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Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found

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  • Bacterial and parasitic diseases

1994

CIS 96-187 Murray J.F., Nadel J.A.
Textbook of respiratory medicine
Contents of this manual: scientific principles of respiratory medicine (anatomy and development of the respiratory tract, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, defence mechanisms and immunology); manifestations of respiratory diseases and diagnostic evaluation; types of respiratory diseases, including environmental and occupational disorders (pneumoconiosis, occupational asthma and byssinosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, air pollution, acute pulmonary response to toxic exposures, high altitude, disorders associated with diving, drug-induced pulmonary disease).
Harcourt Brace & Company Ltd, Foots Cray High Street, Sidcup, Kent DA14 5HP, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1994. 2 vols. ci, 2739p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 211.00.
96-0187.pdf [in English]

CIS 95-2273 Liss G.M., Wong L., Kittle D.C., Simor A., Naus M., Martiquet P., Misener C.R.
Occupational exposure to Mycobacterium bovis infection in deer and elk in Ontario
In late 1991, two herds of deer and elk were depopulated at a slaughtering plant in Ontario, Canada, followed by processing of infected animals at a rendering plant. A questionnaire plus tuberculin skin-test survey was conducted of 104 exposed slaughtering and rendering plant workers, and government veterinarians and inspectors. Overall, 17 cases were skin-test positive; one of 51 initially skin-test negative subjects tested a second time three months later became positive, consistent with the risk associated with occupational exposure during the depopulation of tuberculous elk previously observed in Alberta, Canada. The likely route of transmission is through aerosols. Possible reasons for the low conversion rate include the use of respiratory protection, absence of a tanning plant, an enclosed rendering plant process, and late skin testing which may have underestimated the number of conversions. Recommendations for prevention are summarized.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.85, No.5, p.326-329. 19 ref.

CIS 95-2090 Ciesielski S., Esposito D., Protiva J., Piehl M.
The incidence of tuberculosis among North Carolina migrant farmworkers, 1991
All locatable subjects (n=94) for whom tuberculosis prevalence had been determined in an earlier study were tested with purified protein derivative (PPD) and control antigens, sputum sampling and chest x-rays. Of the 46 who had been tuberculin negative (confirmed with control antigens) three years earlier, two had developed active tuberculosis in the interim and 14 (30%) were tuberculin positive. All had been engaged continuously in migrant farmwork. Lack of access to health care, an institutional feature of migrant farmwork, was significantly associated with primary infection.
American Journal of Public Health, Nov. 1994, Vol.84, No.11, p.1836-1838. 15 ref.

CIS 95-2010 Jeyaratnam J., Chia K.S.
Occupational health in national development
This manual on occupational health is aimed particularly at trainees in developing countries. Part 1 covers occupational health issues (pesticide poisoning and development of safe pesticides; needs of farmers, small scale industries, health professionals, women workers and office workers; stress management; executive health screening; health promotion; risk of injury and disease among health professionals; chemical risk assessment; transfer of hazardous industries; occupational cancers; role of legislation). Part 2 covers the development of national health plans for the working population (occupational health services; identifying and evaluating occupational health needs; examples of occupational health services in some developed countries; role of the World Health Organization).
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., P.O. Box 128 Farrer Road, Singapore 9128, 1994. xii, 476p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 95-2034 Wald P.H., Stave G.M.
Physical and biological hazards of the workplace
University-level manual providing very detailed up-to-date information on physical and biological hazards, with emphasis on those affecting workers and workplaces in the United States. For each hazard or condition, diagnosis, treatment, medical surveillance and prevention are addressed at length. Contents: Physical hazards - Worker-material interfaces (ergonomic hazards and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders, manual materials handling, vibration, mechanical energy); the physical work environment (hot and cold environments, high- and low-pressure environments, shift work); energy and electromagnetic radiation (ionizing, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, laser, microwave, radiofrequency and ELF radiation; noise; electricity, including lightning injury). Biological hazards - General principles of microbiology and infectious disease; clinical recognition and health consequences of occupational exposure; prevention of illness from biological hazards; viruses; bacteria; mycobacteria; fungi; Rickettsiae and Chlamydiae; parasites; envenomations (arthropods, marine animals, snakes); allergens; malignant cells; recombinant organisms; endotoxins; wood dust.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003, USA and International Thomson Publishing, Berkshire House, 168-173 High Holborn, London WC1V 7AA, United Kingdom, 1994. xxi, 511p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price (UK): GBP 59.00.

