Exposure evaluation - 1,808 entries found
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International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
WHO human health risk assessment toolkit: Chemical hazards
Aimed at for public health and environmental professionals, regulators, industrial managers and other decision-makers, this WHO manual provides users with guidance to identify, acquire and use the information needed to assess chemical hazards, exposures and the corresponding health risks in their given health risk assessment contexts at local or national levels. It contains road maps for conducting a human health risk assessment, identifies information that must be gathered to complete an assessment and lists electronic links to international resources from which the user can obtain information and methods essential for conducting the human health risk assessment. Contents: description of human health risk assessment of chemicals; description of the toolkit; international risk assessment resources; case studies (drinking water, PM10 respirable particulate matter, pesticides).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2010, xv, 87p. Illus. Approx. 100 ref.
WHO_human_health_risk_assessment_toolkit_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Schulte P.A., Heidel D., Okun A., Branche C.
Making green jobs safe
This editorial argues that while green jobs may be perceived to be safe, this is not necessarily the case considering that their prime purpose is to produce green products and services aimed at preserving or restoring environmental quality. It provides examples of where environmental protection has led to increased hazards for workers and recommends that occupational safety and health be duly considered on an equal footing with environmental protection.
Industrial Health, 2010, Vol.48, p.377-379. 12 ref.
Making_green_jobs_safe_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Schilmann A., Lacasaña M., Blanco-Muñoz J., Aguilar-Garduño C., Salinas-Rodríguez A., Flores-Aldana M., Cebrián M.E.
Identifying pesticide use patterns among flower growers to assess occupational exposure to mixtures
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify seasonal pesticide use patterns among flower growers in Mexico. Data on pesticide use were obtained by means of questionnaires addressed to the person in charge of the participating flower growing farms. Complete information was obtained for 88 farms and 23 pesticides were included in the analysis. Findings are presented.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.323-329. 36 ref.
Madrigano J., Baccarelli A., Wright R.O., Suh H., Sparrow D., Vokonas P.S., Schwartz J.
Air pollution, obesity, genes and cellular adhesion molecules
This study examined the association between particulate matter and cell adhesion molecules, together with the modifying effect of genotype and phenotype variation to gain insight into the relevant biological pathways for this association. Mixed regression models were used to examine the association of PM2.5 and black carbon with serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), markers of endothelial function and inflammation, in a longitudinal study of 809 participants in the Normative Ageing Study (1819 total observations). Whether this association was modified by genotype, obesity or diabetes status was also examined. Genes selected for analyses were related to oxidative stress, endothelial function, lipid metabolism or metal processing. Black carbon during the two days prior to blood draw was significantly associated with increased sVCAM-1 (4.5% increase per 1 μg/m3). Neither pollutant was associated with sICAM-1. Larger effects of black carbon on sVCAM were seen in subjects with obesity and who were GSTM1 null. It is concluded that black carbon is associated with markers of endothelial function and inflammation. Genes related to oxidative defence may modify this association.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.312-317. Illus. 37 ref.
Air_pollution.pdf [in English]
du Plessis L., Laubscher P., Jooste J., du Plessis J., Franken A., van Aarde N., Eloff F.
Flow cytometric analysis of the oxidative status in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of workers exposed to welding fumes
This study evaluated flow cytometry as a method to determine the oxidative status of 15 male welders occupationally exposed to welding fumes. Flow cytometric analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was carried out in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by using the probe 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Lipid peroxidation was measured by the decrease of fluor-DHPE fluorescence and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels by using mercury orange. All of the parameters were also observed under a confocal microscope. The oxidative stress ratio was calculated from the oxidative damage and the antioxidant capacity to give an accurate account of the cellular oxidative status. ROS and lipid peroxidation levels were elevated by approximately 87% and approximately 96%, respectively, and GSH levels lowered approximately 96% in PBMC of workers exposed to welding fumes compared with non-exposed controls. The oxidative stress ratio was significantly higher in the exposed group.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2010, Vol.7, No.6, p.367-374. Illus. 44 ref.
Flow_cytometric_analysis.pdf [in English]
Methner M., Hodson L., Dames A., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part B: Results from 12 field studies
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted field studies at 12 sites using the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique (NEAT) to characterize emissions during processes where engineered nanomaterials were produced or used. A description of the NEAT appears in an earlier article (see ISN 112187). Field studies were conducted in research and development laboratories, pilot plants, and manufacturing facilities handling carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multi-walled), carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, carbon nanopearls, metal oxides, electrospun nylon and quantum dots. The results demonstrated that the NEAT was useful in evaluating emissions and that readily available engineering controls can be applied to minimize nanomaterial emissions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, No.3, p.163-176. Illus. 18 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_B.pdf [in English]
Underestimation of terpene exposure in the Nordic wood industry
This study determined that emission of sesquiterpenes from processed wood warrants attention in the work environment. Currently, only the monoterpenes in the terpene group are monitored in occupational hygiene studies. Terpene emissions are a work environment issue for industries that process wood, as they are known to cause respiratory difficulties and mucous membrane irritation. Fresh sawdust of the most common boreal conifers, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), was subjected to processing (drying), and the emissions were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The data indicate that workers are exposed to significant amounts of sesquiterpenes, an observation that has not been recorded previously at wood processing plants. On average, the proportion of sesquiterpenes to monoterpenes was 21 ± 5% for spruce and 15 ± 5% for pine. The composition of terpenes emitted in air from spruce wood differs from the composition in resin. The sum of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes can exceed the occupational exposure limit for turpentine for processes where monoterpene concentrations are already close to the occupational exposure limit, and for processes involving the processing of bark. Findings suggest that future studies of health effects from terpenes in air should measure monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes to assess whether the current OELs are appropriate.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, No.3, p.144-151. Illus. 31 ref.
