Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Les agents biologiques [in French]
Occupational exposure to biological agents may give rise to hazards in cases where these agents are pathogenic. Some workers are exposed to biological agents under controlled conditions, for example in biotechnology research laboratories or in the pharmaceutical industry, while others may be exposed without fully understanding the hazards, as may be the case in waste water treatment, solid waste disposal or health care settings. In either case, the evaluation and prevention of biological hazards require a proper understanding of these pathological biological agents and their hazards. This document describes the various types of biological agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths), their form of life, their industrial relevance and their potential pathogenic effects.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2004, No.639, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref.
González Rodríguez M.M., García Puente N.E.
Biological hazards in ocean fishing
Riesgos biológicos en la pesca marítima [in Spanish]
This information note describes the biological hazards to which ocean fishermen are exposed, together with the preventive measures aimed at reducing these risks. Contents: general aspects; handling of the catch; specific diseases affecting fishermen (furuncles due to salt water, pruritus or eruptions due to algae, urticaria from cod, conjunctivitis, dermatomycosis, asthma, bacterial infections, injuries from stings, contact with or bites by marine animals); preventive measures; infectious diseases; vaccination and prophylaxis.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 8p. 15 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_625.htm [in Spanish]
SARS - Practical and administrative responses to an infectious disease in the workplace
This working paper consists of a set of informal guidelines developed by the ILO on responses to the threat of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the workplace. Contents: history of SARS; overview of current knowledge on SARS; practical workplace strategies; administrative actions to ensure preparedness in the event of a SARS outbreak (at national and workplace levels); ethical and psychological considerations concerning SARS.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. vi, 46p. 42 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/accidis/sars.pdf [in English]
SARS - Practical and administrative responses to an infectious disease in the workplace
Working paper on practical preventive measures against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), prepared in collaboration by the SafeWork Programme at ILO Headquarters and the ILO Sub-Regional Office for East Asia in Bangkok. Contents: introduction (the threat of SARS, SARS as an occupational health hazard, action at the national and workplace level); overview of current knowledge about SARS (cause, transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention); practical workplace strategies for the prevention of SARS; administrative action in case of an outbreak of SARS (at the national and workplace level); ethical and psychological considerations concerning SARS.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. vi, 46p. 42 ref. + Internet links.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/accidis/sars.pdf [in English]
Maher D., Boldrini F., Pathania V., Alli B.O.
Guidelines for workplace TB control activities - The contribution of workplace to TB control activities to TB control in the community
These guidelines represent the first comprehensive approach to workplace tuberculosis (TB) control. They draw on the practical experience of employers and workers and the technical expertise of the WHO and ILO. They cover the practical steps involved in establishing TB control activities. Contents: background information on TB; principles and examples of TB control in the workplace; implementation of TB control activities in the workplace; policy development and financing; extending services to the community.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. 74p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241546042.pdf [in English]
Is AIDS still a topical issue in occupational medicine?
AIDS - immer noch ein Thema für Arbeitsmedizin? [in German]
Infection with HIV/AIDS is an important occupational health issue in health care establishments. According to estimations, there will be some 500,000 puncture injuries per year potentially leading to infection with HIV or hepatitis B or C. To reduce the number of these injuries, the following measures are necessary: provision of special containers for hazardous waste; use of fewer dangerous instruments; procedures for the declaration of accidents involving exposure to blood and the offer of post-exposure prophylaxis; reduction of work rates; and examination of workstation ergonomics. It is also necessary to make health service managers aware of the importance of workers' health requirements so that these workers will in turn adopt appropriate behaviours with respect to safety and health.
Paper presented at the 17th Freiburg Symposium, "Occupational Medicine in the Health Services", 10-12 September 2003.
Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment
Review article on adverse effects associated with moulds in the indoor environment. Contents: allergy and hypersensitivity reactions (hypersensitivity pneumonitis, uncommon allergic syndromes); fungal infections; mycotoxins; recommendations on minimizing exposure to moulds among persons with allergic airway disease, on sampling and analysing, on cleaning indoor fabrics contaminated with moulds and on medical examinations.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.470-478. 83 ref.
Whelan E.A., Lawson C.C., Grajewski B., Petersen M.R., Pinkerton L.E., Ward E.M., Schnorr T.M.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms and illnesses among two populations largely confined to indoor environments, flight attendants (FAs) and schoolteachers. The prevalence of work related eye, nose, and throat symptoms, wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, chest illness, and cold or flu were calculated and stratified by smoking status in 1824 FAs and 331 schoolteachers (all women). FAs and teachers were significantly more likely to report work related eye, nose and throat symptoms than were other working women. FAs were also significantly more likely than teachers and other working women to report chest illness during the prior three years. Both study groups were more likely to report five or more episodes of cold or flu in the past year than were other working women and both groups were more likely to report wheezing than other working women. FAs were less likely than teachers and other working women to report having been diagnosed with asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.929-934. Illus. 25 ref.
Norum J., Endresen E.
