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Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found

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  • Bacterial and parasitic diseases

2005

CIS 06-715 Reid A.J.
Brucellosis - A persistent occupational hazard in Ireland
A cross-sectional study of exposure to B. abortus (brucellosis) was carried out among 375 technical and support staff of the Department of Agriculture in Ireland using the complement fixation technique (CFT). A CFT of <1:8 was accepted as normal, i.e., no evidence of exposure to Brucella abortus. Results were compared with available medical records to differentiate new from old or established cases. The participation rate was 75%. Ten participants tested positive. Veterinarians, laboratory staff, and workers based in meat plants were at increased risk of exposure. 106 previous results were available. Eight of those who tested positive had previously been tested, and of these, four had converted from negative to positive in the intervening five years, a conversion rate of 8/1,000 employees per annum. Results suggest that exposure to B. abortus remains common among at-risk occupational groups in Ireland.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.302-304. 6 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Reid.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-668 Mulenga E.M., Miller H.B., Sinkala T., Hysong T.A., Burgess J.L.
Silicosis and tuberculosis in Zambian miners
Silicosis and tuberculosis (TB) are significant mining-related illnesses in developing countries. This study examined annual cases of these diseases in Zambian miners, including comparison of periods before (1960-1970) and after (1992-2002) the arrival of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The Occupational Health and Safety Research Bureau of Zambia reported 2114 cases from 1945 to 2002. Of these, 22.7% were silicosis, 65.4% TB, and the remaining 11.9% silicotuberculosis. While silicosis cases decreased from 28.6% to 12.4% with the arrival of HIV/AIDS, there was a large increase in TB cases (37.1% to 86.1%), with a corresponding decrease in silicotuberculosis cases (34.3% to 1.6%). Although silicosis remains an occupational health issue in Zambian miners, the most significant problem appears to be the marked increase in cases of TB.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.259-262. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Mulenga.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-599 Smith D.R., Leggat P.A., Takahashi K.
Percutaneous exposure incidents among Australian hospital staff
This study investigated all reported percutaneous exposure incidents (PEI) among staff from a large Australian hospital from 2001 to 2003. There were a total of 373 PEI, of which 38.9% were needlestick injuries, 32.7% were cutaneous exposures and 28.4% sharps-related injuries. Nurses were the most commonly affected staff members, (63.5% of the total), followed by doctors (18.8%) and other staff (17.7%). Needlestick injuries were responsible for the majority of nurses' PEI (44.7%) and sharps injuries for those of doctors (44.3%). Overall, the investigation suggests that PEI is a considerable burden for health care workers in Australia.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.323-330. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-712 de la Fuente L.
Prevention and control of Legionella pneumophila
Prevención y control de Legionella pneumophila [in Spanish]
This article describes the prevention and control of Legionella pneumophila, a bacteria which causes legionellosis (legionnaire disease) and Pontiac fever. Contents: characteristics of the bacteria; factors that contribute to its development (nutrients, resistance against biocides, water temperature); epidemiological aspects; clinical symptoms; diagnosis; prevention; equipment likely to be contaminated (hot and cold drinking water, cooling towers, evaporation condensers); relevant legislation and standards.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2005, Vol.25, No.99, p.15-27. Illus.
http://www.mapfre.com/fundaciones/es/FundacionMapfre/publicaciones/pdf/Prevencion_MapfreSeguridad_n99_art2.PDF [in Spanish]

CIS 06-713 Lot F., Miguéres B., Abiteboul D.
Occupational seroconversions through HIV and HCV among health care professionals in France, as of 31 December 2004
Séroconversions professionnelles par le VIH et le VHC chez le personnel de santé en France. Situation au 31 décembre 2004 [in French]
This article provides the results of a survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) contamination in occupational settings carried out by the French Health Monitoring Institute (Institut de veille sanitaire) and the results of a study by GERES (study group on health care workers' exposure to infectious agents) on occupational HCV contamination risk factors. No new cases of occupational HIV contamination were reported among health care personnel between 1997 and 2004 (a total of 13 HIV seroconversions were reported up to 1997). Between 1991 and 2004, 54 cases of hepatitis C conversions were reported among health care personnel. Results of the studies suggest that close to half of the HIV or HCV seroconversions occurring in occupational settings could have been avoided had standard precautions been observed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.335-346. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20143/$File/TF143.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-445 Smit L.A.M., Spaan S., Heederik D.
Endotoxin exposure and symptoms in wastewater treatment workers
This study investigated endotoxin exposure and work-related symptoms in wastewater treatment workers. Questionnaire on data on symptoms was obtained from 468 employees in 67 sewage treatment plants and personal endotoxin exposure was measured in a sample of workers in three different periods during one year. Endotoxin exposure ranged from 0.6 to 2093 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, the geometric mean exposure being low (27EU/m3). Factor analysis yielded three clusters of correlated symptoms: lower respiratory and skin symptoms, flu-like and systemic symptoms, and upper respiratory symptoms. Symptoms appeared to be more prevalent in workers exposed to endotoxin levels higher than 50EU/m3. A significant dose-response relationship was found for lower respiratory and skin symptoms and for flu-like and systemic symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.30-39. 38 ref.

