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Epidemiology - 180 entries found

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  • Epidemiology

1998

CIS 99-1879 London L.
Occupational epidemiology in agriculture: A case study in the Southern African context
Some challenges facing occupational epidemiology in developing countries are outlined in this case study of agriculture drawing on Southern African research. These include the characterization of exposures in resource- and data-poor environments typical of developing countries, the assessment of outcomes where cross-cultural and socio-environmental confounders may be substantial obstacles, and the impact of environmental exposures on workplace health. It is argued that, if occupational epidemiology is to have meaningful impact on the health of the most marginalized groups of workers in developing countries, it must redefine itself in terms of a public health approach. The boundaries of epidemiologic inquiry need to be broad, and amenable to interfacing with policy research, using qualitative methods and participatory approaches. More so than in other industrial settings, epidemiologists must move from research to practice, seeking to take action where interventions are needed, and to evaluate such actions. Topics: agriculture; child labour; confounding factors; developing countries; epidemiology; ethics; exposure evaluation; neurotoxic effects; pesticides; South Africa; women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.245-256. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 99-1873 Ahrens W., Merletti F.
A standard tool for the analysis of occupational lung cancer in epidemiologic studies
A standard tool for the analysis of known and suspected causes of occupational lung cancer in population-based studies is proposed in order to allow comparable definitions of exposure or of categorizations of occupations. It is based on a list of occupations and industries known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. The lists were translated into codes of the ILO International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1968, and the International Standard Industrial Classification, 1971. The specificity of the categorization is compromised for some groups that are defined by highly specific production processes or exposures. Nevertheless, the grouping is based on a highly valid source of information in population-based studies. It is proposed for use in the assessment of the public health impact of occupational lung cancer. Topics: classification systems; classification; epidemiology; lung cancer; risk factors; statistical aspects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.236-240. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1190 Arena V.C., Sussman N.B., Redmond C.K., Costantino J.P., Trauth J.M.
Using alternative comparison populations to assess occupation-related mortality risk - Results for the high nickel alloys workers cohort
The mortality experience of approximately 31,000 high nickel alloys workers is compared with the total US population and to local populations in geographic proximity to the plants. Generally, the patterns of relative risks derived for the total cohort and various subgroups are similar across the different comparison populations. Estimated elevated risks are usually lower when cohort mortality is compared with that of local populations. An overall significant 13% risk for lung cancer is noted when compared with that of the total US population. However, no significant excess is identified when local populations are used. Subset analysis identified significant excesses of colon cancer among nonwhite males (50%-150%) and kidney cancer among white male workers employed in melting irrespective of the comparison population. Topics: cancer; nickel; cohort study; comparative analysis; epidemiology; gastrointestinal cancer; hazard evaluation; lung cancer; mortality; nickel alloys; race-linked differences; reliability; renal cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.40, No.10, p.907-916. 18 ref.

CIS 99-434 Dufort V.M., Infante-Rivard C.
Housekeeping and safety: An epidemiological review
Topics: cleaning of workplaces; epidemiologic study; epidemiology; frequency rates; housekeeping; injuries; literature survey; occupational safety.
Safety Science, Mar. 1998, Vol.28, No.2, p.127-138. 26 ref.

CIS 99-461 Hoppin J.A., Tolbert P.E., Flagg E.W., Blair A., Zahm S.H.
Use of a life events calendar approach to elicit occupational history from farmers
Interviews of farmers, focus groups and rural men, primarily African-Americans, were conducted to create a questionnaire for obtaining farm history information within the context of personal life events. Farmers used both personal events and national events (as well as events relating directly to farming) to recall their activities. These subjects had extensive history of farming (10-75 years) and chemical use. The life events calendar provided a useful tool to facilitate the recall of a lifetime of agricultural activity. Life events calendars are useful additions to the tools available for retrospective occupational exposure assessment. Topics: agriculture; anamnesis; epidemiology; exposure evaluation; harmful substances; questionnaire survey.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.470-476. 16 ref.

