Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found
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Azari M.R., Nasermoaddeli A., Movahadi M., Mehrabi Y., Hatami H., Soori H., Moshfegh E., Ramazni B.
Risk assessment of lung cancer and asbestosis in workers exposed to asbestos fibers in brake shoe factory in Iran
Occupational exposure of 61 male workers to chrysotile asbestos in a brake shoe factory in Iran was monitored. Cumulative exposures were determined through multiplication of typical exposure and work history. Risk assessment of exposed workers was estimated by risk criteria recommended by the American Environmental Protection Agency. Lung function parameters such as forced expiratory volume in one second and forced volume capacity of exposed workers were obtained. Unadjusted correlation and adjusted correlation analysis for support of the association between cumulative exposure and lung function parameters were used. Exposure of majority of exposed group was far greater than the occupational exposure limits (0.1 fibres/mL) in the range of 0.06-8.06 fibres/mL. According to the risk criteria stated by ATSDR, risk assessment of workers in term of fibrotic changes was predicted for at least 24.6% of the exposed subjects. Again, according to the lung cancer risk criteria stated by EPA, 59% of the workers will have excess risk. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.38-42. 31 ref.
Risk_assessment_of_lung_cancer.pdf [in English]
Baumeister T., Weistenhöfer W., Drexler H., Kütting B.
Spoilt for choice - evaluation of two different scoring systems for early hand eczema in teledermatological examinations
Besides improving working conditions and using personal protective equipment, early detection is most important in managing work-related hand eczema. Implementing regular teledermatological skin screenings could be helpful, but none of the published hand eczema-scores has hitherto been used in teledermatology. The aim of this study was to test and to compare two validated scores (Osnabrück hand eczema severity index (OHSI) and hand eczema severity index (HECSI)) for their suitability in an occupational telemedical screening. One hundred and twenty photographic records of the hands of 30 male wet workers were examined twice with each score. Both scores are suitable for assessing the skin condition in a teledermatological setting. The HECSI showed a better overall agreement between results of first and second examinations.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2010, Vol.62, No.4, p.241-247. 16 ref.
Gómez M.E., Sanchez J.F., Cardona A.M., Pioquinto J.F., Torres P., Sanchez D., Camargo L.M., Castañeda R.A., Villamizar R.H., Cremades L.V.
Health and working conditions in carpenter's workshops in Armenia (Colombia)
A study of the health and working conditions in 10 carpenter's workshops in the municipality of Armenia (Colombia) was conducted. Working conditions of the 177 most exposed workers were examined, and exposure to wood dust and noise, as well as lighting, were measured. The state of health was surveyed using a self-report questionnaire. Results show that personal protection was not used appropriately and that some were inadequate, that half of workshops had below the minimum allowable lighting limit level (500 lux) required, and that the noise level exceeded the permissible maximum limit value (85 dBA) in all the workshops.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.222-230. Illus. 39 ref.
Health_and_working_conditions.pdf [in English]
Pacenti M., Dugheri S., Boccalon P., Arcangeli G., Dolara P., Cupelli V.
Air monitoring and assessment of occupational exposure to peracetic acid in a hospital environment
A new automated method based upon solid phase micro-extraction (SPME)/fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in the regional hospital of Florence for the quantitative determination of airborne peracetic acid (PAA). The method is suitable for the quick assessment of brief acute exposure as well as for long-term environmental monitoring of PAA and can assist in improving safety and environmental quality in workplaces where disinfectants are used. During a monitoring campaign in Italy, the 8h average air concentration of PAA was 1/10 of the threshold limit value of time weighted average in 87% of the clinical units tested. However, the application of the new SPME method showed that short-term exposure to PAA could be relatively elevated in some hospital units with poor ventilation, allowing prompt intervention in order to reduce worker exposure to this potentially toxic compound.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.217-221. Illus. 14 ref.
Air_monitoring_and_assessment.pdf [in English]
12th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA 12): Strengthening radiation protection worldwide - Highlights, global perspective and future trends
Highlights of the 12th congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA 12) held 19-24 October 2008 in Buenos-Aires, Argentina, on strengthening radiation protection worldwide. Main topics covered: epistemiologic basis of radiation protection; harmonization of radiation protection recommendations; future trends and recommendations for strengthening radiation protection worldwide. A CD-ROM containing the full set of keynote addresses, contributed papers, presentations and refresher courses, which are also available on the IRPA 12 website (www.irpa12.org.arg), is included.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2010. 329p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.
12th_congress_of_the_IRPA.pdf [in English]
Svendsen K., Syversen T., Melø I., Hilt B.
