Cancer and carcinogens - 110 entries found
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Beveridge R., Pintos J., Parent M.E., Asselin J., Siemiatycki J.
Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal
Nickel, chromium VI and cadmium have been identified as lung carcinogens in highly exposed cohorts. The purpose of this study was to examine the etiological link between lung cancer and these metals in occupations that usually entail lower levels of exposure than those seen in historical cohorts. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, from 1979 to 1986 and from 1996 to 2001, comprising 1,598 cases and 1,965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to many agents, including nickel, chromium VI and cadmium compounds. Lung cancer odds ratios were increased only among former or non-smokers: 2.5 for nickel exposure, 2.4 for chromium VI and 4.7 for cadmium. The metals did not increase risk among smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.476-485. 45 ref.
Reducing the CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic) hazards: Follow-up of actions undertaken in enterprises
Réduction du risque CMR (cancérogènes, mutagènes et reprotoxiques): suivi des actions en entreprises [in French]
This article consists of the full text of a guide aimed at occupational physicians for the follow-up of actions undertaken in enterprises to reduce the risk of exposure to carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances, including by means of substitution, collective protection measures and personal protection.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2010, No.121, p.111-118. Illus.
TP_9.pdf [in French]
Occupational cancers: Prevention requires the involvement of all parties
Cancers professionnels: la prévention requiert l'attention de tous [in French]
Occupational diseases, including cancers, place a heavy burden on public health. Today, cancer constitutes the first cause of death. In industrialized countries, occupational cancers are estimated to account for 5-10% of all cancers. This article on occupational cancers focuses on the legal aspects of prevention in Belgium.
Prevent Focus, Jan. 2010, p.8-11. Illus.
Cogliano V.J., Baan R., Straif K.
Updating IARC's carcinogenicity assessment of benzene
This article consists of the response of members of the IARC staff to criticisms concerning the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benzene (see ISN 111361).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol. 54, p.165-167. 10 ref.
The IARC October 2009 evaluation of benzene carcinogenicity was incomplete and needs to be reconsidered
This article consists of a critical appraisal of IARC's 2009 evaluation of benzene carcinogenicity, which it considers incomplete and inconsistent. It argues that IARC's conclusion that there is sufficient evidence for benzene to cause acute non-lymphocytic leukemia only was based on an incomplete review, and that IARC should schedule another monographs' meeting dedicated to a complete and full review and discussion of all potential cancers related to exposure to benzene and to benzene-containing mixtures. The IARC working group responds to these criticisms in a following article of the journal (see ISN 111362).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol. 54, p.157-164. 74 ref.
Harding A.H., Darnton A.J.
Asbestosis and mesothelioma among British asbestos workers (1971-2005)
The Great Britain (GB) Asbestos Survey was established in 1971 to monitor long-term health outcomes among workers covered by regulations to control asbestos at work. Asbestosis and mesothelioma cases were defined by multiple cause of death, and were ascertained by identifying asbestos workers on the GB Asbestosis and Mesothelioma Registers. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated; the risks of asbestosis and mesothelioma were modeled with Poisson regression analysis. Deaths to the end of 2005 were included. There were 15,557 deaths between 1971 and 2005 among the 98,912 workers. Altogether 477 asbestosis and 649 mesothelioma cases were identified. The SMR for all causes was 1.42, for asbestosis 51.3, and for mesothelioma 13.5. There was some evidence that the risk of asbestosis and mesothelioma was lower in later birth cohorts and among those first occupationally exposed to asbestos more recently. However due to the long latency of both diseases, further follow-up is required to confirm these trends.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2010, Vol.53, No.11, p.1070-1080. Illus. 27 ref.
Absence of radiographic asbestosis and the risk of lung cancer among asbestos-cement workers: Extended follow-up of a cohort
A previous study of lung cancer risk among asbestos-cement workers in the Canadian Province of Ontario has been updated with an additional 12 years of follow-up. Subjects had received radiographic examination at 20 and 25 years from first exposure to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the general population of Ontario as reference. Among asbestos-cement workers without radiographic asbestosis at 20 years latency, the lung cancer SMR was 3.84. Among workers without asbestosis when examined at 25 years latency, the SMR was 3.69. It is concluded that workers who did not have radiographic asbestosis at 20 or 25 years from first exposure to asbestos continued to have an increased risk of death from lung cancer during an additional 12 years of follow-up.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2010, Vol.53, No.11, p.1065-1069. 10 ref.
Crosignani P., Amendola P., Scaburri A., Chiappino G., Marinaccio A.
Confounders and confusion: Dealing with cancer cases of occupational origin
The recognition of occupational cancers is often hampered by confusion between the individual determinants of the disease and effects at the group level. An approach is proposed, based on the evaluation of the attributable risk at the group level, which provides quantitative estimates of the roles of multiple causes in individuals affected of cancer within a population exposed to occupational risk. The estimate of individual probability can be easily obtained computing the attributable risk. This can be often achieved by using the existing information available in the literature. Dismissing the occupation as a cause of a cancer in an exposed subject on the sole basis of potential confounding is erroneous and should be withdrawn from medical practice.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.53, No.10, p.1002-1005. Illus. 11 ref.
Rolland P., Gramond C., Lacourt A., Astoul P., Chamming's S., Ducamp S., Frenay C., Galateau-Salle F., Ilg A.G., Imbernon E., Le Stang N., Pairon J.C., Goldberg M., Brochard P.