Underestimation_of_terpene_exposure.pdf [in English]
Methner M., Hodson L., Geraci C.
Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials - Part A
The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established a nanotechnology field research team whose primary goal was to visit facilities and evaluate the potential for release of nanomaterials and worker exposure. The team identified numerous techniques to measure airborne nanomaterials with respect to particle size, mass, surface area, number concentration and composition. However, some of these techniques lack specificity and field portability and are difficult to use and expensive when applied to routine exposure assessment. This article describes the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that handle or produce engineered nanomaterials. The NEAT utilizes portable direct-reading instrumentation supplemented by a pair of filter-based air samples (source-specific and personal breathing zone). The use of the filter-based samples are crucial for identification purposes because particle counters are generally insensitive to particle source or composition and make it difficult to differentiate between incidental and process-related nanomaterials using number concentration alone. Results from using the NEAT at 12 facilities are presented in the companion article (Part B) in this issue (see ISN 112189).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2010, Vol.7, No.3, p.127-132. Illus. 15 ref.
Nanoparticle_emission_A.pdf [in English]
Flynn M.R., Susi P.
Manganese, iron, and total particulate exposures to welders
Welders are exposed to a variety of metal fumes including manganese that may elevate the risk for neurological disease. This study examines several large data sets to characterize manganese, iron, and total particulate mass exposures resulting from welding operations. The data sets contained covariates for a variety of exposure modifiers, including the presence of ventilation, the degree of confinement, and the location of the personal sampler. The analysis suggests that exposures to manganese are frequently at or above the current ACGIH threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m3. In addition, there is evidence that local exhaust ventilation can control the exposures to manganese and total fume but that mechanical ventilation may not. The data suggest that higher exposures are associated with a greater degree of enclosure, particularly when local exhaust ventilation is absent. There were strong correlations among manganese, iron and total particulate mass exposures, suggesting simple equations to estimate one fume component from any of the others.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.115-126. Illus. 35 ref.
Manganese.pdf [in English]
Létourneau V., Nehmé B., Mériaux A., Massé D., Duchaine C.
Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols
In this study, bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes as a total (culturable and non-culturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and moulds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed non-statistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with sawdust beds.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.94-102. Illus. 39 ref.
Impact_of_production.pdf [in English]
Rodrigues E.G., Virji M.A., McClean M.D., Weinberg J., Woskie S., Pepper L.D.
Personal exposure, behavior, and work site conditions as determinants of blood lead among bridge painters
This study was conducted among 84 bridge painters in the New England area to determine the significant predictors of blood lead levels. Lead was measured in personal air and hand wipe samples that were collected during the 2-week study period and in blood samples that were collected at the beginning and at the end of the study period. The personal air and hand wipe data as well as personal behaviours (i.e., smoking, washing, wearing a respirator) and work site conditions were analyzed as potential determinants of blood lead levels using linear mixed effects models. Results show that that several individual-level and site-level factors are associated with blood lead levels among bridge painters, including lead exposure through inhalation and possible hand-to-mouth contact, personal behaviours such as smoking on site, respirator fit testing and work site conditions such as the use of better containment facilities. Accordingly, reduction in blood lead levels among bridge painters can be achieved by improving these workplace practices.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.80-87. 27 ref.
Personal_exposure.pdf [in English]
White K.L., Heikkila K., Williams R., Levin L., Lockey J.E., Rice C.
Diacetyl exposures at four microwave popcorn plants
Exposure to the butter-flavouring compound diacetyl was assessed in four microwave popcorn manufacturing plants in the United States during multiple surveys from 2005-2007. Personal, breathing zone samples were collected and analyzed using NIOSH Method 2557. Samples were collected at the lapel, outside the powered air-purifying respirator used by any worker entering the slurry room. The data were evaluated for similarity of exposure across job duties and resulted in two exposure groups: mixers, those who routinely work in the slurry room mixing vegetable oil, salt and flavourings, and non-mixers (all other production jobs). From 639 samples collected during surveys, summary estimates of exposures were calculated as the arithmetic mean and median of the data and by the geometric mean of log-normally distributed results. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2010, Vol.7, No.4, p.185-193. 27 ref.
Diacetyl_exposures.pdf [in English]
Gilbert Y., Veillette M., Meriaux A., Lavoie J., Cormier Y., Duchaine C.
Metalworking fluid-related aerosols in machining plants
This study evaluates airborne microorganisms and aerosols from soluble metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the working environment. Air quality parameters (endotoxin levels, culturable airborne microorganisms, fluid mist, inhalable dust and air exchange rates) were evaluated at 44 sites in 25 shops in Quebec, Canada. Microorganism concentrations were also measured in MWF. Most workplaces respected the recommended maximum values for fluid mist and showed low concentrations of airborne endotoxin, culturable microorganisms and inhalable dust despite fluid contamination, even when air exchange rates were below the recommendations. Airborne Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was recovered from many sites at significant concentrations. Possible health-associated risks from exposure to this microorganism need to be further investigated.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2010, Vol.7, No.5, p.280-289. Illus. 56 ref.