Historical exposure to mercury among Norwegian dental personnel
Due to public concern in Scandinavian countries about the health situation of dental nurses, the Norwegian Ministry of Labor and Social Inclusion initiated a project to look at previous exposure to metallic mercury and its possible effects on dental personnel. The aims of this part of the study were to describe Norwegian dental personnel's exposure to mercury during the last 50 years, develop a model for scoring that reflects the cumulative exposure on an individual basis and relate the calculated score to earlier measured levels of mercury in urine. Questionnaires were mailed to lists of previous and current dental employees in both the private and public sector, concerning their working conditions. Responses were received from 655 dental nurses and 452 dentists. Urine mercury levels measured between 1970 and 1990 were also obtained for 143 of the dental nurses and 130 of the dentists. The results revealed a widespread exposure to mercury in both the individual exposure score and the measured mercury values in urine. For most respondents, however, the level of exposure to mercury seemed to be low. The use of copper amalgam, which is heated before it is applied, is of particular concern as a significant source of mercury exposure in dental personnel.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.231-241. Illus. 32 ref.
Code of practice - Manual tasks 2010
This code of practice provides general guidance for employers and workers on the identification, assessment and control of safety and health hazards associated with manual tasks in which forces are exerted, loads are handled and which involve repetitive movement, awkward or sustained postures, and which use equipment and tools that expose workers to vibration. It also includes information on key OSH legislative and regulatory requirements in Western Australia as they relate to hazardous manual tasks.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 44p. Illus.
http://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/worksafe/PDF/Codes_of_Practice/Code_manual_handling.pdf [in English]
Ishihama K., Sumioka S., Sakurada K., Kogo M.
Floating aerial blood mists in the operating room
High-speed surgical instruments and electric coagulator devices produce contaminated particles and aerosols. This study aimed to investigate the presence of blood-contaminated aerosol in an operating room environment. Test filters were fitted to the extract ducts of a standard central air conditioning system, and were left in place for one, two or four weeks. In a separate experiment to analyze contributing factors, the test filters were changed following every operation. Green dots showing a reaction with leucomalachite green method were counted. In the accumulation experiment, the number of positive dots tended to increase over time (26, 60, and 143 dots after one, two and four weeks, respectively). Surgical procedures performed with these devices produce aerosolized blood in the operating room. Implications are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.1179-1181. Illus. 9 ref.
And the band played on
The BBC employs 450 instrumentalists and singers, together with a large pool of freelance musicians who are engaged on specific projects. Performing musicians are exposed to various occupational hazards, particularly to the risks of noise-induced hearing loss and musculoskeletal disorders. This article describes the occupational safety and health efforts of the BBC to evaluate and limit exposure to occupational hazards and to provide training and information to the musicians.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2010, Vol.28, No.8, p.39-40. Illus. 2 ref.
Scarselli A., Vonesch N., Melis P., Massari S., Marinaccio A., Iavicoli S.
Biological risk at work in Italy: Results from the national register of occupational exposures
The aim of this study was to analyze the information on workers exposed to biological hazards based on information that employers are legally required to supply to the Italian National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention. Biological agents included in the system belong to risk groups 3 and 4 of the European Union classification. The survey included 90 firms and 2194 workers exposed to biological agents between 1994 and 2008. The most frequent biological agent reported was Salmonella typhi, while that which counted the most exposures was Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.365-369. 18 ref.
Safak A.A., Arbak P., Yazici B., Bilgin C., Erdogmus B., Annakkaya A.N., Ozsahin S.L.
Bronchial wall thickness in toll collectors
There is an increasing concern about the possible adverse effects of diesel exhaust particulates on human health. In a diesel exposed occupational group composed of 120 toll collectors, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the chest radiographs and 40 toll collectors were selected for computed tomography examination. The wall thicknesses and luminal diameters of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi of right apical and posterior basal segments were measured with manual tracing method. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that exposure to diesel fumes may have a role in increasing the thickness of large airway walls and in decreasing the diameter of large airways.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.317-323. Illus. 22 réf.
Honnert B., Grzebyk M.
Usage of amides in France
Utilisation des amides en France [in French]
This article presents an INRS industry study of 28 sectors comprising 10,117 industrial facilities surveyed by a self-declaration questionnaire. The level of response was approximately 45%. Around 20,000 employees are potentially exposed to amides and are mainly distributed amongst research laboratories and the industrial chemical sector. Concerning amide quantities involved, there is a clear split between those with industrial uses (dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide), involving quantities greater than 1000 tons, those only used for laboratory applications (formamide and acetamide), involving quantities less than 10 tons, and those with mixed applications (N-methylacetamide and N-methylformamide), involving quantities ranging from 50 to 150 tons.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2010, No.219, p.49-56. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202329/$File/ND2329.pdf [in French]
Gorner P., Simon X., Wrobel R., Kauffer E., Witschger O.
