluation and management of occupational safety and health. It discusses the limits of traditional methods which focus on working conditions, particularly when it comes to evaluating psychosocial hazards which present new challenges in terms of methodology for diagnosis and risk management, given the increasing importance of new risk situations for which the risk factors are related to the individual.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2008, Vol.LIV, No.210, p.1-9. Illus. 56 ref.
Pérez Aznar B., Bernier Herrera F., Abril Muñoz I.
Exposure to noise on fishing vessels
Exposición al ruido en buques de pesca [in Spanish]
Noise levels encountered on fishing vessels may cause not only hearing loss, but also accidents, because they interfere with the proper understanding of orders. The aim of this study was to determine the noise distribution and levels on different types of fishing vessels. The most important noise levels were observed when the engine was running at full power. Noise levels were also found to depend on the workplace and on the age of the vessel, older vessels being better insulated and equipped with improved noise damping. Results of the measurements are presented in tabular form, and measures aimed at limiting the noise exposure of deep-sea fishermen are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Jan. 2008, No.45, p.12-20. Illus. 4 ref.
Trombetta Zannin P.H.
Occupational noise in urban buses
The noise level for urban bus drivers in Curitiba (Brazil) was evaluated in three types of buses: bi-articulated, speedy, and feeder. Measurements were made in 20 buses of each type. Bi-articulated buses are formed by three sections and two articulations. They operate in reserved lanes and stop at specific stations. Speedy buses operate in regular streets across the city, but they stop at fewer stations than other buses. Feeder buses operate normally in the whole city and call at all bus stops. The evaluation of noise levels in the workplace of bus drivers was performed according to ISO and Brazilian Standards. In 56 out of the 60 buses examined, the normalized noise exposure levels were below 82dB(A). The overall quality of the workplace was thus considered acceptable. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.232-237. Illus. 28 ref.
Work-related stress: A review of developments in the UK
The United Kingdom Health and safety Executive (HSE) developed stress management standards that were published in 2005. This article focusses on the potential significance of these standards for Australia.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2007, Vol.23, No.4, p.373-381. 31 ref
Work-related_stress_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Situation of Chile
Situación de Chile [in Spanish]
Presentation at the 2nd Regional conference on the WHO/ILO Plan for the Eradication of Silicosis held in Santiago, Chile, 13-14 July 2007. Topics addressed: key statistics of the Chilean mining sector; prevalence of silicosis; legislative framework; estimates of exposure to silica; role of government, employers' and workers' organizations; key achievements since 2005; future actions.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, July 2007, 26p. Illus.
Situación_de_Chile_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]
Iavicoli I., Bocca B., Carelli G., Caroli S., Caimi S., Alimonti A., Fontana L.
Biomonitoring of tram drivers exposed to airborne platinum, rhodium and palladium
The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary levels of platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh) and palladium (Pd) in occupationally exposed subjects. A total of 122 healthy male subjects were studied, including municipal tram drivers and 58 control subjects. There were statistically significant differences between urinary Pt and Rh levels among exposed subjects and controls, while no difference in Pd levels was observed. Urinary concentrations of Pt and Rh, though still low, could be of some concern among workers heavily exposed to urban car traffic.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.109-114. Illus. 16 ref.
Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Buchta M., Schaller K.H., Rossbach B., Scherhag H., Zschiesche W., Letzel S.
Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: I. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioural performance of Al welders in the train and truck construction industry over 4 years
This study examined the reliability of aluminium biomonitoring as indicator of individual long-term exposure, together with long-term changes of neurobehavioural performance among aluminium welders in relation to exposure. Data on aluminium exposure neurological behaviour were obtained over a period of four years from a group of aluminium welders and an unexposed age-matched control group. The measurements of exposure included total dust in air as well as aluminium in pre-shift and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioural methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behaviour, memory and attention. Computer-aided tests from the Motor Performance Series (MLS) and the European Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (EURO-NES) were used. Data were examined with regression analysis. The aluminium welders who had been working in this profession for an average of 15 years showed no significantly increased symptom levels compared with the control group. Statistical analyses revealed neither a correlation between biomonitoring and performance variables nor a significant difference between exposed and control groups.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.41-67. Illus. 57 ref.
Descatha A., Roquelaure Y., Evanoff B., Niedhammer I., Chastang J.F., Mariot C., Ha C., Imbernon E., Goldberg M., Leclerc A.
