Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 4/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by taxi and bus drivers, cleaners, restaurant and pub doormen, and library and shop workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 3/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations, which could be experienced by social workers, bailiffs, pharmacists and pharmacy employees, dentists and nurses, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 2/5
This videotape is part of a series of 5 films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-552, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by nurses, real estate managers, agricultural workers, health inspectors as well as microbiology laboratory workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 40min).
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 1/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by police, border guards, customs officials, conductors and security guards, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
Hernández Calleja A., Guardino Solá X.
Working conditions in health care centres
Condiciones de trabajo en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
This publication consists of a compilation of theoretical and practical knowledge concerning the prevention of occupational diseases and accidents in health care centres. Main topics: occupational health and safety organization; exposure to chemicals; anaesthetic gases; ethylene oxide (sterilization); cytostatic agents; disinfectants; ionizing and non-ionizing radiation; biological agents; nosocomial (hospital-based) infections; waste management; ergonomics; physical workload; psychosocial factors (stress, shift work or night work); electrical hazards; fire protection; emergency plans; occupational medicine (medical surveillance, organization of first aid services).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 529p. Illus. 194 ref.
Smith H.R., Holloway D., Armstrong D.K.B., Whittam L., White I.R., Rycroft R.J.G., McFadden J.P.
Association between tinea manuum and male manual workers
In order to test the hypothesis that tinea manuum (fungal infection of the hands) predominantly occurs in manual workers, a statistical analysis of 23,264 patients (41% male) with hand dermatitis previously patch tested was carried out showing that 48% performed work with a significant manual component. During the same period 52 patients (47 male) showed tinea manuum. 42 (39 male) were in work with a significant manual component. The five most common occupations in this population were: car mechanic, machine operator, gas/electricity worker, chemical process worker and farm worker. Manual workers develop hyperkeratosis of the skin, which provides an enhanced environment for keratinophyllic dermatophytes. The female population was too small to allow analysis.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2000, Vol.42, No.1, p.45. 3 ref.
Jędrychowski W., Vena J., Maugeri U.
Challenges to epidemiology in changing Europe - Proceedings of the conference - Krakow, July 2-3, 1999
Proceedings of a conference on epidemiology in Europe held in Cracow, Poland, 2-3 July 1999. Main topics covered: health and environment trends in the 1990s; increase of asthma worldwide; epidemiology of cancer in Europe; infectious diseases in Poland; mesothelioma in Europe; incidence of malignancies caused by arsenic in populations exposed to high arsenic-containing coal combustion products; incidence of type-1 diabetes in age groups 0-10 and 15-29 in Cracow; future chronic diseases; multidisciplinary research; current and future trends in epidemiology; challenges for epidemiologists in Europe; linkage between epidemiology and health policy; evidence-based primary prevention.
Polish Society for Environmental Epidemiology, Dept. of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Medical School, Jagiellonian University, 7 Kopernika street, 31034 Krakow, Poland, 1999. 248p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Minesafe 1998 - Identifying key health issues for the next millennium: The role of occupational health professionals
This article reviews current occupational health issues in mining, including cancer risks, diesel engine emissions, the status of quartz as a carcinogen, the concept of dust overload of the lungs, radon in relation to cancer and pneumoconiosis, asthma from exposure to platinum, neurological diseases and metals, and two infectious hazards, tuberculosis and AIDS. The review also deals with new approaches to risk assessment and risk management, international standardization, the application of evidence-based science to occupational health, and the need to characterize work exposure information in a standard way to link with epidemiological studies in risk assessment and to provide better input for the establishment of threshold limit values. The review presents recommendations for further consideration by the mining community.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.25-35. 3 ref.
Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological risk prevention in the laboratory: Work with fungi
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con hongos [in Spanish]
This information note is addresses to the issue of the various species of fungi that can present a hazard to workers who handle them in laboratories. It describes the different types of mycoses associated these fungi (generalized mycoses, subcutaneous mycoses, dermatomycoses or superficial mycoses), the characteristics of fungi, yeasts and moulds as well as the hazards and biological safety measures (confinement level) associated with each species. Safety measures applicable to the handling and disposal of fungal cultures in laboratories are also discussed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 4p. 9 ref.
Yéboué-Kouamé B.Y., Bonny J.S., Ahimon E., Ahoussi E., Wognin S.B., Eholié S.P., Kouassy M.Y.