Occupations and industries in France at high risk of pleural mesothelioma: A population-based case-control study (1998-2002)
Occupational exposure to asbestos, widely used in various industries for decades, is the most important risk factor for pleural mesothelioma. The objective of this population-based case-control study was to establish the ranking of occupations and industries in France at high risk for this cancer among men and women. It was conducted from 1998 to 2002, included 462 cases (80.3% men) and 897 controls. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews with a standardized questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each occupation and industry; subjects never employed in each category were the reference. For men, risks were high for several occupations and industries. Besides the expected high risks for non-metallic mineral product makers and manufacturing asbestos products, occupations such as plumbers (OR=5.57), sheet-metal workers, welders, foundry workers and cabinetmakers were also at high risk. Elevated risks were found in the industries of shipbuilding (OR=9.13) and construction, but also in the manufacturing of metal products, chemicals, and railroad and aircraft equipment. The results for women showed increased but non-significant risks in several occupational activities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.1207-1219. Illus. 38 ref.
Jonsson H., Bergdahl I.A., Åkerblom G., Eriksson K., Andersson K., Kågström L., Järvholm B., Damber L.
Lung cancer risk and radon exposure in a cohort of iron ore miners in Malmberget, Sweden
Lung cancer caused by radon in miners is a well-known risk. However, the risk estimates vary between studies and between mines. This study evaluates the dose response-relationship in a Swedish iron ore mine for which two earlier studies had reached different risk estimates. As this mine has relatively low radon levels, the results are highly relevant for risk estimation in non-uranium underground mines. A new cohort of 5486 male workers employed from 1923 to 1996 was established. Cumulative radon exposures were assessed based on a large number of measurements, including reconstructions of historical conditions. 122 lung cancer cases occurred during the follow-up period of 1958-2000. The average cumulative exposure in underground workers was 32 kBq year/m3h (65 working level months (WLM)), experienced over 14.6 years. The excess RR (ERR) per kBq year/m3h was 0.046. Confounding by quartz may affect these results but appears to account only for 10-20% of the risk. The results for squamous cell and small cell lung cancer were 0.049 and 0.072, respectively. However, no increased risk was observed for adenocarcinoma. The overall risk estimate is about half of that found in the first study for this mine but twice that found in the same cohort in the previously published pooled analysis. Radon did not increase the risk for adenocarcinoma in the lung.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.67, No.8, p.519-525. Illus. 19 ref.
Bergdahl I.A., Jonsson H., Eriksson K., Damber L., Järvholm B.
Lung cancer and exposure to quartz and diesel exhaust in Swedish iron ore miners with concurrent exposure to radon
Studies of underground miners have documented an increased risk of lung cancer mainly linked to radon exposure but possibly influenced by other concurrent exposures. A cohort study was carried out in 8321 iron ore miners with low exposure to radon, employed from 1923 to 1998 and followed up for lung cancer from 1958 to 2000. Historical exposures to radon, crystalline silica and diesel exhaust were assessed. Data including exposure to radon, quartz and diesel exhaust from another mine with higher exposure to radon were reanalysed. Miners had increased risk for lung cancer (SIR 1.48) based on 112 cases during 227,000 person-years. The increased risk could not be explained by exposure to radon or diesel exhaust but was associated with increasing exposure to crystalline silica: SIR 0.96, 1.45, 1.99 and 1.77 in groups with exposure to 0, 0-2, 2-5 and >5 mg years/m@3h, respectively. Reanalysis of data from the other mine indicated that quartz was a possible confounder in the analysis of the relationship between radon and lung cancer. In the highest radon exposed group, the point estimate for the RR decreased from 5.65 to 3.90 when adjusting for concurrent exposure to quartz. It is concluded that crystalline silica, a known carcinogen, probably affects lung cancer risk in iron ore miners. The main implication of the results is for interpretation of the dose-response curve for radon and lung cancer in underground iron ore miners. Since exposure to radon and quartz is often correlated, quartz exposure can be an important confounder.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2010, Vol.67, No.8, p.513-518. 15 ref.
Watts P., Heederik D., van Rooy G.B.G.J.
A review of selected literature (1995-2009) on the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene (TCE)
Revue sélective de la littérature (1995 à 2009) sur la cancérogénicité du trichloroéthylène (TCE) [in French]
IRSST commissioned a review of selected literature on the carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene. Specifically, the remit was to review the most recent 10-15 years of the literature, a period that in effect covers the time since the most recent expert evaluation of TCE's cancer potential by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 1995). The present review focused on informative epidemiologic studies published since the IARC review. In addition, searches were carried out to determine whether any post-IARC TCE cancer studies have been carried out in laboratory animals. A brief overview of the knowledge database of TCE's cancer potential (both in humans and laboratory animals) at the time of the IARC review was also included. Available data on the likely mechanisms that lead to tumours in TCE-exposed rodents is also summarized briefly, to assist in determining whether rodent tumours might be predictive of similar effects in exposed humans.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. vi, 82p. Approx. 130 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
Report_R-653 .pdf [in English]
Rapport_R-654.pdf [in French]
Scarselli A., Binazzi A., Di Marzio D., Scano P., Marinaccio A., Iavicoli S.