CIS 99-132 Kauppinen T., Toikkanen J., Pukkala E.
From cross-tabulations to multipurpose exposure information systems: A new job-exposure matrix
Topics: computerized data bases; description of technique; epidemiology; exposure evaluation; harmful physical agents; harmful substances; job-exposure relation; microorganisms; stress factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.33, No.4, p.409-417. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 99-128 Baillargeon J., Wilkinson G., Rudkin L., Baillargeon G., Ray L.
Characteristics of the healthy worker effect: A comparison of male and female occupational cohorts
Topics: age-linked differences; cohort study; epidemiology; healthy worker effect; mortality; race-linked differences; sex-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.368-373. 26 ref.

CIS 99-127 Marsh G.M., Youk A.O., Stone R.A., Sefcik S., Alcorn C.
OCMAP-PLUS: A program for the comprehensive analysis of occupational cohort data
Topics: cohort study; computer applications; computer programme; conditions of exposure; confounding factors; description of technique; epidemiology; exposure evaluation; mortality; statistical evaluation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.351-362. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 98-1619 Richardson D.B., Wing S.
Methods for investigating age differences in the effects of prolonged exposures
Topics: age; age-linked differences; cancer; epidemiology; evaluation of technique; ionizing radiation; latency; length of exposure; long-term exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.33, No.2, p.123-130. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 98-1247 Myers J.E., Thompson M.L.
Meta-analysis and occupational epidemiology
Topics: epidemiology; evaluation of technique; healthy worker effect; morbidity; mortality; standardization; statistical evaluation.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.48, No.2, p.99-101. Illus. 9 ref.

1997

CIS 00-129 Consonni D., Bertazzi P.A., Zochetti C.
Why and how to control for age in occupational epidemiology
The issue of age as a potential confounding factor in occupational epidemiology is explored. It is concluded that in most situations age is important as a potential confounder and should be controlled to avoid a distortion in the effect estimate. Age, in other instances, can affect the mode of action of a given exposure, and in these instances it should not be treated as extraneous, rather its interaction with exposure should be explicitly considered in analysis and interpretation of results. In studies lasting for long periods, analytical techniques should make allowance for aging, which is in itself an indicator of the time related changing risk of many diseases. Finally, age is one of the reasons why relative risks are more commonly used as effect measures rather than risk differences: the relative risks have greater stability over age strata.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.54, No.11, p.772-776. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 99-2086 Wells R., Norman R., Neumann P., Andrews D., Frank J., Shannon H., Kerr M.
Assessment of physical work load in epidemiologic studies: Common measurement metrics for exposure assessment
There are many possible means of determining physical workload exposure, ranging from self-reports to measures of muscle activations and estimated spinal loads. In epidemiologic studies, issues of validity make instrumented measures preferable. However, cost and practicability tend to force investigators to use less costly but less valid and less reliable measures of exposure, such as self-report questionnaires. A method is described in which estimates of exposure from self-report questionnaires, expert observers, work sampling, video analysis and electromyograms can be reported in a common metric, Newtons of force on a tissue. As an example of its application, the spinal compression on auto workers is estimated. A common metric allows a flexible approach to selection of measurement methods in occupational settings: no matter which instrument is used the results can be combined to provide an overall picture of exposure. This approach to exposure assessment for the low back allows for comparability across studies and settings. Topics: back disorders; backache; electromyography; epidemiology; exposure evaluation; lumbar column; motor vehicle industry; physical workload; posture recording; risk factors; subjective assessment; workload assessment.
Ergonomics, Jan. 1997, Vol.40, No.1, p.51-61. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 98-636 Kraus J.F., Gardner L., Collins J., Sorock G., Volinn E.
Design factors in epidemiologic cohort studies of work-related low back injury or pain
Topics: back disorders; backache; cohort study; epidemiology; evaluation of technique; occupational accidents; risk factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1997, Vol.32, No.2, p.153-163. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 98-638 Mittleman M.A., Maldonado G., Gerberich S.G., Smith G.S., Sorock G.S.
Alternative approaches to analytical designs in occupational injury epidemiology
Topics: analysis of accident causes; case-control study; epidemiology; evaluation of technique; injuries; occupational accidents.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1997, Vol.32, No.2, p.129-141. 58 ref.