Epidemiological study of tetanus in Abidjan and implications for occupational health
Etude épidémiologique du tétanos à Abidjan et incidences professionnelles [in French]
To estimate occupational factors in the development of tetanus and the role occupational health in its prevention, a retrospective study was conducted, based on the files of tetanus in the infectious diseases unit of an Ivory Coast university hospital between 1990 and 1995. 393 new cases or 65.5 cases per year were registered. The sex ratio was 4.3 in favour of men. Among the cases, 5% had received anti-tetanus serum. Only one patient was correctly vaccinated. The portal was a recent wound in 50% of the cases, and the location was the lower limbs in 63.9% of the patients. In 54.4% of the files, a relation between tetanus and the occupation was mentioned. Shopkeepers, restaurant owners, domestic employees and housewives appeared more exposed. Prevention of tetanus would require the development of occupational health and mandatory anti-tetanus vaccination of workers in the sectors of activity identified as being risky.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.132-135. 10 ref.
Schlosser O., Vibert M.L.
Prevention of leptosirosis in an occupational setting: Comments on a case report
Prévention de la leptospirose en milieu professionnel: réflexion à propos d'un cas clinique [in French]
A case of Weil's disease affecting a young plumber after his first exposure to working in sewers is reported. The preventive measures of the occupational risk of leptospirosis are discussed and the problems of defining approaches for temporary and occasional exposures are emphasized. The many-fold, dispersed and variable activities of many firms should encourage occupational physicians to inform workers widely about the hazards of leptospirosis, in anticipation of their possibly executing tasks which could lead to exposure. The objective is to cause further enquiries if necessary, leading to the definition of an appropriate prevention for the task.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.112-117. 21 ref.
Leprince A., Falcy M., Le Bâcle C., Meyer J.P.
Fertility, pregnancy and occupational hazards
Fécondité, grossesse et risques professionnels [in French]
This article consists of the highlights of papers presented during a one-day seminar on occupational hazards for fertility and pregnancy held in Strasbourg (France) on 24 June 1998. Topics covered include: occupational hazards from conception to puberty; managing chemical hazards in the enterprise; other hazards (teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation, infectious diseases, physical and mental strain); description of the collaboration between the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) and the information centre on teratogenic agents as an example of preventive vigilance.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1999, No.77, p.21-33.
Sousa J.P., Franco M.H., Rodrigues M.A., dos Santos M., Reis F.
Hazards due to biological agents - Prevention manual
Riscos dos agentes biológicos - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual provides technical information on the risks from exposure to biological agents in various occupational sectors. It also surveys the prevention measures for improving safety, hygiene and health conditions that need to be implemented at work sites where biological agents are handled or produced. Separate chapters cover: legislation in Portugal and methods for risk evaluation; metabolism of different organs in the body; action of biological agents on the organism; biological hazards in certain industries (research and clinical laboratories, hospitals and other health-care establishments, the food industry, in the fishing industry, in the transport and elimination of wastes, in water treatment centres); biological agents (fungi) in workplace air.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Oct. 1999. 405p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance (Amendment of schedule 2) Order 1999 [Hong Kong]
This regulation amends the order of 1997 (CIS 99-1756) by adding carpal tunnel syndrome and legionnaires' disease to the list of occupational diseases requiring notification. It includes the shoulder for traumatic tendon inflammations and extends the list of agents which may cause occupational asthma to all substances.
Government of the Hong Kong SAR Gazette, 11 June 1999, Vol.3, No.23, Legal Supplement No.2, p.B1497-B1499.
Decree No.99-645 of 26 July 1999 amending and completing the schedules of occupational diseases appended to Book IV of the Social Security Code (2nd part: Orders of the State Council) [France]
Décret n°99-645 du 26 juillet 1999 révisant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au livre IV du code de la sécurité sociale (2ème partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France] [in French]
This decree applies to the amendments made to certain schedules of occupational diseases, concerning in particular spirochaetoses (leptospiroses and Lyme borrelioses), diseases caused by tuberculosis bacilli and certain atypical mycobacteria, as well as occupational infections caused by hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses.
Journal officiel de la République française, 29 July 1999, Year 131, No.173, p.11306-11309.
Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological hazard prevention in the laboratory: Work with viruses
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con virus [in Spanish]
This information note provides guidance on biological hazards linked to the handling of various viruses (hepatitis A, B and C, herpes, influenza, Armstrong's disease, polio, rabies, spongiform encephalopathy and vesicular stomatitis, HIV and SIV retroviruses); modes of transmission and levels of confinement appropriate for safe work in laboratories.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 8 ref.
Ferreira dos Santos T.L.
Ministério do Trabalho
Garbage collectors - The ambiguities of working in the streets
Coletores de lixo - A ambigüidade do trabalho na rua [in Portuguese]
This analysis of the work of garbage collectors is based on their own accounts and impressions of their work. A characteristic of this occupation is that it takes place in the street, a public space where one is seen and recognized, which can either enhance or depreciate the workers' self-image. It consists of teamwork that needs to be carried out at a certain pace. There are many occupational health problems, including skin diseases, hearing loss, diseases of the urinary tract, leptospirosis, tetanus, AIDS, respiratory and lung diseases, and gastro-intestinal diseases. This occupation is also subject to risks of injury (dog bites, falls and trips) and can give rise to emotional or nervous stress, notably anxiety. This category of workers is also subject to acute alcoholism. The book is a thesis for a Master's Degree in Social Psychology at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1999. 222p. 57 ref.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Work-related lung disease: Surveillance report 1999
This report is a summary of statistical data for various occupational respiratory diseases on work-related lung diseases in the United States. The data are presented in a series of figures and tables and cover asbestosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, exposure to cotton dust, pneumopathy due to inhalation of other dust, neoplasms of the pleura, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, pneumoconiosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data are given on mortality, morbidity, and exposure by state, industry, occupation and causative agent.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1999. xvii, 202p. Illus.
Bloodborne occupational diseases of health care workers (HCW)
This manual on the risks of exposure to bloodborne diseases of health care personnel focuses on hepatitis B and C, HIV and AIDS transmission risks. Transmission mechanisms, risk factors for seroconversion following percutaneous injury, post-exposure prophylaxis, hygiene practices, decontamination and sterilization, personal protective equipment and vaccination are presented along with safety recommendations for dealing with sharp instruments and body fluids.
Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), 42 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110062, India, 1999. i, 27p. 52 ref.
Waits J.B., Wheat J.R.
Preventive agricultural medicine: A medical student's perspective on an important component of rural community health
Farming and keeping livestock are the most dangerous profession in terms of mortality. Despite progress in other areas of occupational medicine, occupational health issues in agriculture have been subordinate to those of manufacturing industry until only very recently. This report tells of a visit to a cotton farm in western Alabama as part of a Rural Medicine rotation by a medical student and includes a focussed literature review on various issues in agricultural health. Pressing health issues for farmers include exposure to toxic chemicals, trauma and injury, respiratory disease, infections, stress and psychiatric illnesses. There are additional issues involving family members. The rural family physician is in a unique position to prevent morbidity and mortality by social action and early diagnosis.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.3, p.11-25. Illus. 16 ref.
Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection resulting from ocular exposure
Persons in contact with macaque monkeys are at risk of infection from Cercopithecine herpesvirus (B virus). These infections can be fatal, approximately 40 known cases of fatal human B virus infections being described in medical literature. This information sheet describes the case of a scientific research worker having been infected by a monkey through liquid entering her eye, with a fatal outcome. It describes preventive measures that need to be taken by persons exposed to macaque monkeys, with emphasis on eye protection.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, May 1999. 4p.
Hazard prevention and control in the work environment: Airborne dust
Airborne contaminants are associated with a number of diseases. The aim of this document is to inform people about the prevention and control of dust in the work environment. Main topics covered: definition of dust; exposure types and diseases; dust control and management; exposure evaluation (sampling, measuring, exposure limits); control of dust sources (elimination, substitution); control of dust transmission; work practices, training and personal protective equipment; housekeeping; environmental protection; sources of information.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. 201p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Duma S.M., Rudd R.W., Crandall J.R.
A protocol system for testing biohazardous materials in an impact biomechanics research facility
This article presents a protocol system, comprising a review process and a series of checklists, that was developed for testing cadaveric tissue in an impact biomechanics research facility. The use of cadaveric tissue may expose personnel to bloodborne pathogens including HIV and hepatitis B, which have been shown to remain virulent in a cadaver for several weeks after death. To minimize exposure risks, the protocol system presented emphasizes initial blood screening to keep infectious tissue from entering the laboratory, and adopts universal precautions to prevent exposure by treating all tissue as though it were infected. All laboratory employees must read, sign and demonstrate proficiency with the protocol. Well-developed test procedures for the handling of biohazardous materials along with an annual individual protocol review have proven effective for the preceding six years in minimizing exposure risks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.629-634. Illus. 21 ref.