Laboratory study of selected personal inhalable aerosol samplers
Etude au laboratoire de quelques échantillonneurs individuels de la fraction inhalable [in French]
Assessment of inhalable dust exposure requires reliable sampling methods in order to measure airborne inhalable particle concentrations. Many inhalable aerosol samplers are available but their performances widely vary and remain unknown in some cases. The sampling performance of inhalable samplers is strongly dependent on particle size and ambient air velocity. In this study, five inhalable aerosol samplers were evaluated in two laboratory wind tunnels using a polydisperse glass-bead test aerosol. Findings are discussed. Significant differences between moving air and calm air sampling efficiency were observed for all the studied samplers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2010, No.219, p.19-39. Illus. 75 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202327/$File/ND2327.pdf [in French]
Kauffer E., Wrobel R., Görner P., Rott C., Grzebyk M., Simon X., Witschger O.
Onsite comparisons of several aerosol samplers in the woodworking industry
Comparaison sur site dans l'industrie du bois de quelques échantillonneurs d'aérosol [in French]
A series of 235 samples collected in six woodworking enterprises enabled comparisons to be made between airborne wood dust levels measured by various sampling methods. Findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, June 2010, No.219, p.3-17. Illus. 40 ref.
http://www.hst.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/ND%202326/$File/ND2326.pdf [in French]
Pujol Senovilla L.
Exposure to mechanical vibrations. Hazard evaluation
Exposición a vibraciones mecánicas. Evaluación del riesgo [in Spanish]
This information note presents the basic knowledge on vibrations (hand-arm and whole-body vibration) as well as a methodology to assess their risk, which varies according to the value of the vibration acceleration and to the length of exposure. The values for required action and the threshold limit values are provided in a table.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/FichasTecnicas/NTP/Ficheros/821a921/839%20web.pdf / [in Spanish]
Niu S., Deboodt P., Zeeb H.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), eds.
Approaches to the attribution of detrimental health effects to occupational exposure and their application in compensation programmes for cancer
Workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of their work may claim for compensation if they develop cancer. However, cancer is a common disease, especially in older age, and most cancers will be caused by non-occupational risk factors. Compiled by international experts, this book examines in detail the scientific basis for risk attribution, focusing in particular on the methodological issues associated with attributing individual cancers to previous occupational radiation exposures. The general features of compensation schemes are also presented, along with examples of compensation schemes from different countries, which illustrate a variety of approaches.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2010. xvi, 99p. Illus. 84 ref. Price: CHF 35.00; USD 32.00; GBP 20.00; EUR 23.00.
OSH Series No.73 [in English]
Assessment of repetitive tasks of the upper limbs (the ART tool)
The Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART) is a tool designed to help assess repetitive tasks involving the upper limbs. It assesses some of the common risk factors in repetitive work that contribute to the development of upper limb disorders. The tool is aimed at persons responsible for the design, assessment, management and inspection of repetitive work. Repetitive tasks are typically found in assembly, production, processing, packaging, packing and sorting work, as well as work involving regular use of hand tools. It consists of a check-list and numerical rating system that assesses the frequency, repetitiveness, force, posture and speed of work based on observations and interviews of workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2010. 19p. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg438.pdf [in English]
Aybek A., Kamer H.A., Arslan S.
Personal noise exposure of operators of agricultural tractors
There are approximately one million agricultural tractors in Turkey. The objectives of this study were to determine noise exposures of tractor drivers under various work tasks and conditions. Variance analyses highlighted the type of operation, type of cabins, and operation-cabin interactions that were statistically significant for noise levels. It is recommended that hearing protection devices should be used when tractors are operated without cabins.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2010, Vol.41, No.2, p.274-281. Illus. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
MALDI/TOF/MS analysis of isocyanates and other hazardous workplace chemicals
Mass spectrometry has long been used to analyze samples taken in the workplace, and can be combined with other techniques to increase sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy. The work summarized in this report examines the application of the recently-developed Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization/ time-of-flight/ mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS) technique to the analysis of isocyanates in air and biocides in soil samples. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 24p. Illus. 18 ref.
MALDI/TOF/MS_analysis_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Heaton R., Hewitt S.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of EN 60745 test codes: BS EN 60745-2-3:2007 angle grinders
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has an ongoing programme of research with the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) to investigate the relationship between manufacturers' declared vibration emission, HSL-measured emission and vibration measured during simulated or real use for different categories of tools. The work described in this report assesses the standard test defined in BS EN 60745-2-3:2007 for usability and reproducibility for angle grinders. The vibration emission values obtained according to the provisions of the test code were compared with vibration magnitudes measured under real operating conditions. The report concludes that the test code produces data suitable for estimating likely workplace exposures. Duty holders should be advised that care still needs to be taken when using existing manufacturers' data for the purposes of exposure assessment, unless it has been measured according to the latest version of the test code, BS EN 60745-2-3:2007. Manufacturers should be encouraged to replace earlier declaration values with values measured according to the provisions in this standard.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, viii, 208p. Illus. 11 ref.