Italian national register of occupational cancers: Data system and findings
The aim of this study was to analyze data stored in the National Register of Occupational Cancers, set up by law at the Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention. Statistical analysis were performed on economic activity, cancer site and carcinogenic agent. Mesothelioma cases were excluded because they are exhaustively recorded and managed in a proper register. The number of cancers diagnosed between 1995 and 2008 was 936 (92% men). Lung cancer was the most frequently reported neoplasm (58% of cases). The metal industry had the highest reporting percentage (15%) and silica was the most common causative agent (20%). Despite some limits and incompleteness pertaining to data flow, the results of this study are in accordance with epidemiological findings on occupational cancer risks. The collection of information on occupational cancers is of primary importance to plan targeted prevention programs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.52, No.3, p.346-353. Illus. 39 ref.
Cáncer relacionado con el trabajo [in Spanish]
About 4% of cancer deaths in the United States are caused by occupational exposures, a rate which is currently thought to underestimate the true burden of occupational cancer. Many of the studies that reported on the health effects of carcinogens were conducted in manufacturing. Aimed at employers in manufacturing industries, this leaflet outlines the strategic goals of a partnership programme between NIOSH and participating enterprises aimed at identifying the most critical workplace issues related to occupational cancer.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2010. PDF document. 2p. Illus. 1 ref.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2010-145.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2010-145.pdf [in Spanish]
Guseva Canu I., Cardis E., Metz-Flamant C., Caër-Lorho S., Auriol B., Wild P., Laurier D., Tirmarche M.
French cohort of uranium processing workers: mortality pattern after 30-year follow-up
The objective of this study was to investigate mortality among nuclear workers with potential internal exposure to uranium. The cohort included 2,709 workers employed at a French uranium processing plant for at least six months. The plant processed uranium enrichment during the period 1960-1996 and chemical conversion since 1980. Mortality was compared to the national and regional rates available for the period 1968-2005. As expected, an important healthy worker effect was observed. Among cancer sites a priori related to uranium exposure, only mortality for lymphatic cancer was increased among potentially exposed workers. An important increase in mortality from pleural cancer was observed; however none of the deceased workers were exposed to radiation, while all handled asbestos.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.83, No.3, p.301-308. Illus. 46 ref.
Andersson E., Persson B., Bryngelsson I.L., Magnuson A., Westberg H.
Cancer mortality in a Swedish cohort of pulp and paper mill workers
Cancer mortality was examined among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers. A cohort of 18,163 male and 2,290 female workers at four sulfate and four sulfite mills, enrolled from 1939 to 1999, was followed up for mortality from 1952 to 2001. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) relative to the general Swedish population were calculated. There were 1,340 malignant cases out of 5,898 deaths. Total cancer mortality was not increased in either sulfate or sulfite mill workers, or by gender. Lung cancer mortality was increased among female workers (SMR 1.70), especially in paper production, but not among male workers (SMR 0.91). Exposure to wood dust and sulfur dioxide frequently exceeded occupational exposure limits.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.123-132. 33 ref.
Boffetta P., Autier P., Boniol M., Boyle P., Hill C., Aurengo A., Masse R., de Thé G., Valleron A.J., Monier R., Tubiana M.
An estimate of cancers attributable to occupational exposures in France
A quantitative estimate of the proportion of cancers attributable to occupational exposures in France in 2000 was performed. Exposure data for established carcinogens were obtained from a 1994 survey and other sources. Relative risks for 23 exposure-cancer combinations were derived from meta-analyses and pooled analyses. A total of 4335 cases of cancer among men (2.7% of all cancers) and 403 cases among women (0.3% of all cancers) were attributed to occupational exposures. Asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chromium VI were the main occupational carcinogens in men, while asbestos and passive smoking were the main carcinogens in women. Corresponding proportions for cancer deaths were 4.0% and 0.6% in men and women, respectively. Lung cancer represented 75% of deaths attributable to occupational exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.52, No.4, p.399-406. 49 ref.
Post-employment medical supervision following exposure to asbestos - Guidance report of the hearing committee, April 2010 - Public hearing
Suivi post-professionnel après exposition à l'amiante - Rapport d'orientation de la Commission d'audition, avril 2010 - Audition publique [in French]
The French public health authority (Haute autorité de santé) published three documents on the post-employment medical supervision of workers exposed to asbestos: recommendations, a guidance report of the hearing committee and the complete transcriptions of the experts testifying during the hearing. This article consists of a full reproduction of the 2nd document, explains the methodology of the public hearing, and includes the list of experts heard and a sheet describing the study. Contents of the guidance report: pleuropulmonary pathologies related to asbestos; tools for identifying occupational exposures and the post-employment surveillance system; medical and non-medical advantages of screening; recommendations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2010, No.123, p.271-285.
TM_14.pdf [in French]
Facts and figures 2009
Faits et chiffres 2009 [in French]
This report presents an overview of the Institute's activities during 2009 in the field of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, grouped under the ten following headings: occupational cancers; biological agents; low back pain; chemical exposure; psychosocial risks; nanotechnologies; work equipment and machinery; electromagnetic fields; ionising radiation; teaching OSH. The details of how the Institute is organised and of how it acts (assistance, training, research, information, public and international relations) make up the remainder of the publication. The main scientific research findings in 2009 are also summarized. In 2009, 121 studies were conducted by the scientific and technical divisions of INRS. In 2009, chemical hazards, including fields such as toxicology, metrology and process engineering, represented 36% of the research activity. Also, activity on nanoparticles increased markedly, with 10% of the total hours worked.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2010. 35p. Illus.
