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Small and medium-sized enterprises - 508 entries found

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  • Small and medium-sized enterprises

2001

CIS 02-979 Faulkner K.A., Landsittel D.P., Hendricks S.A.
Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores
Convenience store employees are at risk of injuries related to robberies. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies was conducted from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 to highlight possible associations between injury, robbery circumstances and work environments. Data sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations and relevant census data. Injury risk was found to be strongly associated with the following factors: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash limit policy or drop safe, older clerks, surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous inter-correlations between these characteristics were identified. Employee training, store procedures and store layout designs are important factors to consider for reducing robbery-related injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.703-709. 19 ref.

CIS 02-731 Saini R.S., Jaitli H.
Beedi industry - Working for solutions
This article describes a survey carried out in the beedi industry in the city of Gwalior, India. The 75 respondents were all women, of average age 36 (13 to 75), having worked in the sector for an average of 14 years. Four suffered from asthma, 17 from chest pain and three from tuberculosis. All complained of breathlessness. Earlier studies report frequent miscarriages among women beedi workers due to the continuous squatting posture. Workers were found to have minimal awareness of their rights. Several recommendations are made for improving occupational health in this sector.
Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, June 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.10-14. 12 ref.

CIS 02-617 Phoon W.O.
Impact of globalization on small enterprises and the informal sector
Generally, the term "small enterprise" refers to one with 50 or fewer workers. The concept of "informal sector" is understood to imply the use of labour-intensive working methods, with most of the workforce being self-employed. The informal sector accounts for 30% to 60% of the GNP in many less-developed countries. In common with workers of small enterprises, those in the informal sector usually have no access to the protection provided by social security systems or occupational safety and health services. This article reviews some of the adverse effects of the rapid industrialization of developing countries, which include health effects from handling dangerous chemicals without precautions, social effects, technology transfer without proper safeguards and economic volatility.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2001, Vol.8, No.3, p.64-65. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-692 Muto T., Takata T.
Financial assistance in promoting occupational health services for small-scale enterprises in Japan
This study was conducted to survey the degree of Japanese government financial assistance in promoting occupational health services (OHS) for small-scale enterprises (SSE). The Ministry of Labor initiated the policy of subsidizing OHS for SSE in the early 1960s. Activities to be subsidized through four mechanisms included primary and secondary prevention of occupational injuries and diseases. The amount of the subsidy ranged between one third to two thirds of the costs. There was a fourteen-fold increase in the amount of subsidies for SSE from USD 7 million in 1986 to USD 98 million in 1998. The long history of financial assistance for SSE and the increasing amount of subsidies suggest that the Ministry of Labour recognizes the importance of financial assistance in promoting OHS in small scale enterprises.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.14, No.2, p.143-150. 57 ref.

CIS 02-609 O'Connell L., Firth H., McBride D.
Occupational health and safety in small businesses
A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of owners and managers of small businesses with one to five employees in South Dunedin, New Zealand was undertaken with the aim of describing their OHS practices. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. The response rate was 66% of the 77 businesses identified. Awareness of the relevant legislation was high, but 45% of respondents believed that they had insufficient knowledge and understanding for successful compliance. Compliance with hazard identification and control was high, but only 65% kept an accident register. The annual rate for injuries requiring health intervention was 39/1,000. Agencies other than the enforcing agency could be utilized more extensively for conveying information and advice. Also, work-related injury data collected centrally should include firm size so that a better understanding of risk in small businesses can be determined.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.509-513. 16 ref.