Evaluation_of_EN_60745_test_codes_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Goldcamp M.J., Goldcamp D.M., Ashley K., Fernback J.E., Agrawal A., Millson M., Marlow D., Harrison K.
Extraction of beryllium from refractory beryllium oxide with dilute ammonium bifluoride and determination by fluorescence: A multiparameter performance evaluation
Beryllium exposure can cause a number of deleterious health effects, including beryllium sensitization and the potentially fatal chronic beryllium disease. Efficient methods for monitoring beryllium contamination in workplaces are valuable to help prevent dangerous exposures to this element. In this work, performance data on the extraction of beryllium from various size fractions of high-fired beryllium oxide (BeO) particles (from <32 μm up to 212 μm) using dilute aqueous ammonium bifluoride (ABF) solution were obtained under various conditions. Beryllium concentrations were determined by fluorescence using a hydroxybenzoquinoline fluorophore. The effects of ABF concentration and volume, extraction temperature, sample tube types, and presence of filter or wipe media were examined. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2009, Vol.6, No.10, p.735-744. Illus. 22 ref.
Extraction_of_beryllium.pdf [in English]
Bråtveit M., Steinsvåg K., Lie S.A., Moen B.E.
Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations
The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapour in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapour in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapour measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist and oil vapour from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapour were 3.89 mg/m3 and 39.7 mg/m3, respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapour and oil mist, respectively. The models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2009, Vol.6, No.11, p.679-686. Illus. 10 ref.
Modeling_oil_mist.pdf [in English]
Liu H., Liang Y., Bowes S., Xu H., Zhou Y., Armstrong T.W., Wong O., Schnatter A.R., Fang J., Wang L., Nie L., Fu H., Irons R.
Benzene exposure in industries using or manufacturing paint in China - A literature review, 1956-2005
A systematic review of the Chinese literature was conducted from 1956 to 2005. The survey included both online and manual searching, as well as expert discussions aimed at providing insight into factors affecting benzene exposure levels in paint/coatings industries. Data were extracted from 204 articles. Most benzene measurements were short-term samples for comparison with the Chinese maximum allowable concentration standard. The accuracy and precision of the sampling and analytical methods were not reported. The overall median benzene exposure levels were 215, 82, 31 and 6 mg/m3 during the periods 1956-1978, 1979-1989, 1990-2001 and 2002-2005, respectively. Mean benzene exposure was significantly lower for paint manufacturing than paint spraying. No significant difference was found among paint types and benzene exposure for paint application. Benzene exposure was significantly higher in workplaces judged to have poor ventilation. No significant differences were found in benzene exposure as a function of industry type. Even though substantially lower when compared with levels in the past, recent benzene exposure measurements suggested that many facilities in the paint/coatings industries in China still have benzene concentrations that are above the current China occupational exposure limit for benzene (6 mg/m3) as a time-weighted average).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2009, Vol.6, No.11, p.659-670. Illus. 19 ref.
Benzene_exposure.pdf [in English]
Panko J.M., Gaffney S.H., Burns A.M., Unice K.M, Kreider M.L., Booher L.E., Gelatt R.H., Marshall J.R., Paustenbach D.J.
Occupational exposure to benzene at the ExxonMobil refinery at Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1977-2005)
This study evaluated the airborne concentrations of benzene and their variability over time at the ExxonMobil refinery in Baton Rouge between 1977 and 2005. Refinery workers were categorized into 117 worker groups using company job descriptions. These 117 groups were further collapsed into 25 job categories based on similarity of measured exposure results. Results of 5289 personal air samples are included in this analysis. Findings are discussed. Even the tasks with the highest estimated exposures were well below the STEL of 5 ppm. This study thus provides a task-focused analysis for occupational exposure to benzene during refinery operations, which can be insightful for understanding exposures at this refinery and perhaps others operated since about 1975.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.517-529. Illus. 32 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_benzene.pdf [in English]
Easterbrook A., Brough P.
Health and Safety Executive
Silica baseline survey
The overall objective of this project was to establish employee exposures and the control of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) in four United Kingdom sectors: brick and tile manufacture, stonemasonry, quarrying and construction. More specifically, the objectives were: to establish whether engineering controls and the use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) were adequate to reduce exposures below the workplace exposure limit (WEL) for RCS; to assess the reliability of the exposure controls; to identify common causes of failures of exposure controls; to provide data against which the effect of HSE interventions could be assessed in future. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. viii, 59p. 17 ref.
RR_689.pdf [in English]
Cotton R., Underwood R.