ED_4295.pdf [in English]
ED_4294.pdf [in French]
Costa G., Haus E., Stevens R.
Shift work and cancer - Considerations on rationale, mechanisms, and epidemiology
This literature survey reviews the association between shift work and cancer. The mechanisms by which circadian disruption may cause malignant tumours are complex and multifactorial. The multilevel endocrine changes caused by circadian disruption with melatonin suppression through light at night lead to the oncogenic targeting of the endocrine-responsive breast in women and possibly the prostate in men. Repeated phase shifting with internal desynchronization may lead to defects in the regulation of the circadian cell cycle, thus favouring uncontrolled growth. Sleep deprivation leads to the suppression of immune surveillance that may permit the onset and growth of malignant clones. However, many epidemiological studies published lack methodological rigour and consequently do not allow for the proper assessment of the risk connected with circadian disruption.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.163-179. 185 ref.
Shift_work_and_cancer.pdf [in English]
Pesch B., Harth V., Rabstein S., Baisch C., Schiffermann M., Pallapies D., Bonberg N., Heinze E., Spickenheuer A., Justenhoven C., Brauch H., Hamann U., Ko Y., Straif K., Brüning T.
Night work and breast cancer - Results from the German GENICA study
The objective of this German population-based case-control study was to determine whether night work increases the risk of breast cancer. The GENICA (gene environment interaction and breast cancer) study involved interviews to assess shift work information in 857 breast cancer cases and 892 controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Among 1749 women, 56 cases and 57 controls worked in night shifts for one year or more. Long-term night work was associated with a modest but not significant increase in breast cancer risk, while having ever done night work was not. However the precision of the results was limited by a low prevalence of night work in this study population.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.134-141. 37 ref.
Night_work_and_breast_cancer.pdf [in English]
Savolainen K., Pylkkänen L., Norppa H., Falck G., Lindberg H., Tuomi T., Vippola M., Alenius H., Hämeri K., Koivisto J., Brouwer D., Mark D., Bard D., Berges M., Jankowska E., Posniak M., Farmer P., Singh R., Krombach F., Bihari P., Kasper G., Seipenbusch M.
Nanotechnologies, engineered nanomaterials and occupational health and safety - A review
The significance of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and nanotechnologies is growing rapidly. Nanotechnology applications may have a positive marked impact on many aspects of human every day life. Hundreds of consumer nano-based products are already on the market. However, very little is known of the risks of ENM to occupational safety and health, even though workers are likely to be at extra risk compared with other potentially exposed groups of people, because of the higher levels of exposure at workplaces than in other environments. However, knowledge of the exposure to, or effects of, ENM on human safety and health in occupational environments is limited and does not allow reliable assessment of risks of ENM on workers' health. This article discusses several issues related to ENM in the workplaces which require marked attention.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.957-963. Illus. 55 ref.
Knutsson A., Bøggild H.
Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers
The aim of this study was to review literature on the association between shift work and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. A systematic review of the literature published from 1966 to 2009 was conducted, reporting GI symptoms and diseases among shift workers. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Four of six studies showed a significant association between shift work and GI symptoms, and five of six studies reported an association between shift work and peptic ulcer disease. Two of three studies showed an association between shift work and functional GI disease. Only a few studies have examined gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases or GI cancers in relation to shift work. It is concluded that shift workers appear to have increased risk of GI symptoms and peptic ulcer disease. However, control for potential confounders (e.g. smoking, age, socioeconomic status and other risk factors) was often lacking or insufficient in many of the examined studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.85-95. 50 ref.
Azari M.R., Nasermoaddeli A., Movahadi M., Mehrabi Y., Hatami H., Soori H., Moshfegh E., Ramazni B.
Risk assessment of lung cancer and asbestosis in workers exposed to asbestos fibers in brake shoe factory in Iran
Occupational exposure of 61 male workers to chrysotile asbestos in a brake shoe factory in Iran was monitored. Cumulative exposures were determined through multiplication of typical exposure and work history. Risk assessment of exposed workers was estimated by risk criteria recommended by the American Environmental Protection Agency. Lung function parameters such as forced expiratory volume in one second and forced volume capacity of exposed workers were obtained. Unadjusted correlation and adjusted correlation analysis for support of the association between cumulative exposure and lung function parameters were used. Exposure of majority of exposed group was far greater than the occupational exposure limits (0.1 fibres/mL) in the range of 0.06-8.06 fibres/mL. According to the risk criteria stated by ATSDR, risk assessment of workers in term of fibrotic changes was predicted for at least 24.6% of the exposed subjects. Again, according to the lung cancer risk criteria stated by EPA, 59% of the workers will have excess risk. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.38-42. 31 ref.
Risk_assessment_of_lung_cancer.pdf [in English]
Hara T., Hoshuyama T., Takahashi K., Delgermaa V., Sorahan T.
Cancer risk among Japanese chromium platers, 1976-2003
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess cancer mortality risks among chromium platers. The cohort comprised 1193 male platers (626 with exposure to chromium, the remainder with no exposure) with a follow-up period of 27 years (1976 to 2003). Mortality risk was assessed by the standardized mortality rate (SMR) with reference to the national population. Lung cancer mortality was elevated only in the chromium plater subgroup, with borderline statistical significance (SMR=1.46). The chromium plater subgroup also showed elevated mortality risks for brain tumour (SMR=9.14) and malignant lymphoma (SMR=2.84). Risks were also particularly elevated for lung cancer (SMR=1.59) and malignant lymphoma (SMR=3.80) among workers with initial chromium exposure prior to 1970. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.216-221. 19 ref.