Metalworking_fluid-related_aerosols.pdf [in English]
Fustinoni S., Campo L., Cirla P.E., Martinotti I., Buratti M., Longhi O., Foà V., Bertazzi P.
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt workers
The objective of this study was to assess dermal exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in asphalt workers in the region of Milan, Italy, to identify the most frequent compounds and exposure sites and to integrate dermal exposure results with environmental and biological data. Twenty-four asphalt workers were recruited. Dermal exposure was assessed during a single work shift. Sixteen PAHs were quantified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dermal exposure was assessed by applying polypropylene pads to six body sites (neck, shoulder, upper arm, wrist, groin and ankle). Airborne exposure, and urinary PAHs and monohydroxy metabolites were also investigated. Findings are discussed. Overall, dermal exposures to PAHs were in the low ng/cm2 range. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were the most representative compounds and the wrist was the best location to perform dermal exposure assessments. Both dermal and airborne exposure contributed to the total body burden of PAHs, with the relative contribution varying according to the specific PAH.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2010, Vol.67, No.7, p.456-463. Illus. 40 ref.
Freixa Blanxart A., Torrado del Rey S.
Prevention of exposure to formaldehyde
Prevención de la exposición a formaldehído [in Spanish]
The control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde is a fundamental activity in industrial hygiene, both for its extensive presence and by its significant adverse effects on health. This technical note summarizes and discusses some of the existing methods for the identification and quantification of formaldehyde vapours in various work environments, together with procedures to minimize their presence in the air. Contents: formaldehyde characteristics and properties; health hazards; threshold values; control of exposure; contamination levels; exposure prevention methods. Replaces NTP 490 (see CIS 04-176).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 4p. Illus. 12 ref.
NTP_873.pdf [in Spanish]
Hernández Calleja A., Luna Mendaza P.
Occupational hygiene report. Guidelines for production
El informe higiénico. Pautas de elaboración [in Spanish]
This technical note on the occupational hygiene report following the hazard assessment and exposure evaluation to chemical, physical and/or biological agents during tasks performed within the enterprise, describes the elements which this document has to include as well as its structure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 3 ref.
NTP_863.pdf [in Spanish]
Dunleavy K., Taylor A., Gow J., Cullen B., Roy K.
Management of blood and body fluid exposures in police staff
Police service staff are at risk of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids with the consequent risk of blood-borne virus (BBV) infections. The objective of this study was to examine the types of occupational exposure incidents experienced by Scottish police service staff and to evaluate the post-incident management provided by their occupational health services. Data were collected on the circumstances and the post-incident management of each incident reported to occupational health services over 12 months. An expert panel reviewed the post-incident management provided by the occupational health service. The panel considered that the majority of cases of occupational exposure incurred little or no risk of BBV transmission. In general, the expert panel assessed the post-incident management provided by the occupational health service units serving the police as adequate and appropriate. However, some concerns were raised in relation to a small number of incorrect risk assessments and an inconsistent approach to hepatitis C virus follow-up blood testing.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.7, p.540-545. Illus. 22 ref.
Meeker J.D., Susi P., Flynn M.R.
Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks
The objective of this study was to characterize breathing zone air concentrations of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) during welding tasks, based on several sources of data. Findings are discussed. The OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for CrVI (5 μg/m3) was exceeded in 9%-25% of the samples, depending on the dataset. Base metal, welding process and local exhaust ventilation (LEV) use were important predictors of CrVI concentrations. Only weak-to-moderate correlations were found between total particulate matter and CrVI, suggesting that total particulate matter concentrations are not a good surrogate for CrVI exposure in retrospective studies. It is concluded that while overexposure to CrVI in stainless steel welding is widespread, it could be substantially reduced with proper use of LEV.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2010, Vol.7, p.607-615. Illus. 27 ref.
Laohaudomchok W., Cavallari J.M., Fang S.C., Lin X., Herrick R.F., Christiani D.C., Weisskopf M.G.
Assessment of occupational exposure to manganese and other metals in welding fumes by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer
Elemental analysis of welding fume samples can be done using several laboratory-based techniques. However, portable measurement techniques could offer several advantages. This study sought to determine whether the portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is suitable for analysis of five metals (manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and chromium) on 37-mm polytetrafluoroethylene filters. Using this filter fitted on a cyclone in line with a personal pump, gravimetric samples were collected from a group of boilermakers exposed to welding fumes. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2010, Vol.7, p.456-465. Illus. 30 ref.
Birk T., Guldner K., Mundt K.A., Dahmann D., Adams R.C., Parsons W.
Quantitative crystalline silica exposure assessment for a historical cohort epidemiologic study in the German porcelain industry
A time-dependent quantitative exposure assessment of silica exposure among nearly 18,000 German porcelain workers was conducted. Over 8000 historical industrial hygiene (IH) measurements with original sampling and analysis protocols from 1954-2006 were obtained from the German ceramics industry association and used to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM). Average silica concentrations were derived for six primary similar exposure groups for 1938-2006. Over 40% of the cohort accumulated <0.5 mg; just over one-third accumulated >1 mg/m3-years. Nearly 5000 workers had cumulative crystalline silica estimates >1.5 mg/m3-years. Similar numbers of men and women fell into each cumulative exposure category, except for 1113 women and 1567 men in the highest category. Over half of those hired before 1960 accumulated >3 mg/m3-years crystalline silica compared with 4.9% of those hired after 1960. Among those ever working in the materials preparation area, half accumulated >3 mg/m3-year compared with 12% of those never working in this area. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2010, Vol.7, p.516-528. Illus. 31 ref.