Analysis of CTI foundry dataset
This report contains a statistical analysis of an exposure dataset provided by a United Kingdom research and development consultancy specialized in castings technology. The purpose of the analysis was to provide a snapshot of exposure levels to ferrous foundry particulate and other chemicals, across a range of casting and fabrication related jobs. The original dataset consisted of close to 50,000 records including potential exposure level, substance, job type, date of measurement, and the use of respiratory protection equipment and local exhaust ventilation. The dataset was filtered to exclude records which were pre-1995 or that related to jobs or substances that were not of interest. After filtering, 21,885 records of exposures to 30 substances remained, covering the time period 1995-2004, which were then classified according to nine generic job types and stratified by the generic job types and substance, and compared to current workplace exposure limits where appropriate.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 13p. Illus. 4 ref.
RR_677 [in English]
Panasevich S., Leander K., Rosenlund M., Ljungman P., Bellander T., de Faire U., Pershagen G., Nyberg F.
Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance. The objective of this study was to investigate the long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory and coagulation markers relevant for cardiovascular pathology. The study group consisted of a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45-70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO2 and heating-related SO2 emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1,5 and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12-120 h before blood sampling. Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO2 and heating-SO2 emissions showed consistent associations with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO2 exposure was associated with a 64.5% increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 μg/m3 and 30-year exposure to heating- SO2 with a 67.6% increase per 39.4 μg/m3. The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people and hypertensive subjects. Short-term exposure to O3 was associated with increased, and SO2 with decreased, fibrinogen levels. These results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.747-753. Illus. 38 ref.
Vrijheid M., Mann S., Vecchia P., Wiart J., Taki M., Ardoino L., Armstrong B.K., Auvinen A., Bédard D., Berg-Beckhoff G., Brown J., Chetrit A., Collatz-Christensen H., Combalot E., Cook A., Deltour I., Feychting M., Giles G.G., Hepworth S.J., Hours M., Iavarone I., Johansen C., Krewski D., Kurttio P., Lagorio S., Lönn S., McBride M., Montestrucq L., Parslow R.C., Sadetzki S., Schüz J., Tynes T., Woodward A., Cardis E.
Determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study: Implications for exposure assessment
The output power of a mobile phone is directly related to its radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field strength, and may theoretically vary substantially in different networks and phone use circumstances due to power control technologies. To improve indices of RF exposure for future epidemiological studies, this study assessed determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study. More than 500 volunteers in 12 countries used GSM software-modified phones (GSM SMPs) for approximately one month each. The SMPs recorded date, time, and duration of each call, and the frequency band and output power at fixed sampling intervals throughout each call. Questionnaires provided information on the typical circumstances of an individual's phone use. Linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of possible explanatory variables on the average output power and the percentage call time at maximum power for each call. Measurements of over 60,000 phone calls showed that the average output power was approximately 50% of the maximum, and that output power varied by a factor of up to 2 to 3 between study centres and network operators. Maximum power was used during a considerable proportion of call time (39% on average). Output power decreased with increasing call duration, but showed little variation in relation to reported frequency of use while in a moving vehicle or inside buildings. Higher output powers for rural compared with urban use of the SMP were observed principally in Sweden where the study covered very sparsely populated areas.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.664-671. 41 ref.
Nanomaterials: Health hazards and preventive measures
Nanomatériaux. Risques pour la santé et mesures de prévention [in French]
Given the many unknowns concerning the potential health effects of nanomaterials, it is important to limit occupational exposures. This leaflet summarizes the appropriate technical and personal protective measures to be adopted in laboratories or enterprises handling nano-objects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Dec. 2009. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 0.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6064.pdf [in French]
Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Nanomaterials. Definitions, toxicological risk, characterisation of occupational exposure and prevention measures
Les nanomatériaux. Définitions, risques toxicologiques, caractérisation de l'exposition professionnelle et mesures de prévention [in French]
That workers are occupationally exposed to nanomaterials is already an established fact. Considering the many unknowns surrounding these new chemicals, their potential health effects and the problems faced in attempting to characterize exposures, quantitative risk assessments remain difficult to carry out in most occupational settings. In all work situations involving exposure to nanomaterials, the most appropriate course of action is therefore to apply caution and introduce specific policies aimed at avoiding risks. Although it is still too early to provide definitive answers, this guide brings together current knowledge concerning the characteristics and applications of these materials, their toxicology, the tools available for evaluating occupational exposure and finally the means of prevention.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2009. 27p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: EUR 4.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
ED_6050/EN.pdf [in English]
ED_6050/FR.pdf [in French]
Chen L., Tapp L.