CIS 06-448 Jarke J.
Occupational physicians and personnel with a chronic infection
Betriebsärztinnen/-ärtze und chronisch infiziertes Personal [in German]
Description of measures for preventing the transmission of pathogens by infected health care personnnel to patients and to other employees. The pathogens considered are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Precautions to be taken include continuous surveillance of infected personnel by an occupational physician, constant reminders of safety guidelines (use of protective gloves and appropriate containers for waste disposal) and notification of injuries to occupational physicians. Following an accident involving exposure to blood, a meeting should be held in the presence of the person concerned, the occupational physician, a virologist and representatives of the works council and the human resources department. The meeting should decide whether the person should continue his/her work or would benefit from transfer to other work. Among newly-infected people, the percentage who develop a chronic infection is from 5 to 10% for hepatitis B, 70% for hepatitis C and 100% for HIV.
Praktische Arbeitsmedizin, July 2005, No.1, p. 9-15. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.bsafb.de/fileadmin/downloads/pa_1_7_2005/pa_1_7_2005_chronisch_infiziertes_personal.pdf [in German]

CIS 06-328 Nienhaus A., Skudlik C., Seidler A.
Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff
Veterinarians and their staff in Germany file approximately 2000 accident and occupational disease claims each year. This article analyses the claims for the period from 1998 to 2002. The annual incidence rate for accidents in the workplace was 105.4 per 1,000 full-time workers, a rate 2.9-times higher than for general practitioners of human medicine. When only severe accidents resulting in a loss of work time of more than three days are included, the relative risk increases to 9.2. 66% of the reported accidents are due to scratches, bites or kicks from animals. Claims of occupational disease are filed 2.7-times more often by veterinarians and their staff than by general practitioners and their staff. The occupational diseases most often concern the skin (39%), followed by allergic respiratory diseases (30.5%), and infectious diseases (19.1%).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2005, Vol.78, No.3, p.230-238. 45 ref.

CIS 06-320 Abadia G., Picu C.
Work-related zoonoses
Zoonoses d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted to man by animals. Common ways of becoming infected include working in occupations involving contact with animals. An understanding of the means of transmission of these diseases enables the selection of appropriate protective measures. These should be based on limiting risks at the source by adopting strict hygiene measures within the premises and at the individual level and by wearing personal protective equipment suited to the mode of entry of the responsible microorganism. Workers should also be informed of the potential hazards. This article describes the main zoonoses encountered in occupational settings and the corresponding means of prevention.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2005, No.149, 10p. 56 ref.

CIS 06-21 Joint ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS
Directives conjointes OIT/OMS sur les services de santé et le VIH/SIDA [in French]
Directrices mixtas OIT/OMS sobre los servicios de salud y el VIH/SIDA [in Spanish]
These guidelines aim to promote the sound management of HIV/AIDS in health services. They are intended for governments, employers, workers and others concerned with the delivery of health care. Contents: key principles of the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (see CIS 03-444); legal and policy framework; the health sector as a workplace and the recognition of HIV/AIDS as a workplace issue; occupational safety and health management systems (protection against infectious pathogens, safe work practices, monitoring and evaluation); exposure incident management; treatment and support; education and training; research and development. Includes an overview of international programmes and instruments and 12 fact sheets on control measures designed to protect health workers from exposure to HIV and other infectious pathogens.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xiv, 80p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/publ/hsgl.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmehs05/guidelines.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmehs05/guidelines.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-728 Advice on working with influenza viruses
Information sheet on safe working practices in laboratories where exposure to influenza viruses is a realistic possibility. Contents: current classification; recommendations for laboratories knowingly handling influenza viruses; diagnostic work; use of microbiological safety cabinets; planning for pandemics. In annex: guidance on the application of the Specified Animal Pathogens Order 1998.
Health and Safety Executive (http://www.hse.gov.uk/), United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (6p.)
http://www.hse.gov.uk/biosafety/diseases/acdpflu.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-579 The seafarers' medical service
Le service de santé des gens de mer [in French]
Information sheet on the organization of the French national medical service for sailors and other people in maritime occupations. The service is involved in: aptitude tests; medical inspection of ships registered in France; health-related training in French maritime colleges; participation on on-board OSH committees. A special supplement concerns advice on how to avoid infection with avian influenza. Also covered are: history of the service; organization, mission and activities of the service; statistics on maritime accidents.
Direction des affaires maritimes et des gens de mer (DAM), Paris, France, [c2005]. Internet document, several pages.
http://www.mer.gouv.fr/hommes/05_medical/01_ssgm/liste_pages.htm [in French]