Selected questions on biomechanical exposures for surveillance of upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Questionnaires for assessment of biomechanical exposure are frequently used in surveillance programmes, though few studies have evaluated which key questions are needed. The objective of this study was to reduce the number of variables on a surveillance questionnaire by identifying which variables best summarized biomechanical exposure. Data on 2685 subjects for which 37 variables assessing biomechanical exposures were available for the years 2002 to 2003 from the French experimental network of Upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders were used and subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). It was concluded that 26 of the original 37 variables were sufficient to characterize major biomechanical constraints.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2007, Vol.81, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 30 ref.
Lee J.A., Thorne P.S., Reynolds S.J., O'Shaughnessy P.T.
Monitoring risks in association with exposure levels among wastewater treatment plant workers
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to hydrogen sulfide and endotoxins, and health symptoms among wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) workers. The exposure levels for specific tasks were measured by personal monitoring. Data on health symptoms were collected by means of questionnaires. Higher risks of respiratory, ocular and skin irritation, neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms were found among WWTP workers compared with unexposed workers. Tasks related to sludge handling and plant inspection showed statistically significant associations with memory and concentration difficulties, throat irritation and stomach pain.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1235-1248. Illus. 57 ref.
Devi S.S., Biswas A.R., Biswas R.A., Vinayagamoorthy N., Krishnamurthi K., Shinde V.M., Hengstler J.G., Hermes M., Chakrabarti T.
Heavy metal status and oxidative stress in diesel engine tuning workers of central Indian population
The objective of this study was to assess the oxidative stress due to heavy metal exposure. Exposed populations were selected from a diesel engine tuning station in India, while controls were taken from the same local area but without occupational exposure. There were no statistically significant differences in heavy metal concentrations in the blood and urine of exposed versus unexposed subjects. However, exposed workers exhibited higher antioxidant status in terms of serum glutathione-S-transferase activity, malondialdehyde level and catalase activity. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1228-1234. Illus. 43 ref.
Deubner D.C., Roth H.D., Levy P.S.
Empirical evaluation of complex epidemiologic study designs: Workplace exposure and cancer
The aim of this study was to evaluate empirically the reliability of cohort-nested case-control study designs using data of a cohort of beryllium workers of a previous study. Empirical evaluations showed that the study design produced a biased case-control lagged exposure difference under the null hypothesis and could not distinguish qualitatively between null and alternate hypotheses. Empirical evaluation allowed checking on the results generated from a complex study design. It gave useful insight into the behaviour of study designs that would not otherwise have been readily deducible.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.953-959. 11 ref.
Nanoparticles - A major occupational health challenge?
Les nanoparticules - Un enjeu majeur pour la santé au travail? [in French]
Nanoparticles are objects of less than 100 nanometres in size but whose source and use are very diverse. Because of their high rate of development, the absence of sufficient specific regulations and the lack of knowledge concerning their human toxicity, they are the cause of anxiety against risks that appear new, or which are in any case insufficiently understood. The objective of this publication is to present the current state of scientific knowledge on nanoparticles for enabling advances in research, public health and industrial hygiene. Contents: general aspects; characteristics and sources of these aerosols; routes of entry; environmental toxicological data; specific examples (simple or complex oxides, carbon-based particles).
EDP Sciences, 17 avenue du Hoggar, Parc d'Activité de Courtabœuf, BP 112, 91944 Les Ulis Cedex A, France, 2007. 701p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 54.00.
Kriebel D., Checkoway H., Pearce N.
Exposure and dose modelling in occupational epidemiology
In epidemiological studies, simple summary measures of exposure such as average exposure, cumulative exposure or duration of exposure can be applied suitably in many instances. However, there are situations where these metrics may not be directly proportional to risk. This article outlines methods for developing improved exposure or dose metrics which may reduce the risk of misclassification.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.64, No.7, p.492-498.Illus. 37 ref.
Steinsvåg K., Bråtveit M., Moen B.E., Kromhout H.
Inter-rater agreement in the assessment of exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry
The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to examine how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods based on descriptions of sources of exposure, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories and monitoring data. Inter-rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average correlation coefficients. Findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.64, No.9, p.582-588. 27 ref.
García Gómez M., Caballero Klink J.D., Boffetta P., Español S., Sällsten G., Gómez Quintana J.
Exposure to mercury in the mine of Almadén
The objective of this study was to describe the historical exposure of workers in a mercury mine in Spain. Data on each workplace, together with historical data on production, production process changes and biological and environmental values of mercury were collected and used to build a job-exposure matrix. A cumulative exposure index was calculated for each worker. Findings are discussed. The exposure of the workers to mercury was very high. The extremely high mercury content of the ore explains the high concentrations of mercury in workplace air, which together with inadequate working conditions, explains the high mercury levels found in blood and urine during the study period.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.64, No.6, p.389-395. Illus. 29 ref.