CIS 98-637 Hagberg M., Christiani D., Courtney T.K., Halperin W., Leamon T.B., Smith T.J.
Conceptual and definitional issues in occupational injury epidemiology
Topics: body mechanics; epidemiology; injuries; occupational accidents; theoretical analysis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1997, Vol.32, No.2, p.106-115. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 97-1879 Innocenti A.
Occupational asthma: A survey of epidemiology and criteria for the evaluation of the permanent damage
L'asma professionale: Considerazioni sull'epidemiologia e sui criteri di valutazione del danno [in Italian]
Data on occupational asthma in Italy are reviewed. An estimated 500-600 cases occur per year. The medical and legal criteria used for diagnosis and compensation purposes are reviewed and criteria are proposed for the assessment of residual permanent damage. The importance of early diagnosis, medical rehabilitation and retraining of asthma victims is stressed.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1997, Vol.88, No.1, p.3-12. 33 ref.

CIS 97-1871 Moulin J.J.
A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in welders
This meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies carried out on the lung cancer risk among shipyard, mild steel and stainless steel welders consisted of calculating combined relative risks (RR). Similar values were observed in studies of the "any welding" or "study design" category. Furthermore, welders are likely to be exposed to asbestos and seem to smoke more than the general male population. A 30-40% increase in the RR of lung cancer cannot be explained by hexavalent chromium and nickel exposure among stainless steel welders. The combination of the carcinogenic effects of asbestos exposure and smoking may account for part of the observed lung cancer excess.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.104-113. 73 ref.

CIS 97-1528 Occupational medicine
These 20 chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine selected issues in occupational medicine: a forward looking approach to occupational medicine; how workplace chemicals enter the body; basic concepts of toxicology; epidemiology; prevention of musculoskeletal disorders; lung disorders; chemicals and hypersensitivity in the airways; allergy and other hypersensitivity; causes of occupational dermatoses; neurological diseases; occupational cancer; reproductive health; radiation injuries; health effects of noise exposure; vibration-induced disorders; carpal tunnel syndrome; stress-related illness; economic aspects of occupational health; health and safety in a multinational company; occupational databases and the Internet.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.1, p.745-977. Illus. Bibl.ref.

1996

CIS 99-1195 Moulin J.J., Wenger W., Wild P.
Proposed method of accounting for the effects of tobacco smoke in cohort studies - Epidemiologic studies of mortality in the industrial sector
Proposition d'une méthode pour la prise en compte des effets de la fumée de tabac dans les études de cohortes - Etudes épidémiologiques de mortalité en milieu industriel [in French]
Topics: bronchial cancer; cancer; carcinogenic effects; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; frequency rates; industries; mathematical models; mortality; respiratory diseases; smoking; statistical evaluation.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 1996. 92p. Illus. 96 ref.

CIS 99-244
Instituto Nacional de Salud
Epidemiological evaluation of exposure to organic solvents in paint and glue factories in Santa Fe de Bogotá
Evaluacion epidemiológica de la exposición a solventes orgánicos en fábricas de pinturas y pegantes en Santa Fe de Bogotá [in Spanish]
Topics: toluene; xylene; benzene; determination in urine; epidemiology; health hazards; medical supervision; occupational hygiene evaluation; organic solvents; paint and varnish industry; personal protective equipment; questionnaire survey; urinary metabolites.
Seguro Social, Protección Laboral, Administradora de Riesgos Profesionales, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, Dec. 1996. 30p. 30 ref.

CIS 98-1311 Fritschi L., Siemiatycki J., Richardson L.
Self-assessed versus expert-assessed occupational exposures
Topics: Canada; epidemiology; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1996. Vol.144. No.5, p.521-527. 17 ref.