Evaluation of exposures in sculpture studios at a college art department
NIOSH received a confidential employee request for a health hazard evaluation at Brooklyn College in Brooklyn, New York. The request was to investigate safety and health concerns in the sculpture studios, including the ceramic, woodworking and metalworking studios. Employees were concerned that degenerative nerve damage, lung cancer, sinus problems, allergies and headaches were possibly related to work exposures. NIOSH investigators conducted an initial evaluation that included an opening conference, a tour of the three sculpture studios, observations of work activities, and a review of relevant safety and health documents. They evaluated the ventilation in the studios, collected area and personal breathing zone air samples for volatile organic compounds and welding fumes. All samples showed results at trace levels or well below threshold limit values. However inadequate electrical grounding, machine guarding, and spacing around power tools and machines were observed, together with poor housekeeping practices. A number of recommendations were made.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Feb. 2009. vi, 23p. 5 ref.
HETA_2007-0167-3078.pdf [in English]
Rodriguez M., Adebayo A., Brueck S.E., Ramsey J.
Evaluation of employees' exposures to welding fumes and powder paint dust during metal furniture manufacturing
In 2007, NIOSH received a confidential employee request for a health hazard evaluation at a metal furniture manufacturing plant. Employees were concerned about exposure to welding fumes and dust from powder painting and grinding operations. During the initial site visit, NIOSH staff met with management and employee representatives, toured the facility, observed work processes and existing engineering controls, observed the use of PPE and interviewed 10 employees. Bulk samples of powder paint were collected for particle sizing and to check for silica and asbestos content. Two of the 10 employees interviewed reported symptoms not related to exposures in the workplace. They described episodic transient shortness of breath that lasted a few minutes and also affected members of their families who were not employees of the plant. Their condition did not improve when they were away from work. Two other employees reported eye and throat irritation. The remaining six employees reported no symptoms. A second survey was conducted to evaluate exposures to welding fumes. No specific cause was identified and threshold limit values were mostly within acceptable levels. A number of recommendations were made concerning the use of paints that do not contain triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC), use of welding wire that does not contain manganese, ventilation, personal protection, engineering controls and information of personnel.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Jan. 2009. viii, 45p. Illus. 5 ref.
HETA_2007-0199-3075.pdf [in English]
Bomer R., Carter M., Dmytrasz B., Mulari M., Pizzella G., Roth S., van de Sandt P., Urbanus J., Minsavage G.
Additional human exposure information for gasoline substance risk assessment (period 2002-2007)
This report provides an update on human exposure information for gasoline-related activities for which previous assessments had suggested that exposure was either elevated or highly variable, or where available data were considered out-of-date or unavailable. The occupational exposures activities described in this report include railcar loading, refinery maintenance, laboratory operations, aviation gasoline refuelling, gasoline pump maintenance and repair, gasoline pump calibration, and the operation of gasoline-powered gardening equipment. In addition, general public exposure levels are described, particularly relating to residency near service stations.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, iv, 31p. 33 ref.
Berlana Llorente T., Diego Segura B., Rupérez Calvo M.J.
Study of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in physiotherapy departments
Estudio de la exposición laboral a campos electromagnéticos en servicios de fisioterapia [in Spanish]
This article presents a study of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in two physiotherapy departments. Firstly, the workplaces were examined according to three criteria: characteristics of emission sources, places of work and type of work. This initial analysis permitted to then define the type of dosimetry measures to implement and the most appropriate equipment for these measures. Findings are discussed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2009, No.54, p.12-19. Illus. 4 ref.
Bestratén Belloví M., Iranzo García Y.
Hazard identification and assessment in SMEs: A new INHST computer-based tool
Identificación y evaluación de riesgos en PYMES - Nueva aplicación informática del INSHT [in Spanish]
This article presents a new tool for occupational hazard assessment in SMEs developed by the Spanish National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This tool in the form of questionnaires allows to highlight deficiencies in the enterprises' safety issues and suggests preventive measures to fill these gaps.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Oct. 2009, No.54, p.6-11. Illus.
Mittmann-Frank M., Berger H., Buchter A.
Occupational and preventive medical diagnostic programme regarding exposure to nanomaterials and special or new materials
Arbeitsmedizinisches und präventivmedizinisches Untersuchungsprogramm bei Exposition mit Nanopartikeln und speziellen oder neuen Materialien [in German]
There is an urgent need to determine the health hazards from exposure to nanomaterials. These substances exhibit different physical, chemical and biological properties than the larger particle sized products with the same chemical composition and one should not automatically attribute the known same toxic effects of one to the other. According to present knowledge, the greatest risk arises from inhalation of insoluble or slightly soluble particles. Taking into consideration the various possible mechanisms of the interactions between nanomaterials and the human body, this article proposes an extensive occupational and preventive medical diagnostic programme. See also ISN 111201.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Nov 2009, Vol.59, No.11. p.336-343. 50 ref.