CIS 02-608 Nytrø K., Saksvik P.
Implementation of systematic OHS activity in Norway
Internal control regulations of occupational safety and health (IC, see CIS 94-407) were launched in Norway in 1992 to prevent further negative trends in accidents and absenteeism in the offshore oil industry, and more broadly as a national strategy to promote occupational hygiene. However, many small enterprises encountered problems in implementing IC. The regulations were revised in 1997 in a form that required less administration, making it easier for compliance by small firms. This article discusses the main aspects of IC, emphasizes the importance of in-house competence in occupational safety and health and presents a practical approach for implementing the IC regulation in small and medium-sized businesses.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.491-498. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 02-134 Koradecka D.
Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation
This article presents occupational safety and health statistics in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Poland before and after the transition in 1990 from a planned to a market economy. A considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases was recorded after 1990; however, both fatal accidents and occupational injuries decreased. The findings of a survey of employers and employees on improvements working conditions is included. Finally, the role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying working conditions in SMEs is presented.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.3-14. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-149 Oliveira F.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Jobs in EU micro firms
Micro firms are defined as firms with up to nine employees. They represent 42.7% of all European Union (EU) enterprises and 24.4% of total employment. This leaflet presents a summary of the most important findings to emerge from research and discussion activities promoted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions on employment and the quality of work in small and medium-sized enterprises, with a particular focus on micro firms. A number of social policy recommendations are made, aimed at governments of EU Member States
Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus.

CIS 02-418 Lancaster R., Jacobson Maher C., Alder A.
Health and Safety Executive
Second evaluation of the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (1992) and guidance
In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that over 600,000 people suffer each year from work-related musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling. Manual handling is also responsible for a large number of occupational accidents. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (MHOR) (CIS 93-36) were introduced on 1 January 1993. A first evaluation study of their impact was conducted in 1996 (CIS 97-2043). However, since their introduction, they appear to have had only a minor effect on the number of reported accidents. This second evaluation study was commissioned to follow-up on the continuing impact of MHOR since 1996, to explore the reasons for their having an inconsistent effect on compliance, and to update the assessment of their economic impact. The study involved interviews with professionals and national bodies as well as managers, employees and safety representatives. The findings clearly show that awareness and compliance are much lower in SMEs than in larger organizations. Several recommendations are made to improve compliance with MHOR, particularly in SMEs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. x, 154p. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-1639 Walle M., Jennings N.
Safety and health in small-scale surface mines - A handbook
Guide sur la sécurité et hygiène dans les petites mines à ciel ouvert [in French]
Guía de seguridad e higiene en minas pequeñas a cielo abierto [in Spanish]
Worldwide, approximately 13 million workers are employed in small-scale surface mines, mostly in the informal sector in developing countries. Occupational safety and health regulations are not always adapted to small-scale surface mining, and may require revision. This booklet sets out a few basic principles for use in the absence of specific regulations, or in conjunction with them. Contents: objectives, scope and definitions; general principles and provisions; mining accidents and dangerous occurrences; hazards in the working environment; health, welfare and hygiene of mineworkers; first aid; personal protective equipment; safety when mining; mechanical equipment; explosives and blasting; mine closures.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. v, 51p. Illus.

CIS 01-1635
Health and Safety Executive
Effective health and safety training - A trainer's resource pack
This manual is designed to help employers and trainers improve safety and health performance by providing appropriate in-house training. It is primarily aimed at small and medium-sized enterprises. Contents: trainer's guide; business case for managing safety and health; initial review; company safety and health culture; responsibilities; customer and supply chain; buying dangerous equipment; hazard identification; assessing existing controls and prioritizing improvements; systematic approach to improvements; planning continuous improvements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 107p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 21.95.

CIS 01-1410 Breakwell G.M., Petts J.
Health and Safety Executive
Stakeholder participation methods: Scoping study
This study identifies the additional research needed to establish approaches that can be used to initiate greater awareness and activity concerning safety and health in segments of the public that are difficult to access (DAPs). It reviewed approaches that could be used and those currently used, identifying their effectiveness and impact. Contents include: examining the key characteristics of each DAP segment; assessing the relative value of direct personalized approaches for access to socially excluded groups; establishing and maintaining networks to communicate information to DAPs and collect feedback; informing young men in their workplace about health and safety issues; assessing the effectiveness of reaching micro-firms through relationship marketing, Web-based interactive information and intermediaries; routes of access to participants in the informal economy; relative efficiency of approaches dependent upon content of message and response required.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 16p. 53 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2001/crr01317.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-1225 Currie N., Wilson W.
Health and Safety Executive
Employers' and employees' response to HSE's guidance on Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MHOR)
The aim of the study was to ascertain the level of knowledge and application of the HSE's guidance on Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MOHR) 1992 (see CIS 93-664) by employers and employees of small and medium sized businesses (SMEs). Analysis of interview and questionnaire data reveals a considerable lack of awareness of these regulations and confusion about the subject of risk assessment procedures. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) needs to be more flexible and have a greater awareness of the economic and manpower restraints experienced by small companies.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 25p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