Injuries and diseases among commercial fishermen in the Northeast Atlantic and Barents Sea. Data from the Royal Norwegian Coast Guard
The working conditions in the Northeast Atlantic are potentially hazardous, and accidents are frequent. The objective of this study was to describe the situation as viewed by the Royal Norwegian Coast Guard (RNCG). A total of 117 consecutive reports on medical assistance at sea given by the three major RNCG vessels from October 1995 to March 2001 were analysed. Men constituted 96% of the cases treated, and 54% were Norwegians. The median age was 38 years. Seriousness was classified as low (46 cases), moderate (43 cases), serious (22 cases) and life threatening (five cases, including two deaths). Infection caused 27 visits. Fifty-five cases were due to trauma, while hand injuries constituted 19 cases. Fishermen over 40 years of age were more severely injured. In 52 cases, the RNCG personnel requested further medical advice. Sixty-one patients were hospitalized and 48 transported by helicopter.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2003, Vol.76, No.3, p.241-245. Illus. 14 ref.
Percaz Arrayago M.A., Ruiz Cirauqui A.M., Esquiroz Ayesa I.
Evaluation of hepatitis B serology among workers exposed to biological hazards
Valoración de serologías de hepatitis B en trabajadores con riesgo biológico [in Spanish]
The vaccination protocol in effect in Spain for workers exposed to hepatitis B virus calls for revaccination every five years. Since some recent studies suggest that the immunological memory may persist for at least twelve years, the serology of a group of 163 workers vaccinated since 1996-1997 was examined to establish their immunological state and to determine whether it would be possible to increase the revaccination intervals. Results indicated that more than 85% of the vaccinated workers still had protective antibody levels above 20UI/ml after five years and that it would be possible to extend the period between revaccination.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Aug. 2003, Vol.XLX, No.192, p.1-7. Illus. 8 ref.
de Souza Ciorlia L.A., Zanetta D.M.T.
Hepatitis C in healthcare workers: Risks of exposure and infection
Hepatite C em profissionais da saúde: risco de exposição e infecção [in Portuguese]
This review article is devoted to the topic of hepatitis C and the risks of exposure and infection among health care personnel. Contents: general aspects concerning hepatitis C; epidemiology; diagnosis; preventive measures in the absence of vaccines or HCV-specific IgG immunoglobulins; notification of accidents; occupational accidents involving biological material; consequences of cut or needlestick accidents and microcutaneous exposures.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.91-100. 66 ref.
Fau-Prudhomot P., Fabin C., Montéléon P.Y.
Follow-up study organized by the Association of Medical and Social Centres of the Ile-de-France region on accidents involving exposure to blood (IEBs): Analysis of the initial results
Observatoire ACMS des accidents avec exposition au sang (AES): mise en place des premiers résultats [in French]
Accidents involving exposure to blood (AEBs) have been regularly recorded and analysed for several years in large public hospitals in France. However, this has not always been the case in private health care institutions and in other sectors of activity that present a potential hazard. The objective of this study was to record and describe AEBs occurring in small-to-medium-sized institutions as well as in non-health-care settings in the Ile-de-France region. Between July 2001 and January 2003, 196 cases of AEBs were recorded, of which 15 occurred outside health care settings during waste collection, cleaning or supervision of the premises. In health care settings, the victims were predominantly women (90.4%), persons with less than two years of tenure (60.3%) and persons vaccinated against hepatitis B (95.7%). More than half the cases of AEB occurred during the disposal of contaminated material (58%), in particular because containers were often not easily accessible (40%). Gloves were not worn in 40% of AEB cases.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.125-140. 18 ref.
Occupational cancers: First attempt at quantification
Cancers d'origine professionnelle: 1re approche de quantification [in French]
This article reviews a report, published in 2003, on the estimation of the number of cancers attributable to occupational causes in France. The study was restricted to men. Epidemiological data allow estimations to be made for the following cancers, including in some cases the proportion due to the main known causal agents (in particular asbestos, heavy metals, ionizing radiation, volatile organic substances, aromatic amines, wood dust, oils and tars): bronchopulmonary cancers; pleural mesothelioma; bladder cancer; sinonasal cancers; leukaemia.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2003, No.72, p.28-31. Illus.
Hsieh H.I., Wang J.D., Chen P.C., Cheng T.J.
Synergistic effect of hepatitis virus infection and occupational exposures to vinyl chloride monomer and ethylene dichloride on serum aminotransferase activity
This study examines the synergistic effect of occupational chemical exposure and hepatitis virus infection on serum aminotransferase activity. A total of 568 male workers who were employed in five polyvinyl chloride and four vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) manufacturing factories were studied. Workers were classified into high, moderate and low exposure groups according to their level of exposure to chemical mixtures. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and anti-hepatitis C antibody were assayed. Hepatitis virus infection and increased body mass index were associated with abnormal serum aminotransferase activity. In workers with hepatitis virus infection, those with high exposure had a higher prevalence of abnormal AST and ALT compared to low exposure; among those without hepatitis virus infection, no significant differences of prevalence of abnormal AST and ALT were found between different chemical exposure groups. There was a significant trend of increasing risks of increased AST and ALT in moderate and high exposure groups with hepatitis virus infection. Such a synergistic effect was more prominent among HBeAg-positive workers. It is concluded that mixed exposures to 1,2-ethylene dichloride and VCM have a positive synergistic effect with hepatitis virus infection on liver damage.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.774-778. Illus. 25 ref.