Benbrik E., Dômont A.
Legal aspects of vaccination in occupational medicine in 1998
Aspects jurisprudentiels et réglementaires de la vaccination en médecine du travail en 1998 [in French]
Occupational physicians in France may in the future be responsible for prescribing (as they are currently for administering) vaccinations. Since the Hédreul judgment (25 February 1997), legal practice has modified the physician's duty to inform and has put the burden of proof on the physician. This reversal may lead to a changing relationship between workers and occupational physicians, making the French system similar to that prevailing in the United States.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.1-12. 8 ref.
Payne D.A., Mehta S.K., Tyring S.K., Stowe R.P., Pierson D.L.
Incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in astronaut saliva during spaceflight
Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in reactivation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crewmembers. In order to test the hypothesis that the level of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts increases during spaceflight, a total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. The findings were that EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during or after flight. No significant difference between the inflight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. In conclusion, the increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.70, No.12, p.1211-1213. Illus. 23 ref.
Parat S., Perdrix A.
Air conditioning and health
Climatisation et santé [in French]
Topics: aerosols; air conditioner disease; air conditioning; aspergillosis; bacterial toxins; bronchiolitis; data sheet; encyclopaedia; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; extrinsic allergic alveolitis; filter dust collectors; France; health hazards; immuno-allergy; interleukins; legionellosis; mycotoxins; organic dust; risk factors; sick building syndrome; workplaces.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 1999, No.122, 6p. Illus. 71 ref.
Ramos Carrillo C.
Ministerio de trabajo y asuntos sociales
Biological hazards among health care personnel - Prevention programmes
Riesgos biológicos en personal sanitario - Programas de prevención [in Spanish]
Topics: antibodies; bacterial diseases; biological hazards; chickenpox; health care personnel; health programmes; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious hepatitis; influenza; legionellosis; manuals; medical supervision; risk factors; rubella; Spain; training material; tuberculosis; typhoid fever; vaccination; virus diseases.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 51p. 21 ref.
Hasselhorn H.M., Toomingas A., Lagerström M.
Occupational health for health care workers - A practical guide
Topics: chemical hazards; cytotoxic effects; dental services; disinfectants; disposal of harmful waste; health care personnel; heavy work; hospitals; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; inhalation anaesthetics; manual lifting; manuals; mental illness; musculoskeletal diseases; needle-stick injuries; night work; noise; occupational hygiene; radiological services; risk factors; shift work; skin diseases; violence.
Elsevier Science B.V., Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1999. xiii, 231p. Bibl.ref. Index.
NIOSH respiratory protection program in health care facilities: Administrator's guide
Guide to the implementation of a respiratory protection programme in health care facilities used for the prevention of tuberculosis infection.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1999. x, 112p. Illus.
Notification No.577 of 1999: List of occupational diseases [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om fortegnelse over erhvervssygdomme [in Danish]
This notification (effective 17 July 1999) contains provisions fixing the requirements for an illness to be accepted as an occupational illness and on the recognition of the right to compensation.
Lovtidende A, 16 July 1999, Vol.106, No.577, p.3815-3824.
'Dem bones, 'dem bones - Health and safety in church archaeology
Topics: biological hazards; body tissues; bones; lead; contagion; emotivity; health hazards; personal protective equipment; physical hazards; research; smallpox; trenching and excavating; work in confined spaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Nov. 1999, Vol.17, No.11, p.12-15. Illus. 5 ref.
Gathering data on culture and health to develop educational materials on zoonoses for subsistence dairy farmers in Costa Rica
Socially and culturally sensitive educational materials on the transmission and prevention of zoonoses for subsistence dairy farmers in Costa Rica are being designed based on information gathered through a series of personal interviews. Women were targeted in the study since they make nutritional and health-related decisions for the family and in particular for children. The women in the study were able to actually describe the symptoms of many zoonotic diseases but were not necessarily able to identify those diseases by their medical name or knew of a vernacular name. All women preferred alternative medicine including herbal treatments and homoeopathy for any disease or ailment over western medicine. The radio was identified as the preferred source for health education dissemination for adults while it was story or colouring books for children.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.1, p.33-41. 9 ref.
