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Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found

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  • Bacterial and parasitic diseases

1992

CIS 93-845 Muñoz N., Bosch F.X., Shah K.V., Meheus A.
The epidemiology of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer
This volume is based on background papers from an IARC workshop held in Brussels, Belgium, in November 1991. Topics covered: epidemiology of cervical cancer and of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; clinical and morphological diagnosis of HPV-associated lesions and serological markers for other sexually transmitted agents; hybridisation and serological methods for HPV detection; methodological issues in HPV epidemiology; interactions between HPV and HIV; association of HPV and anogenital cancer and implications for screening policy.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1992. x, 288p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 28.00.

CIS 93-1030 Grimsley L.F., Jacobs R.R., Perkins J.L.
Varicella-zoster virus susceptibility in day-care workers
The susceptibility of day-care workers to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was evaluated by determining antibody to VZV in 545 day-care workers using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proportion of day-care workers susceptible to VZV was 4.8%, and the seronegativity among workers with a negative history of VZV infection was 13.6%. Susceptible workers identified by the serological screen should be sent home for 8-21 days after exposure if VZV infection occurs in the day care setting. All day-care workers of childbearing age should be given the option to be tested for immunity to VZV. Because reports indicate that adults from the tropics may have a higher susceptibility rate to VZV, it is recommended that all day-care workers from the tropics undergo serological screening.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 1992, Vol.7, No.3, p.191-194. 21 ref.

CIS 93-694 Holdsworth B., Sealey A.F.
Healthy buildings - A design primer for a living environment
A book written primarily for architects and people designing working and living environments. It discusses the problem of sick buildings, and emphasises the need for designing buildings for the needs of the people living and working in them, always keeping the local climate in mind. Chapters deal with: health as a design element; climate and human life; factors of influence (external: radiation, wind, outside temperature, precipitation and humidity, air composition and pollution, soil composition, radon, toxic and biological waste, noise and vibration, vegetation; internal: moisture, heating, ventilation, hypersensitivity to chemicals (tight building syndrome), legionnaires' disease, dust and microorganisms, other indoor pollutants (units: 1 olf = air pollution from one standard person; decipol: 1 decipol = 1 olf ventilated by 10L/sec of unpolluted air), indoor air quality, healthy HVAC systems design, displaced ventilation, electromagnetic radiation, internal electric services in buildings, visual appetisers and vegetation); international case studies of healthy buildings; healthy building codes; healthy and unhealthy building materials.
Longman Group UK Limited, Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, United Kingdom, 1992. 148p. Illus. 103 ref. Index.

CIS 93-675 Conrad D.J., Warnock M., Blanc P., Cowan M., Golden J.A.
Microgranulomatous aspergillosis after shoveling wood chips - Report of a fatal outcome in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease
Chronic granulomatous disease is characterised by recurrent infections that result from an inability of phagocytes to kill organisms effectively. A patient with this disease who developed aspergillus pneumonia after shovelling mouldy cedar wood chips is described. Despite aggressive therapy, the patient's condition deteriorated and he died. At autopsy, the lungs revealed diffuse granulomas, all of the same age, with aspergillus organisms confined to the granulomas. The term "microgranulomatous aspergillosis" is proposed for this response, which does not conform to the commonly described aspergillus syndromes. Susceptible immunosuppressed patients should be advised to avoid occupational situations where high spore concentrations are generated.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.22, No.3, p.411-418. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 93-542 Collins C.H., Beale A.J.
Safety in industrial microbiology and biotechnology
This collection of papers presents the views of a number of scientists on the hazards involved in work with both naturally occurring and genetically-modified microorganisms along with outline precautions. Contents: overview of safety in microbiology; current legislation (UK, other European countries, EEC directives, USA, Japan) and regulatory frameworks; hazard groups and containment categories; assessment of risk; pathogenicity testing; recombinant plasmids; safe handling of mammalian cells on an industrial scale; recombinant DNA techniques in production; engineering for safe processing; containment in the development and manufacture of recombinant DNA-derived products; monitoring and validation in biotechnological processes; occupational health implications of industrial biotechnology.
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 1992. ix, 257p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 60.00.

CIS 93-330 James D.W.B.
Legionnaire's disease - Update
Legionnaire's Disease is described as being a disease contracted by inhalation of a fine spray of airborne water which carries the Legionella Bacterium. Infection appears to be caused by contaminated water sprays used in such equipment as air-conditioning plant, industrial sprays and showers and cooling towers. Recommendations for risk reduction are described for hot and cold water services, cooling towers and other water services and an approved code of practice on the prevention and control of Legionellosis is summarised.
Industrial Safety Data File, Oct. 1992, p.G:23:7:1-G:23:7:5.