CIS 97-827 ADEREST - 3rd Symposium on Epidemiology and Health at Work, Paris, 9 and 10 November 1995
ADEREST - 3e Colloque d'Epidémiologie en Santé au Travail, Paris, 9 et 10 novembre 1995 [in French]
Papers presented to the 3rd Symposium on epidemiology and health at work, held in Paris, France, on 9 and 10 November 1995, fall into three main categories: physical hazards (ionizing radiation, vibration, noise); chemical hazards (chemical products and dangerous substances); and mental stress. Other issues dealt with: musculoskeletal problems, cancer, mortality.
Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 1996, Vol.23, No.3, v, p.121-178 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1771 Rabone S.J., Phoon W.O., Anderson S.D., Wan K.C., Seneviratne M., Gutierrez L., Brannan J.
Hypertonic saline challenge in an adult epidemiological survey
Use of the hypertonic saline (4.5%) bronchial challenge (HSBC) in diagnosing current asthma was tested in a field study of 99 timber industry workers in Western Australia. Although less sensitive than pharmacological challenges, HSBC is reportedly highly specific in diagnosing current asthma. The test is described and critically appraised. At a cutoff point of 20% FEV1 fall, HSBC was positive in 8% of subjects, appeared specific for asthma, was safe, well-accepted and easy to use in the field.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.177-185. 22 ref.

CIS 96-1404 Armstrong T.W., Pearlman E.D., Schnatter A.R., Bowes S.M., Murray N., Nicolich M.J.
Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study
The development and evaluation of a retrospective exposure-estimating model is presented. Recent exposure data were obtained from industrial hygiene records and from published reports for petroleum marketing and distribution operations. To adjust this data to past operations, exposure modifiers were developed to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, environmental conditions, and tasks performed. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the model provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene. This approach is proposed where there are reliable data on current exposure and on historical changes in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.333-343. Illus. 55 ref.

1995

CIS 97-1522 Loewenson R.
Occupational health epidemiology in Africa: Drought on fertile grounds
A literature survey regarding current occupational health epidemiology in Africa revealed a dearth of published work despite the large numbers of problems and hazards faced. The socioeconomic context of occupational health in Africa is outlined, and issues in the design of occupational health studies are examined, including the nature and accessibility of the populations studied, measurement of morbidity and exposure, design of analytic and intervention studies, and the human and material resources for carrying out such research. Suggestions are made for development of occupational health research and practice in Africa.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July/Sep. 1995, Vol.1, No.3, p.260-268. 47 ref.

CIS 96-2211 Bauer H.D.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Dust exposure years
Staubjahre [in German]
In determining if dust is responsible for a disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis or emphysema among coal miners), "dust exposure years" should be taken as a yardstick. The term "dust exposure year" is an expression of the cumulative dose of dust, taken as the product of the level and duration of a particular person's exposure to dust. One year is taken to be 220 shifts, so if more than 220 shifts are worked per year, a factor of >1 is used in the calculation. The relevant data for calculating dust exposure years may be obtained from the documents detailing "proof of work and dust exposure" which all operations in Germany are required to keep and update monthly in accordance with mining authority regulations. This report details a method for determining dust exposure years for workers. Summaries in German, English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1995. 129p. Illus. approx. 90 ref.

CIS 96-1328 McDonald J.C.
Epidemiology of work related diseases
This manual presents a series of reviews on the epidemiology of occupational diseases and the methodology of epidemiologic studies. Contents: introduction to occupational epidemiology; occupational cancer (metals and chemicals, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, mineral dusts and fibres); non-malignant diseases (asthma, dermatoses, neurobehavioural effects, noise and vibration, back and limb disorders, work stress, work in agriculture, work and pregnancy); methodology (study design, assessment of exposure, measurement of outcome, evaluation of preventive measures, analysis and interpretation); epidemiology and occupational medical practice; occupational epidemiology and public policy.
BMJ Publishing Group, BMA House, Tavistock Square, London WC1H 9JR, United Kingdom, 1995. x, 498p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 55.00.

CIS 96-1315 Östlin P.
Healthy worker effect as a methodological issue in mortality and morbidity studies
A morbidity analysis was carried out among over 10,000 employees working in physically light occupations in Sweden. Analysis of occupational history data indicated that many workers who move from physically strenuous occupations to light occupations might do so because of health problems. This might result in an overestimation of occupational health risks at the light physical workload level and an underestimation of health risks at the heavy physical workload level. A 30-50% higher morbidity among men and a 10-30% increase in deaths among women in light occupations might be expected depending on the disorders studied.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.4, p.306-310. 9 ref.