2000

CIS 08-748 Singh H.
International Labour Organization
Manual on prevention of substance abuse in small enterprises
This booklet was published as part of an ILO project entitled "Mobilising small businesses to prevent substance abuse". It offers an Indian perspective based on a series of activities carried out in three Indian cities with the collaboration of the local chambers of commerce, non-governmental organizations and rehabilitation centres. Activities included conferences, training programmes, group discussion and street plays, Contents: introduction; substance abuse in the workplace; strategy for preventive action; mobilisation of small enterprises; awareness, education and training; assistance to workers with problems.
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Delhi 110001, India, 2000. 65p. 35 ref.

CIS 04-129 Wieczorek Z., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electromechanical repair workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach naprawy sprzętu elektromechanicznego - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electromechanical repair workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 28+41p. 68 ref.

CIS 04-143 Krupa J., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in hairdressing salons and beauty parlours - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach fryzjersko-kosmetycznych - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in hairdressing salons and beauty parlours is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 25+45p. 59+57 ref.

CIS 04-147 Wolska A., Bugajska J., Drygała M., Najmiec A., Grabarczyk Z., Augustyńska D.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health at computer workstations - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy na stanowiskach z komputerami - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health at computer workstations is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 26+31p. 35+20 ref.

CIS 04-142 Punzet M., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in sanitary installation and repair work - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach usługowych instalatorstwa sanitarnego - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in sanitary installation and repair work is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 29+56p. 75+78 ref.

CIS 04-128 Wojucki J., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electroplating plants - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach galwanizerskich - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electroplating plants is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 27+45p. 67 ref.

CIS 04-127 Kowalik K., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in electrical and gas welding workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach spawalnictwa elektrycznego i gazowego - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in electrical and gas welding workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 26+38p. 70 ref.

CIS 04-131 Kowerski A., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in wholesale and building materials warehouses - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w hurtowniach i składach materiałów budowlanych - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in wholesale and building materials warehouses is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 29+41p. 66+52 ref.

CIS 04-130 Rogowski T., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in the construction industry - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w przedsiębiorstwach budowlanych - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in the construction industry is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2nd ed., 2000. 43+48p. 81 ref.

CIS 04-134 Wieczorek Z., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in the rubber and vulcanization industry - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach wulkanizacyjnych i produkujących wyroby z gumy - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in the rubber and vulcanization industry is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 31+51p. 71 ref.

CIS 03-163 Assessing the need for personal protective equipment: A guide for small business employers
OSHA requires employers to protect their employees from machines, work procedures and hazardous substances that can cause injury. The preferred way to achieve this is through engineering controls, work practices and organizational measures, but when these controls are not feasible or do not provide sufficient protection, an alternative or supplementary method is to provide workers with personal protective equipment (PPE). The purpose of this guide is to help employers examine the workplaces, review their work procedures, select appropriate PPE, and train employees to wear and care for the PPEs provided. It can help employers comply with OSHA's general PPE requirements. Respirators and insulating devices are not covered in this guide.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington D.C. 20210, USA, 2000. v, 51p. Illus.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3151.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-85 Sauer H.J
Prevention strategy - Safety and health protection in small agriculture and forest enterprises
Estratégia de prevenção - Segurança e saúde no trabalho nas pequenas explorações agrícolas e florestais - Problemas e soluções [in Portuguese]
Aimed at workers on small agricultural and forestry enterprises, this booklet lists the various problems and hazards they may be confronted with and proposes solutions and preventive measures, the most common being proper training. Main topics covered: risks to children; basic and refresher training; training of wives of agricultural workers; work of elderly persons; seasonal workers; safety of buildings; use of machinery; forestry workers; chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards; personal protective equipment; occupational safety and health legislation. Portuguese-language version of an ISSA publication originally in English, French and German.
Associação de Agricultura da Associação Federal de Sociedades Agrícols (AISS), Weissensteinstrasse 72, Kassel, Germany, [2000]. 36p. Illus.