Krishnan U., Janicak C.A.
Compliance with OSHA's respiratory protection standard in hospitals
Data from the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspections that occurred in hospitals and resulted in violations of the respiratory protection standards were examined. From July 1, 1990, to June 30, 1995, the complaint rates for hazards in the workplace significantly increased. During 1990-1991, tuberculosis hazard complaint inspections rates were approximately 5 complaints per 1,000 complaint inspections conducted. During 1994-1995, tuberculosis hazard complaint inspections rates were approximately 76 complaints per 1,000 complaint inspections conducted, representing an increase of over 15 times. During this same period, the percentage of respiratory protection violations in relation to all violations doubled. Increased employee awareness of the hazards and current safety laws could have contributed to the increased frequency of employee complaints, leading to increases in inspections, violations and fines. Employers must adhere to the current safety and health requirements specifically as they pertain to respiratory hazards and tuberculosis.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.228-234. Illus. 11 ref.
Assessment of the health impact of occupational risk in Africa: Current situation and methodological issues
Information from the current monitoring systems for occupational illness and injury in countries of the Southern African Development Community is presented. These data indicate that the reported annual injury rates for wage workers range widely from 0.35 to 49.42 injuries per 1,000 workers, and reported occupational fatality ranges from 0.85 to 21.6 fatalities per 100,000 workers. Despite wide variability in reported rates (probably caused by variability in coverage and accuracy of reporting systems), transport, agriculture, mining and, to a lesser extent, construction consistently make up about three-quarters of all fatalities, with vehicle- or transport-related causes accounting for high proportions of fatal accidents. The paper identifies and discusses major sources and direction of bias and error in the reported data and suggests approaches for a better assessment of the health impact of occupational illness, injury and mortality in African countries.
Epidemiology, Sep. 1999, Vol.10, No.5, p.632-639. 63 ref.
Leprince A., Dornier G.
Biological hazards in the work environment
Risques biologiques en milieu de travail [in French]
In France, an estimated 1.2 million workers are exposed to biological hazards at work. This information sheet summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to the prevention of biological hazards. Topics covered: risks of infection from biological agents; carcinogenicity of some biological agents; preventive action (risk assessment, identification of hazards, containment, vaccination); occupations at risk from exposure to blood; infection risks in medical laboratories; biological hazards in effluent treatment plants; research; training; French and European regulations.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1999, No.589, 4p. Insert. Illus. 12 ref.
Preventing needlestick injuries in health care settings
This booklet is addressed to employers and workers in health care establishments. Health care workers exposed to needles are at an increased risk of needlestick injuries. Such injuries can lead to serious (even fatal) infections with bloodborne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case studies of needlestick injuries are presented. The brochure advises avoiding the unnecessary use of needles, using needleless and safer needle devices, and promoting education and safe work practices. It also presents intervention strategies for reducing the risks.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 1999. 23p. Illus. 77 ref.
Aronson K.J., Howe G.R., Carpenter M., Fair M.E.
Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91
An occupational surveillance system was established consisting of a cohort of 457 224 men and 242,196 women employed between 1965 and 1971, constituting about 10% of the labour force in Canada during that period. Mortality between 1965 and 1991 was determined by computerized record linkage with the Canadian mortality database. Through regression analysis, associations between 670 occupations and 70 specific causes of death were evaluated. There were almost 116,000 deaths among men and over 26,800 deaths among women. About 28,000 comparisons were made between occupations and specific causes of death. With various reporting criteria, several potentially significant relationships were noted, including: infectious disease mortality among barbers and hairdressers; laryngeal cancer among male metal fitters and assemblers; lung cancer among female waiters; breast cancer among female metal fitters and assemblers; brain cancer among female nursing assistants and male painters; and ischaemic heart disease among female inspectors and foremen and among male taxi drivers and chauffeurs.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.56, No.4, p.265-269. 20 ref.
Decree No.99-95 of 15 February 1999 modifying and completing the schedules of occupational diseases appended to Book IV of the Social Security Code (2nd part, Decrees of the State Council) [France]
Décret n°99-95 du 15 février 1999 modifiant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au livre IV du code de la sécurité sociale (deuxième partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France] [in French]
The following diseases are added to the schedule of occupational diseases (in certain professions only): infections due to Herpes virus varicellae and its complications; scabies (in health care and social work); Hantavirus-induced haemorrhagic fever; chronic back troubles due to low- and medium- frequency whole-body vibration or to the manual handling of heavy loads.