CIS 96-562 Schnitzer P.G., Teschke K., Olshan A.F.
A classification scheme for aggregating U.S. census occupation and industry codes
An occupational classification scheme was developed for use in a study of paternal occupation and risk of birth defects. The scheme aggregates workers into 56 occupational categories according to work activities and potential exposures. The categories are listed along with the U.S. occupation and industry codes included in each group. The strategy, based on a similar scheme developed in Canada, may be used in studies of the health effects of occupations. The limitations of the scheme are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.185-191. 3 ref.

CIS 95-1328 Tenth International Symposium - Epidemiology in occupational health: (II) Workshops reports
The whole issue of this journal is devoted to the workshop reports presented at the 10th International Symposium on epidemiology in occupational health (held at Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). Reports are presented under 4 main headings: biomarkers of susceptibility in occupational epidemiology (6 reports, coordinators: Caporaso N., Landi M.T.); occupational cancer in Europe (7 reports, coordinators: Boffetta P., Kogevinas M.); participatory approaches in occupational health research (1 report, coordinators: Loewenson R., Biocca M.); toxicological principles in epidemiological study design (6 reports, coordinator: Guidotti T.L.).
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1995, Vol.86, No.3, p.195-292 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1325 Hémon D., Clavel J.
Retrospective assessment of occupational exposures in the context of community-based case-control studies
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It discusses the validity of community-based case-control studies for the assessment of occupational exposures, an approach more suited to the identification of new occupational hazards than to the identification of dose-response data. Subjects discussed: variability of occupational exposures within occupations and/or economic activities; occupational exposure distribution in the general community; tools available to assess occupational exposures in community-based case-control studies (environmental measurements, determination of biomarkers of exposures, use of questionnaires); validity, reliability and comparative value of epidemiological studies; standardization and quantification of epidemiological methods.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.152-167. 43 ref.

CIS 95-1324 Rantanen J.
New epidemics in occupational health. Which ones and how to identify them
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It discusses the increasing complexity of "new" epidemics in the work environment, often of a multi-exposure and multi-outcome nature. The epidemics are often due to changes in the nature of the workplace or in the working population. Epidemiology as a science must also keep pace with growing demands from society (privacy protection, decentralization etc.). Some new epidemics specifically mentioned are: Hanta virus infections, sudden deaths, musculoskeletal overuse syndromes, multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, health problems due to exposure to electric and magnetic fields, psychological disorders (connected with VDU or other computer work). Ways to identify new epidemics are listed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.139-151. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 95-1323 Eisen E.A.
Healthy worker effect in morbidity studies
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It is a detailed discussion of the healthy worker effect (HWE), a confounding factor for many epidemiologic studies. Discussed are: sources of HWE; evidence for HWSE (healthy worker survivor effect): direct and indirect evidence; methods for reducing HWSE bias in mortality studies.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.125-138. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 95-1322 Blair A., Stewart W.F., Stewart P.A., Sandler D.P., Axelson O., Vineis P., Checkoway H., Savitz D., Pearce N., Rice C.
A philosophy for dealing with hypothesized uncontrolled confounding in epidemiological investigations
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It argues that the issue of uncontrolled (i.e whose effects have not been taken into consideration by the study) confounding should only be raised during the discussion of the results of an epidemiological investigation if certain conditions are satisfied. These conditions are: the putative confounder has been identified and has been shown to be associated with both the exposure and disease under investigation; the association between the proposed confounder and the exposure and disease of interest has been quantified; the likely effect of the proposed confounding on the results of the investigation can be calculated. The example of studies of the relationship between occupational exposure and lung cancer, with tobacco smoking as the confounding factor, is discussed in detail.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.106-110. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1321 Hernberg S.
Occupational epidemiology: Developments and perspectives
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It presents a survey of trends in epidemiology as it is applied in the field of occupational health. In addition to a discussion of up-to-date mathematical techniques, three main topics are reviewed: current developments and trends (exposure assessment, molecular biology, soft end points, intervention studies, prognostic research, risk assessment, ethics, good epidemiology practice); threats (data protection legislation, reduction in funding, political climate); future needs and priorities.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.95-105. 14 ref.