CIS 05-727 Working with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Information sheet on avian influenza (also known as bird flu), aimed at people who may be exposed to infected animals. There are two associated data sheets with more specific information: Avoiding The Risk Of Infection When Working With Poultry That Is Suspected Of Having Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Avoiding The Risk Of Zoonotic Infections When Working With Poultry That Is Not Suspected Of Having Avian Influenza.
Health and Safety Executive (http://www.hse.gov.uk/), United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (2+2+1p.)
http://www.hse.gov.uk/biosafety/diseases/avianflu.htm [in English]

CIS 05-726 Avian influenza: Frequently asked questions
Grippe aviaire: questions fréquemment posées [in French]
Data sheet on the dangers of this new infectious disease, also known as bird flu. Implications for human health, including the possibilities of infection in an occupational setting (by workers in contact with infected birds), are discussed.
World Health Organization (WHO), ave. Appia 20, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. Internet publication (6 pages)
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/en/index.html [in English]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/fr/index.html [in French]

CIS 05-725 Avian influenza: Hazards in the workplace and preparations for a possible pandemic
Grippe aviaire: risques en milieu professsionnel et perspectives en cas de pandémie [in French]
Information sheet on avian influenza. Contents: overview (viral disease, modification of type-A influenza, spread by birds, origin in the Far East); potential of very high mortality; incubation period (1-2 days in birds, a bit longer in humans); transmission; means of protection; groups at particular risk of being infected; recommendations to people who may have to visit infected areas for professional reasons; advice to people returning from infected areas (if they develop suspicious symptoms); relationship between avian and human influenza; preparations for a possible pandemic.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75680 Paris, Cedex 14, France, updated edition, 2005. Internet document (7p.) Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/18ED664BAC0BD9CAC125705000570B29/$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]

2004

CIS 08-1219 Laboratory biosafety guidelines
Lignes directrices en matière de biosécurité en laboratoire [in French]
Contents of this detailed manual on biosafety procedures to be followed in laboratories handling infectious materials: biological safety; handling infectious substances; laboratory design and physical requirements; commissioning, certification and recertification for CL3 and CL4 laboratories [CL = Containment Level]; large-scale production of microorganisms; programme-specific guidelines (laboratory animals, recombinant DNA and genetic manipulation, cell lines); decontamination; biological safety cabinets; regulatory aspects for handling infectious substances in Canada.
Health Canada (http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/), Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3rd ed., 2004. vii, 113p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index.
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/lbg-ldmbl-04/pdf/lbg_2004_f.pdf [in French]
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/lbg-ldmbl-04/pdf/lbg_2004_e.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-958 Sulsky S.I., Grabenstein J.D., Gross Delbos R.
Disability among U.S. Army personnel vaccinated against anthrax
This study was conducted to examine whether U.S. Army personnel receiving one or more doses of anthrax vaccine between 1998 and 2002 were at higher risk of disability than unvaccinated personnel. A historical cohort study of 716,833 active-duty soldiers (154,456 vaccinated) was followed for 4.25 years to determine rates of evaluation for disability discharge. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate disability risk, while accounting for occupation and sociodemographics. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for men, women, permanent and temporary disability, musculoskeletal and neurological conditions were similar, ranging from 0.90 to 1.04. Alternate latency assumptions did not affect results. It is concluded that anthrax vaccination does not increase risk of disability.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.10, p.1065-1075. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 06-1113 Khalfallah T., Derouiche S., Abdallah B., Chaari N., Hanchi M.A., Akrout M.
Sick building syndrome in the banking sector in Tunis
Syndrome des bâtiments malsains dans le secteur bancaire de Tunis [in French]
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of sick building syndrome among 286 persons (182 men and 104 women) employed in 20 branches of one of Tunisia's leading banks. Data on personal characteristics and perceived symptoms were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. The main symptoms reported were headache (34.6% of subjects), chest tightness (23.4%), flu-like syndrome (16.4%) and eye irritation (15.0%). Other findings are discussed. The study establishes a link between these symptoms and sick building syndrome based on findings reported in other countries.
Bossons futé, 17 avenue Miss Cavell, 94100 Saint-Maur, France, 2004. Internet document (PDF format). 24p. Illus. 58 ref.
http://www.bossons-fute.com/Enquetes/sickbbuildingsyndrome.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-967 Wilburn S.Q., Eijkemans G.
Preventing needlestick injuries among healthcare workers: A WHO-ICN collaboration
Effective measures to prevent infections from occupational exposure of healthcare workers to infected blood include immunization against hepatitis B virus, eliminating unnecessary injections, implementing universal precautions, eliminating needle recapping, disposing of the sharp into a sharps container immediately after use, use of safer devices such as needles that sheath or retract after use, provision and use of personal protective equipment and training workers in the risks and prevention of transmission. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral medications can reduce the risk of HIV transmission by 80%. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Council of Nurses (ICN) launched a pilot project in South Africa, Tanzania and Vietnam to protect healthcare workers from needlestick injuries. The results of the pilot will be disseminated worldwide, along with best policies and practices for prevention.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.451-456. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 06-966 De Schryver A.A., Van Hooste W.L., Van Winckel M.A., Ven Sprundel M.P.
Heliobacter pylori infection: A global occupational risk for healthcare workers?
This literature review on the occupational risks from Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, was carried out to identify the risks to specific groups of healthcare workers. The risks were found to be highest for gastroenterologists, certain categories of nurses and workers caring for persons with mental disability. Results for other groups are not conclusive.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.428-432. 72 ref.