Biologické materiály [in Czech]
Biologiska agenser [in Swedish]
Biologische Arbeitsstoffe [in German]
Biologikoí parágontes [in Greek]
Agentes biológicos [in Spanish]
Bioloogilised ohutegurid [in Estonian]
Biologiset tekijät [in Finnish]
Agents biologiques [in French]
Biológiai hatóanyagok [in Hungarian]
Agenti biologici [in Italian]
Biologinės medžiagos [in Lithuanian]
Bioloģiskie aģenti [in Latvian]
Biologische agentia [in Dutch]
Czynniki biologiczne [in Polish]
Agentes biológicos [in Portuguese]
Biologické látky [in Slovak]
Biološki dejavniki [in Slovenian]
Biologiske agenser [in Danish]
The theme for the European Week for Safety and Health at Work 2003 is the prevention of risks from dangerous substances. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work is producing a series of fact sheets focusing on the communication of occupational safety and health-related information on dangerous substances, including biological agents. Biological agents are found in many sectors. As they are rarely visible, the risks they pose are not always appreciated. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi (yeasts and moulds) and parasites. Contents of this fact sheet on biological hazards: legislation; occupational exposure limits; risk assessment, prevention and control; persons at risk; health effects; hazard evaluation, risk reduction and control; record keeping.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, http://osha.eu.int, 2003. 2p. Illus. 2 ref.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/nl/FACTS-41_NL.pdf [in Dutch]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/da/FACTS-41_DA.pdf [in Danish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/pt/FACTS-41_PT.pdf [in Portuguese]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/sk/FACT41_SK.pdf [in Slovak]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/sl/Fact41_SL.pdf [in Slovenian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/fi/FACTS-41_FI.PDF [in Finnish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/sv/FACTS-41_SV.pdf [in Swedish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/de/FACTS-41_DE.pdf [in German]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/et/FACT41_ET.pdf [in Estonian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/el/FACTS-41_EL.pdf [in Greek]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/it/FACTS-41_IT.PDF [in Italian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/lv/FACT41_LV.pdf [in Latvian]
http://osha.lv/ew2003/41.pdf [in Latvian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/hu/FACT41_HU.pdf [in Hungarian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/lt/FACT41_LT.pdf [in Lithuanian]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/en/FACTSN41-EN.PDF [in English]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/es/FACTS-41_ES.pdf [in Spanish]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/fr/FACTS-41_FR.pdf [in French]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/cs/FACT41_CS.pdf [in Czech]
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/factsheets/41/pl/FACT41_PL.pdf [in Polish]
Niścigorska J., Skotarczak B., Wodecka B.
Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers - Assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR, and correlated with the clinical state of the patients
Borreliosis or Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the introduction of one of a class of spirochetes (the most common being Borrelia burgdorferi) into the blood stream. It is spread through the bite of the common European tick Ixodes ricinus. The most frequent occurrence is found among forestry workers and inhabitants of wooded areas. Diagnosis is based on immunoserologic tests. This study involved 52 forestry workers in Poland who responded to a questionnaire and were subjected to medical examinations. 61% were found to be seropositive. Possible correlations between the results of serological and polymerase chain reaction tests with the clinical state of the patients were investigated. Despite finding IgM antibodies in 10 persons tested, which would indicate recent infection, no DNA of B. burgdorferi was detected in their blood. Also, no DNA of this bacteria was present in 8 persons with IgM and IgG antibodies. The clinical data suggested past symptomatic infection, or even more often, asymptomatic infection with B. burgdorferi
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-19. 41 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/10015.pdf [in English]
Vaidya S.R., Tilekar B.N., Walimbe A.M., Arankalle V.A.
Increased risk of hepatitis E in sewage workers from India
Considering faeco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of infection was assessed among sewage workers. The study involved 147 sewage workers and age-matched controls without exposure to sewage. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher among sewage workers (56.5%) than among controls (19%). Furthermore, a significant rise in anti-HEV positivity was observed among sewage workers working for over five years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take the top priority for the protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1167-1170. 20 ref.
Guide on systems to facilitate contact tracing and prevention of SARS in the workplace
This information sheet summarizes the preventive measures that need to be taken by employers to limit the risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the place of work, and to facilitate the tracing persons having been in contact with workers diagnosed with SARS. These include daily temperature recording of employees, keeping records of absentees and of visitors who enter the workplace, handling of suspected workers (establishing an isolation room or area, supplying surgical masks, calling the ambulance) and contact tracing. A contact tracing form is included. See also CIS 04-230.
Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 4p. Illus.
Guide on systems to facilitate contact tracing and the prevention of SARS in the workplace
The Singapore Ministry of Manpower (MOM) has introduced a series of precautionary measures aimed at protecting workplaces from the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). With effect from 15 June 2003, daily temperature-taking will be required for all construction worksites, shipyards, factories employing more than 25 workers and for foreign worker dormitories. Furthermore, it is essential that workplaces implement systems to facilitate contact tracing when any employee or visitors is suspected of being infected with SARS. This guide aims to help employers establish pro-active measures to facilitate contact tracing in the workplace. It consists of a series of recommendations together with forms for logging workers' temperature, reporting suspected SARS cases and recording their contacts. See also CIS 04-231.
Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 27p.
http://www.mom.gov.sg/MOM/OHD/Others/sarsguide.pdf [in English]
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Biological matter in the health and social care sector
Biologische Arbeitsstoffe im Gesundheitswesen und in der Wohlfahrtspflege [in German]
Contents of these guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance concerning activities that imply contact with biological matter in the health and social care sector: scope; hazard evaluation; protective measures as a function of the degree of hazard of the activity; training of personnel; obligation to notify level 3 and 4 activities; additional protective measures that apply to specific activities (cleaning, disinfection, sterilization, handling of soiled linen, elimination of medical waste, endoscopy, protection against methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococci aurei); preventive medical examinations and vaccinations. In appendices: useful addresses for persons in contact with highly-contagious or fatal diseases, protective plans against life-threatening imported diseases; classification of human and animal medical waste; examples of instructions for work falling under the provisions of the biological substances ordinance; constituents of a hygiene plan; related directives, rules and standards.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2003. 59p. Illus.
Burton W.N., Morrison A., Wertheimer A.I.
Pharmaceuticals and worker productivity loss: A critical review of the literature
Many chronic illnesses that affect the working population can cause losses in productivity. The extent to which these productivity losses can be reduced by pharmacological treatment is of particular interest to employers, who bear the costs of productivity losses and of employees' health care. This article consists of a summary and critical review of various earlier studies on the effects of pharmaceuticals on productivity losses. For a dozen drug classes, there is good evidence that pharmaceuticals reduce productivity losses caused by respiratory illnesses (such as asthma, allergic disorders, bronchitis, upper respiratory infections, and influenza), diabetes, depression, dysmenorrhoea and migraine. In many cases, the reduction in productivity loss may partially or completely offset the costs of treatment. These results should be helpful to occupational physicians in providing recommendations on employer benefit plan designs taking into account the benefits of pharmacological treatments.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.45, No.6, p.610-621. Illus. 87 ref.
Cohen P., Darling C., Hampson A., Downs K., Tasset-Tisseau A.
Influenza vaccination in an occupational setting: Effectiveness and cost-benefit study
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-like illness and absenteeism among workers of a large steelworks. The study was a prospective, randomized trial conducted during the 2000 influenza season. Healthy adults aged 18-64 years were randomized into two groups: 270 received parenteral influenza vaccine (VAXIGRIP) and 270 had no intervention. Data were collected using self-reporting questionnaires for a total period of six months. This study suggests that influenza vaccination programs for healthy, working-age adults may represent a cost-effective intervention strategy from the employer's perspective during the influenza season, especially during the peak period of the disease.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2003, Vol.19, No.2, p.167-182. Illus. 34 ref.
Facing HIV/AIDS at the workplace
Cómo enfrentar el VIH/SIDA en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
This CD-ROM provides guidelines to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic at the workplace within the context of ILO global programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work. It contains two documents in PDF format: the ILO codes of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work, together with a training and education manual on the implementation of the ILO codes of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (in English). The guidelines apply to the following areas of activity: prevention of HIV/AIDS; management and mitigation of its impact on the world of work; care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. CD-ROM and presentation leaflet (4p.).
Charbotel B., Forissier M.F., Hours M., Bergeret A.
Review of occupational hazards from waste disposal in the health care sector
Revue sur les risques professionnels liés à l'élimination des déchets d'activité de soins [in French]
This literature survey reports on the current situation with respect to occupational hazards among workers involved in waste disposal in the health care sector. Biological hazards are the most important. In the early stages of waste disposal, blood exposure accidents are associated with the risk of infection with hepatitis or human immunodeficiency viruses. Other infectious diseases such as tuberculosis have been reported among workers involved in medical laboratory waste disposal. In health care establishments, chemical and radioactive wastes need to be managed by specialized and well-identified waste disposal systems. However, it appears that these systems are not always operational. Risks related to handling are important and are not always well controlled. Road transport risks have received little attention, but should not be overlooked given their potential seriousness.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2003, Vol.64, No.2, p.100-105. 32 ref.
Le Bâcle C.