CIS 93-88 Lachapelle J.M., Frimat P., Tennstedt D., Ducombs G.
Occupational and environmental dermatology
Dermatologie professionnelle et de l'environnement [in French]
This review of dermatology is aimed at dermatologists and at occupational physicians. Contents: the biology of the skin, reactions of the skin to physical and chemical aggression; dermatoses due to physical and chemical agents; reactions of the skin to penetration by foreign matter; dermatoses due to airborne agents; skin cancer; dermatoses due to green plants; dermatoses due to living things other than green plants; changes in skin and hair; skin diseases, diabetes and venous diseases; self-inflicted skin conditions; dermatology and sports medicine; preventive measures; legislation; expert opinion and evaluation in dermatology. In appendices: test methods used in occupational dermatology; information on important allergens.
Masson, 120 Bd. Saint-Germain, 75280 Paris Cedex 06, France, 1992. 372p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-93 Malmros P.
Get wise on waste - A book about health and waste-handling
English version of a brochure for workers and managers, originally published as Nårskraldet skal ta's (CIS 92-1837). It summarises the physical, chemical and biological hazards encountered in waste sorting (microbial infections, allergies to microorganisms and postural problems are the most widespread). An overview of appropriate working methods and equipment is also presented. A list of Danish Working Environment Service reports, directives and guidelines giving more detailed background and instructions is appended.
Danish Working Environment Service, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 Kobenhavn Ø, Denmark, 1992. 36p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: DKK 80.00 + VAT.

CIS 93-329 Oakley K., Gooch C., Cockcroft A.
Review of management of incidents involving exposure to blood in a London teaching hospital, 1989-91
The study reviews management of incidents involving exposure to blood involving 438 health care workers and students in a London teaching hospital from 1989 to mid-1991. A total of 447 incidents were reported: 337 sharps injuries and 110 other exposures. A total of 310 staff reporting incidents were already immune to hepatitis B virus. Of 345 source patients identified, 77 had already been tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (28 positive results) and 58 for HIV antibodies (18 positive results). Of those not previously tested, 145 of 266 were subsequently tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (two positive) and 149 of 287 for HIV antibodies (none positive). Specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin was given to 18 staff who were not immune and was avoided in 11 cases by a negative result for the patient. Management of exposure to blood is improved by widespread immunisation against hepatitis B virus and by knowledge of source patients' hepatitis B virus and HIV status.
British Medical Journal, 11 Apr. 1992, Vol.304, No.6832, p.949-951. 16 ref.

CIS 93-338 Hodgson M.J., Hess C.A.
Doctors, lawyers and building-associated diseases
The decision on the severity and medical validity of complaints arising from "sick building syndrome" lies in the medical and scientific domain. However, compensation and disability are determined by lawyers, referees, and the courts. This article examines causation issues as dealt with by the biomedical sciences, along with the criteria for assessing causality. These criteria have developed from review of epidemiological data and from clinical cases. Legal definitions of causation are summarised, and several classic approaches to causation in law and medicine are described. Finally, published cases of diseases related to buildings are reviewed.
ASHRAE Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.25-31. 6 ref.

CIS 92-2060 de Juanes J.R., Lago E., Arrazola P., Ortega P., Astasio P., Jaén F.
Nursing faced by hepatitis B and C as occupational diseases: their prevention
La enfermería frente a las hepatitis B y C, como causa de enfermedad profesional: su prevención [in Spanish]
The occupational risk of hepatitis B and C virus infection is considered to be a serious problem for nursing personnel. Statistics on the infected population with hepatitis B virus, in particular nursing staff, are given. Adequate information and barrier methods (gloves, masks, clothes) are indicated as preventive measures for this disease, as well as vaccination, which is discussed in more detail. With respect to hepatitis C virus infection, the situation seems to be more uncertain. However, in case of possibility of infection with this virus, the administration of standard gammaglobulin is recommended.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.39, No.156. p.3-10. 30 ref.

CIS 92-1837 Malmros P.
When it's time to take out the trash - A book on waste sorting
Når skraldet skal ta's - En bog om affaldssortering [in Danish]
Brochure for workers and managers summarising the physical, chemical and biological hazards encountered in waste sorting; microorganisms (infection, allergy) and ergonomic problems (posture) are the most widespread. An overview of appropriate working methods and equipment is also presented. A list of Danish Working Environment Service reports, directives and guidelines giving more detailed background and instructions is appended.
Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1992. 36p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: DKK 80.00 + VAT.