CIS 02-1295
International Social Security Association
Safety and health protection in the small agriculture and forest enterprises - Problems and solutions
Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz in land- und forstwirtschaftlichen Kleinbetrieben - Probleme und Lösungsansätze [in German]
Problèmes et ébauches de solutions - Sécurité et santé au travail dans les petites exploitations agricoles et forestières [in French]
Contents of this booklet on occupational safety and health in the small farming and forestry sectors: prevention for children; education and training; women farmers; older workers; seasonal workers; agricultural buildings; machinery; forestry work; cooperation with professional associations; work- related health risks; personal protective equipment; legislation; role of the agricultural section of ISSA; contact addresses in Europe.
IVSS-Sektion Landwirtschaft beim Bundesverband der landwirtschaftlichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Weissensteinstrasse 72, 34131 Kassel, Germany, [c2000]. 36p. Illus.

CIS 02-1285 Torres C.I., Conferido R.D.
Effective support for participatory work improvement programmes in small and medium enterprises
Compared with productivity or profitability, concerns over occupational safety and health often receive relatively low priority among Philippine small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), although some of the SMEs now recognize that by improving working conditions can also be profitable. To help small- and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, the Philippine Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) has adopted the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) approach. The WISE approach developed by the International Labour Organization (see CIS 93-1851) aims primarily to improve working conditions in small and medium-sized enterprises, but also has the consequence of increasing their productivity. This article discusses the implementation of the WISE programme in SMEs in the Philippines, and concludes that despite some successes, continued and sustained support by the Philippine government is required.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2000, Vol.76, No.3, p.32-40. 5 ref.

CIS 02-840 Analysis of chemical hazards associated with the use of resins during the laying of floorcovering
Analyse des risques chimiques dans la mise en œuvre des résines lors de l'application de revêtements de sols [in French]
The use of chemicals in the construction industry can cause risks to health and give rise to fire and explosion hazards, both for workers and neighbouring populations. This article presents a questionnaire aimed at SMEs in the construction industry, aimed at helping them to identify hazards resulting from the use of resins during the laying of floorcovering, and to implement appropriate preventive measures with the help of the occupational physician.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.101-112.

CIS 02-198 Zhi S., Sheng W., Levine S.P.
National occupational health service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China
A survey in 30 counties in China in 1990 showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most rural industrial enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for rural industrial enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.842-849. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 01-1858 Alcouffe J., Boyer-Raby H., Chaudron B., Dupery M., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y., Roux F.
Medically-prescribed working hours: Part-time work as a form of therapy
L'aménagement du temps de travail sur prescription médicale: le temps partiel thérapeutique [in French]
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency with which medically-prescribed part-time work (MPTW) was resorted to, to characterize the type of employees who benefitted from this measure and to report on the difficulties encountered in its implementation. An epidemiological survey was conducted by 168 occupational physicians responsible for 430,522 employees, by means of a standard anonymous questionnaire using medical record data. 832 employees, including 504 women and 328 men, with an average age of 44 and a peak at age 50 benefitted from MPTW measures. They consisted almost exclusively of employees with unlimited-duration contracts working full time during the day, with a majority being white-collar workers. Only 5 workers with short-term contracts benefitted from MPTW measures, and there were no temporary workers. The initiative was taken by the patient's regular physician and by the occupational physician in 524 and 254 cases, respectively. The pre-employment medical examination was used in 37.1% cases. In 80% of cases, dominant pathologies including arthritis, psychiatric conditions and traumas were involved. In 70.2% of cases, MPTW was implemented with the consent of all the parties (employee, personal physician, occupational physician and employer).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.3, p.295-304. 11 ref.