El Yamani M., Brunet D., et al.
Principles for establishing French occupational exposure limits and comparison with the approach adopted at the European level
Principes de construction des valeurs limites d'exposition professionnelle françaises et comparaison avec la méthodologie adoptée au niveau européen [in French]
This article presents an approach for establishing atmospheric occupational exposure limits. Inhalation is the main exposure pathway considered, although skin absorption is also taken into account. The article explains the scientific grounds on which are based the argumentation leading to the recommended values, and specifically distinguishes between chemicals acting through a mechanism implying a threshold and those without such a threshold. A comparison between the proposed approach and that of the European Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) is presented, with the help of examples illustrating each key point.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Dec. 2010, No.124, p.399-412. Illus. 45 ref.
TC_133.pdf [in French]
Good protection requires identifying hazards
Une bonne protection passe par une identification du risque [in French]
This article presents the approach implemented by an enterprise specialized in the disposal of harmful waste, aimed at improving the evaluation of workers' occupational exposures.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2010, No.711, p.38-40. Illus.
Une_bonne_protection.pdf [in French]
Aldrich T.E., Seidu D., Bahr D., Freitas S., Brion G.M., Tollerud D.
Time-period mortality patterns in a gaseous diffusion plant workforce
The objective of this study was to assess the mortality risks in a sub-group of workers employed solely during the refit period of a gas diffusion plant in the United States, a time of suspected higher exposure to metal dusts (nickel, arsenic, chromium and uranium) and trichloroethylene. The exposures and causes of death for 754 workers employed exclusively during the period of 1975-1979, with 1554 workers who worked in this period as well as other years are compared. This interval was when the gaseous diffusion cascade facilities were re-fitted. The elevated mortality observed for this subgroup concerned social factors (suicide, homicide) related to their ethnicity, skill level and employment conditions, and appears unrelated to exposures to metal dusts or trichloroethylene.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2010, Vol.23, No.2, p.145-151. Illus. 25 ref.
Time-period_mortality.pdf [in English]
Abejie B.A., Wang X., Kales S.N., Christiani D.C.
Patterns of pulmonary dysfunction in asbestos workers: A cross-sectional study
Restrictive patterns of pulmonary function abnormalities associated with asbestos exposure are well described. Studies are less consistent, however, regarding the association of asbestos inhalation with airway dysfunction and obstructive impairment. This study compared pulmonary function test results between 277 chrysotile exposed workers and 177 unexposed controls, who worked at an asbestos textile products plant in China. Information on exposure and smoking were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Standardized spirometry and diffusion capacity (DCLO) methods were utilized. Chest radiographs were read based on ILO pneumoconiosis guidelines. Asbestos exposed subjects had significantly reduced forced vital capacity (FVC), one-second forced expiratory volume FEV1 and DCLO. Restricting the analysis to non-smokers, asbestos workers still had about 3% lower FEV1/FVC ratio than controls. Among exposed workers, the presence of radiographic evidence of asbestosis further lowered FVC and DLCO but not the FEV1/FVC ratio compared to asbestos exposure without radiographic asbestosis. Additionally, smoking asbestos workers had significantly lower DLCO compared to non-smoking workers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:12, 7p. Illus. 49 ref.
Patterns.pdf [in English]
Trask C., Teschke K., Morrison J., Johnson P., Village J., Koehoorn M.
EMG estimated mean, peak, and cumulative spinal compression of workers in five heavy industries
The goal of this study was to explore the use of compression-normalized electromyography (CNEMG) to estimate mean, peak, and cumulative loading of the low back in workers of five heavy industries and to compare the estimates to the NIOSH guidelines. Full-shift EMG measurements were collected from 105 workers and transformed into units of low back compressive force. The mean, peak, and cumulative CNEMG as well as the percentage of work time spent above 3400 Newton (N) and 6800 N were calculated. Findings are discussed. CNEMG allowed the feasible investigation of tasks and jobs, and represents a more objective measure of exposure than observations or self-reports.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.448-454. 46 ref.
Felten M.K., Knoll L., Eisenhawer C., Ackermann D., Khatab K., Hüdepohl J., Zschiesche W., Kraus T.
Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers
The objectives of this study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, a retrospective questionnaire survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres was conducted in a cohort of 8632 formerly-exposed power industry workers. Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:15, 9p. 29 ref.
Retrospective_exposure_assessment.pdf [in English]
Smets M.P.H., Eger T.R., Grenier S.G.
Whole-body vibration experienced by haulage truck operators in surface mining operations: A comparison of various analysis methods utilized in the prediction of health risks
Whole body vibration (WBV) was measured on eight surface haulage trucks in three size classes (35, 100, 150 ton haul capacities). Vibration was measured at the seat/operator interface in accordance with the ISO 2631-1 standard during 1 h of normal operation. Highest acceleration readings were observed in the z-axis (vertical). Estimated equivalent daily exposure values in the range of 0.44-0.82 ms−2 were observed using the frequency-weighted r.m.s method and 8.7-16.4 ms−1.75 using the vibration dose value method. Assessment was carried out using ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. Operators of surface haulage trucks are regularly exposed to WBV levels that exceed safety limits as dictated by the ISO 2631-1 standard. However, according to ISO 2631-5, the probability of an adverse health effect remains low. These findings confirm an apparent disagreement between the two analysis methods.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2010, Vol.41, No.6, p.763-770. Illus. 20 ref.
Dion C., Viau S., Dufresne A., Cloutier Y., Perrault G.