CIS 95-1712 Stalder K.
Evaluation of the health risks to compost workers due to emission of microbes and development of protective measures
Abschätzung von Gesundheitsrisiken für Müllwerker durch Keimemissionen und Entwicklung von Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen [in German]
The total and suspended particulate matter of 4 different composting plants was analyzed to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Total values of pathogens ranged between 100 and 100,000cfu/m3. Viruses were detected in 49 of 165 samples. In all composting plants mesophilic and thermophilic actinomycetes were found in numbers above 100,000cfu/m3. Moulds mostly amounted to more than 10,000cfu/m3 with peaks of 1,000,000cfu/m3. Tests of sensitization to actinomycetes and moulds in 30 workers from the composting plants showed significantly higher antibody titres against actinomycetes than in a control group. There were no signs of illness in the workers. Health protection of workers can be achieved through blood monitoring for antibodies, enclosing conveyor belts, exhaust ventilation, confining the use of work clothing to the composting plant and prohibition of any food intake in the workplace. Summary in English.
Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Technologie, 53170 Bonn, Germany, Apr. 1994. 55p. Illus. 68 ref.

CIS 95-1554 Decree No.24/PR of the President of the Republic, dated 21 April 1994 promulgating Act No. 002/NA of 14 March 1994 concerning labour [Laos]
Décret n°24/PR du Président de la République, en date du 21 avril 1994, portant promulgation de la loi n°002/NA du 14 mars 1994 sur le travail [Laos] [in French]
This basic law on labour came into force on 20 June 1994. Chap.IV is concerned with hours of work and rest periods, and in particular with the limitation of hours of work for workers whose occupation exposes them directly to one of the following hazards: radiations; contagious diseases; dangerous gases, fumes or substances (in particular to explosives); dangerous environments (pits, tunnels, underwater work, heights); abnormally hot or cold environments; vibrating machinery. Chap.VI concerns the protection of women and adolescents, in particular the prohibition of employment in certain physically demanding or dangerous jobs of pregnant women, mothers within six months of giving birth and young persons. Chap.X deals with labour protection: guarantees of safety and working conditions; medical examination and health care for workers. Chap.XI contains measures concerning occupational injury and disease: assistance to victims; compensation. This Act replaces Labour Act No.10/90 of 29 Nov. 1990.
Labour Law Documents - Documents de droit social, 1994, No.3, p.44-58.

CIS 95-1893
Conseil supérieur de la prévention des risques professionnels
Effect of AIDS infection on employment law
Incidence de l'infection par le virus de l'immuno-déficience humaine sur le droit des relations du travail [in French]
This document deals with legal questions raised by AIDS seropositivity in connection with hiring practices in France (documents that may be required, pre-employment medical examinations, contents of the occupational aptitude card) and with the carrying out of the employment contract (adaptation of the job in line with the health requirements of the worker or transfer to another position, problems in the workplace due to the presence of a seropositive worker, right to refuse dangerous work). The legal situation with respect to laying off or dismissing seropositive workers is also discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.60. p.365-366.