CIS 01-1414 Jacobsson A.
European Process Safety Centre
Safety health environment management (SHE) systems for small to medium-sized enterprises
This guide, an expanded edition of a book originally published in Swedish, and aimed at small to medium-sized enterprises, outlines a simple way of achieving an integrated safety, health and environment (SHE) management system. It will allow organizations to build efficient SHE management systems specific to their requirements, based on the methodology described for a model company. The guide also contains 38 examples of SHE procedures applicable to specific activities.
Institution of Chemical Engineers (IchemE), Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2000. vi, 118p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 45.00

CIS 01-1095 National tripartite workshop on occupational safety and health
Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety and health in the mining sector held at Dhanbad, India, 27-29 April 2000. The main topics covered include: the ILO approach to occupational safety and health; status of occupational safety and health in Indian mines; legislation; specific issues of small-scale mines; management of hazardous substances; occurrence and prevention of silicosis; role of employers, trade unions, research organizations and occupational health specialists. Several relevant ILO conventions and recommendations are included in the appendices.
Directorate General of Mines Safety, Dhanbad 826 001, India, 2000. 282p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-1000
Health and Safety Executive
Essentials of health and safety at work
Revised edition (for previous ed., see CIS 94-830) of a training manual aimed primarily at small enterprises. Contents: organizing for safety (legislative requirements, labour inspection); premises (workplaces, building work); plant and machinery (machines, gas- and oil-fired equipment, maintenance, pressurized plant and systems, handling and transport, noise, vibrations, radiations, electricity); substances (harmful, flammable and explosive substances); procedures (safe systems, accidents and emergencies); people (health care, personal protective equipment, selection and training).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Nov. 2000. iv, 61p. Illus. 301 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.

CIS 01-999 Safety and health resource guide for small businesses
This guide is intended to help small business owners and managers deal with occupational safety and health concerns. It contains telephone numbers, e-mail and Internet addresses and mailing information to connect small businesses to government agencies, private organizations and consultants who can help with occupational safety and health issues.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Oct. 2000. 47p. Illus. 154 ref. Index.

CIS 01-802 Hurt K.G., MacAndrew K., Bigby D.N.
Health and Safety Executive
Handbook on ground control at small coal mines
This handbook contains advice on the geotechnical aspects of ground control intended for small coalmine operators. It should be read in conjunction with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) document Guidance on the design, installation and use of free standing support systems in coal mines (HSE, 2000), which gives specific advice on support systems, including those typically used in small mines. The handbook is the result of a research project funded by HSE to assist small mines to improve support safety and comply with the new ground control regulations which came into force in December 1999. The handbook contains advice derived from the research undertaken. A full report on the research project is available through HSE Mines Inspectorate.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iii, 59p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 01-833 Nijem K., Kristensen P., Al-Khatib A., Rabbá J., Takrori F., Bjertness E.
Prevalence of self-reported health complaints among shoe workers of small workshop exposed to organic solvents in Hebron City, West Bank: A cross-sectional survey
To estimate the prevalence of neurological disorders and mucous membrane irritation complaints among workers of shoe workshops, a group of 103 male workers from 30 workshops in Hebron City, exposed to organic solvents for more than one year were studied in 1996-1997. Data on neurological and mucous irritation symptoms were obtained by questionnaire. The overall prevalence of painful tingling of limbs was high (40%) and was significantly associated with long term exposure to organic solvents in gluing tasks (PR 2.8). Breathing difficulty showed a moderate non-significant association with long term exposure in cleaning tasks (PR 1.9), while sore eyes also, showed a moderate, non-significant association with exposure to organic solvents for 25-72 months in the gluing tasks. Long term exposure to n-hexane could be the main cause of polyneuropathy, possibly made worse by the absence of effective ventilation systems and personal protective equipment.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.206-216. 29 ref.

CIS 01-374
Health and Safety Executive
Officewise
Although accidents are not frequent in offices, they do occur, and safety and health measures need to be adapted to the levels of risk. This booklet is aimed at employers or managers of small enterprises involving office work. It highlights the legal requirements in the United Kingdom and offers guidance on implementing appropriate prevention measures in an office working environment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2000. 16p. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-361 When faced with an accident, analyse, react
Face aux accidents: analyser, réagir [in French]
The objective of this cartoon-based booklet aimed at owners of small and medium-sized enterprises is to help them to interpret accidents and incidents as indicators of an unsatisfactory state of affairs and to analyse, take appropriate action and draw the necessary lessons for avoiding their recurrence. Four levels of analysis are proposed: creating an inventory of accidents; listing known causes and identifying corrective measures; use of the causal tree method; developing an action plan with respect to hygiene and safety.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., June 2000. 15p. Illus.