Beryllium exposure of workers in aluminum and magnesium processing - Evaluation of environmental monitoring parameters
Exposition au béryllium des travailleurs de la transformation d'aluminium et du magnésium - Evaluation des paramètres de surveillance environnementale [in French]
Since 1999, there has been an increase in claims for occupational diseases related to beryllium (Be) exposure. The interventions currently being carried out by the health network in target industries, namely foundries and aeronautical companies, will provide a better characterization of this exposure in these environments and an estimate of the number of workers potentially at risk. It is in this context that the present study was carried out with the objective of proposing a Be exposure parameter better related to sensitization to this metal than the currently used measurement. It involved measuring airborne concentrations and evaluating exposures in several aluminium and magnesium alloy foundries enterprises. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. vii, 46p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-673.pdf [in French]
Poirot P., Grosjean J., Monta N., Nicot T., Zimmermann F., Duquenne P., Greef-Mirguet G., Koehler V., Piernot C.
General considerations of chemical and microbiological hazards in composting
Approche des risques chimiques et microbiologiques dans le secteur du compostage [in French]
This article presents a non-exhaustive inventory of the chemical and biological hazards faced by workers of composting facilities. Findings of various studies reveal the presence of three main pollutants: total particulate materials (TPM), ammonia and endotoxins. While generally present at concentrations lower than the occupational exposure limit value (OELV), TPM concentrations are significant and, locally, may reach very high levels depending on the work operation and the workplace configuration. Ammonia concentrations appear to be of greater concern (28% exceeding the OELV) at some enclosed facilities processing urban water purification plant sludge. It was also found that loader filter boxes were inefficient in half the study cases. Endotoxins were present at all sites, sometimes at very high concentrations. Cultivable microorganism concentrations were also highly variable and were observed to reach very high levels, in particular thermophilic bacteria concentrations, exceeding 105 UFC/m3 at some composting facilities.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2010, No.221, p.3-16. Illus. 30 ref.
ND 2336-221-10.pdf [in French]
Sousa M.E., Sánchez Cabo M.T., Aguilar J., Bernaola M., Gálvez B., Rams P., Tanarro C., Tejedor J.N.
Simplified evaluation of inhalation exposure to chemicals
Evaluación simplificada de la exposición por inhalación a agentes químicos [in Spanish]
Simplified methodologies are not suitable for comprehensive evaluations of all situations where there are risks of inhalation exposure to chemicals, but their use is broadly to detect when exposure is either clearly above or well below the limits. This article presents a simplified method for the assessment of inhalation exposure. Contents: introduction; determination of potential hazards; determination of volatility or pulverulence; determination of work procedures; determination of collective protection measures; correction factors for VLA; calculation of the inhalation risk index; conclusions.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2010, No.58, p.12-21. Illus. 13 ref.
Evaluación_simplificada.pdf [in Spanish]
Kriech A.J., Emmel C., Osborn L.V., Breuer D., Redman A.P., Hoeber D., Bochmann F., Ruehl R.
Side-by-side comparison of field monitoring methods for hot bitumen emission exposures: The German IFA Method 6305, U.S. NIOSH Method 5042, and the Total Organic Matter Method
Field studies were conducted at multiple paving and roofing sites to compare the infrared spectroscopy method 6305 of the German Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Social Accident Insurance (IFA) with the benzene soluble fraction method 5042 of the National Institute for Occupational Science and Health (NIOSH) and the Total Organic Matter method. Sampling using both methods was performed in multiple bitumen-related workplace environments. To provide comparable data, all samplings were performed in parallel and the analytical data were related to the same representative bitumen condensate standard. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.712-725. Illus. 31 ref.
Side-by-side_comparison.pdf [in English]
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Milz S.A., Wagner C.D., Bisesi M.S., Ames A.L., Khuder S., Susi P., Akbar-Khanzadeh M.
Effectiveness of dust control methods for crystalline silica and respirable suspended particulate matter exposure during manual concrete surface grinding
Concrete grinding exposes workers to unacceptable levels of crystalline silica dust, known to cause diseases such as silicosis and possibly lung cancer. This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory. Air was monitored during 201 concrete grinding sessions while using a variety of grinders, accessories, and existing dust control methods, including general ventilation (GV), local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and wet grinding. Findings are discussed. No combination of factors or control methods reduced an 8-hr exposure level to below the recommended criterion of 0.025 mg/m³ for crystalline silica, requiring further refinement in engineering controls, administrative controls, or the use of respirators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.700-711. Illus. 28 ref.
Rim D., Novoselac A.
Occupational exposure to hazardous airborne pollutants: Effects of air mixing and source location
This study investigates occupational exposure to airborne pollutants in indoor environments in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the human body for different levels of room air mixing. Results show that the frequent assumption of uniform pollutant distribution in an occupied space is not always appropriate for estimation of inhalation exposure. Results also indicate that an occupant may experience very high acute exposure to airborne pollutants when little air mixing exists in a space and the pollutant source is in the vicinity of the occupant. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.683-692. Illus. 35 ref.
Fioretti M., Catrambone T., Gordiani A., Cabella R.
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter: Validation and application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method
This study concerns the validation of an analytical method for the measurement of occupational exposure to trace levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulate matter (APM). Personal exposures to selected PAHs of five workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution in Rome, Italy, were evaluated. The samples were collected over 10 days evenly-distributed during the winter and summer of 2008. It was found that phenanthrene was the predominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; the highest benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher than European annual target values: seasonal variations of personal exposure to selected PAHs suggested higher emissions and reduced atmospheric reactivity of PAH compounds in winter. The analytical method used was found to be reliable and a useful tool to evaluate occupational exposure to low PAH levels.