Journal officiel de la République française, 16 fév. 1999, Year 131, No.39, p.2423-2424.
Guastello S.J., Gershon R.R.M., Murphy L.R.
Catastrophe model for the exposure to blood-borne pathogens and other accidents in health care settings
Workers at three hospitals were surveyed on HIV-relevant exposures (needlesticks, cuts, splashes, contact with open wounds), the accident rate for broadly-defined injuries, and several occupationally relevant themes. A cusp (cubic polynomial) model predicting HIV-relevant exposures was more accurate than a linear model containing the same variables. Some of the variables predisposed workers to greater differences in HIV-relevant and general accident exposures: shiftwork, climate, depressive symptoms and workpace. Other variables governed how close an individual was to a critical threshold where a harmful incident would take place: verbal abuse, professional group membership. Similarly, a cusp model for accident incidents predicted from HIV-relevant exposures and occupational variables was also more accurate than comparison models. Two variables predisposed the worker to a greater accident risk: depression symptoms and shift work. Four other variables predisposed the worker to lesser accident risk: job satisfaction, safety climate, environment stressors and workpace.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 1999, Vol.31, No.6, p.739-749. Illus. 15 ref.
Ungváry G., Morvai V., Nagy I.
Health risk of unemployment
As a result of the political and economic changes of the last decade, unemployment in Hungary has grown from practically zero to around half a million, or close to 10% of the workforce. The impact of unemployment on health is examined, mostly on the basis of published literature from other developed counties. Despite the limited availability of published statistics, it is concluded that the pattern of health damage caused by unemployment in Hungary is largely similar to that observed in developed industrialized counties, with a few specific differences such as mycosal skin diseases related to poor hygienic conditions.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.91-112. Illus. 81 ref.
Rieger M.A., Nübling M., Hofmann F.
Spring-summer meningoencephalitis - A problem for occupational medicine
Die Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis als arbeitsmedizinisches Problem [in German]
Literature survey on the present knowledge of the pathogenesis, occurrence, diagnosis and prevention of tick-borne viral meningoencephalitis shows that: the virus causing the disease is borne by two types of the Ixodes tick which are widespread in Europe and Asia. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is most commonly used by doctors to diagnose the disease. However, the assay is not specific to the antibodies produced by the virus. Yellow fever and dengue fever viruses, which are related to the virus causing the tick-borne meningoencephalitis, may also produce positive ELISA results. In doubtful cases, the more specific Western blot test is used. It is not known at present how many persons bitten by virus-infected ticks are affected. For people working in agriculture, the risk of contracting the disease was found to be moderately higher and for forestry workers significantly higher than the general population. Workers at risk should be vaccinated. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis should be classified as an occupational disease.
Ergo-Med, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.23, No.2, p.72-85. Illus. 124 ref.
P4 laboratory: A fortress against viruses
Laboratoire P4: une forteresse pour les virus [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; containment; experimental animals; infectious diseases; laboratory work; legal aspects; microorganisms; negative pressure application; pathogenic bacteria; protective clothing; safe layout; safety devices; viruses.
Travail et sécurité, June 1999, No.585, p.2-8. Illus.
Kao J.H., Heptonstall J., Chen D.S.
Molecular methods of measurement of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Implications for occupational health practice
Over the past decade, several molecular techniques for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been developed that have implications for occupational health practice. This review describes the techniques used for qualitative and quantitative detection of the viral genome, and briefly explains nucleic acid sequencing and analysis of phylogenetic trees. The review also discusses the current and potential uses of these techniques in investigations of transmission of bloodborne viruses by patient to worker and worker to patient, in the management of occupational exposure to blood, in research, and in the development of guidance and policy on infected healthcare workers who perform procedures prone to exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.56, No.11, p.730-734. 31 ref.
de la Hoz García C., Otones Pérez J.J., Paredes Palomo L.E.
Model for the evaluation of biological hazards in medical centres
Modelo de evaluación de riesgos biológicos en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; hazard evaluation; health services; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; laboratories; legislation; risk factors.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.3-8. Illus. 24 ref.