CIS 95-1368 Tesch D., Heupel P., Marian B., Schröter W., Schwarz K.H.
Investigation of the health risk involved in cleaning work
Untersuchung tätigkeitsspezifischer Gesundheitsrisiken im Reinigungsgewerbe [in German]
Statistical data on the types of accidents and occupational diseases among cleaning personnel were evaluated to determine the accident and health risks of this trade. In addition, data from periodic medical examinations by industrial physicians and a questionnaire survey of 645 cleaners were used. All cleaners, including bottle washers and metal cleaners, were included in the study. The most frequent causes of accidents were slipping, falls on the level and among glass and window cleaners falls from heights. Among occupational diseases skin diseases, mainly skin allergies and eczema, were most frequent. Infectious diseases, mostly hepatitis B, ranked second in frequency.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaften, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1994. iii, 115p. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 95-1338 57th National Congress: Surveillance and monitoring in occupational medicine and industrial hygiene - II. Papers: A. Past experience and recommendations for health surveillance
57° Congresso Nazionale: Sorveglianza e vigilanza in medicina del lavoro e igiene industriale - II: Comunicazioni: A. Esperienze e proposte di sorveglianza sanitaria [in Italian]
This complete number of the periodical is devoted to the papers presented at a conference on health surveillance at the workplace, held at Fiuggi Fonte, Italy, 27-29 Oct. 1994. Among the topics covered: recent legislative developments in Italy; health surveillance of special groups of workers (minors and apprentices, university workers, police officers, in the oil seed processing industry, asbestos-exposed workers, mercury-exposed workers); comparison of ILO radiography, high-resolution computed tomography and lung diffusing capacity for CO in tunnelling workers; assessment of minimal asbestosis; respiratory function and/or lung diseases in occupational contexts (industrial pollution, routine health control, chromium exposure, in firemen); follow-up studies (lead-exposed workers, hearing loss in police officers, hearing loss in workers exposed to known levels of noise); thyroid function in lead-exposed workers; biological monitoring of workers exposed to diesel fumes; hepatitis B and C in hospital workers; liver damage in shoe repairers; lymphocyte distribution in plastic manufacturing workers; dermatitis in contact-lens manufacturing workers; anti-tumour immunological surveillance in workers exposed to ionizing radiation; new method for the classification of audiogrammes; audiologic screening of metallurgical workers.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.X, No.2, p.119-260 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1521 Danenberg H.D., Shoval D.
Risk of viral hepatitis C infection among medical personnel
Hasikun lahadbaqa bedaleqet kaved negifit C (HVC) beqerev haosqim berefua [in Hebrew]
A review. The risk of HCV infection among medical personnel and the consequences of such infection seem to be less severe than for HBV infection. In Israel, at least 0.5% of the sick population carry the hepatitis C virus in their blood; the development of a kit for the identification of HCV in blood makes it easier to identify such carriers.
Harefuah, 1994, Vol.127, No.12, p.533-536. 44 ref.

CIS 95-1012 Skogstad M., Levy F.
Occupational irritant contact dermatitis and fungal infection in construction workers
A study was made of six construction workers who developed chronic skin diseases on their hands over a period of 15 years. Four developed Trichophyton rubrum infection, and the other two an irritant contact dermatitis. All of them carried out jobs which caused traumatization of the skin due to the presence of ethylene glycol and mineral oils during operation of pneumatic hammers in winter. Construction workers may be at risk of developing an occupational skin disease involving fungal infection.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1994. Vol.31, No.1, p.28-30. 6 ref.

CIS 95-1129 Collins C.H.
Blood-borne diseases in the workplace - Pocket guide
Contents of this guide: causes and nature of blood-borne diseases (hepatitis, AIDS); risk factors (causes of infection in the workplace, workers at risk); precautions (personal protective equipment, safe work practices); vaccination, immunization and blood tests; emergency procedures; disposal and disinfection of equipment; legal protection.
Genium Publishing Corporation, 1 Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, Sep. 1994. 47p. Illus. 21 ref. Available from: H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 95-746 Lot F., Abiteboul D.
Workplace infections with HIV virus in France as of 31 December 1993
Infections professionnelles par le VIH en France - Le point au 31 décembre 1993 [in French]
Since 1984, 65 cases of proven seroconversion (117 presumed contaminations) following occupational exposure have been reported by health care professionals in industrialized countries. In the USA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recognized 39 cases of seroconversion among health care personnel following occupational exposure; in Europe (outside France), 14 cases have been reported; in France 8 proven seroconversions (and 20 presumed contaminations) have been reported. In prospective studies, the assessed risk reaches an average of 0.37% (0.21%-0.54% ) following percutaneous exposure. In these cohort studies, only one case of seroconversion has been reported following splashes on wounded skin or mucosa (average risk 0.01%-0.25%). Other workers outside the medical or paramedical profession could be occupationally exposed to HIV.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.289-293. 15 ref.