Dec. 2010, Vol.7, p.672-682. Illus. 47 ref.
Mittmann-Frank M., Berger H., Pföhler C., Bücker A., Wilkens H., Arzt E., Schmitt K.P., Wennemuth G., Hannig M., Buchter A.
Exposure to nano particles and new materials - Clinical and diagnostic findings
Klinische und diagnostische Befunde bei Exposition gegenüber Nanopartikeln und neuen Materialien [in German]
Ten individuals whose work involved long-term exposure to certain specific nanoparticles underwent detailed clinical examinations aimed at assessing individual factors and possible interactions caused by exposure to nanomaterials. Half the group showed a relevant obstructive ventilation disorder through particle inhalation before the introduction of protective measures. In three cases, computed tomography showed lung emphysema changes. Half the group showed a positive reaction to zirconium oxide. Analysis of biomarkers showed no evidence of respiratory tract inflammation. Implications of these and other findings are discussed. See also ISN 111203.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2010, Vol.60, No.10. p.328-348. Illus. 41 ref.
Klinische_und_diagnostische_Befunde.pdf [in German]
Vincent R., Catani J., Créau Y., Frocaut A.M., Good A., Goutet P., Hou A., Leray F., André-Lesage M.A., Soyez A.
Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises. Evaluation of the level of atmospheric exposure and surface contamination
Exposition professionnelle au béryllium dans les entreprises françaises. Evaluation des niveaux d'exposition atmosphérique et de contamination surfacique [in French]
A beryllium occupational exposure evaluation survey was conducted in France from 2004 to 2006. Air and surface samples were collected from 95 enterprises involved in 37 different sectors. Findings show that atmospheric concentrations of beryllium often exceed the French recommended limit of 2μ/m3. Activities and sectors with the highest exposures are the metalworking and electronic component manufacturing industries. Surface contamination levels are also important and frequently exceed the threshold limits proposed by various bodies. In view of these findings, preventive measures including the substitution of beryllium, sound process management, surface decontamination and appropriate medical supervision should be implemented.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.53-62. Illus. 30 ref.
PR_45-220.pdf [in French]
Gérardin F., Subra I., Jannot J., Blachère V., Oury V., Guillemot M.
Production of phosgene and other compounds during photocatalytic degradation of perchloroethylene at dry cleaners
Production de phosgène et autres composés lors de la dégradation photocatalytique du perchloroéthylène dans les pressings [in French]
Perchloroethylene remains the solvent most commonly used at dry cleaners due to its advantageous physical chemical properties and its neutrality with respect to most textiles. Vapour collection systems is currently still the preferred solution for controlling operator exposure in this sector. However, a new generation of photocatalytic purifiers has recently appeared on the market. This technology is based on the principle of oxidizing compounds by a radical process. In the case of perchloroethylene, photocatalytic degradation leads to formation of extremely toxic compounds such as phosgene, trichloroacetyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride and hydrochloric acid. Identified during laboratory experiments, these substances were also measured in significant quantities at a commercial dry cleaner. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.43-51. Illus. 14 ref.
ND_2335-220-10.pdf [in French]
Bertrand N., Vincent R.
Modelling occupational exposures to chemical agents - Review and prospects
Modélisation des expositions professionnelles aux agents chimiques. Bilan et perspectives [in French]
Modelling methods are widely used in chemical substance control, environmental control and for assessing exposures to chemical pollutants. They are less used in the field of occupational safety and health. Different types of models exist, including empirical or statistical models created from measurement databases, physical models based on environmental transfer equations and Bayesian models, which allow subjective data such as expert judgements to be taken into account. Quick implementation, complementarities with measurement and analysis, possibilities of working retrospectively or prospectively, consideration of uncertainties and variability are among the many advantages offered by these tools. Although modelling remains difficult to master and of limited reliability, it remains nonetheless helpful and relevant in enriching assessments of occupational exposures to chemical agents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.21-33. Illus. 28 ref.
ND_2333-220-10.pdf [in French]
Jargot D., Hecht C.
Assessment of employee exposure when using epoxy resins
Evaluation de l'exposition des salariés lors de la mise en œuvre de résines époxydiques [in French]
This article presents the results of a study conducted by INRS at the request of several companies wishing to assess and characterize occupational exposure to epoxy resins. Atmospheric and surface samples of resin monomers (DGEBA and/or DGEBF), amines, acid anhydrides and glycidylic ethers were collected at the workplaces. The airborne resin monomer concentrations were generally very low or undetectable, even when hot resins were used. The detected exposures were due to hardening agents in air or skin contact with resin monomers. The schedule of occupational diseases in France now allows consideration of hardeners and recognition of allergic respiratory diseases contracted when preparing and using epoxy resins.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.13-20. Illus. 27 ref.
ND_2332-220-10.pdf [in French]
Park D., Choi S., Ryu K., Park J., Paik N.