Cancer_risk.pdf [in English]
Solomon G.M., Janssen S.
Health effects of Gulf oil spill
This article identifies four main health hazards associated with the Gulf of Mexico oil spill: vapours from oil chemicals and dispersants in the air; skin damage from direct contact with tar balls or contaminated water; potential cancer or other long-term health risks from consumption of contaminated seafood; mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and self-destructive behaviour due to stress. It is too soon to know if there will be any long-term respiratory effects. Seafood safety is probably the biggest concern right now with the new fishery re-openings, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, children and subsistence fish consumers. The authors ask the Food and Drug Administration to review their methods of assessing seafood safety and to make all their data on seafood safety publicly available.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 2010, Vol.304, No.10, p.1118-1119. 10 ref.
Liu H.H, Yang H.H, Chou C.D, Lin M.H, Chen H.L
Risk assessment of gaseous/particulate phase PAH exposure in foundry industry
Air samplings in several working areas of two foundries in Taiwan were collected to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. The average PAH level in Foundry A was 19.56μg/m3, which was higher than that in Foundry B (8.26μg/m3), whereas the reverse was observed for the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent level (38.81ng/m3 and 46.52ng/m3 respectively). PAH levels in the moulding process, painting area and furnace area are described. The gas phase was the major contributor of total PAHs in the manufacturing areas. Moreover, health risk assessment of PAHs exposure showed that lung cancer risks were important in both foundries. It is recommended that workers use appropriate respiratory masks in painting, melting and pouring areas to limit their occupational exposure to PAHs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.105-111. Illus. 29 ref.
Some non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures
This volume reviews the potential carcinogenicity of 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several occupational exposures involving coal-derived PAHs. These are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. Environmental sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons include industrial air pollution, urban air pollution, tobacco smoke and diet (which is commonly the main source of exposure in non-smokers who are not exposed to such hydrocarbons through their occupations). High occupational exposure can arise during the conversion of coal to coke and coal tar, and during the processing and use of products derived from coal tar. In this volume, benzo[a]pyrene, other PAHs and related occupational exposures were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2010. viii, 853p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00; USD 55.00; CHF 38.50 in developing countries; downloadable version free of charge.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol92/mono92.pdf [in English]
Exposure-related human cancer: Molecular changes in sinonasal cancer and lung cancer, with focus on TP53 mutations
Carcinogenesis is driven by alterations in the sequence and function of the genes involved in many critical cellular processes. Understanding these molecular mechanisms can clarify the role and biological effects of these risk factors. In this thesis, mutations in the tumour suppressor gene, TP53, and their associations with exposure were studied in sinonasal cancer and lung cancer. Another important mechanism in cancer is inflammation, and its contribution was explored by analyzing the expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in sinonasal cancer.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2010. 127p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 23.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.tsr.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=13109&name=DLFE-1701.pdf [in English]
Molecular alterations in asbestos-related lung cancer
Asbestos-related lung cancer is one of the most common types of occupational cancer. This thesis sheds light on the molecular alterations related to asbestos exposure in lung cancer and may point the way for the development of molecular-based clinical methods for asbestos-related lung cancer.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2010. 111p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 23.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Refresher training on asbestos and occupational
Fortbildung Asbest Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Formation continue sur le thème de l'amiante et de la médecine du travail [in French]
Review of the communications presented at a refresher training seminar on asbestos and occupational medicine. Main topics addressed: occupational diseases due to asbestos; statistical trends of mesothelioma over the past 20 years in Switzerland and forecasts; cost of occupational diseases due to asbestos; types of asbestos and their hazards; early screening; histological, immunohistochemical and radiological diagnosis; awareness and preventive measures; addressing the issue of asbestos in vocational training.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2010, No.4, p.6-8. Illus.
Niu S., Deboodt P., Zeeb H.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), eds.
Approaches to the attribution of detrimental health effects to occupational exposure and their application in compensation programmes for cancer
Workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of their work may claim for compensation if they develop cancer. However, cancer is a common disease, especially in older age, and most cancers will be caused by non-occupational risk factors. Compiled by international experts, this book examines in detail the scientific basis for risk attribution, focusing in particular on the methodological issues associated with attributing individual cancers to previous occupational radiation exposures. The general features of compensation schemes are also presented, along with examples of compensation schemes from different countries, which illustrate a variety of approaches.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2010. xvi, 99p. Illus. 84 ref. Price: CHF 35.00; USD 32.00; GBP 20.00; EUR 23.00.