CIS 06-716 Mirón Hernández M.A.
Diseases caused by biological agents in the fishing sector
Enfermedades por agentes biológicos en el sector de la pesca [in Spanish]
Presented in the form of a table, this article summarizes the main infectious diseases that can affect fishermen, namely yellow fever, plague, tetanus, leptospirosis, skin infections, schistomiasis, amoebiasis, dermatomycosis, dermatitis and asthma. For each infectious agent, the table also mentions the mode of entry, characteristic symptoms, preventive measures and medical treatment.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2004, Vol.4, No.2, p.147-150. 8 ref.

CIS 06-283 Castro M., Moreira S., Santos C.S.
Occupational diseases in the region of Lisbon and Vale de Tejo 2003
Doenças profissionais na região de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo no ano de 2003 [in Portuguese]
Statistics of reported occupational diseases in the region of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo for the year 2003. Results are presented by age, sex, sub-region and outcome (with or without invalidity, degree of invalidity). Occupational diseases that resulted in the largest number of reports were hearing loss (147 out of 375) and musculoskeletal diseases (145 out of 375). Risk factors relating to these two diseases are described, together with applicable prevention measures.
Centro regional de saúde pública de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (CRSP), Av. Estados Unidos da América 53-D, 1700-165 Lisboa, Portugal, Dec. 2004. 32p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-450 Jarke J.
Health service personnel with chronic HBV, HCV and HIV infections - Guidelines for work versus exclusion from the profession
Chronisch HBV-, HCV-, HIV-infiziertes Personal im Gesundheitsdienst - Regelungen zur Berufsausübung versus Berufsverbote [in German]
Patients at health care centres should be effectively protected against viral infections (hepatitis, HIV) transmitted by infected health care personnel. While the occupational physician is responsible for health and safety at work rather than for protecting the patient, they must act with regard to the well-being of the patient. In Germany, no guidelines have been issued for the protection of patients which could serve as a guide to occupational physicians, infected health care workers and employers. Nevertheless, recommendations published by scientific institutions provide sufficient guidance for rational measures to be drawn up to allow infected workers to continue in their occupation and to enable employers to carry out their duties in accordance with labour laws. Unfortunately, those in charge often make decisions on an irrational or emotional basis, leading to discrimination and injustice for health care workers. It is argued that a legal directive is urgently needed.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 2004, No.8, p. 428-434. 12 ref.