Current situation with respect to zoonoses: 30th National Symposium of Agricultural Medicine
L'actualité des zoonoses - XXXe symposium national de médecine agricole [in French]
The objective of this symposium on zoonoses held on 25 April 2003 in Tours, France, was to discuss the current situation of known zoonoses and to shed light on emerging pathologies. The wide range of participants included medical practitioners from the farmers' cooperative insurance company, occupational physicians, infectologists, veterinarians and biologists. Topics presented and reviewed in this article include: main zoonoses transmitted by farm animals; main zoonoses transmitted by domestic animals; zoonoses from wild animals; current advances in human medicine; Q fever in France and recent epidemics; psittacosis and poultry farming; toxocariasis among humans.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.459-473.
Abiteboul D., Lolom I., Lamontagne F., Pellissier G., Tarantola A., Descamps J.M., Bouvet E.
Risk of blood exposure among hospital workers - Trends 1990-2000
Risque d'exposition au sang parmi le personnel hospitalier - Evolution 1990-2000 [in French]
A survey had been conducted among health care workers in 1990 to quantify the frequency and risk factors of blood exposure accidents (BEAs). 502 nurses from 17 hospitals had volunteered to participate. It was the first study that yielded data not only on the frequencies by nurse, but also by risk-involving task (injection, sample collection, installing and removing intravenous perfusions, work involving pacemakers). The most hazardous tasks were identified and ranked. The objective of the present study was to analyse the trends in BEA risks ten years later. Participants included 1506 volunteers among nurses in 36 hospitals. There were significant improvements from 1990 to 2000, the frequency of BEAs having decreased from approximately 0.35 to 0.12 per nurse per year, and needlestick injuries, which are the leading cause, from 0.26 to 0.07 respectively, per nurse per year.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.447-457. Illus. 25 ref.
Bricaire F., Bossi P.
Bioterrorisme [in French]
The events that occurred in the United States during October 2001, with the sending of letters containing spores of anthrax, led many countries to reconsider the bioterrorism as a possible threat. Numerous infectious agents could be used as biological weapons, some of which are little known. Following a definition of bioterrorism, this publication describes the following biological agents that could be used with terrorist intent, together with their related clinical symptoms: anthrax, smallpox, plague, tularaemia, botulism, haemorrhagic fever, glanders, Q fever, viral encephalitis, bruccelosis, toxins. It also explains how to recognize these pathologies and confirm the diagnosis, the actions to follow, the therapy and the prophylaxis. Finally, it presents the French emergency plans in the event of a biological attack.
Elsevier SAS, 23 rue Limois, 75725 Paris cedex 15, France, 2003. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 25.00.
Tabbot P.N., Robson M.G., Breen K.P.
Foodborne pathogens: The risk to the health of merchant seafarers
Patógenos en los alimentos: un riesgo para la salud de los marinos mercantes [in Spanish]
Foodborne illness is a global problem posing new risks to human health. Emerging pathogens, globalization of the food supply, changes in human behaviour, international travel, microbial adaptation and a breakdown of the pubic health system are factors which contribute to the threat of new and dangerous disease agents. Merchant seafarers, because of their unique occupational setting, may be particularly vulnerable to potentially debilitating foodborne illnesses. Factors like close living quarters, communal meal eating, contact with labourers in ports and access to potentially-contaminated food represent special hazards for these workers. These hazards are discussed in this article, together with the appropriate prevention measures.
Medicina Marítima, June 2003, Vol.3, No.1, p.47-71. Illus. 91 ref.
International Maritime Health Association
7th international symposium on maritime health
7º Simposio internacional sobre la salud en el sector marítimo [in Spanish]
This CD-ROM of the 7th international symposium on maritime health held in Tarragona, Spain, 22 to 26 April 2003, contains all the documentation handed before and during the symposium (programme, list of participants, papers presented in PDF format, pictures, etc.). Main topics covered: maritime medicine history; emergency medicine on board; standards in seafarers' fitness examinations; infectious diseases; cruise medicine; divers fitness examinations; occupational accidents and diseases; occupational health in the fishing sector; vaccination and travel medicine for seafarers.
CIS, ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. CD-ROM.
Calvert G.M., Rice F.L., Boiano J.M., Sheehy J.W., Sanderson W.T.
Occupational silica exposure and risk of various diseases: An analysis using death certificates from 27 states of the United States
This matched case-control study was carried out to investigate the relationship between exposure to silica and a number of diseases generally associated with exposure to silica. Data were collected from the United States National Occupational Mortality Surveillance system. Cases were subjects whose death certificate mentioned the disease of interest. Control groups consisted of subjects whose death certificate did not mention any of several diseases reported to be associated with crystalline silica exposure. Subjects were assigned into a qualitative crystalline silica exposure category based on the occupation mentioned on their death certificate. Cases with detectable crystalline silica exposure had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. A significant trend of increasing risk with increasing silica exposure was observed for these same conditions and for lung cancer. Those with the highest exposure to crystalline silica had a significantly increased risk for silicosis, lung cancer, COPD and pulmonary tuberculosis. Finally, those with silicosis had a significantly increased risk for COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.60, No.2, p.122-129. 88 ref.