CIS 95-747 Nicas M.
Modeling respirator penetration values with the Beta distribution: An application to occupational tuberculosis transmission
Even workers wearing respirators may be infected following inhalation of respirable particles, termed droplet nuclei, that carry viable mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. Based on the expected number of infectious doses inhaled, the Poisson probability model is used traditionally to predict an individual's risk of infection. This article synthesizes the beta distribution, as applied to average penetration values among a respirator-wearing population, and the Poisson distribution, as applied to an individual's infection risk, to describe the population risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.515-524. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 95-684 Mohnot S.M., Jaitly H.
A profile of sandstone mine workers of Jodhpur and dust borne diseases
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 264 silica-exposed sandstone mine workers in Jodhpur, India. 189 workers (71.6%) complained of respiratory problems; some were either under treatment for tuberculosis or were suffering from perennial cough syndrome. Radiological examinations of 82 workers revealed that a large number were suffering from silicosis, silico-tuberculosis and tuberculosis. Accidents were also frequent as most of the work was carried manually using primitive tools. The report also covers working conditions and the lack of occupational health schemes and compensation for occupational diseases.
Gramin Vikas Vigyan Samiti, 3/458 Milkman Colony, Pal Road, Jodhpur, India, 1994. 30p. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 95-344 Jacques P., Moens G., Van Damme P., Goubau P., Vranckx R., Steeno J., Muylle L., Desmyter J.
Increased risk for hepatitis A among female day nursery workers in Belgium
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.5, p.259-261. 17 ref. ###

CIS 95-91
Health and Safety Executive
Staying healthy. A guide for workers in farming, forestry and horticulture
This guide describes the potential health hazards associated with farming, forestry and horticulture and provides guidance on causes, warning signs and preventive measures. Contents: chemical hazards from fertilizers or feed additives; respiratory problems caused by dust, vapours, fumes, etc; infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, moulds and parasites; manual handling; mental health; noise; skin problems; suffocation in confined spaces; upper limb disorders; vibration.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 23p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-175 Kanhere V.
Notifiable diseases: Signs, symptoms, diagnosis
31 datasheets (aimed at doctors) are provided on occupational diseases classified as notifiable under India's Factories Act. For each condition, the industrial occurrence of the causal agent, the signs and symptoms of the disease, and brief information on diagnosis and special tests are given. The conditions are grouped under the causal agent (and compounds for elements), or as separate diseases. Agents: lead, tetraethyllead, phosphorus, mercury, manganese, arsenic, nitrous fumes, carbon disulfide, benzene, chromium, chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluorine, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactive substances and X-rays, beryllium, carbon monoxide, phosgene, isocyanates. Specific diseases: anthrax, silicosis, skin cancer, toxic anaemia, toxic jaundice, dermatitis due to primary irritants and sensitizers, byssinosis, asbestosis, noise-induced hearing loss, coalminers' pneumoconiosis, toxic nephritis. Special tables are provided for occupational cancers and biological exposure limits. The Indian Schedule of Occupational Diseases is reproduced.
Society for Participatory Research in Asia, 45 Sainik Farm, Khanpur, New Delhi 110 062, India, [1994?]. i, 37p.

CIS 94-2110 Jepsen M.
Pests and pestilence: The unrecognised hazards of pests
Problems associated with pest infestations are discussed in terms of bites and stings, allergic reactions, infections, distress and physical dangers. Control measures include: prevention of access through external doors or walls; installation of bird deterrent systems and electric fly killers; maintenance of high standards of cleanliness around the exterior of buildings; regular inspection by pest control contractors.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 1994, Vol.12, No.9, p.32-34. Illus.