CIS 06-203 Rusnak J.M., Kortepeter M.G., Aldis J., Boudreau E.
Experience in the medical management of potential laboratory exposures to agents of bioterrorism on the basis of risk assessment at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
This article describes a review of potential exposures to infectious agents of bioterrorism (bacterial, viral, or rickettsial agents) at the research laboratories of the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) from 1989 to 2002. The evaluation of 234 persons (78% vaccinated) for exposure to 289 infectious agents revealed five confirmed infections. Postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis was given for most moderate- or high-risk bacterial exposures, most unvaccinated minimal-risk exposures and some vaccinated minimal-risk exposures. It was concluded that a multifaceted policy of personal protective measures, vaccination, early assessment and postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis was effective in minimizing morbidity and mortality in at-risk workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.801-811. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 05-729 Avian influenza - Protecting poultry workers at risk
Contents of this information sheet: general information on avian influenza; measures for protecting poultry workers (follow biosecurity practices, recognize infection in poultry, take antiviral medication and get vaccination, know the signs and symptoms of human infection, wear personal protective equipment); respiratory protection; eye protection; protective clothing and hand-hygiene practices. In annex: table showing the advantages, disadvantages and price of different kinds of air-purifying respirators for protecting poultry workers.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2004. 8p.
http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib121304.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-723 Ott M.G., Zober A., Messerer P., Riemann J.F., Schilling D.
Illness experience before and after an initiative to identify, treat and prevent Helicobacter pylori-related diseases at the workplace
This study used aggregate medical claims data to evaluate the illness experience of 5160 employees at a chemical plant in Germany during the two years after and the two years before an intervention to identify, treat, and prevent Helicobacter pylori-related illnesses. Across all participants, a 2.1 fold reduction in ulcer-related illness episodes and a 1.1 fold reduction in episodes due to other stomach and duodenal diseases were achieved. Improvement in claims experience was most notable among 250 employees with ulcer findings on the screening examination. The H. pylori health initiative appears to have contributed to a cost-effective reduction in subsequent illness episodes due to ulcer and possibly due to other stomach and duodenal diseases.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.227-233. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 05-546 Morales-Suárez-Varela M.M., Olsen J., Johansen P., Kaerlev L., Guénel P., Arveux P., Wingren G., Hardell L., Ahrens W., Stang A., Llopis A., Merletti F., Aurrekoetxea J.J., Masala G.
Occupational risk factors for mycosis fungoides: A European multicenter case-control study
The objective of this case-control study conducted from 1995 to 1997 in several hospitals across Europe was to search for possible occupational factors associated with mycosis fungoides (MF), a chronic cutaneous lymphoma. 134 patients aged between 35 and 69 diagnosed with MF were identified and their diagnoses were checked by a second pathologist. Of the 118 histologically-verified cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definitive cases. 833 colon cancer controls and 2071 population-based controls were also interviewed A high risk of MF for men was observed in non-metallic mineral products industries (odds ratio (OR) 5.3), among glass and ceramics workers (OR 17.9), among technical salesmen (OR 8.6) and in the wholesale trade (OR 3.6). For women, a high risk was found in paper pulp manufacturing (OR 14.4), as well as among government executives (OR 4.8) and railway and road vehicle loaders (OR 3.9).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.205-211. 28 ref.

CIS 05-469 Lenhart S.W., Schafer M.P., Singal M., Hajjeh R.A.
Histoplasmosis - Protecting workers at risk
This booklet is a revised edition of the document analyzed under CIS 97-2064. It describes the nature and causes of histoplasmosis, an infectious disease caused by inhaling spores of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Main topics covered: definition of histoplasmosis; diagnosis; jobs and activities at risk of exposure to H. capsulatum spores; precautions to reduce exposure; selection and use of respirators; other personal protective equipment; other infectious agents to which workers could be exposed; further sources of information.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Dec. 2004. Rev.ed. vi, 31p. Illus. 146 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-109/pdfs/2005-109.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-344 Occupational safety and health - Inequalities between men and women
Sécurité et santé du travail - Hommes et femmes ne sont pas égaux [in French]
This special feature article focuses on sex-linked differences with respect to occupational accidents and diseases. In general, there is a higher frequency of accidents among men and of occupational diseases among women. The following aspects are discussed: occupational accidents; musculoskeletal disorders; ergonomics; stress; risks of infection among health care personnel; respiratory disorders; cancers; hearing loss. A summary of the findings of a European survey on women health care workers is included.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2004, No.645, Vol. I, p.16-27. Illus.

CIS 05-270
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety statistics highlights 2003/04
This report presents the statistics on workplace fatalities and injuries, and work-related ill health in the United Kingdom for 2003/2004. Data are presented by region and major sectors of activity. For occupational diseases, specific data are provided for musculoskeletal diseases, stress and violence, mesothelioma, asbestosis, pneumoconiosis, asthma, dermatitis, infections, hearing loss, vibration white finger and lead exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2004. 38p. Illus.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/overall/hssh0304.pdf [in English]

CIS 05-225 Balty L., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C.
Legionella in occupational settings
Légionelles et milieu de travail [in French]
The bacteria responsible for legionellosis, Legionella pneumophila, was identified in 1997. Propagation of the disease in humans occurs through the inhalation of micro-droplets of contaminated water. Despite the lack of data on contamination in occupational settings, it is generally accepted that certain occupational groups are at risk of exposure. The prevention of hazards related to Legionella is based on the sound design of equipment, followed by appropriate management and maintenance. Occupational physicians and persons responsible for occupational hygiene in enterprises where equipment that may present a hazard is present frequently question the INRS on the means of prevention against Legionella and on the surveillance systems to be implemented. The objective of this review article is to present the current state of knowledge in this area and to describe the appropriate prevention measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2004, No.98, p.173-199. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%2098/$File/TC98.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-228 Salico de Sosa S.H.
Biological safety in blood banks
Bioseguridad en bancos de sangre [in Spanish]
Blood banks are responsible for collecting and preparing blood formulations for transfusion. These operations need to be carried out with care to avoid the exposure of personnel, donors and patients. This article describes the hazards that are inherent in the activities of blood banks (chemical, physical, psychological and social hazards, but primarily biological hazards related to blood exposure), the biological safety measures to be adopted, prophylaxis (vaccination against HBV, possibly with injection of IgG) and the procedure to adopt in the event of an accident, in particular when involving exposure to contaminated blood. Current Argentinean biological safety standards and regulations are also cited.
Salud Ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.XXII, No.88, p.7-14. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 05-227 Insausti Macarrón D., Caso Pita C., Rodríguez de la Pinta M.D., Gómez Parra I.R., Lucas J.C., Cruzet Fernández F.R.
Hepatitis C virus infection among health care personnel following accidents involving biological material
Infección por virus de hepatitis C en profesionales sanitarios tras accidente con material biológico [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to analyse cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections that occurred following accidents involving biological material reported between 1991 and 2002 among the health care personnel of a Spanish hospital. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. 554 needlestick injuries with potential HCV contamination were reported during the study period. Five workers were infected, corresponding to an overall risk of 0.9%. Unexpected situations being difficult to avoid, it is advised that health care personnel be provided with safe equipment and that accident cases be followed so as to allow the early detection and efficient treatment of cases.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2004, Vol.L, No.195, p.31-38. 25 ref.