CIS 92-2055 Fourrier A., Antona D., Abiteboul D., Bouvet E., Brucker G., Descamps J.M.
Risk of exposure to blood among nursing personnel: Results of a one-year monitoring programme in 17 hospitals
Risque d'exposition au sang pour le personnel infirmier - Résultats d'un an de surveillance dans 17 hôpitaux [in French]
This multi-centre study was conducted during the calendar year 1990. It was a follow-up to a 3-month study in 1989 (see CIS 92-1366), and examined the incidence and the circumstances of accidents involving exposure to blood among hospital nursing staff of intensive care and medical departments, the two departments most at risk according to the 1989 study. Main conclusions: it is essential to improve preventive efforts, if only for their educational value; medical equipment should be designed with safety in mind; work planning should also take safety into consideration. Nursing activities at the time of accident are analysed by type, frequency by department, seniority, and time elapsed since the beginning of the shift. In annex: list of participating hospitals.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1992, No.49, p.61-71. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 92-2052 Ares Camerino A., Sainz Vera B., Soto Pino M.L., Fernández Campos P., Bocanegra Díaz-Crespo R., Suárez Collantes M.
Prevalence of hepatitis B markers among personnel of child assistance centres
Prevalencia de marcadores de la hepatitis B entre el personal laboral de centros de infancia [in Spanish]
The Department of Occupational Health of Cádiz (Spain) planned a programme for the prevention of hepatitis B in personnel of child assistance centres. This programme consisted of two subprogrammes: (1) information on the disease, its control, protection and prevention measures; and (2) vaccination. This article provides information on the first stage of the vaccination subprogramme aimed at examining the immunological condition of the population under study. The prevalence of hepatitis B markers in the study population was even higher than in general hospital personnel. For this reason, hepatitis B prevention and vaccination programmes are recommended in such institutions.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1992, Vol.39, No.155, p.49-55. 21 ref.

CIS 92-2051 Arias Díaz V., Archanco López-Pelegrín C., Montes Ramos M.
Health education. A strategy for the control of biological risks in hospital workers and of nosocomial infection
La educación sanitaria. Una estrategia en el control del riesgo biológico de los trabajadores hospitalarios y de la infección nosocomial [in Spanish]
A training programme on health education was carried out in a penal hospital in Spain with a view to the control and prevention of hospital infections and accidents. Courses were designed and given to various categories of workers with potential exposure to infection: sanitary assistants, clinical assistants, guards and cleaning staff. The programme was evaluated through a survey of the working processes and a questionnaire survey. The results showed that working processes were standardised and safety and health measures improved after the course.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1992, Vol.39, No.155, p.3-20. 18 ref.

CIS 92-1498 Edmonds C., Lowry C., Pennefather J.
Diving and subaquatic medicine
Textbook aimed at doctors and paramedics working with divers who venture on or under the sea. Contents: history of diving; the physics, physiology and technology of diving; the diver and the undersea environment (stress, panic and fatigue, the female diver, undersea environments, the reasons why divers die); dysbaric diving diseases (pulmonary barotrauma, other barotraumas, decompression sickness, dysbaric osteonecrosis); abnormal gas pressures; underwater hazards (drowning and near-drowning, cold and hypothermia, infections, attacks by marine creatures, underwater explosions); other diving disorders (sudden cardiac death syndromes, ear disorders, hearing damage and vertigo, psychological and neuropsychological disorders, other health problems, drugs and diving); diving accidents (unconsciousness, first aid and emergency medical treatment, investigation of diving accidents, medical standards); related subjects (deep and saturation diving, hyperbaric medicine and equipment, submarine medicine). In the annexes: decompression tables (UK, USA, France); diving tables; recompression and saturation therapy tables (US Navy); Comex therapy tables; Australian underwater oxygen tables; flowchart used in treating decompression sickness.
Butterworth / Heinemann, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1991. x, 565p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 49.50.

CIS 92-792 Jeyaratnam J.
Occupational health in developing countries
This book provides coverage of the full range of issues related to occupational health in developing countries. It is an essential source of reference for all occupational health professionals, from academics and physicians to nurses and hygienists. Contents: section A - organisation of occupational health services (in developing nations in general, for agricultural workers, for small-scale industries; economics of such services); section B - technology for occupational health (hygiene, epidemiology and ergonomics in developing countries); section C - special occupational health issues (pesticides, heat, lung diseases, migrant workers, accidents, environmental standards at the workplace); section D - education, training and research (health-promotion at the workplace, sources of information, education and research policies and needs).
Oxford University Press, Saxon Way West, Corby NN18 9ES, United Kingdom, 1992. xx, 499p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 15.00.