Kojo K., Helminen M., Leuthold G., Aspholm R., Auvinen A.
Estimating cosmic radiation dose for a cabin crew with flight timetables
The aim of this study was to develop an assessment method for occupational exposure of the cabin crew of a Finnish airline to cosmic radiation based on flight timetables. The frequency of flights, aircraft types and flight profiles from timetables were collected. The cosmic radiation dose was calculated with the EPCARD software. Based on annual doses and work history, the cumulative dose was estimated. The annual dose increased linearly: 0.7 milliSievert (mSv) in 1960, 1.6mSv in 1980, 2.3mSv in 1985, and 2.1mSv in 1995. The median cumulative dose was 20.8mSv. This method provides a simple algorithm for occupational dose assessment for cabin crew and can also be used in other research settings.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.540-545. Illus. 19 ref.
Relationship between styrene exposure and hearing loss: Review of human studies
Occupational exposure to styrene occurs mainly in the manufacturing of fibreglass-reinforced plastics. Since 1988, nine studies have been published on the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and hearing loss. All studies were cross-sectional epidemiological studies or clinical studies from occupational health clinics. They involved more than 1000 workers exposed to styrene, both with and without concurrent noise exposure. Of the nine studies, seven showed some effects on the auditory system associated with styrene-alone exposure. These effects are examined using different outcome measures such as pure tone audiometry, high frequency hearing loss, and central hearing tests. In some studies, an increased risk for hearing loss was associated with exposure estimates.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.4, p.315-325. 27 ref.
Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter
This cross-sectional study investigated the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a South-African lead smelter involved in the recycling of lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. Although the plant had adopted several control measures, some areas had average lead-in-air levels above 0.15mg/m3, the occupational exposure limit for lead. Workers in the smelting area and battery breaking area had the highest blood lead levels. Personal protective equipment was not in regular use in lead exposure zones.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2007, Vol.4, No.10, p.762-769. Illus. 8 ref.
Dillon H.K., Boling D.K., Miller J.D.
Comparison of detection methods for Aspergillus fumigatus in environmental air samples in an occupational environment
Methods to study occupational exposures to fungi and fungal materials in facilities where the dominant exposure is the pathogenic and allergenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are lacking. Air samples were collected near a conveyor belt in a wood chip recycling plant to compare methods that might be used to assess exposure to A. fumigatus. Measurements included total dust mass, total intact spores, culturable propagules growing at temperatures above 35°C, ergosterol, A. fumigatus allergen Asp f1 and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for A. fumigatus. Of these measurements, Asp f1 showed the most promise.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2007, Vol.4, No.7, p.509-513. 25 ref.
Bakke B., Stewart P.A., Waters M.A.
Uses of and exposure to trichloroethylene in U.S. industry: A systematic literature review
This literature survey examined industrial hygiene literature for reports of exposures to trichloroethylene (TCE). The collected information was systematized according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system codes, and used to build a database for future use in epidemiological studies on brain cancer. TCE use was extensive from the early 1920s through the 1970s mainly as a degreasing agent in metal-fabricating operations. After the 1970s it became less popular because of environmental concerns. TCE historically has had a multitude of uses in many other industries, including dry cleaning, textiles, electronics, leather and rubber. Also, many products such as adhesives, drugs, paints, inks and various industrial products have contained TCE. The arithmetic mean of the exposures across all industries and decades was 38.2ppm. The highest personal and area air levels were reported in vapor degreasing (44.6ppm).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.375-390. 175 ref.
Heitbrink W.A., Evans D.E., Peters T.M., Slavin T.J.
Characterization and mapping of very fine particles in an engine machining and assembly facility
Very fine particle number and mass concentrations were mapped in an engine machining and assembly facility. A condensation particle counter (CPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in the 0.01µm to 1µm range, and an optical particle counter (OPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in 15 channels between 0.3µm and 20µm. The OPC measurements were used to estimate the respirable fraction. Very fine particle number concentrations were estimated by subtracting the OPC particle number concentrations from 0.3µm to 1µm from the CPC number concentrations. Findings are discussed. Elevated very fine particle number concentrations were associated with machining operations with poor enclosures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2007, Vol.4, No.5, p.341-351. Illus. 44 ref.