CIS 05-226 Caso Pita C., Insausti Macarrón D., Rodríguez de la Pinta M.L., Lucas J.C., Alonso Cobo M.T., Cruzet Fernández F.
Viral hepatitis among health care workers: Time trends
Hepatitis víricas en personal sanitario: Evolución temporal [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to examine the trends in the incidence of viral hepatitis cases among workers of a Spanish hospital between 1979 and 2003. 253 cases of occupational disease caused by a biological agent were recorded during this period, including 89 cases of hepatitis (35.2%). The distribution of hepatitis cases by category of staff shows that qualified nurses and physicians are the most affected. The incidences of all types of hepatitis and hepatitis B show a decreasing trend during the study period, with very low rates since 1985 when hepatitis B vaccination was first introduced. A significant decrease was also observed for hepatitis C or non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2004, Vol.L, No.194, p.11-21. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 05-22 Parreira Cano M.M.
Potential workplace exposure to microorganisms
Exposição potencial a microorganismos no local de trabalho [in Portuguese]
This information booklet, which is primarily intended for employers and employees of small enterprises, describes the risks of potential workplace exposure to microorganisms. Contents: general aspects of workplace contamination and contagion; classification of microorganisms; evaluation of exposure hazard (hazard identification, epidemiological chain of events); measures aimed at preventing or reducing the risk (hygiene end personal protection measures, medical supervision, safety and health training); potential exposure of workers (contamination of ventilation systems, facade cleaning or building preservation work, work on archive documents, contamination of workplace air); workplace air quality control, occupations at risk of exposure to microorganisms or other biological agents; current legislation.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, March 2004. 56p. Illus.

CIS 04-629 Tchicaya A.F., Bonny J.S., Yeboue-Kouame Y.B., Wognin S.B., Kouassi M.Y.
Study of exposure to aromatic amines in the chemical industries in Abidjan
Etude de l'exposition aux amines aromatiques dans les industries chimiques à Abidjan [in French]
Aromatic amines are carcinogens. Prolonged exposure leads to bladder cancer. To assess the extent of this exposure, a prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among chemical industries in Abidjan. Interviews with workers were followed by job observations. Participants consisted of 362 workers (all male) of average age 34 years working in 12 companies where aromatic amines were used. Natural ventilation was the only form of ventilation in 75% of the cases. Monitoring of the working atmosphere was carried out in only 44% of the cases. Heavy nicotine addiction and urinary bilharziosis were found in 2% and 10.5% of the workers respectively. Personal protective equipment was insufficient and inadequate. Hygiene and working conditions safety committees were unknown or non operational and medical supervision was restricted to annual chest radiographs. These findings indicate the presence of bladder cancer risk and a poor enforcement of regulatory protection measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 2004, Vol.65, No.1, p.36-40. 17 ref.