Lambert S., Pineau A., Zylberberg J.L., Gunther-Martin E.
L'hôtesse de l'air et le steward [in French]
Contents of this medical and occupational data sheet on the job of flight attendant: job characteristics; description of the activities (work in airports or in aircraft, equipment, job tasks, gestures and postures, work clothes (uniforms)); hazards and constraints (related to the environment, equipment, work schedules, physical and mental workloads); occupational health hazards (phlebitis, genital and urinary infections, osteoarticular disorders, neuropsychic effects, travel-related infectious diseases); preventive measures (collective, individual, first aid); French regulations; medical supervision.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.4, Insert. 2p.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of HSC's ACOP and Guidance "Legionnaires disease: Control of legionella bacteria in water systems" (L8)
This report presents the findings of a research study of industry's views of the Health and Safety Commission's Approved Code of Practice and Guidance entitled "Legionnaires' disease: Control of legionella bacteria in water systems", which was published in 2000. Questionnaires were sent to approximately 6000 individuals and enterprises resulting in 979 responses. Most respondents found the guidance to be easy to understand, although 18% of enforcement officers found the document difficult to understand. The layout was found to be easy to follow with only 6% of respondents rating the document either "difficult" or "very difficult" to read.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 104p. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr140.pdf [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational health statistics bulletin 2002/03
This publication provides an overall picture regarding work-related illness and the demographic characteristics of those affected, with comparative figures for different occupations, industrial sectors and areas, as well as the latest position for specific types of occupational ill health. General data are presented by demographic characteristics, occupational groups, industry sectors and regions. Specific data are provided on the following occupational diseases: mesothelioma deaths among men; musculoskeletal disorders and stress; asbestos-related diseases and cancers; respiratory diseases; skin and infectious diseases; other occupational diseases and exposures.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. 15p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/overall/ohsb0203.pdf [in English]
Wallace R., Schluter P., Webb P.
Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A and B infections in carers of adults with intellectual disability
Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis A and hepatitis B are common transmissible diseases among adults with intellectual disability. This pilot study was designed to assess the possibility that H. pylori infection might pose an occupational risk, and the extent of hepatitis A and B immunization rates among carers of adults with intellectual disability. The overall rate of H. pylori infection was comparable to that in the general population. However, carers working with currently and previously institutionalized adults with intellectual disability had a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than carers of never institutionalized clients. Hepatitis immunization rates were better among carers working with clients with a history of institutionalization, but could be improved in all carer groups.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2003, Vol.19, No.1, p.99-108. Illus. 24 ref.
Occupational infectious disease risks in the health care industry
Health care workers are at risk of exposure to infectious diseases; in addition, pregnant health care workers may be exposed to infectious diseases that are reproductive hazards. This article provides an overview of some of the major infectious risks to which health care workers may be exposed, and discusses appropriate risk management strategies. The following hazards are discussed: blood-borne viruses (hepatitis B and C, HIV); risks to pregnancy (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster, parovirus B19); hepatitis A; tuberculosis; meningococcal disease; pertussis.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2003, Vol.19, No.1, p.35-44. 40 ref.
Vaquero Abellán M., Gómez Caballero P., Garrido Martín M.T., Casal Román M.
Occupational hygiene survey on biological hazards in mycobacterial laboratories: A multicentric study
Encuesta higiénica sobre riesgo biológico en laboratorios de micobacterias: estudio multicéntrico [in Spanish]
This article presents the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study involving 26 hospitals in 10 autonomous regions. The aim of the survey was to determine whether laboratories where biological samples containing mycobacteria were handled complied with occupational safety and hygiene regulations, and if workers were sufficiently protected against risks from exposure to biological agents. Factors evaluated in the study included categories of workers, type of work, training in biological hazards and preventive measures. Findings show that laboratories do not fully comply with existing regulations and that the recommended preventive measures are not always followed.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.25, p.18-24; 41. Illus. 15 ref.
Villanueva Íñiguez Y., Laborda Grima R.
Legionellosis - A public health problem with occupational repercussions
Legionelosis - Un problema de salud pública con repercusiones en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
This article presents Spanish regulations on the prevention of legionellosis. Contents: legislation; various types of equipment that are subject to the current national regulations; notification of hazardous installations to the competent authority; log of installation maintenance operations; general prevention measures; prevention measures applicable to health care institutions; interventions by sanitary authorities; steps to be undertaken in cases of single outbreaks or epidemics; preventive measures that are referred to in legal texts adopted by the autonomous region of Valencia.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2003, No.164, p.28-38. Illus. 7 ref.
Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in medical laboratories
Prévention des infections transmises par voie sanguine dans les laboratoires médicaux [in French]
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen in medizinischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prevenzione delle infezioni transmese par la via ematica nel laboatori di analisi cliniche [in Italian]
Aimed at medical laboratory workers, this booklet addresses the issue of infection hazards from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the event of accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids. Contents: infection hazards; purpose of prevention; main preventive measures (avoiding pricks and injuries, avoiding contact with blood and biological fluids, ensuring cleanliness and hygiene during work, hepatitis B vaccination); measures to be taken in the event of accidental exposure. Updated version of CIS 90-2071.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 4th rev.ed., May 2003. 7p. 1 ref.
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-19-d.pdf [in German]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-19-f.pdf [in French]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-19-i.pdf [in Italian]
Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections during patient care
Prévention des infections transmises par voie sanguine lors de soins aux patients [in French]
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen beim Umgang mit Patienten [in German]
Prevenzione delle infezioni trasmese par la via ematica nel contatto con i pazienti [in Italian]
Aimed at health care workers in contact with patients, this booklet addresses the issue of infection hazards from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the event of accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids. Contents: infection hazards; purpose of prevention; main preventive measures (avoiding pricks and injuries, avoiding contact with blood and biological fluids, ensuring cleanliness and hygiene during work, hepatitis B vaccination); measures to be taken in the event of accidental exposure. Updated version of CIS 90-2070.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 5th rev.ed., May 2003. 7p. 1 ref.
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-20-d.pdf [in German]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-20-f.pdf [in French]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/02869-20-i.pdf [in Italian]
Health and Safety Executive
Control of legionella bacteria in water systems: Audit checklists
This document provides checklists designed to help the responsible person in an enterprise audit the arrangements in place to control legionella bacteria in water systems in the premises. Three checklists are presented: one for the auditing of the risk assessment process and two for the auditing of the system itself (cooling towers and hot and cold water services).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2003. 19p. Price: GBP 4.25.
Work-related lung disease surveillance report - 2002
This report is a summary of statistical data for various occupational respiratory diseases on work-related lung diseases in the United States. The data are presented in a series of figures and tables and cover asbestosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, unspecified and other pneumoconioses, all pneumoconioses, malignant mesothelioma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory conditions due to toxic agents, tuberculosis, lung cancer, other interstitial pulmonary diseases, various work-related respiratory conditions and smoking prevalence by industry and occupation. Data are given on mortality, morbidity, and exposure by state, industry, occupation and causal agent.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, May 2003. xxxiv, 246p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2003-111/pdfs/2003-111.pdf [in English]
Mohren D.C.L., Swaen G.M.H., van Amelsvoort L.G.P.M., Borm P.J.A., Galama J.M.D.
Job insecurity as a risk factor for common infections and health complaints
The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal impact of job insecurity on common infections and health complaints. Self-administered questionnaire data were used from the Maastricht Cohort Study comprised of 12,140 subjects. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. A cross-sectional relationship between job insecurity and common infections or health complaints was found. For the longitudinal relationship, the largest effect was found for flu-like illness (OR 1.39) and health complaints (OR 1.51). Corrections were additionally made for health behaviour, the presence of a long-standing illness, and work-related demands, resulting in lower ORs. Increases in common infections or health complaints have a substantial impact on employee well-being and may result in economic consequences for the company.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.45, No.2, p.123-129. 30 ref.
Tedders S.H., Jobin T.L., Vogel R.L., Dever G.E.A.
Estimated risk of death among employees in agriculture and agriculture-related industries in Georgia, 1985-1994
The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of death among white and black farmers to non-farmers in Georgia. Mortality data for farming and agricultural operations stratified by age and aggregated by race were retrieved from the Georgia Office of Vital Statistics for the years 1985-1994. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all causes of death. Among white farmers, the risk of death was significantly high for tuberculosis (OR 1.64), fires (OR 1.60) and accidental drowning (OR 1.52). The leading causes of death among black farmers was accidental drowning (OR 1.53), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.27) and ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.21). Causes of death reported to be significantly low were also investigated. The trends observed in this study appear to be similar to those observed at the national level.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.27-38. 24 ref.
Lessons learned from SARS
This article presents examples of how the Canadian operations of several multinational enterprises with frequent contact with East Asia reacted to the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among their employees. It outlines the main preventive actions that need to be taken in the event of a new outbreak of SARS. These include hazard evaluation, identification of alternatives such as home work and developing a human resource policy response addressing the issues of absenteeism, safety and health, commuting and travel. Guidance aimed at employers and employees on the main control measures of infectious diseases are also provided, in the form of check lists.
Accident Prevention, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.50, No.5, p.12-17, 36-37. Illus.
Ruiz Figueroa M.J., García Puente N.E.
Prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing
La prevención del riesgo biológico en la ganadería [in Spanish]
The livestock rearing sector is subject to the provisions of Royal Decree 664/1997 of 12 May on the protection of workers against biological hazards (see CIS 98-411). Following a brief overview of legal requirements with respect to the prevention of biological hazards in livestock rearing and a presentation on the current situation of the sector in Spain (types of farms and production data), this document, aimed at occupational health services goes on to provide information enabling the qualitative evaluation of biological hazards and the control of preventive measures in the sector. Topics covered: definitions of biological pathogens, risk groups and occupational risk classification; tables showing the hazards associated with certain tasks in various sectors mentioning the biological hazards to which workers are exposed, the hazard group and the disease caused; clinical, biological or functional diagnosis of all diseases caused by biological agents; technical and medical prevention measures for various biological hazards; recommendations for the prevention of hazards in livestock rearing.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 140p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: EUR 3.44.
Actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures
Conduite à tenir en cas d'accident avec exposition au sang [in French]
This leaflet summarizes the main actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures, namely: cleaning (rinsing copiously with clean water in cases of eye or mouth exposure, cleaning and disinfecting in cases of needle-stick or other skin injuries); reporting the accident and informing the occupational physician; setting up the biological monitoring system.
Association interprofessionnelle des centres médicaux et sociaux de la région Ile-de-France, 55 rue Rouget-de-l'Isle, 92158 Suresnes Cedex, France, 2003. 4p. 2 ref.
Malard S., Schaffner F., Le Bâcle C.
Dengue: A public health problem related to certain occupational activities
La dengue: un problème de santé publique lié à des activités professionnelles [in French]
Dengue is a viral disease characterized by high bouts of fever accompanied by tremors, frontal headache, myalgia and intense musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower extremities. It may be fatal. The objective of this feature article is to discuss the risks of importing into France the mosquito vector of the disease (Aedes), to alert the enterprises at risk by way of their occupational physician and to propose preventive measures. Contents: sectors of activity concerned by the disease (direct exposure to goods imported by sea from Asia and Africa, in particular used tyres and plant seedlings); evaluation and characterization of the hazard (description of the disease and its vectors); prevention within the enterprise (current sanitary regulations, storage, disinfection); specific problems faced by French overseas territories.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.94, p.151-160. Illus. 26 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/la_dengue_probleme_sante_publique_lie_activites.html [in French]
Health and Safety Executive
Managing health and safety at recreational dive sites
This booklet provides guidance for persons involved with the management of safety and health at recreational dive sites, and is aimed primarily at site owners and operators. It describes the main risks at dive sites and recommends a series of steps that can safeguard the health and safety of employees, divers and other visitors to the site. The guidance applies to any expanse of water such as lakes, private beaches or harbours where access to divers is controlled as part of a business. Appendices include relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2003. iii, 48p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.
Brasseur G., Balty I., David C., Le Bâcle C., Leprince A.
Biological hazards in the workplace: Does it concern all of us?
Risques biologiques au travail - Sommes-nous tous concernés? [in French]
Many biological agents are encountered in occupational settings. They may give rise to allergies or cancers, and the toxins they liberate may cause poisonings. According to a survey carried out in 1994, 10% of French employees are exposed to biological agents in the course of their work. Health care personnel, persons working in the presence of animals, laboratory workers, workers in the food industry and waste disposal workers are particularly exposed to this hazard. This collection of articles discusses some of the general aspects of these hazards, applicable regulations and appropriate preventive measures, and describes the specific aspects of a number of industries ands sectors: antenna maintenance workers exposed to bird droppings; manufacturing processes involving fermentation; chicken processing plants; medical laboratories; processing of meat carcasses.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2003, No.625, p.20-35. Illus. 3 ref.
National Code of Practice for the control of work-related exposure to hepatitis and HIV (blood-borne) viruses
Contents of this Code of Practice (1st edition, NOHSC:2010 (1993), see CIS 94-2115): introduction (hepatitis viruses and HIV); hazard identification; risk assessment; risk control (sharps, safe working procedures, standard precautions, risk control strategies for certain occupations, education and training, exposure incidents, vaccination, monitoring and evaluation). In the appendices: discrimination and privacy; principles of the storage, transport and disposal of clinical waste; what to do in the event of exposure of if you find a syringe; principles of standard precautions; workers with hepatitis B, C and HIV; glossary; sources of information.
AusInfo Government Info Shops, www.ausinfo.gov.au, Australia, 2nd ed., Dec. 2003. xiii, 53p. 19 ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/14850412-BF2D-4E22-B4F7-076CBD4383F6/0/HIV_2Ed_2003.pdf [in English]
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Official Mexican Standard - Environmental Protection - Environmental Health - Dangerous Biologically Infectious Residues - Classification and Specifications for Handling [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Protección ambiental - Salud ambiental - Residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos - Clasificación y especificaciones de manejo [in Spanish]
This standard was emitted in accordance with the provisions of the General law on ecological balance and environmental protection. Contents: definitions and terminology; classification of biologically dangerous infectious residues; classification of establishments generating biologically dangerous infectious residues; handling of such residues. The previous standard on the same subject (NOM-087-ECOL-1995) is repealed.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 17 Feb. 2003, Vol.DXCIII, No.10, p.10-20. Illus. 42 ref.
http://www.semarnat.gob.mx/ssfna/NOM/NOM087ECOL.zip [in Spanish]
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