Management guide - Occupational safety and health
Guide du management - Santé, sécurité au travail [in French]
This guide presents in detail the regulatory framework, techniques and tools of occupational safety and health management systems (OSH-MS). It refers to the sixteen guiding principles of ILO-OSH 2001 (see CIS 06-58) to address the basic principles of the approach. It also proposes a practical and easy-to-apply method which allows rapid progress towards an improved understanding of safety and the gradual implementation of a management system that is easy to direct. Aimed more specifically at SMEs, it is a companion to the design and implementation of an OSH-MS based on OHSAS-18001.
AFNOR, 11 rue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 La Plaine Saint-Denis Cedex, France, 2007. xviii, 194p. Illus. Price: EUR 39.00.
Ramos A., Silva Filho J.F., Jardim S.R.
Sociodemographic data and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents at a public university in Rio de Janeiro
Dados sociodemográficos e condições de trabalho de pintores expostos a solventes em uma universidade pública da cidade do Rio de Janeiro [in Portuguese]
This cross-sectional study presents the socio-demographic profile and working conditions of painters exposed to solvents. Data on demographic factors and working conditions were collected from 55 painters employed by a public university in Rio de Janeiro by means of interviews. It was found that 58.2% of the painters reported never wearing individual protection equipment; 52.73% were unaware of the internal occupational accident prevention committee; 92.73% performed some kind of repetitive movement; 60% had another source of income (mostly as freelancers); 87.3% rated relationships at work as being good and 45.45% had already worked as painters before being hired by their present employers. Other findings are discussed.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.38-49. Illus. 60 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Dados%20sóciodemograficos.pdf [in Portuguese]
Santos A.M.A., Cançado R.Z.L., Anjos R.M., Amaral N.C., Lima L.C.A.
Characteristics of occupational exposure to dust in the work environment of marble-working workshops in the city of São Paulo
Características da exposição ocupacional a poeiras em marmorarias da cidade de São Paulo [in Portuguese]
This evaluation of the characteristics of dust to which workers in marble cutting workshops are exposed took into account the relationships between dust concentrations at the workplace, types of rocks worked on, wet and dry operations, machinery and tools used, and the size distribution of the airborne particles. Marble cutting workshops were characterized by high concentrations of dust in the inhalable, thoracic and respirable fractions, produced by the tools used for dry abrasive polishing. Silica concentrations were up to sixteen times higher than the 0.05mg/m3 occupational exposure limit recommended. Marble cutting workshops that made use of the wet abrasive polishing process showed that the probability of environmental concentrations exceeding the exposure limit value could be reduced by up to 99%.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 2007, Vol.32, No.116, p.11-23. Illus. 18 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/rbso/BancoAnexos/RBSO%20116%20Marmorarias.pdf [in Portuguese]
Health and Safety Executive
Assessment of electromagnetic fields around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment
This report describes the results of an investigation of operator exposure to magnetic fields from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. The project involved both computational modelling and the measurement of personal exposure using magnetic field dosimeters. Findings are discussed. This project has shown that personal dosimeters are capable of detecting, in real-time, situations which might lead to exposure guidelines being exceeded.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 98p. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr570.pdf [in English]
Progress toward safe nanotechnology in the workplace
This document is a report of the progress of the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC) since its inception in 2004 through 2006. Specific chapters address NTRC research contributions in the following areas: toxicology; hazard evaluation; epidemiology and surveillance; engineering controls and personal protective equipment; fire and explosion safety; safe working methods; information and training; applications.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, June 2007. xvii, 177p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-123/pdfs/2007-123.pdf [in English]
Christopher Y., Semple S., Hughson G.W., Cherrie J.W., van Tongeren M.
Health and Safety Executive
Inadvertent ingestion exposure in the workplace
Little is known about the relative importance of inadvertent ingestion of hazardous substances from work activities. This report reviews the relevant scientific literature to help understand whether inadvertent ingestion is an important route of exposure and if yes for which agents. In a first phase of the study, a conceptual model was proposed, taking into account the processes involved in this type of exposure and the possible exposure metrics to be used in occupational settings. A second phase investigated the mechanisms involved based on laboratory experiments, which enabled a refining of the model.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 62p. Illus. 35 ref. (phase I); vi, 96p. Illus. 21 ref. (phase II).
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr551.pdf [in English]
Dowker K.P., Fletcher B., Ledin S.