Arbeitsmedizinisches_und_präventivmedizinisches_Untersuchungsprogramm.pdf [in German]
Patrón Vilar J.M., Ledesma de Miguel J.
Evaluation of the postural load at forestry workplaces
Evaluación de la carga postural en puestos de trabajo en el sector forestal [in Spanish]
In this study, three forestry workplaces were analyzed (tree pruning at height and on ground, and tree felling), the final objective being to evaluate the physical workload of workers under various postures. The evaluation was conducted using several methods, including RULA and OWAS. Findings are discussed and recommendations aimed at reducing the onset of certain muskculoskeletal disorders are proposed.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.34-40. Illus. 4 ref.
Solans Lampurlanés X.
Evaluation of the hazards from exposure to biological agents during work
Evaluación de los riesgos relacionados con la exposición a agentes biológicos durante el trabajo [in Spanish]
This article reviews the various situations to which the provisions of Royal Decree 664/1997 on occupational exposures to biological agents apply, and describes the possible modes of exposure. It emphasizes the difficulties faced in carrying out reliable ambient evaluations, as well as the lack of systematic methods and reference values that would allow comparing findings.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.18-25. Illus. 3 ref.
Tanarro Gozalo C., Gálvez Pérez V.
Nanoparticles: A small hazard?
Nanopartículas: ¿un riesgo pequeño? [in Spanish]
The rapid development of nanotechnology has led to the emergence of a large number of consumer products containing nanoparticles thanks to the improved product properties resulting from their use. As a result, a growing number of workers are exposed to new materials about which little is known of their toxicological characteristics. This article gives an overview of nanoparticles, the sectors where they can be found, the associated hazards and the preventive measures that can be adopted.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2009, No.52, p.33-44. Illus. 23 ref.
Torrado del Rey S., Rosell Farrás M.G., Guardino Solá X.
Control of occupational exposure of health care personnel when handling cytostatics
Control de la exposición laboral del personal sanitario durante la manipulación de citostáticos [in Spanish]
Health care workers handling cytostatic agents may be contaminated during the preparation or the administration of the drug. This article describes the prevention and protection measures to be adopted when handling cytostatic agents. It points out that the high levels of contamination which are found on working surfaces and on vials in hospitals are due to the contamination of the external surfaces of vials arising during the production of the drugs. It urges manufacturers to act in order to avoid this problem at the source.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2009, No.52, p.6-13. Illus. 25 ref.
Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining
Exposures of German hard coal miners to nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in a cohort of 1369 miners from two German coal mines, and the data were used to estimate long-term exposures. For all three components, time weighted 8h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company estimated major potential long-term changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were diesel engines, while blasting fumes contributed to a lesser degree. The findings concerning CO are discussed in a separate publication. Among diesel engine drivers, current 8h average exposures were 1.35ppm for NO and 0.21ppm for NO2. For blasting workers, the corresponding values were 0.84ppm and 0.014ppm. By applying these data and the estimates of experts concerning retrospectives, cumulative exposures for NO and NO2 were determined from 1974 until 1998. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.92, No.10, p.1267-1279. Illus. 44 ref.
Duchaine C., Létourneau V., Nehmé B., Mériaux A., Gilbert Y., Veillette M.
Characterization of bioaerosols by molecular microbial ecology
Caractérisation des bioaérosols par écologie microbienne moléculaire [in French]
Pigsty workers are exposed to organic contaminants and gases. Most studies on the workplace atmosphere in pigsties have so far been based solely on the culture of microorganisms, which limits the microbial biodiversity and underestimates the microbiological load. Other methods, based on molecular biology, have been used to analyze the microbiology of soils, but not that of bioaerosols. The researchers applied these two methods for comparison purposes and studied the impact of seasons and the manure management method on the type and load of the bioaerosols in pig operations. They show the usefulness of molecular biology tools in characterizing bioaerosols in an agricultural environment, but conclude that the analyses based on this method also have limitations that could have an impact on the extent of the biodiversity observed. As a result, classical culture methods for microorganisms remain an essential complement.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. viii, 37p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-595.pdf [in French]
Skin exposure to biological, physical and chemical hazards
Exposition de la peau aux risques biologiques, physiques et chimiques [in French]
This article summarizes the contents of a report prepared by the European Risk Observatory on how European Union Member States are organized to address the issues of identification, evaluation and prevention of skin exposures to biological, physical and chemical agents. Contents: methodology; types of skin diseases; compensation of skin diseases and skin exposures in the EU; notification of skin diseases; diagnosis, quantification and hazard evaluation; prevention methods in case of skin exposure; conclusion. Boxes summarize the situation of the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Finland, France and Germany. The full report can be downloaded from the following URL: http://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/reports/TE7007049ENC_skin_diseases
Prevent Focus, Feb. 2009, p.16-19. Illus. 1 ref.