Trends in occupational asbestos exposure and asbestos consumption over recent decades in Korea
This study analyzed 2,089 asbestos exposure data sets compiled from 1995 through 2006 in Korea, covering various asbestos industries. Exposure levels were characterized according to type of asbestos industry and year. Asbestos exposure levels have decreased over time, dropping sharply from 0.92 fibers/cc (f/cc) in 1996, 0.60 f/cc in 1997, 0.19 f/cc in 1998 and 0.06 f/cc in 1999, in part because of enforcement of 1997 legislation banning the use of amosite and crocidolite. In particular, a substantial reduction in asbestos exposure levels was most evident among primary industries handling raw asbestos directly. A similar relationship was found between a significant decline in asbestos consumption volume and the timing of regulation enforcement.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.1, p.18-24. Illus. 22 ref.
Hopf N.B., Kirkeleit J., Kramer S.L., Moen B., Succop P., Genter M.B., Carreón T., Mack J., Talaska G.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in offshore workers
The objective of this study was to compare differences in pre- and post-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) levels as a measure of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between two groups of oil production workers offshore assumed to be exposed to PAH, and to compare the exposed group to an unexposed control group. Urine samples of the 42 participants were collected over a study period of three consecutive 12-h work days (pre-shift on the first day and post-shift on the third day), and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analysis of covariance was used in the statistical models. Post-shift 1HP levels were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the controls. Tank workers and process operators did not show statistically significant different post-shift 1HP levels. Overall, this study indicates a low level of PAH exposure among offshore oil production workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.83, No.1, p.55-59. Illus. 17 ref.
Urinary_1-hydroxypyrene.pdf [in English]
Connor T.H., DeBord D.G., Pretty J.R., Oliver M.S., Roth T.S., Lees P.S.J., Krieg E.F., Rogers B., Escalante C.P., Toennis C.A., Clark J.C., Johnson B.C., McDiarmid M.A.
Evaluation of antineoplastic drug exposure of health care workers at three university-based US cancer centers
This cross-sectional study evaluated health care worker exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Environmental samples from pharmacy and nursing areas were examined. Descriptions of tasks involving the handling of these drugs were recorded in a diary during six weeks. Urine was analyzed for two specific drugs, and blood samples were analyzed by the comet assay. Sixty-eight exposed and 53 non-exposed workers were studied. Exposed workers recorded 10,000 drug-handling events during the 6-week period. Sixty percent of wipe samples were positive for at least one of the five drugs measured. Cyclophosphamide was most commonly detected, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Three of the 68 urine samples were positive for one drug. No genetic damage was detected in exposed workers using the comet assay. Despite following recommended safe-handling practices, workplace contamination with antineoplastic drugs in pharmacy and nursing areas continues at these locations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.52, No.10, p.1019-1027. 73 ref.
Lovreglio P., Barbieri A., Fracasso M.E., Doria D., Drago I., Basso A., D'Errico M.N., Bartolucci G.B., Violante F.S., Soleo L.
Validity of new biomarkers of internal dose for use in the biological monitoring of occupational and environmental exposure to low concentrations of benzene and toluene
This study analyzes the validity of new, more sensitive and specific urinary biomarkers of internal dose, namely, urinary benzene for benzene and urinary toluene and S-benzylmercapturic acid (SBMA) for toluene, to assess their efficacy when compared to traditional biomarkers for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to low concentrations of these two toxic substances. Assessment was made of 41 workers occupationally exposed to benzene and toluene, 18 fuel tanker drivers and 23 filling-station attendants, together with 31 subjects with no occupational exposure to these toxic substances (controls). Exposure to airborne benzene and toluene was measured using passive personal samplers worn throughout the work shift. In urine samples collected from all subjects at the end of the workday, both the traditional and the new internal dose biomarkers of benzene and toluene were assessed, as well as creatinine so as to apply suitable adjustments. Findings confirmed the validity of trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic (SPMA) acid for use in the biological monitoring of exposure to low concentrations of benzene. Urinary benzene showed comparable validity to SPMA. Urinary toluene was found to be a more specific biomarker than S-benzylmercapturic acid. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.83, No.3, p.341-356. Approx. 90 ref.
De Palma G., Manini P., Sarnico M., Molinari S., Apostoli P.
Biological monitoring of tungsten (and cobalt) in workers of a hard metal alloy industry
To evaluate a combined biomonitoring approach based on both cobalt and tungsten determination in workers of the hard metal alloy sector, 55 workers from a factory producing cutting tools for carpentry were enrolled. Combined workroom air and biological monitoring of both cobalt and tungsten relied on inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry determinations. Metals were determined on plasma, blood and urine samples. Urine samples from 34 unexposed subjects were also analysed. Tungsten was determined in every collected sample. Workers showed significantly higher urinary tungsten levels than controls (pre-shift values of 4.12 vs 0.06 μg/L on average). Both airborne and biological levels of tungsten prevailed among workers involved in wet-grinding activities. The element was excreted at higher urinary levels than cobalt and showed lower circulating (blood, plasma) concentrations. Exposure-dose relationships were apparent for tungsten biomarkers. The results may contribute to the development of biomarkers of exposure to tungsten.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.173-181. Illus. 34 ref.
da Silva C.S.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Critical study of the health of electroplating workers based on relationships between ambient measurements, biological measurements and ENT examinations
Um estudo crítico sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores de galvânicas por meio das relações entre as avaliações ambientais, biológicas e otorrinolaringológicas [in Portuguese]
Second edition of the study analyzed under CIS 01-847. The objective of this thesis work was to examine the working environment and health of electroplating workers, and to establish relationships between the concentration in air of various chemicals, their urinary concentrations and observed nasal injuries. 461 workers employed at 22 electroplating plants using various coating processes were studied. Ambient concentrations of acid vapours as well as of chromium, zinc and nickel were measured, together with the urinary concentrations of these metals among exposed workers. Although the ambient levels were far below the threshold values accepted in Brazil, rhinoscopic examination revealed that 35.5% of workers showed moderate or serious injury of the upper respiratory tract (ischaemia, ulcerations or perforations of the nasal septum) and 40.1% showed signs of initial phases of injury or non-specific injury. These results show that the accepted limits in Brazil are insufficient to ensure adequate protection of workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 2010. 167p. Illus. 127 ref.