Health and Safety Executive
Real time monitoring and environmental fate of oxides of nitrogen in the construction industry
The United Kingdom workplace exposure limits for nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are currently under review. In the meantime, both NO and NO2 were subject to a CHAN (Chemical Hazard Awareness Notice) of 1ppm (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA), significantly lower than the previous occupational exposure standards. Exposure to these oxides of nitrogen commonly arises in the construction industry from diesel engine exhaust emissions and from the use of explosives. This project addresses the effectiveness of real-time monitors, particularly personal monitors, at these concentration levels, and the environmental fate of NO and NO2 in the construction environment, using laboratory and field experiments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 75p. Illus. Approx. 90 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr546.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration on self-propelled forage harvesters: Evaluation of emission and estimated daily exposure levels
This study was conducted to quantify whole-body vibration (WBV) emission and likely operator daily exposure levels associated with the normal operation of self-propelled harvesters. A survey was distributed to purchasers of recent machines, to determine information concerning typical machine usage and operator perception of WBV levels. Comprehensive WBV measurements were made on six working machines to provide representative samples of WBV time-histories. Frequency analysis of the vibration data and direct observation provided information on the potential and need for reducing operator WBV exposure. WBV emission levels were found to be relatively moderate compared to those encountered upon other agricultural vehicles. Nonetheless, the WBV levels during normal daily operation were sufficiently high to ensure that certain prescribed actions on the part of employers would be required. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 106p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr544.pdf [in English]
Swan J.R.M., Blainey D., Crook B.
Health and Safety Executive
The HSE grain dust study - Workers' exposure to grain dust contaminants, immunological and clinical response
This study investigated the role of microorganisms and their associated contaminants in the development of clinical symptoms and immunological response in workers exposed to grain dust. A cohort of 321 workers exposed to grain dust (farmers at 27 farms and dock workers at two ports) was constituted. Workers were subjected to several immunoassay and clinical assessments over two study phases: phase 1 from 1990 to 1993 and phase 2 from 1997 to 2003. It was found that grain workers are exposed to high levels of endotoxin, microorganisms and dust. The levels of endotoxin were greatly in excess of those shown to cause adverse health effects. Exposure levels to grain dust were high, and still frequently over maximum exposure limits. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 98p. Illus. Approx 150 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr540.pdf [in English]
Lavoué J., Gérin M., Côté J., Lapointe R.
Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part 1: The reduction plants and coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure assessment
This article presents the work undertaken to assess the exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and to develop the job-exposure matrix (JEM), as part of a study on the mortality and cancer incidence among aluminium smelter workers in Quebec, Canada. Historical CTPV exposure was assessed by estimating benzene-soluble material (BSM) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels for combinations of job and time period. These estimates were derived by using several procedures including averaging measurement data, a deterministic mathematical model using process-related correction factors and expert-based extrapolation. The JEM comprised 28,910 jobs, covering seven facilities from 1916 to 1999. Estimated exposures ranged from 0.01µg/m3 to 68.08µg/m3 for B[a]P and 0.01mg/m3 to 3.64mg/m3 for BSM, and were lowest before 1940 and after 1980. See also CIS 08-1054 and 08-1055.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.997-1008. Illus. 30 ref.
Oldenburg M., Latza U., Baur X.
Exposure-response relationship between endotoxin exposure and lung function impairment in cotton textile workers
In this cross-sectional study, 150 employees of a German cotton spinning mill underwent lung function testing. Furthermore, in a random subset of 75 of these workers, cross-shift lung function test and methacholine challenges were performed. Airborne current endotoxin exposure was classified as "low", "medium", and "high" (≤100, >100-≤450, >450EU/m3, respectively). The exposure-response relationship between endotoxin exposure and the prevalence of an obstructive ventilation was significant; the adjusted odds ratio for high endotoxin exposure was 11.22. FEV1/FVC% was significantly reduced after the shift but not related to endotoxin exposure. Twelve workers showed bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The findings suggest a relationship between endotoxin exposure and lung function impairment, with significant effects above 450 EU/m3.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.388-395. Illus. 37 ref.
The effect of work practices on personal exposure to glutaraldehyde among health care workers
Glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory irritation and asthma among health care workers. In order to evaluate the effect of work practices and the ventilation system on exposure to glutaraldehyde, 42 breathing zone air samples were taken in five hospitals in Quebec, Canada. In addition, work practices and the presence or otherwise of local or general ventilation system were noted, and the rate of air change and the quantity of glutaraldehyde used were recorded. Geometric mean concentration of all samples was 0.025ppm. Statistical analysis indicated that work practice was the most important factor affecting the level of exposure to glutaraldehyde. In locations where poor or unsafe work practices were employed, the geometric mean concentrations were much higher (0.05 and 0.08ppm respectively). There was a higher prevalence of headache and itchy eyes among employees who worked where unsafe work practices were observed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.45, No.2, p.289-295. Illus. 24 ref.
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