1994

CIS 97-482 Piolatto G., Pira E., Meliga F.
The use and usefulness of multistage models of carcinogenesis in cohort studies
L'uso e l'utilità dei modelli multistage di cancerogenesi negli studi di coorte [in Italian]
This is a review of multistage models applied to data on exposure to aromatic amines and bladder cancer mortality. The results suggest that aromatic amines act on more than one stage of the carcinogenic process, most probably on both early and late stages. The effect on late stages implies a decreasing risk after cessation of exposure, and in this case discontinuing it can be useful; an effect on early stages, instead, indicates the necessity of intensive medical surveillance even after cessation of exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol.85, No.1, p.78-83. 11 ref.

CIS 96-2093 Axelson O.
Some recent developments in occupational epidemiology
Occupational epidemiology underwent much growth in the period subsequent to the late 1970s. Case-referent studies were prominent, but the latest emphasis has been on analysis of cohort data, with the possibility of adjustment for length of follow-up and employment status. Another recommended factor for analysis is that of "time windows" for relevant exposure, in cancer studies and elsewhere. In the case of cross-sectional studies of common diseases, the prevalence rate ratio should be used rather than the currently popular (but unintelligible) odds ratio (OR) obtained by logistic regression. Exposure assessment should involve measures that would best reveal an existing risk and dose-response relationships. The development of occupational epidemiology is also affected by current findings in molecular biology. These include the use of DNA (or protein) adducts as markers of exposure or early effect, the use of data on metabolic polymorphism to identify genetically susceptible individuals, and the identification of activated oncogenes and inactivated tumour suppressor genes for the subspecification of various cancer types so as to obtain more sensitive studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, Vol.20, Special issue, p.9-18. 82 ref.

CIS 96-621 Stewart P.A., Dosemici M.
A bibliography for occupational exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1178-1187. approx. 190 ref. ###

CIS 96-618 Baldasseroni A., Bracci C., Comba P., Nesti M., Pirastu R., Scarselli R.
Epidemiology and prevention of work-related tumours
Epidemiologia e prevenzione dei tumori professionali [in Italian]
This review examines a number of experiences on both international as well as at national level in Italy. Some recommendations on priorities are briefly listed, including identification of working environments at risk, environmental control measures, increasing research on suspected carcinogens and development of exhaustive information systems and prevention activities aimed at employers and workers.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.6, No.1, p.25-34. 38 ref.

CIS 96-643 Callas P.W., Pastides H., Hosmer D.W.
Survey of methods and statistical models used in the analysis of occupational cohort studies
Occupational cohort studies published in 1990-91 were located with Medline and Index Medicus, and the contents of several relevant journals were systematically reviewed. Each study was categorized by the methods of external or internal comparisons performed. Of 200 occupational cohort studies identified, 104 (52%) conducted only external comparisons, 46 (23%) conducted only internal and 50 (25%) presented both. Of those that used an external referent population, about two-thirds used a national standard. Forty of the studies that performed internal comparisons fitted multivariable models. The finding that logistic regression is used quite commonly, even though it does not directly model time-dependent data of the type frequently encountered in occupational cohort studies, was surprising. The reasons why investigators choose from among the available statistical and modelling techniques are likely to include familiarity, ease of use, restrictions in study population characteristics, especially study size, and others. Authors should be encouraged to be more explicit about the statistical methods used in the analysis of occupational cohort studies, as well as whether important assumptions about their data have been evaluated.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.649-655. 61 ref.

CIS 96-651 Kauppinen T.P.
Assessment of exposure in occupational epidemiology
Recent progress in assessing exposure in occupational epidemiology studies is reviewed. Traditional methods based on surrogate and qualitative measures of exposure are no longer sufficient for searching for new risks, quantifying risks, and learning about their mechanisms. Prospective studies, case-referent studies within cohorts, and community-based case-referent studies applying interviews of the subjects or confirming exposures from workplaces are designs favouring exposure assessment. Job-exposure matrices have proved useful, especially in analyses of large studies, provided that they are applied so that misclassification does not significantly bias the results. Misclassification of exposure should be regularly assessed and controlled in epidemiological studies. Good documentation of the information used and studies on methodological validity and reliability are needed to develop exposure assessment.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, Vol.20, Special issue, p.19-29. Illus. 83 ref.