Crosera M., Bovenzi M., Maina G., Adami G., Zanette C., Florio C., Filon Larese F.
Nanoparticle dermal absorption and toxicity: A review of the literature
The article reviews the literature on the percutaneous absorption of nanoparticles and their effect on skin. It highlights the important knowledge gaps and research needs in areas including: health and environmental impact; life cycle of nanoparticles; exposure routes; behaviour of nanoparticles in the body; risk for workers. Data on titanium dioxide are inconsistent, data on carbon-based nanoparticles are limited and data on metal-based nanoparticles are rare.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1043-1055. 106 ref.
A terrible microscopic danger
Die Zeitbombe jetzt entschärfen [in German]
Disinnescare subito la bomba [in Italian]
Un terrible danger microscopique [in French]
This article on nanomaterials argues in favour of precautions when handling or eliminating products containing nanomaterials, given the fact that their risks to humans remain largely unknown. It includes several safety recommendations.
Beobachter - Arbeit/Travail/Lavoro, 2009, No.24, p.26-29. Illus.
Lee K., Park E.K., Stoecklin-Marois M., Koivunen M.E., Gee S.J., Hammock B.D., Beckett L.A., Schenker M.B.
Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rica farms
This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among farm workers in Costa Rica. 24h urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Inhalable dust and airborne paraquat levels were also measured for a subset of the participants. Paraquat levels were non-detectable or very low among workers not handling paraquat. For handlers, 83.3%, 47.1% and 63.9% of the samples were below detection limits before, during and after spray days, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.455-462. 20 ref.
Sauni R., Pääkkönen R., Virtema P., Jäntti V., Kähönen M., Toppila E., Pyykkö I., Uitti J.
Vibration-induced white finger syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome among Finnish metal workers
The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population of Finnish metal workers. A questionnaire on vibration exposure at the workplace and symptoms of the upper extremities was sent to a sample of 530 metalworkers' union members. Those reporting VWF or CTS symptoms were also invited to take part in clinical examinations. Their cumulative lifelong exposure to HAV was evaluated. The incidences VWF and CTS were 8.4% and 4.2% respectively, suggesting that VWF is under-diagnosed in Finland. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.445-453. Illus. 31 ref.
Mee T., Whatmough P., Broad L., Dunn C., Maslanyj M., Allen S., Muir K., McKinney P.A., van Tongeren M.
Occupational exposure of UK adults to extremely low frequency magnetic fields
The objective of this study was to assess levels of occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) in the United Kingdom and to test the use of a job-exposure matrix to assign exposures. Personal ELF MF dosimetry measurements were carried out continuously during three days in 317 subjects, who recorded their times spent in occupational, travel and various activities. Overall exposure was significantly higher at work than at home. Elevated average occupational exposure was found for welding trades, printers, telephone operators and filing and other records assistants. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.619-627. 35 ref.
Brouwers M.M., van Tongeren M., Hirst A.A., Bretveld R.W., Roeleveld N.
Occupational exposure to potential endocrine disruptors: Further development of a job exposure matrix
The aim of this study was to develop a job exposure matrix for estimating exposure to potential endocrine disruptors. Chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties were identified from the literature and classified into ten groups. Focusing on data for the years 1996-2006, experts scored the probability of exposure to each chemical group and subgroup for 353 job titles.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.66, No.9, p.607-614. 51 ref.
Viel J.F., Clerc S., Barrera C., Rymzhanova R., Moissonnier M., Hours M., Cardis E.
Residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from mobile phone base stations, and broadcast transmitters: A population-based survey with personal meter
The main goal of this study was to characterize the distribution of residential exposure to radiofrequency fields from antennas. The 200 randomly-selected participants were supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24 h measurements and kept a time-location-activity diary. Distances between places of residence and antennae were calculated using geographical information databases. Findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.66, No.8, p.550-556. Illus. 27 ref.
Davis M.E., Laden F., Hart J.E., Garshick E., Blicharz A., Smith T.J.
Predicting changes in PM exposure over time at U.S. trucking terminals using structural equation modeling techniques
This study analyzes the temporal variability of occupational and environmental exposures to fine particulate matter in the U.S. trucking sector, and tests the predictive ability of a novel multilayer statistical approach to occupational exposure evaluation using structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques. For these purposes, elemental carbon mass in PM<1µm at six U.S. trucking terminals were measured observing concentrations in various locations of the facility. Findings are discussed. Once accounting for systematic prediction errors in background concentrations, the SEM approach provided a strong fit with measured work-related exposures in this occupational setting.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2009, Vol.6, No.7, p.396-403. Illus. 23 ref.
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