Cartier B., Jost M., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Vaccination of health care personnel
Impfungen des Personals im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
Vaccination du personnel de santé [in French]
Information booklet on preventive vaccination of health care personnel. Contents: vaccination as an effective preventive method against infectious diseases; principles of personnel vaccination; vaccination against hepatitis B; other vaccination (hepatitis A, measles/mumps/rubella, chickenpox, tetanus/diphtheria, poliomyelitis); responsibilities of employers and workers.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Mar. 1999. 11p. Illus.
Good practice in incident reporting: It's in the blood
The U.K. National Blood Service (NBS) which collects, processes, tests and dispatches blood and blood products is required by law to have high standards and to follow "quality" principles. The activities of the NBS are outlined, and the integration of accident and near-miss reporting into the "quality" system principles is described. Topics: biological hazards; blood; health services; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious hepatitis; information of personnel; injection injuries; legal aspects; notification of occupational accidents; plant safety and health organization.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 1999, Vol.17, No.4, p.24-26. Illus. 5 ref.
The effects of workplace hazards on female reproductive health
Topics: abortion; antifertility effects; cancer; children; expectant mothers; harmful substances; infectious diseases; list of occupations; menstrual disorders; nursing mothers; personal hygiene; safe working methods; teratogenic effects; viruses; women.
Publications Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 1999. 20p. Illus. 2 ref.
Salazar G.J., DeJohn C.A., Hansrote R., Key O.R.
A bloodborne pathogen program in civilian aircraft accident investigation
Problems associated with the implementation of OSHA regulations concerning protection against exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBP) during investigation of aircraft accidents are discussed. The regulations present significant challenges in terms of implementing a programme which was primarily envisioned to affect personnel in traditional healthcare delivery facilities. Unanticipated issues include heat related conditions, performance of physically demanding work in cumbersome gear and biohazard trash disposal from remote sites. The Federal Aviation Administration, in close cooperation with other Federal agencies, developed a training and administrative programme to meet the requirements of the OSHA BBP rule as it relates to the unique environment of an aircraft accident site. The programme has been implemented and successfully tested under actual field conditions at several major aviation accidents that have occurred recently. Topics: accident investigation; air transport; biological hazards; disposal of harmful waste; infection control; infectious hepatitis; legislation; occupational accidents; personal protective equipment; USA.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.70, No.2, p.146-152. 11 ref.
Health risks when working in and around water
Topics: agriculture; allergies; biological hazards; chemical hazards; conjunctivitis; diving; dock work; fishing; gastrointestinal diseases; hazard evaluation; health hazards; hepatitis; legislation; leptospirosis; particulate radiation; poliomyelitis; sewage; shipbuilding industry; sports and recreation; swimming pools; United Kingdom; water transport; water.
Croner's Occupational Hygiene Magazine, Dec.-Jan. 1998/1999, No.13, p.11-16. 5 ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Conditions requiring special attention with respect to medical supervision
Auswahlkriterien für die spezielle arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorge [in German]
These guidelines by the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association are aimed at occupational physicians. They concern exposures requiring special attention with respect to medical supervision and are divided into four sections: general guidelines concerning medical supervision; carcinogenic substances; non-carcinogenic harmful substances; other harmful exposures or situations (noise, cold and hot workplaces, strenuous work, respirators, hyperbaric pressure, work in foreign countries involving exposure to unusual climatic conditions and health hazards, welding fumes, risk of falls, infection hazards, biotechnology).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 1998. Binder containing 49 guidance sheets. Approx. 250p. Illus.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI)
STDs and AIDS at the place of work - Study of awareness, attitudes and practices in enterprises where SESI undertook preventive programmes
DST e AIDS no local de trabalho - Um estudo sobre conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas nas empresas trabalhadas pelo SESI [in Portuguese]
This study investigated the awareness of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS among 4893 workers in 123 enterprises where the Brazilian social service for industry (SESI) had undertaken preventive programmes. The analysis of answers to a 34-item questionnaire revealed that although workers were well aware of the mode of transmission of these diseases and of their prevention, certain unfounded beliefs and discriminatory attitudes towards infected workers persisted. Only few workers regularly used condoms. The study highlights the need for more thorough information in order to close certain gaps.
Ministério do Saúde do Brazil, Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco G, CEP 70058-900 Brasília-DF, Brazil, 1998. 91p. Illus.
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