CIS 04-713 Ravallec C.
Health care wastes that present infectious hazards - Waste disposal system
Déchets d'activités de soins à risque infectieux - La filière d'élimination [in French]
Health care wastes that present infectious hazards are an important public health issue. These potentially contaminated wastes are generated during medical or veterinary activities, and may expose persons handling or otherwise coming into contact with them to biological hazards such as HIV, HBV or HCV. Approximately 155,000 tons of these wastes are generated each year in France. Their disposal requires the involvement of specialized waste disposal enterprises, which apply strict traceability controls at each step. Precautions need to be taken starting from the time the wastes are generated. They need to be placed in suitable packaging according to the type of waste and the hazard it involves. Separation should be carried out at the source. Intermediate storage of these packages should be in containers placed in a suitable area that satisfies precise criteria. Waste collection should be carried out by persons specially trained with respect to biological hazards. Important precautionary measures should be taken during the incineration of these wastes. Empty containers should be washed and disinfected before being re-introduced into the collection cycle.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2004, No.642, p.28-39. Illus.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/ArchivesTS/ArchivesTS.nsf/(allDocParRef)/TS642page29_1/$File/TS642page29.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 04-715 Abiteboul D., Antoun F., Bessa Z., Bouvet E., Billy C., Dautzenberg B., Decludt B., Gaudelus J., Jarlier V., Lerasle S., Siruguet O., Vincent V., Balty I., Bayeux M.C., Comolet T., Delarue C.
Preventive measures and response to tuberculosis in France - Synthesis and recommendations of the French Public Health Commission (2002-2003)
Prévention et prise en charge de la tuberculose en France - Synthèse et recommandations du groupe de travail du Conseil supérieur d'hygiène publique de France (2002-2003) [in French]
A working group commissioned by the French Public Health Commission published a report containing recommendations on the prevention of, and response to, tuberculosis in France. This special feature on tuberculosis includes a summary of the first three chapters of the report highlighting information relevant to occupational health services (epidemiology, organization of the monitoring of tuberculosis in France and role of tuberculosis prevention services). Five further chapters with implications for the practice of occupational physicians are reproduced in full.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2004, No.97, p.21-49. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/DMT_TC%2096/$File/Visu.html [in French]

CIS 04-472 Clostridium difficile
Clostridium difficile [in French]
Datasheet on the bacterial disease CDAD (Clostridium difficile-associated disease), associated with diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation. The disease can spread from patients to health-care personnel who take antibiotics or who are immune-compromised.
Internet information note, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 135 Hunter Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1M5, 2004. 2p.
http://www.cchst.ca/reponsessst/biol_hazards/clostridium_difficile.html [in French]
http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/biol_hazards/clostridium_difficile.html [in English]

CIS 04-470 Biagini R.E., Sammons D.L., Smith J.P., Page E.H., Snawder J.E., Striley C.A.F., MacKenzie B.A.
Determination of serum IgG antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in environmental sampling workers using a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay
To evaluate potential exposure to Bacillis anthracis (Ba) spores in 28 sampling and decontamination workers in the aftermath of an anthrax terror attack in October 2001, serum Ba anti-protective antigen (PA) specific IgG antibodies were determined using a newly developed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay (FCMIA). Four serum samples gave positive anti-PA IgG results, from the pre-entry and follow up samples of two workers who had received their last dose of anthrax vaccine in 2000. It appears that the workers either had insufficient exposure to Ba spores to cause the production of anti-PA IgG antibodies or they were exposed to anthrax spores without producing antibody. The FCMIA appears to be a fast, sensitive, accurate and precise method for the measurement of anti-PA IgG antibodies.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.61, No.8, p.703-708. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 04-332 Azaroff L.S., Levenstein C., Wegman D.H.
The occupational health of Southeast Asians in Lowell: A descriptive study
To assess the occupational health of a group of vulnerable immigrant workers, 160 residents of Cambodian or Lao origin in Lowell in the U.S. State of Massachusetts were interviewed regarding working conditions, health problems and use of medical services. Over 40% reported working in electronics and computer assembly. A fourth of those currently employed held temporary jobs. Workplace hazards included soldering fumes, inadequate ventilation, prolonged sitting or standing, awkward postures, unguarded machinery, shift work, long hours and pressure to produce quickly. Common work-related health problems included sprains and strains, headache, dizziness and flu-like symptoms. Less than a third of the respondents were aware of workers' compensation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.47-54. 40 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1001_Azaroff.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-326 Attfield M.D., Costello J.
Quantitative exposure-response relationship for silica dust and lung cancer in Vermont granite workers
Exposure evaluation data for the years 1924 to 1977 were analysed in conjunction with mortality data to examine quantitative exposure-response for silica, lung cancer and other lung diseases in a cohort of granite workers in the U.S. state of Vermont. The findings indicated a clear relationship of lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, non-malignant lung disease and kidney cancer with cumulative exposure. An exposure to silica of 0.05mg/m3 from age 20 to 64 was associated with a lifetime excess risk of lung cancer for white males of 27/1000. The results of this study of workers exposed almost exclusively to silica and no other major occupational confounding exposures indicate a clear exposure-response for lung cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.45, No.2, p.129-138. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 04-86 Lazor-Blanchet C., Rusca S., Vernez D., Berry R., Albrecht E., Droz P.O., Boillat M.A.
Acute pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland
Waterproofing agents are widely used as stain-repellents on indoor floor and wall tiles. They are applied by spraying, generally by professionals, but sometimes also by consumers themselves. This article describes three cases of acute respiratory injury in healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within two hours after exposure, they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two also showed hypoxaemia and flu-like reactions. All three improved with supportive treatment within a few days. The mechanism of toxicity is still under investigation, but experimental data suggest the role of this new acrylate fluoropolymer. Both workers and consumers should be warned about the risks of spraying floor stain repellents, informed about the importance of proper air circulation within the premises and instructed to avoid concomitant smoking.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2004, Vol.77, No.4, p.244-248. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 04-228 Tuberculosis - Guidelines for workplace control activities
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's leading causes of illness and death. Two million persons die of TB each year. The AIDS epidemic has fuelled the increase in TB, as persons with weakened immune systems due to HIV are particularly vulnerable to TB. This leaflet presents the broad outline of a workplace policy and programme on TB prevention proposed by the ILO and that may be implemented at the place of work. It is based on the following principles: recognition of TB as a workplace issue; non-discrimination; confidentiality; healthy work environment; care and support; social dialogue. A cost-effective TB management programme undertaken by a South African mining company is summarized in a box.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, [c2004]. 4p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.stoptb.org/material/ilo_brochure.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-226 Shvartsblat S., Kochie M., Harber P., Howard J.
Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee
Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound during a contact with a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever in a pet shop work setting. Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. Education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small business such as pet shops.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.357-360. 5 ref.