1991

CIS 96-1889 Brucellosis: Descriptive study of health risk factors and working conditions
Brucelosis: Estudio descriptivo sobre factores de riesgo laboral y condiciones de trabajo [in Spanish]
Study of work-induced brucellosis in Spain. Contents: analysis of statistical data on brucellosis (1985-1989); socio-economic impact of the disease; aims of the study; study methods (study design, questionnaires used, geographical scope); analysis of results (analysis of notified cases, cases by profession and labour activity, cases of temporary incapacity, cases by season); clinical symptoms and laboratory tests; analysis by possible source of infection and animal hygiene implications; livestock installations; analysis of other factors (province, age, sex, washing facilities, hygienic habits, type of disease); conclusions (incidence in the labour force, classification of risk factors, registers); recommendations for prevention. In annex: list of abbreviations; list of illustrations and tables; questionnaire forms.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 148p. Illus.
96-1889.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 95-523
Health and Safety Executive
Control of Legionella
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1991. Videotape. Length: 25min. Price: GBP 32.98 (hire), GBP 102.50 (sale). [A 12min. shortened version, UK 4140 is also available. Price: GBP 11.49 (hire), GBP 42.13 (sale)]. ###

CIS 95-663 Rosner D., Markowitz G.
Deadly dust. Silicosis and the politics of occupational disease in twentieth-century America
The history of silicosis in America from its recognition in the early years of the 20th century is reviewed. The increasing severity of the sand dust problem in foundries as a result of changes in work methods, technology and organization is described along with the impact on workers' health. The broader social conditions that contributed to the emergence of silicosis as a national crisis and attempts by government, industry and insurance to resolve it are discussed. Finally, the waning interest in this condition on the part of business, health professionals and the labour unions is reviewed.
Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA, 1991. xiii, 229p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 15.95, GBP 13.95.

CIS 95-346 Crovari Tordecillas G.
Health self-assessment in the enterprise - A contribution to the fight against cholera and other illnesses spread by contamination
Autoevaluación sanitaria de la empresa - Un aporte frente al cólera y otras enfermedades debidas a la contaminación [in Spanish]
A sample questionnaire used to evaluate the risk of cholera and other related diseases in enterprises is presented. The main points included in this questionnaire, each point involving several aspects, are: site of the enterprise (rural, urban); plant analysis; drinking water; sanitary services; food facilities; waste products; waste water.
Asociación Chilena de Seguridad, Casilla 14565 - Correo Central, Santiago, Chile, 1991. v, 20p.

CIS 95-345 Göttlich E., Bardtke D.
Germ emissions by waste treatment
Keimemissionen bei der Müllverarbeitung [in German]
The results of bacteria and mould counts in the air of waste composting plants are summarized. Bacteria of the groups salmonella, pseudomonas and staphylococcus and moulds of the types aspergillus, penicillium and thermophilic actinomycetes were found in pathogenic concentrations. For thermophilic actinomycetes a concentration of 3.8 x 107 colonies/m3 was found at some workplaces. This high amount is known to have caused allergic alveolitis in agricultural workers. Bacterial counts reached 106 colonies/m3. This number is far above the threshold limit concentration of 103 colonies/m3.
Entsorgungs-Technik, Dec. 1991, Vol.3, No.6, p.32-35. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1474 Work with risk of infections [Sweden]
Smittfarligt arbete [in Swedish]
Rules applied to work where there is a risk of contamination. The appended safety guide gives advice on how to deal with contamination likely to occur in workplaces. Particularly exposed workers are nursing home staff, rescue staff, hospital staff, people working with children, social workers, workers in refugee services, police, people working with microbiological organisms, workers with animals, and workers in the food industry and industries dealing with biological material.
National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, May 1991. 19p.

CIS 94-718 Müller E., Wittig M.
Is chlamydia still an important pathogen to man? A case study
Chlamydien als Infektionserreger für den Menschen noch von Bedeutung? Eine Fallbeschreibung [in German]
A case of interstitial pneumonia was traced to Chlamydia ovis as causative agent. A female patient had worked three weeks before the outbreak of the disease on a temporary basis in a laboratory where chicken eggs were inoculated with Chlamydia ovis for producing a vaccine against the pathogen. Symptoms and treatment are described. A literature survey of known cases of infections with Chlamidiaceae reveals among other things birds and cattle as carriers of the pathogen. The importance of work history, serum diagnosis and chest radiography is stressed.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1991, Vol.26, No.4, p.153-156. 18 ref.

CIS 93-1552 Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France - Meeting of 18-19 October, 1990
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séances des 18 et 19 octobre 1990 [in French]
Subjects treated: epilepsy and dangerous work; cardiovascular ageing; a typical immunological response after hepatitis B in a laboratory worker; study of atmospheric concentration of chemicals contained in a new disinfection process not relying on aldehydes; diabetes and occupational health; trends in the reliance on biological tests in occupational medicine; survey on work experience in banking; notification and analysis of occupational diseases in the Loire Valley; reliance on paramedical staff in inter-corporation OSH services; occupational medicine in the rubber industry; role of the occupational physician in noise measurement; workplace survey after an atypical case of silicosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.6, p.424-445. Illus.