CIS 01-455 Ben-Yami M.
International Labour Office (ILO)
Risks and dangers in small-scale fisheries: An overview
The majority of persons involved in small-scale and artisanal fishing work in the informal sector and therefore do not have access to occupational safety and health services available to other types of workers. This report focusses on the risks and dangers in small-scale and artisanal fisheries. It reviews working conditions, typical risks and dangers, safety approaches in developed and developing countries, accidents associated with the marine environment, navigation and fishing operations, problems associated with boat design and construction as well as other risks and dangers. The influence of fishery management systems and economic factors, wars, pirates and other hostile acts are addressed. All these issues are evaluated and recommendations for action in several areas are made.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Aug. 2000. ix, 60p. 37 ref.

CIS 00-1566
Health and Safety Executive
Health risk management - A practical guide for managers in small and medium-sized enterprises
Aimed at owners and managers or small and medium-sized enterprises to help them in controlling health risks arising from work, this booklet describes the four steps of a health risk management system, which are: finding out if there is a problem, deciding on what action to take, taking action and checking what has been done. Other topics covered include legal requirements in the United Kingdom, sources of additional information and check-lists.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2000. 50p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: GBP 6.50.

CIS 00-1582
Health and Safety Executive
Don't mix it! A guide for employers on alcohol at work
90% of personnel directors in the United Kingdom surveyed in 1994 organizations stated that alcohol consumption was a problem in their organization, and 17% described alcohol as a major problem. Alcohol is considered responsible for 3-5% of all absences from work. Alcohol consumption may also result in reduced work performance, damaged customer relations, tensions among employees and safety hazards. This booklet is designed to help owners and managers of small to medium-sized enterprises deal with alcohol-related problems at work. Contents: effects of alcohol on individuals; the 4 steps of effective management of alcohol at work (finding out if there is a problem; deciding on what action to take; taking action; checking what has been done); case descriptions of alcohol policies of several organizations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 22p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-1572
Health and Safety Executive
Fire safety in small textile factories - A brief guide for employers
Almost all textile products burn easily and many textile factories contain large quantities of combustible goods. Aimed at employers of small textile factories, this booklet provides advice on preventing risks to persons from fires. Contents include: legal requirements; fire hazards in textile factories; fire precautions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 2000. 7p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 00-1290 Gil Fisa A., Pujol Senovilla L.
Methodology for evaluating the economic impact of occupational accidents
Metodología para la evaluación económica de los accidentes de trabajo [in Spanish]
A simple method was developed to evaluate the cost of occupational accidents in small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). Variables taken into consideration include lost time during or because of the accident, losses caused by the accident, general expenses resulting from the accident and the time devoted to the accident by persons not directly involved (inquiry into the causes of the accident, administrative follow-up of the case). Data necessary for the evaluation were collected with the help of seven standard questionnaires and tables enabling the correction of certain factors as a function of the number of employees and the type of organization. An example of the application of the method is presented.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2000, No.7, p.27-38. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-1414 Biggs D., Crumbie N.
Health and Safety Executive
Characteristics of people working with chemical products in small firms
This survey was carried out in order to understand awareness levels about risks from chemicals as well as about safety and health organization in small enterprises. A total of 521 persons in various sectors (hairdressing, dry cleaning, electroplating, wood treating, garages) were interviewed. The main findings are that contrary to expectations, managers of small enterprises are not more knowledgeable with respect to risks from chemicals than their employees; a large majority of persons are not familiar with danger symbols; one third of the respondents had never had any safety and health training and many were not aware of the regulations concerning chemicals. Communications must be improved in small enterprises, and written communications must take into account the low level of reading skills and the lack of knowledge of the terms used to describe the hazards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. v, 149p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 00-1287 Tait R., Walker D.
Marketing health and safety management expertise to small enterprises
Small enterprises employ around 44% of the UK workforce. In certain important accident categories, they have a poorer record than large enterprises. Health and safety consultants have an important role in assisting the managers of small enterprises develop their skills in safety and health management. However, many enterprises do not take up the opportunity of using consultants. This document uses the principles of marketing to address this issue and considers how appropriate marketing techniques may be usefully applied to the service provided by safety and health consultants for small enterprises. It takes into consideration the characteristics of the enterprises and their managers, and concludes by suggesting a number of potential strategies that may be adopted by training providers, other intermediaries and consultants to encourage more use of consultants by small enterprises and to enhance the services provided by consultants.
Safety Science, Nov. 2000, Vol.36, No.2, p.95-110. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 00-661
Health and Safety Executive
Using work equipment safely
Aimed at owners and managers of small businesses, this booklet provides simple, practical advice on the safe use of work equipment. Guidance is given on the identification of potential hazards, and the reduction of risk by using the right equipment for the job, making sure that machinery and hand tools are safe, maintenance of machinery and equipment, and instruction and training of employees. It also describes common accident causes in small businesses when using ladders, drilling machines, food processing machinery and pressure water cleaners.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 15p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 00-666
Health and Safety Executive
Stating your business
This booklet is aimed at owners of small firms. It includes an example of a health and safety document required for complying with the Health and Safety at Work Act (see CIS 74-2099) and describes the responsibilities and the organizational elements which need to be considered when preparing this document (hazard evaluation; workers participation; plant and equipment safety; handling and use of toxic or hazardous substances; information, training and supervision in safety and hygiene; medical surveillance and accident procedures; monitoring; emergency procedures). It also includes useful notes and references.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2000. 15p. 10 ref.