CIS 04-227 HIV/AIDS and work: Global estimates, impact and response
This report presents the estimates by the ILO of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the working population of 50 countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in more developed regions. Contents: global estimates of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work; macroeconomic impact; impact of HIV/AIDS in the private and public sectors, agriculture and informal economy; impact on women and children; policy implications; response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. xii, 99p. Illus. 149 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/trav/aids/publ/global_est/glob_report_2004rev.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1922 Setbon M.
Hazards, public health and decision processes
Risques, sécurité sanitaire et processus de décision [in French]
The evaluation of major public health hazards is a central aspect of national health-care planning. Decision processes represent a key step determining whether these hazards and risks justify or not the launching of public intervention programmes. Resulting decisions are nationwide in scope. These hazards or risks can be relevant to three areas: the health care system, food and the environment. This publication presents the results of a retrospective research project aimed at making it easier to understand sanitary safety decisions taken in response to hazards or risks. Eight cases are studied, which then form the basis of a comparative overview.
Elsevier SAS, 23 rue Limois, 75725 Paris cedex 15, France, 2004. 170p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 30.00.

CIS 03-1709 Beaucousin M., Borel P., Goudifa P., Goujon E., Hubert O., Klarsy D., Mageau E., Mignot G., Redor F.
Mobile phone antennae maintenance and repair technicians
Le technicien d'exploitation d'antenne de radiotéléphonie mobile [in French]
Contents of this occupational medicine data sheet on the job of mobile phone antenna maintenance and repair technicians: general characteristics of the job; technical and organizational characteristics; constraints and working conditions (related to the working environment, climatic and geographic conditions, work organization, tasks and equipment); hazard evaluation methods (metrology); health hazards and occupational diseases; prevention; medical supervision; regulations; work aptitude.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, 2p. Insert. 4 ref.

CIS 03-1918 Biardeau B.
Advice to expatriates - Sub-Saharan Africa
Conseils aux expatriés - Afrique subsaharienne [in French]
A growing number of enterprises assign their personnel to postings abroad for varying durations. Occupational physicians need to ensure the safety and health of staff against the hazards related to these foreign postings. This article describes the protective measures that apply to Sub-Saharan African locations, and addresses the following topics: measures to be taken before travelling (vaccinations, prevention of sinusitis, first aid kits, traveller's medical kit); disorders that may arise during the trip (disorders related to air travel, in particular the "economy class syndrome"); precautions to be taken on arrival (measures against heat and sunlight); possible risks during the stay (road accidents, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue, sexually-transmitted diseases, rabies); what to do on return in the event of disorders; advice for pregnant women.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, p.17-25. 7 ref.

CIS 03-1910 Seidler A., Nienhaus A., Diel R.
The transmission of tuberculosis in the light of new molecular biological approaches
This review briefly summarizes the recent achievements in tuberculosis epidemiology associated with the introduction of molecular methods, and considers the implications of these methods for the understanding of occupational tuberculosis transmission. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution of recently-transmitted tuberculosis, risk factors for recent transmission and the occurrence and frequency of exogenous re-infection. It is concluded that there is a need for occupational epidemiological studies that combine the methods of classical epidemiology with those of molecular epidemiology.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.61, No.2, p.96-102. 71 ref.

CIS 03-1928 David C.
Biological agents
Les agents biologiques [in French]
Occupational exposure to biological agents may give rise to hazards in cases where these agents are pathogenic. Some workers are exposed to biological agents under controlled conditions, for example in biotechnology research laboratories or in the pharmaceutical industry, while others may be exposed without fully understanding the hazards, as may be the case in waste water treatment, solid waste disposal or health care settings. In either case, the evaluation and prevention of biological hazards require a proper understanding of these pathological biological agents and their hazards. This document describes the various types of biological agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths), their form of life, their industrial relevance and their potential pathogenic effects.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2004, No.639, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref.

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