CIS 93-1237 Gómez-Trigueros J.C.
Occupational risks in dentistry and stomatology
Riesgos profesionales en odonto-estomatología [in Spanish]
Occupational health hazards, occupational diseases recognised in Spain and preventive measures, including personal protection when relevant, for workers in dentistry and stomatology. Hazards are classified in terms of the aetiological agent, which can be physical, chemical or biological. Physical agents discussed are ionising radiation, halogen lighting, lasers, noise, work posture, dust and aerosols, intraocular foreign bodies, and microtrauma and vibration. Chemical agents reviewed are mercury, irritants (e.g. acids and alkalis, solvents) and sensitisers (e.g. anaesthetics). Disorders caused by biological agents are presented as follows: eye, skin and respiratory infections, viral hepatitis, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Legal aspects, such as compensation of occupational diseases, are also discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.38, No.153, p.3-9; Oct.-Dec. 1991, Vol.38, No.154, p.3-14. 27 ref.

CIS 93-371
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens: Final Rule [USA]
This standard (effective 6 Mar. 1992), aimed at eliminating or minimising occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens (particularly Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)), concerns: definitions; exposure controls; methods of compliance (engineering and work practice controls, personal protective equipment, housekeeping); HIV and HBV research laboratories and production facilities; Hepatitis B vaccination and post-exposure evaluation and follow-up; communication of hazards to employees (labels and signs, information and training); recordkeeping. The introduction to the standard includes a very detailed discussion of: events leading to the standard; health effects of exposure to bloodborne pathogens (epidemiology and symptoms of Hepatitis B and AIDS; other bloodborne pathogens: syphilis, malaria, babesiosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, arboviral infections, relapsing fever, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, human T-lymphotropic virus type I, viral haemorrhagic fever); quantitative risk assessment (principally among health-care workers); significance of risk; regulatory impact/flexibility analysis; environmental impact.
Federal Register, 6 Dec. 1991, Vol.56, No.235, p.64003-64182. Illus.

CIS 93-679 Wada Y., Kamiyama S., Koizumi A.
Negligible risk of horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus among mechanics and salespersons in the automobile industry
Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among hospital patients and medical staff has been well documented. The high prevalence of hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) carriers in the Japanese population makes horizontal transmission in other occupational settings a real concern, but the actual risk of HBV infection has been unknown. The permanent work force of 44 automobile dealerships in Akita Prefecture (220 locations) was screened for HBsAg as part of routine medical examinations. Blood samples positive for HBsAg were tested for HBV core antigen to confirm the presence of persistent infection. The prevalence of HBV infection was much higher among subjects aged 35-44 than in other age groups. This reflects the hepatitis epidemics that followed the introduction of pertussis and polio vaccination programmes in 1948. The fact that infection did not spread into other age cohorts in these workplaces indicates that the risk of horizontal transmission is negligible when contact with biological fluids is unlikely.
Industrial Health, 1991, Vol.29, p.161-165. 12 ref.

CIS 93-674 Burrell R.
Microbiological agents as health risks in indoor air
The paper deals with the contamination of ambient air by microorganisms from occupational and environmental sources. Microorganisms that are uniformly injurious are differentiated from those which cause opportunistic infections in people with pre-existing disabilities. Microorganisms are categorised as allergenic, infectious, or capable of inducing toxic or inflammatory reactions when inhaled. Representative examples from each of these categories are discussed. The conditions responsible for the entrance of significant numbers of these microbes into the air, the mechanisms by which they produce injury, and the methods of prevention are also considered.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Nov. 1991, Vol.95, p.29-34. 22 ref.

CIS 93-121 Lanphear B.P., Snider D.E.
Myths of tuberculosis
This brief overview of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) outlines myths and misconceptions in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The myths are believed to be: (1) never repeat intradermal testing of persons who give a history of a positive reaction; (2) never give a tuberculin test to a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine recipient; (3) preventative therapy is too hazardous; (4) radiologic screening is effective; (5) TB is not an occupational disease. The paper outlines the occupations that attract persons at high risk of TB, occupations that increase susceptibility to development of active TB, and occupational settings which have an increased exposure risk to the disease.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.501-504. 54 ref.

CIS 92-1914 Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Proceedings of the Meetings of 27 April and 19 October 1990
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances du 27 avril et du 19 octobre 1990 [in French]
Papers presented at the meetings (Bordeaux, France, 27 April - 19 Oct. 1990): management of an accidental needle-prick injury contaminated with blood - role of industrial physician and general practitioner; occupational allergic dermatitis - a report on 437 cases observed in connection with occupational diseases; the actions and methodology of the occupational physician; contribution to the study of occupational warts - an epidemiological study conducted by the Mont-de Marsan (France) occupational health service in 1988.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.7, p.520-526.