CIS 00-352
Health and Safety Executive
Getting to grips with manual handling - A short guide for employers
This booklet aimed at managers of small enterprises explains the problems associated with manual handling and sets best practice approaches to dealing with it. Main topics covered: employer's duties (avoid the need for hazardous manual handling, assess and reduce the risk of injury); mechanical aids; appropriate training and information; good handling techniques; general guidelines for injury risk assessment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 1999. 15p. Illus. 5 ref.

1999

CIS 10-0643 Forastieri V.
Improving safety, health and the working environment in the informal sector - PATRIS operator's manual and trainer's guide (Participatory Action Training for Informal Sector Operators)
This manual shows how to take simple, effective and low-cost actions to improve safety and health at the workplace and at the same time raise productivity. The training method encourages owners and operators to make concrete improvements at the shop-floor level. The methodology is based on pilot studies, extensive field experience and careful analysis of the real needs of informal sector operators. The manual address basics safety and health concerns. It includes useful and practical ideas on key topics such as: dust exposure, chemicals' use, fire prevention, working postures, working premises and first aid. The emphasis is on practical, low-cost and locally-identified measures to improve working conditions and workplaces. Each training programme using the methodology should build upon local experience, be adapted to local working practices and identify the possible improvements in the participants' workplaces. This training approach was built upon local experience in Africa, particularly in Tanzania and Nigeria. The companion trainer's guide explains how to organize and carry out training using check lists and other support materials.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. 2 HTML documents. Illus.
Operator's_Manual [in English]
Trainer's_Guide [in English]

CIS 09-836
Health and Safety Executive
Good health is good business - Employers' guide - Phase 4
Launched in May 1995, the "Good health is good business" (GHGB) campaign sought to raise awareness of occupational health and to improve employers' competence in the management of health risks. Effective health risk management is the key to reducing the incidence of occupational ill health. Earlier phases of the campaign (see CIS 98-1584) focused on specific health risks including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory sensitizers, noise, occupational cancers, dermatitis, hand arm vibration and solvents. The fourth phase has a greater emphasis on securing compliance with the law. HSE and Local Authorities undertook a range of initiatives to persuade employers (particularly those in small and medium sized firms) to take effective action to protect workers from work-related illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 1999. 47p. Illus.
http://www.occ-med.co.uk/ghgb4.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-139 Punzet M., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in printing and bookbinding workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach poligraficznych i introligatorskich - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in printing and bookbinding workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 23+48p. 52+8 ref.

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