OSH Series No.73 [in English]
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
Household use of solid fuels and high-temperature frying
This volume provides a first-time evaluation of the carcinogenicity of household solid fuel combustion (coal and biomass) and of high-temperature frying. About half of the world's population, mostly in low-resource and medium-resource countries, uses solid fuels for cooking or heating, often in poorly ventilated spaces. In this volume, indoor emissions from household combustion of coal, and from household combustion of biomass fuel, as well as stir-frying, deep-frying, and pan-frying - all involving heating cooking oil to high temperatures - were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 2010. vii, 430p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price CHF 55.00; USD 55.00; developing countries: CHF 38.50.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol95/mono95.pdf [in English]
Workshop on safe handling of imported containers
6. Workshop - Sicherer Umgang mit Import-Containern [in German]
Some 20% of all imported shipping containers in Germany are contaminated with important concentrations of hazardous substances. This article consists of a review of a workshop on the safe handling in ports of potentially-contaminated shipping containers, held in Hamburg, Germany, on 11 November 2009, which mainly addressed the issued of health hazards due to fumigation, residues and toxic chemicals. Topics addressed included: sampling and analysis techniques for potentially-contaminated containers; City of Hamburg regulations concerning minimum requirements for sampling and analysis; thermal desorption gas chromatography couples with mass spectroscopy; issues raised by fumigation; electronic methods of gas detection; Hamburg database for fumigated containers; testing the gas-tightness of cargo holds in bulk carriers.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.184-185. Illus. 12 ref.
Tan E., Warren N.
Health and Safety Executive
Projection of mesothelioma mortality in Great Britain
There has been an increase in mesothelioma mortality in the United Kingdom, with 1705 deaths recorded in 2006. In 2005, a statistical model was developed based on a simple birth-cohort model, which assumes that the risk of mesothelioma depends on age and years of exposure, and that an individual's asbestos exposure depends on the year of exposure. An optimization technique was used to fit the model and a profile of the population exposure was estimated. Projections of the future burden of mesothelioma mortality were calculated; however statistical uncertainties in the formulation of the model could not be taken into account. In this report, the model was refined and refitted. Credible intervals for model parameters as well as prediction intervals for future cases of mortality among male workers are presented. Mortality is expected to keep increasing, reaching a peak at around 2,040 deaths in the year 2016, with a rapid decline following the peak year. Around 91,000 deaths are predicted to occur by 2050 with around 61,000 of these occurring from 2007 onwards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 42p. Illus. 13 ref.
Projection_of_mesothelioma_mortality_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Lipworth L., La Vecchia C., Bosetti C., McLaughlin J.K.
Occupational exposure to rock wool and glass wool and risk of cancers of the lung and the head and neck: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The objective of this literature survey and meta-analysis was to conduct a review of risks of cancers of the lung and head and neck (HN) from exposure to rock wool (RW) and glass wool (GW) among workers exposed to man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs). Despite a small elevation in RR for lung cancer among MMVF production workers, the lack of excess risk among end users, the absence of any dose-risk relation, the likelihood of detection bias, and the potential for residual confounding by smoking and asbestos exposure argue against a carcinogenic effect of MMVF, RW, or GW at this time. Similar conclusions apply to HN cancer risk among workers exposed to MMVF.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.51, No.9, p.1075-1085. Illus. 55 ref.
Occupational_exposure_to_rock_wool_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Peto J., Rake C., Gilham C., Hatch J.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational, domestic and environmental mesothelioma risks in Britain
There are just over 2100 people diagnosed with mesothelioma in the United Kingdom each year with about five times as many cases in men as in women In this study, more than 600 patients with mesothelioma and 1400 healthy people were interviewed to examine United Kingdom rates of the disease linked to different occupations. It was calculated that men born in the 1940s who worked as carpenters for more than 10 years before they reached the age of 30 have a lifetime risk for mesothelioma of about one in 17. For plumbers, electricians and decorators born in the same decade who worked in their trade for more than 10 years before they reached the age of 30, the risk is one in 50 and for other construction workers one in 125. For every case of mesothelioma, asbestos also causes about one case of lung cancer so the overall risk of asbestos related cancer for this particular group of carpenters is about one in 10. The risk was also increased in other industries and the study showed that two-thirds of all British men and one quarter of women had worked in jobs involving potential asbestos exposure at some time in their lives. There was also a small increased risk in those who had lived with someone who had been exposed to asbestos. The risk of mesothelioma for the rest of the United Kingdom population who haven't experienced these occupational exposures is about one in 1000. These apparently-unexposed cases account for 60 per cent of all mesotheliomas in women and 15 per cent in men. This is higher than the overall rate in women in most other countries, suggesting that many of these unexplained cases were caused by unrecognized environmental asbestos exposures which occurred in certain situations because of the widespread use of asbestos during the 1960s and 1970s.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 63p. Illus. 46 ref.
Occupational_domestic_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Hopf N.B., Carreón T., Talaska G.
Biological markers of carcinogenic exposure in the aluminum smelter industry - A systematic review
Exposure monitoring programs have been used in the aluminium smelter industry for decades to decrease the risk of cancer from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biological monitoring of PAHs incorporates all routes of exposure. Measuring postshift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a metabolite of pyrene, determines worker's daily PAH exposures, while measuring DNA adducts reflect chronic exposures to PAHs. This study reviewed the scientific literature to identify changes over time in 1OHP levels, DNA adduct levels and other contributing factors associated with 1OHP and DNA adduct levels in the aluminium smelter industry. No trends were observed in 1OHP and DNA adduct levels. Possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.562-581. Illus. 77 ref.
Biological_markers.pdf [in English]
Behrens T., Schill W., Ahrens W.