CIS 92-1910 Serre C.
The bladder: target organ of tobacco - Prevention and detection of cancer
La vessie, organe cible du tabac - Prévention et dépistage du cancer [in French]
Summary of papers presented at a Colloquium organised in Paris on 24 May 1991 concerning the prevention and detection of bladder cancer and the role of tobacco smoking on its development. Main topics discussed: classification and evolution of bladder cancers; risk factors (results of an epidemiological survey of 700 cases; risk factors recognised today; role of tobacco; case-control study of environmental factors); detection, diagnosis and prognosis; role of endoscopy; anti-smoking campaings; role of the occupational physician in preventive efforts. It was recommended that in a case of bladder cancer all possible (present or past) occupational factors should be investigated, even in heavy smokers, so that the disease can be declared as an occupational disease or as being of an occupational nature.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1991, No.48, p.377-381.

CIS 92-1907 Bandaranayake D.R., Salmond C.E., Tobias M.I.
Occupational risk of hepatitis B for police and customs personnel
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to establish whether New Zealand police and customs officers are at excess risk of hepatitis B virus infection as a consequence of occupational exposure to human blood and penetrating injury. The control group was comprised of civilians employed by both police and customs organisations. The prevalence of hepatitis B markers in the control group, when standardised for age, sex and ethnic distribution, was 13.4%, which agrees well with New Zealand blood donor figures. The prevalence ratios for police officers and customs officers compared with the civilians (adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic distribution) were 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-1.06) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.34-0.70), respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to demonstrate any significant association between occupational variables and marker prevalence. There was an association between time spent living in high-risk areas of the country and marker prevalence.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Dec. 1991, Vol.134, No.12, p.1447-1453. 11 ref.

CIS 92-2053 Fernández Barboza R., Rivero D., Echeverría B., Machado I.
Cost-benefits of hepatitis B vaccination in Venezuelan hospital workers
Costo-beneficio de la vacunación contra la hepatitis B en trabajadores de hospitales de Venezuela [in Spanish]
A cost-benefit study of hepatitis B vaccination in Venezuelan hospital workers was performed through a decision tree analysis model, which includes the probabilities for the different outcomes of the hepatitis B virus infection (HBV). The current average cost of HBV infection to the Venezuelan Government was estimated at USD 1,759 per patient. Implementation of selective vaccination or a mass vaccination campaign for hospital workers would reduce the total cost of HBV infection by 49% and 72%, respectively, providing savings of USD 17 to 26 million. This type of economic analysis may influence the distribution of the resources to be allocated for the control of HBV infection in Venezuela. Summary in English.
Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, July 1991, Vol.111, No.1, p.16-23. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 92-1744 Gerst A., Gallissian C., Isnard G., Tarpinian N., Dubuc M., Auquier P., Manuel C.
Experience with AIDS in the workplace
Vécu du SIDA en milieu de travail [in French]
The results of an investigation carried out in an interprofessional occupational medical service in the Marseille region (France) are reported. The objective was to evaluate the level of knowledge about and tolerance of AIDS in a population of 70,000 employees of small and medium-sized enterprises. The study reveals the presence of baseless attitudes of rejection and a widespread desire for knowledge. The fact that tolerance seems to be correlated with knowledge justifies the implementation of an education programme targeted at the workplace.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.46, p.127-135. Illus. 20 réf.

CIS 92-1715 Lot F., Bouvet E., Laporte A.
AIDS and medical care personnel - Epidemiologic data
SIDA et personnel soignant - Données épidémiologiques [in French]
About 30 documented cases of transmission of HIV to health-care personnel have been published throughout the world. Reported cases of AIDS in France among health professionals are analysed in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of reported AIDS cases among them and to compare these cases with reported cases of AIDS among the active population in general. Another aim of the study was to examine cases of AIDS among health-care personnel for which the mode of contamination remained unknown.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1991, No.46, p.123-126. Illus.

CIS 92-1586 Tan C.C.
Occupational health problems among nurses
Nurses are an integral component of the health care delivery system. In discharging their duties, nurses encounter a variety of occupational health problems which may be categorised into biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial hazards. A review of some examples of each of these four types of hazards is presented. Particular attention has been devoted to hepatitis B, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, tuberculosis, cytotoxic drugs, anaesthetic agents, needlestick injury, back pain, and stress.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.17, No.4, p.221-230. 102 ref.

CIS 92-1599 Peyton R.X., Rubio T.C.
Construction safety practices and principles
This reference book surveys in detail construction safety principles and specific, effective how-to information for integrating safety into all aspects of jobsite operations. It demonstrates methods for incorporating safety management techniques into every phase of construction, from pre-job planning through project completion. It provides immediately applicable methods for effective jobsite safety, outlining employers' rights and responsibilities under OSHA guidelines, motivating employees to participate in the safety efforts and safety training. It also offers critical insights into current issues such as the worker component of accident causation, crisis management, hazard communication, substance abuse in the workplace, health hazards such as AIDS and hepatitis, and the sick building syndrome.
Chapman and Hall, Scientific Division of Associated Book Publishers Ltd., 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, 1991. vi, 266p. Illus. Index. Price: GBP 29.00.