Thomas G.A., Delaney L., Mueller C., Page E.
Evaluation of coumaphos exposure among tick eradication workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate both the cholinesterase monitoring programme and newer field methods of determining coumaphos exposure among tick eradication workers. Methods used consisted of measuring blood cholinesterase, evaluating field testing methods, testing urine for chlorferon pre- and post-shift, personal air sampling, patch sampling of clothing and wipe sampling of hands for coumaphos. Fifteen workers had normal plasma cholinesterase and acetyl cholinesterase levels. No significant changes occurred pre- to post-shift. High correlation was found between plasma cholinesterase and acetyl cholinesterase levels. Chlorferon levels rose 4 to 6 hours after use. Airborne coumaphos was detected in only one sample, in a trace amount. The majority of patch and hand wipe samples detected coumaphos. It is concluded that dermal exposure to coumaphos results in significant increases in urinary metabolites of coumaphos.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.131-136. 11 ref.
Drolet D., Goyer N., Roberge B., Lavoué J., Coulombe M., Dufresne A.
Strategies for diagnosing workers' exposure to chemical substances
Stratégies de diagnostic de l'exposition des travailleurs aux substances chimiques [in French]
The IRSST needs to adapt the reference tools that it publishes for Quebec occupational health and safety professionals as a result of recent changes to the Regulation respecting occupational health and safety (RROHS). This involves reviewing and updating the "Sampling strategy" section of the Sampling guide for air contaminants in the workplace. This report consists of the update to the sampling strategy for exposure to toxic substances by inhalation.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. xiv, 70p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: CAD 9.45. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-665.pdf [in French]
Milosavljevic S., Bergman F., Rehn B., Carman A.B.
All-terrain use in agriculture: Exposure to whole body vibration and mechanical shock
Whole body vibration (WBV) and mechanical shock were measured in 12 New Zealand farmers during their daily use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). As per the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidelines for WBV exposure, frequencies between 0 and 100Hz were recorded via a seat-pad tri-axial accelerometer during 20min of ATV use. The farmers were also surveyed to estimate seasonal variation in daily ATV usage as well as 7-day and 12-month prevalence of spinal pain. Frequency-weighted vibration exposure and total riding time were calculated to determine the daily vibration dose value. Findings are discussed. The results demonstrate high levels of vibration exposure among New Zealand farmers. Practical recommendations to reduce their exposure to WBV are proposed.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.530-535. Illus. 30 ref.
Lacey S.E., Abelmann. A., Dorevitch S.
Exposure to human waste from spills while servicing aircraft lavatories: Hazards and methods of prevention
Workers service the lavatories of commercial aircraft approximately 11 million times per year in the United States and may have exposure to the spectrum of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites potentially found in human waste. An industrial hygiene inspection of the workplace was conducted by an interdisciplinary occupational safety and health team, during which the tasks carried out by lavatory waste operators and supervisors were observed. Exposure to untreated waste can occur through dermal, ingestion and inhalation in quantities ranging from droplets to large spills. Several engineering and administrative measures were advised to minimize worker exposure, including the effective locking of a critical valve and a mechanism for communicating valve locking problems.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.123-128. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposure_to_human_waste.pdf [in English]
Du C.L., Wang J.D., Chu P.C., Guo Y.L.
Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome
After an accidental release of expanded perlite powder in a factory in Taiwan, 24 exposed workers were followed for more than six months. Three developed persisting respiratory symptoms with positive provocation tests that were compatible with a reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During an experimental simulation of the accident, expanded perlite was shown to be very dusty, with airborne concentrations greatly exceeding current exposure limits. A review of literature showed that while exposure of expanded perlite below current permissible levels may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short-term exposure to high concentrations is warranted.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.119-122. 14 ref.
Acute_expanded_perlite_exposure.pdf [in English]
Azari M.R., Nasermoaddeli A., Movahadi M., Mehrabi Y., Hatami H., Soori H., Moshfegh E., Ramazni B.
Risk assessment of lung cancer and asbestosis in workers exposed to asbestos fibers in brake shoe factory in Iran
Occupational exposure of 61 male workers to chrysotile asbestos in a brake shoe factory in Iran was monitored. Cumulative exposures were determined through multiplication of typical exposure and work history. Risk assessment of exposed workers was estimated by risk criteria recommended by the American Environmental Protection Agency. Lung function parameters such as forced expiratory volume in one second and forced volume capacity of exposed workers were obtained. Unadjusted correlation and adjusted correlation analysis for support of the association between cumulative exposure and lung function parameters were used. Exposure of majority of exposed group was far greater than the occupational exposure limits (0.1 fibres/mL) in the range of 0.06-8.06 fibres/mL. According to the risk criteria stated by ATSDR, risk assessment of workers in term of fibrotic changes was predicted for at least 24.6% of the exposed subjects. Again, according to the lung cancer risk criteria stated by EPA, 59% of the workers will have excess risk. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.38-42. 31 ref.
Risk_assessment_of_lung_cancer.pdf [in English]
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