Elevated cancer mortality in a German cohort of bitumen workers: Extended follow-up through 2004
The mortality follow-up in a cohort of 7919 male German asphalt workers covered an additional six years. Workers were classified into four exposure categories: exposure to bitumen only, to bitumen and coal tar, neither to tar nor to bitumen, and unknown exposure. Exposure-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and associated 95% confidence intervals based on age and calendar period-specific national mortality rates were calculated. To compare exposed and unexposed workers, relative risks were estimated by Poisson regression. By the end of 2004, 835 workers had died. The SMR for lung cancer was 1.77. Head and neck cancer showed an SMR of 2.36. Bladder cancer mortality was elevated threefold. Significantly elevated cancer-related SMRs were also found for all malignant tumours. In addition, elevated mortality rates of non-malignant causes such as alcoholism, liver cirrhosis and unnatural causes of deaths including accidents were observed. The follow-up demonstrated an excess of cancer in this cohort of asphalt workers. Although exposure to bitumen cannot be ruled out as being responsible for the observed results, a higher prevalence of alcohol and tobacco consumption may partially explain the observed risk increases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.555-561. 16 ref.
Elevated_cancer_mortality.pdf [in English]
Martuzzi M., Mitis F., Bianchi F., Minichilli F., Comba P., Fazzo L.
Cancer mortality and congenital anomalies in a region of Italy with intense environmental pressure due to waste
Waste management in the Campania region has been characterised, since the 1980s, by widespread uncontrolled and illegal practices of waste dumping, generating concerns over the health implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible adverse health effects of such environmental pressure. The health effects of waste-related environmental exposures in Campania were assessed in 196 municipalities of the provinces of Naples and Caserta. Poisson regression was used to analyse the association between health outcomes and environmental contamination due to waste. Statistically significant excess relative risks (ERR) in high-index compared with low-index (unexposed) municipalities were found for all-cause mortality (9.2% in men and 12.4% in women) and liver cancer (19.3% in men and 29.1% in women). Increased risks were also found for all cancer mortality (both sexes), stomach and lung cancer (in men). Statistically significant ERRs were found for congenital anomalies of the internal urogenital system (82.7%) and of the central nervous system (83.5%). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2009, Vol.66, No.11, p.725-732. Illus. 39 ref.
MacCarthy A., Bunch K.J., Fear N.T, King J.C., Vincent T.J., Murphy M.F.
Paternal occupation and retinoblastoma: A case-control study based on data for Great Britain 1962-1999
The objective of this study was to examine the association between paternal occupational exposures and retinoblastoma using birth registration data for cases from the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT) and controls from the general population of Great Britain. It was conducted in the form of a case-control study of paternal occupational data for 1318 cases of retinoblastoma, born and diagnosed between 1962 and 1999, and 1318 controls matched on sex, date of birth and birth registration sub-district. Paternal occupations at birth were grouped according to inferred exposure using an occupational exposure classification scheme. A conditional (matched) case-control analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for each paternal occupational exposure group. For non-heritable retinoblastoma, a statistically significant increased risk was found with father's definite occupational exposure to oil mists in metal working (OR 1.85). No statistically significant associations were observed for other exposure groups.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.66, No.10, p.644-649. 22 ref.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, eds.
Bladder cancer and occupational hazards
Cancers de la vessie et risques professionnels [in French]
This publication provides a comprehensive review of the issue of bladder cancer in an occupational context, together with its prevention. Topics addressed include: epidemiology; description of the sectors of activity which involved exposures in recent years; main responsible substances; current situation with respect to exposures; description of the main preventive actions undertaken during recent years; elements aimed at helping occupational physicians recognize exposures and diagnose the disease; research activities underway in occupational health.
EDP Sciences, 17 avenue du Hoggar, Parc d'activités de Courtabœuf, BP 112, 91944 Les Ulis Cedex A, France, 2009. 346p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 42.00.
Brasseur G., Ginibrière G., Ravallec C., Vaudoux D.
Occupational cancers - State-of-the-art prevention
Cancers professionnels - Le nouveau visage de la prévention [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on occupational cancers: progress achieved in prevention; traceability of exposures; exposure evaluation in a pharmaceutical enterprise; substitution of formaldehyde in a pathology laboratory; substitution of carcinogens in a fragrances enterprise; safety and health in a crop protection product enterprise; sinonasal cancer in the woodworking industry.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2009, No.700, p.16-33. Illus. 2 ref.
Cancers_professionnels.pdf [in French]
Karunanayake C.P., Singh G.V., Spinelli J.J., McLaughlin J.R., Dosman J.A., McDuffie H.H., Pahwa P.
Occupational exposures and Hodgkin lymphoma: Canadian case-control study
The objective was to study the association between Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and occupational exposures related to long-held occupation among male workers in Canada. A population-based case-control study of HL was conducted among male workers stratified by province of residence and age group. Conditional logistic regression was used to fit statistical models. Several factors independently increased the risk of HL. Ever exposure to ionizing radiation from uranium showed a significant association with HL. Men who had smoked cigarettes for 25 years or more were the most likely to develop HL. Exposure to ultraviolet light and diagnosis with measles were negatively associated with HL, whereas diagnosis with shingles increased the risk of HL. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.51, No.12, p.1447-1454. 57 ref.
Page E., Burr G., Brueck S.