CIS 92-1190 Wang J.D., Lai M.Y., Chen J.S., Lin J.M., Chiang J.R., Shiau S.J., Chang W.S.
Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers
The purpose of this study was to determine liver damage associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure. Liver function tests, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 workers of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were also measured. High exposure concentrations of DMF (25-60ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT≥35IU/L), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. The study demonstrates that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p=0.01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p=0.07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase activities, especially among those who were not hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. Liver damage among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF but it is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among hepatitis B surface antigen carriers be evaluated further.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1991, Vol.46, No.3, p.161-166. 21 ref.

CIS 92-1030 Vincent-Ballereau F., Lafaix C.
Prevention of blood transmitted infections in health care personnel: How to choose the containers for the disposal of sampling materials
Prévention des infections transmises par le sang chez les personnels de santé: comment choisir les conteneurs destinés à recueillir le matériel de prélèvement ou d'injection? [in French]
The study of different types of containers usable for the disposal of sampling and injection instruments has led to the establishment of 10 quality criteria. Those are described in detail in order to provide guidance to the user.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1991, No.2, p.146-151. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 92-1029 Leprince A.
AIDS at the working place
SIDA et milieu de travail [in French]
Review of the workplace aspects of HIV/AIDS: contamination hazard for co-workers, dangers of continuing the employment of an HIV-infected worker at specific workplaces. The risk of being infected by HIV at the workplace is discussed, the occupational hazard being as of now demonstrated only in hospitals, health care facilities and laboratories. Guidance for safe working methods and reporting of incidents involving contact with the blood of the patient.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 1991, No.2, p.132-145. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 92-889 Lewy R.M.
Employees at risk - Protecting the health of the health care worker
This book presents the current changes in the management of hospital employee health risks, and identifies infectious, chemical and physical hazards existing in to-day's health care workplace. It offers a coordinated approach to potential hazard assessment, biological monitoring, environmental surveillance, and health and safety education.
Chapman and Hall, Scientific Division of Associated Book Publishers Ltd., 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, United Kingdom, 1991. xiii, 178p. Bibl.ref. Appendices. Index.

CIS 92-875 Estryn-Behar M.
Musculoskeletal diseases due to occupation
Affections de l'appareil locomoteur en relation avec l'exercice d'une profession [in French]
Summary note on diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Osteoarticular and muscular diseases or infections and parasitical origin are examined, followed by diseases of toxic origin; the prevalence of all of these has been markedly modified in recent years. Diseases caused by physical agents include those due to ionising radiations, dust, compressed gas and vibrations. Dysbaric diseases warrant stringent awareness and strict and well-codified preventive measures. Vibration-induced disease is technically difficult to prevent. Diseases linked to body movements include those of the spinal column, those associated with physical work, and those of the shoulder-neck and lumbar regions resulting from in a seated position. Disorders of the foot, injuries to muscles, tendons, synovial sheaths and external tissues and sporting injuries are also discussed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1991, 13p. Illus. 133 ref.

CIS 92-1031 Brücker G.
HIV infection. General rules for disinfection and risk prevention in the health professions
Infection à VIH. Règles générales de désinfection, prévention des risques dans les professions de santé [in French]
The prevention of HIV infection should take into account not only the risks of infection by HIV itself but also the risk of associated infections, often asymptomatic (such as hepatitis B), as well as immunodepressive complications. The principles of disinfection and of estimating the activity of disinfectants are explained, along with applications and methods of use of antiseptics and disinfectants. The problem of the prevention of risks of infection in hospitals is also approached by considering risks for AIDS patients, other sick people and personnel. For health service and laboratory personnel, sources of contamination according to biological site are outlined along with exposure to risks according to post or service, and the frequency of accidents and seroconversions. Preventive measures include recommendations concerning containers for disposable soiled objects so as to avoid all contact with blood. Finally, measures to take in case of accident involving exposure to blood or biological products are described.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-pathologie professionnelle, 1991. 6p. 14 ref.

CIS 92-738
Ministère des affaires sociales et de l'intégration
Order of 23 August 1991 on vaccination: List of occupations concerned [France]
Arrêté du 23 août 1991 sur la vaccination: professions concernées [France] [in French]
Order of 23 Aug. 1991 (published in the Journal officiel of 3 Sep. 1991). This order, which completes Act 91-73 and orders of 6 Feb. 1991 and 15 Mar. 1991 (abstracted under CIS 91-1754), provides a list of medical and health care personnel to be immunised against hepatitis B, diptheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1991, No.145, Note No.1862-145-91, p.739.