CIS 95-922 Goldberg M., Imbernon E.
Computerization of medical records in occupational medicine and in epidemiology - Why and how?
Informatisation du dossier médical de médecine du travail et épidémiologie - Pourquoi et comment? [in French]
Computers are widely used in occupational medicine mainly because data in computerized medical records can be used for epidemiological studies. The main steps involved in creating such records are listed. The major objectives of epidemiology in occupational medicine are reviewed, as well as the different study designs. Choices to be made at each step are discussed: population definition, length of observation, data to be collected about individuals and the working environment. The main components of a computerized system for medical data management are also discussed, as well as problems regarding confidentiality of data.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.425-439. 7 ref.

CIS 95-916 Brauchler R., Landau K.
Predicting job-related diseases - Possibilities and limitations of implementing an early warning system
Wege zur Prognose arbeitsbedingter Erkrankungen - Möglichkeiten und Grenzen beim Aufbau eines epidemiologischen Frühwarnsystems [in German]
The stress factors and exposures of drivers of earthmoving equipment, control desk operators and supervisors in lignite mining were collected in a database. In addition, the health problems found in periodic medical examinations of a group of 284 workers holding these jobs were included in the database. Four different statistical methods were applied to correlate the two data sets: cross-cluster analysis, stochastic processes, network theory and the expert system technique. The information gained in each case is outlined. The ultimate goal was to predict the probability (in %) with which a specific exposure of a certain intensity leads to a certain health problem or disease. It is concluded that the stated goal can be achieved only by application of the expert system technique. Summaries in English and French.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Jan. 1994, Vol.44, No.1, p.5-15. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 95-578 Masset D., Malchaire J.
Epidemiologic study of lumbar problems in the steel industry. Associated factors
Etude épidémiologique des problèmes lombaires dans la sidérurgie. Facteurs associés [in French]
A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted in two Belgian steel plants concerning low-back pain (LBP) and associated factors. The data were collected through interviewing workers. The 147 items of the questionnaire check-list dealt with health, past LBP history, personal characteristics as well as the risk factors in present and past jobs. A random sample of 618 workers was selected from among 2,023 workers <40 years old. Prevalence of LBP (all symptoms) was 66% during the entire life, 53% during the last 12 months and 25% during the last 7 days. The incidence rate was about 5% and independent of the age of the workers. Among all factors investigated, the seven showing a statistically significant association with an increased risk of LBP during the last 12 months are: heavy efforts perceived at the shoulders and long periods of vehicle driving; poor satisfaction with one's health and a greater number of visits to the doctor; a larger family; a higher frequency of abnormal fatigue and depressive feelings. Thus, only two factors related to professional life, the others related to health status and psychosocial characteristics.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.2, p.103-110. 29 ref.

CIS 95-309 Chevalier A., de la Fayolle O., de la Forcade S., Lambrozo J., Coing F., Souques M.
Epidemiological surveillance of a group of workers exposed to very high energy electromagnetic fields in the French company Electricité de France
Surveillance épidémiologique d'un groupe professionnel d'Electricité de France: les travailleurs sous très haute tension [in French]
The certified sickness absence of 351 lines fitters working on live transmission lines running at 63kV or more was studied for the years 1989 and 1990 and compared with that of two groups: office workers not exposed to electromagnetic fields and a sample of EDF-GDF workers with comparable level of responsibility and age. The line fitters were numerous to leave their work for medical reasons but their absenteeism measured by the number of spells and the duration of absence per year was lower or equal to those of the two other groups. They seemed to have more accidents at work and fewer mental disorders. This study is the first stage of an epidemiological surveillance of occupational diseases of workers exposed to specific health hazards. It will be supplemented by a longitudinal study.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.3, p.183-188. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 95-143 Sandret N., Pairon J.C., Orlowski E., Zakia T., Nourry J., Saux M., Dufour G., Bignon J., Brochard P.
Characterization of occupational exposures in compensated asbestos-related diseases in France
Caractérisation des expositions professionnelles des maladies liées à l'amiante réparées en France [in French]
The purpose of this study is to identify the sources of occupational asbestos exposure of subjects with asbestos-related disease. The data collected from two sources show that employment in the manufacture of asbestos-containing products or in the insulation industry account for only 36% of such disease. The remaining 64% are attributed to occupations and industries in which asbestos exposure is less obvious and thus is likely to be overlooked. Exposure appears relatively frequent in the chemical and metal industries as well as in the building industry. Thus asbestos exposure should be identified and assessed quantitatively in a variety of industries. A priori job-exposure matrices may be useful for the assessment of exposure in epidemiologic studies and for the compensation of occupational asbestos-related diseases, when individual data on occupational exposure are missing or are inconclusive. They may also be used as an instrument of preventive action.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.25-34. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-1926 Lehtinen S.
New occupational epidemics
Special issue of the newsletter devoted to newly identified occupational epidemics, with particular attention paid to the developing world. Articles address: developmental strategies of Finland in the 1990s (Hynninen A.); how to identify new occupational epidemics, using surveillance data and the techniques of epidemiology (Partanen T., Rodriguez A.C., Mwakajinga M.); epidemic poisonings caused by pesticides (Ferrer A., Cabral R.); the potential for local and systemic bacterial infections (Hugbo P.G.); possible re-emergence of tuberculosis among agricultural workers in Cameroon (Djubgang J.N.); new trends in dust exposure in Egypt (Seliem S.R.).
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 1994, Vol.4, No.2, p.27-47 (special issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