Evaluation of cancer among occupants of two office buildings
In 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation (HHE) request from the management of NASA's John Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC in Cleveland, Ohio, regarding on-going employee and union concerns about a possible higher rate of cancer among current and former employees of two buildings, possibly due to potential exposure to jet fuel and de-icing compounds from the nearby airport, asbestos in the buildings, water damage in the buildings, and general indoor environmental quality. A number of investigations were carried out. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that there is no evidence that the cancers reported are associated with work in the buildings because the number and types of cancers do not appear unusual; the different types of cancers do not suggest a common exposure; no significant hazardous exposures were identified and evidence leads to non-occupational causes.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Mar. 2009. vi, 19p. 36 ref.
HETA_2008-0166-3079.pdf [in English]
Chrysotile biopersistence - The misuse of biased studies
Although it is widely accepted that exposure to any asbestos type can increase the likelihood of lung cancer, mesothelioma, and non-malignant lung and pleural disorders, manufacturers and some chrysotile miners' unions contend that chrysotile either does not cause disease or that there is insufficient evidence to reach a conclusion. This article consists of a critical review of a recent publication that claims weak chrysotile carcinogenicity, and concludes that the findings contradict results obtained by independent scientists and can only be explained by an aggressive pre-treatment of fibres leading to rapid hydration and breaking of long fibres in the lungs.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.102-106. 55 ref.
Infante P.F, Petty S.E., Groth D.H., Markowitz G., Rosner D.
Vinyl chloride propellant in hair spray and angiosarcoma of the liver among hairdressers and barbers: Case reports
This article presents two cases of angiosarcoma of the liver involving hairdressers who used hair sprays containing vinyl chloride (VC) as a propellant. The cases were exposed to VC aerosols between 1966 and 1973, for 4-5 year periods. Modelling allowed estimating peak levels of VC exposure in a range from 129 to 1234 ppm, and average exposure from 70 to 1037 ppm. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2009, Vol.15, No.1, p.36-42. 59 ref.
Park S.K., Kang D., Beane-Freeman L., Blair A., Hoppin J.A., Sandler D.P., Lynch C.F., Knott C., Gwak J., Alavanja M.
Cancer incidence among paraquat exposed applicators in the agricultural health study - Prospective cohort study
Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide that is extremely toxic after acute exposure, was once widely used in North America and is still used in some countries, including the United States. Although there is little firm evidence that paraquat is a carcinogen, previous studies have suggested a potential relationship with some cancers. This prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the association between lifetime paraquat exposure and cancer incidence among licensed pesticide applicators. The lifetime ever-use of paraquat was evaluated in 56,224 subjects at baseline and exposure-response relationship was evaluated in 24,667 subjects who provided detailed information on total life-time paraquat exposure in a second questionnaire. Findings are discussed. Overall, there is some suggestion of a possible link between paraquat exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk in humans, but the inconsistency in exposure level trend suggests that this could be a chance finding.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.274-281. 42 ref.
Pira E., Pelucchi C., Piolatto P.G., Negri E., Bilei T., La Vecchia C.
Mortality from cancer and other causes in the Balangero cohort of chrysotile asbestos miners
The objective of this study was to provide further information on mortality from cancer and other causes among chrysotile asbestos miners several years after exposure ceased, updating the analyses from the Balangero mine worker cohort with follow-up to the end of 2003. The cohort included 1056 men, for a total of 34,432 man-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from personnel records, the vital status and causes of death were obtained through population registers and death certificates from municipal registration offices. Expected numbers of deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed for relevant causes using the province of Turin and national death rates, for each 5-year calendar period and age group. Significant excess mortality was found from pleural cancer only (4 deaths, SMR 4.67) and pleural and peritoneal cancers combined (5 deaths, SMR 3.16). All pleural and peritoneal cancer deaths occurred 30 or more years after first exposure. The SMRs were 1.27 for lung cancer (45 deaths), 1.82 for laryngeal cancer (8 deaths) and 1.12 for all cancers (142 deaths). Cumulative dust exposure and the various time factors considered did not show a clear pattern of risk associated with mortality from lung cancer. There were 57 deaths from cirrhosis (SMR 2.94) and 54 from accidents and violence (SMR 1.88). Overall, 590 deaths were observed as compared to 412.9 expected (SMR 1.43).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2009, Vol.66, No.12, p.805-809. 33 ref.
Occupational cancers: Their prevention in the construction sector
Cancers professionnels: les prévenir dans le BTP [in French]
This article reviews the main substances that may cause the incidence of occupational cancer among workers of the construction sector: asbestos; welding fumes; wood dust; paints, solvents and pigments. It also addresses the issues of labeling, the traceability of occupational exposures, the recognition of occupational cancers and post-employment medical supervision.
Prévention BTP, 2009, No.123, p.48-51. Illus. 1 ref.
Pintos J., Parent M.E., Case B.W., Rousseau M.C., Siemiatycki J.
Risk of mesothelioma and occupational exposure to asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers: Evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to occupational asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) across a wide range of occupations on risk of mesothelioma. Two population-based case-control studies provided 35 histologically confirmed mesothelioma cases and 1965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate occupational exposure to many agents, including asbestos and MMVF. The mesothelioma odds ratio for exposure to any asbestos type was 3.7. The odds ratio was 7.0 for the subset exposed to amphibole fibers. In workers with exposure levels lower than in most historical cohort studies and across a wide range of industries, a strong association was found between asbestos, especially amphibole, and mesothelioma.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2009, Vol.51, No.10, p.1177-1184. 27 ref.
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