CIS 92-428 Woolley A., Buttolph M.A.
Biological agents at work
Contents of this module usable for an OSH training course or for private study, accompanied by question-and-answer tests: basic information on health hazards due to biological agents (viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi; the process of infection); defence systems of the body (primary defences; the immune system); allergies; controls and legal requirements in the UK. In annex: fact sheets on common infectious diseases of concern in the workplace (hepatitis B, Legionnaires' disease, humidifier fever, leptospirosis, AIDS, aspergillosis, anthrax, brucellosis, glanders).
OHSOL Unit, Buckingham Building, Lion Terrace, Portsmouth PO1 3HE, United Kingdom, 1991. 41p. Illus.

CIS 92-665 Wong E.S., Stotka J.L., Chinchilli V.M., Williams D.S., Stuart C.G., Markowitz S.M.
Are universal precautions effective in reducing the number of occupational exposures among health care workers? - A prospective study of physicians on a medical service
In a questionnaire survey 277 physicians were queried concerning incidents of exposure to blood and body fluids and barrier use before and after the implementation of universal precautions. Implementation increased the frequency of barrier use during exposure incidents, decreased the number of exposure incidents that resulted in direct contact with blood and body fluids and increased averted exposures in which direct contact was prevented by barrier devices. Thus, universal precautions were effective in reducing the risk of occupational exposures among physicians.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 6 mar. 1991, Vol.265, No.9, p.1123-1128. 28 ref.

CIS 92-664 Murph J.R., Baron J.C., Brown C.K., Ebelhack C.L., Bale J.F.
The occupational risk of cytomegalovirus infection among day-care providers
Of the 252 day-care providers studied at 6 day-care centres, 96 (38%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus at entry into the study. Among 82 seronegative providers available for follow-up, 7 seroconversions occurred. It was estimated that the overall risk of seroconversion ranged from 0% to 22% by 12 months and from 0% to 40% by 16 months. Risk of cytomegalovirus acquisition was independent of the presence of a child at home or caring for young children in the centre, although the risk of seroconversion appeared to be related to the risk of cytomegalovirus acquisition among the children at each centre.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 6 Feb. 1991, Vol 265, No.5, p.603-608. 20 ref.

CIS 92-663 Klein R.S., Freeman K., Taylor P.E., Stevens C.E.
Occupational risk for hepatitis C virus infection among New York City dentists
Demographic, occupational and behavioural data were recorded for dentists in the New York City area and sera were tested for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Anti-HCV was found in 8 (1.75%) of 456 dentists compared with 1 (0.14%) of 723 controls and in 4 (9.3%) of 43 oral surgeons compared with 4 (0.97%) of 413 other dentists. Seropositive dentists claimed to have treated more intravenous drug users in the week or month before the study than did seronegative dentists. Findings show that dentists are at increased risk for hepatitis C infection. It is concluded that all health-care workers should regard patients as potentially infected with a communicable bloodborne agent.
Lancet, 21/28 Dec. 1991, Vol. 338, No.8782/83, p.1539-1542. 27 ref.

CIS 92-662 Nardell E.A., Keegan J., Cheney S.A., Etkind S.C.
Airborne infection - Theoretical limits of protection achievable by building ventilation
Office workers complained about air quality more than 2 years before the occurrence of a coworker tuberculosis exposure (estimated 4 weeks), prompting investigations of building air quality before and after the tuberculosis exposure. The available data permitted the application of a mathematical model of airborne infection to assess the relationship between infection rate, building ventilation, exposure duration, and infectivity of the source case. Predictions were sought as to how many exposed workers would have been infected had the ventilation been optimal for comfort purposes. The theoretical limits of protection achievable by further increases in ventilation, and the relationship of protection to the intensity of exposure were examined. It is concluded that inadequate ventilation may contribute to airborne infection but that the protection afforded to occupants by ventilation above comfort levels may be inherently limited, especially when the level of exposure to infection is high.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Aug. 1991, Vol.144, No.2, p.302-306. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 92-667 Kligman E.W., Peate W.F., Cordes D.H.
Occupational infections in farm workers
This paper deals with occupational infections which can cause disease and disability in agricultural workers. Prevention and control methods discussed include: personal protective equipment; educational efforts; workplace revisions and engineering controls; animal control measures, such as vaccines and antibiotics. To the physician treating a farmer with various symptoms the paper offers checklists of questions concerning work activities, exposures, and medical history. The symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatment, and prevention and control of the 11 most common agricultural infections are presented: anthrax; ascariasis; brucellosis; viral encephalitis; leptospirosis; Q fever; rabies; Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; staphylococcal infections; tetanus; tularaemia.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.429-446. 18 ref.

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