1993

CIS 96-611 Veys C.A.
Towards causal inference in occupational cancer epidemiology - II. Getting the count right
This paper assesses causal inference in occupational cancer epidemiology and highlights the importance of using the right data sources when examining the association between exposure and tumour incidence. At first the study was confined to a mortality analysis using death certificates but it became apparent that several cases had outlived the end-date of the study or had died of an unrelated cause not associated with tumours. The study was changed to include morbidity (incidence) data using cancer registration. Some guidelines, which derive from perusal of the five-year relative survival rates (RSR) and of the ratio of cancer registrations to deaths (R/D) are put forward to help researchers in deciding whether mortality or morbidity is the appropriate statistic for the analysis contemplated.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr.1993, Vol.37, No.2, p.181-189. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 95-87 Steenland K.
Case studies in occupational epidemiology
This manual provides material for teaching epidemiology. Thirteen case studies are presented arranged in four parts: cohort studies (video display terminals and adverse pregnancy outcomes; heart disease and carbon monoxide exposure; larynx cancer and exposure to acid mists); case-control and proportionate mortality studies (end-stage renal disease; cancer and exposure to vinyl chloride, diesel exhausts and silica); cross-sectional studies (kidney dysfunction in cadmium workers; carpal tunnel syndrome among grocery store workers; cytogenetic study of workers exposed to ethylene dibromide); surveillance and screening studies (occupational lead surveillance; bladder cancer among chemical workers; occupational skin disease and contact dermatitis).
Oxford University Press Inc., Business Office, 2001 Evans Road, Cary, North Carolina 27513, USA, 1993. ix, 208p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 35.00.

CIS 94-553 Pell S.
Epidemiologists in industry - Past achievements, unexplored opportunities, and future needs
Epidemiologists in industry have achieved much in recent years. In addition to conducting important research into known or suspected hazards in the workplace, they have taken the lead in developing a code of ethics for epidemiologists in industry, established guidelines for good epidemiology practices, and have been actively involved in the development of government regulations and the setting of standards. Further activities (e.g. conducting environmental health studies, and long-term evaluations of health promotion programmes, research into major chronic diseases) may be undertaken if certain obstacles are tackled first: inputting comprehensive morbidity information into data bases; privacy protection laws and regulations; difficulties in publishing and disseminating the results of negative studies. To overcome these obstacles epidemiologists will need more support from government regulators to ease restrictions on data acquisition, and from company management to provide more resources.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.35, No.5, p.485-492. 16 ref.

CIS 94-243 Florey C.V.
Commission of the European Communities
EPILEX - A multilingual lexicon of epidemiological terms
EPILEX - Lexique multilingue des termes de l'épidémiologie [in French]
Eight-language dictionary of ca. 1250 terms and expressions used in epidemiology and related fields. The glossary, whose English version is extended from John Last's A dictionary of epidemiology (Oxford University Press), is immediately loadable and usable on MS-DOS computers. Twenty terms in any two of the languages can appear at the same time on the screen.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1993. 3.5 inch diskette (MS-DOS). Price: ECU 7.00.

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