CIS 94-2108 Hayes M., Cooper R.A.
Cryptosporidiosis. Hidden in name and nature
The nature of the human diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis is explained along with the need for health education among workers. Cryptosporidiosis is caused by ingestion of oocysts of a protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum; the parasite is predominantly waterborne, but may also be transmitted from animals and other people. Since no effective vaccine is yet available and oocysts are resistant to traditional methods of water sanitation and to many disinfectants, all workers in environments subject to faecal pollution (workers in close contact with animals, water sanitation personnel) should be advised of the risks.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1994, Vol.12, No.8, p.16-20. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-1869
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety guide for gamekeepers
Contents of this guide: legal requirements; training; work environment; provision of first aid; duties to the public; control of hazardous chemicals; use of cyanide gassing powders; off-road transport; use of guns; chainsaws; overhead power lines; general health hazards (Weil's disease, Lyme disease, dust, tetanus); burning moorland vegetation; pheasant rearing; deer stalking (handling and treatment of carcasses); work on inland waters.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1994. 12p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-1942 Benton E.C.
Warts in butchers - A cause for concern?
Warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are common on the hands of workers in the meat industry; one particular viral type, HPV7, predominates. Studies have found no relation between the excess prevalence of warts among these workers and a number of factors and it was concluded that some constituent of meat may enhance the effect of HPV7. Other studies have indicated a relation between butchers' warts and an apparent increase in the occurrence of lung cancer found in those who handle fresh rather than chilled meat. Further clarification of these studies is required.
Lancet, 7 May 1994, Vol.343, No.8906, p.1114. 8 ref.

CIS 94-1926 Lehtinen S.
New occupational epidemics
Special issue of the newsletter devoted to newly identified occupational epidemics, with particular attention paid to the developing world. Articles address: developmental strategies of Finland in the 1990s (Hynninen A.); how to identify new occupational epidemics, using surveillance data and the techniques of epidemiology (Partanen T., Rodriguez A.C., Mwakajinga M.); epidemic poisonings caused by pesticides (Ferrer A., Cabral R.); the potential for local and systemic bacterial infections (Hugbo P.G.); possible re-emergence of tuberculosis among agricultural workers in Cameroon (Djubgang J.N.); new trends in dust exposure in Egypt (Seliem S.R.).
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 1994, Vol.4, No.2, p.27-47 (special issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1533 Andersen I.
Manual on occupational medicine
Basisbog i arbejdsmedicin [in Danish]
This three-volume manual gives an overall view of occupational diseases, their origin, and their treatment. Main topics: historical view of occupational medicine, the labour force and occupational diseases, health monitoring at the work place, regulation (Denmark), cancer, allergy, sick building syndrome, infections and microorganisms, psycho-social factors, older workers, accidents, toxicity, skin diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, diseases of the nervous system, diseases of the visual system, respiratory diseases, reproductive diseases, diseases of the mouth and teeth, gastrointestinal diseases, and diseases of the ear and vestibular apparatus.
Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, Vol.1-3, 1994. 158, 293, 287p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: DKK 250.00, 380.00 and 360.00 excl. VAT.

1993

CIS 03-278 Wild C.P., Anwar W.A., Lehtinen S.
Mycotoxins as mutagens and carcinogens: Possibilities for disease prevention
Proceedings of an African regional conference on the prevention of diseases due to mycotoxins held on 23-26 January 1993 in Cairo, Egypt. Contents: mycotoxins as mutagens and carcinogens; environmental toxicology of microbial carcinogens; fumonisins produced by Fusarium monoliforme in maize, food-borne carcinogens of pan-African importance; health hazards associated with the consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food in Sudan; mycotoxin research in Nigeria; aflatoxin as a human hepatocarcinogen and the possible interaction with hepatitis B virus; toxicological significance of mixtures of fungal toxins in food; monitoring and control strategies for mycotoxins; decontamination and detoxification of aflatoxins; aflatoxins and human disease epidemiological issues.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1993, Vol.3, Suppl.2, p.1-60 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
03-0278.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-128 Sekimpi D.K., Lehtinen S.
Proceedings of PACOH '92
Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety and health (OSH) in Africa held on 15-20 November 1992 in Lusaka, Zambia. These proceedings contain a selection of 20 papers on various OSH topics among the 50 that were presented at the conference. One paper is presented in French.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1993, Vol.3, Suppl.1, p.1-116 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
03-0128.pdf [in English]

CIS 98-310 Hernández Calleja A.
Indoor air quality: Microbiological hazards in air conditioning and ventilation systems
Calidad del aire interior: riesgos microbiológicos en los sistemas de ventilación/climatización [in Spanish]
Topics: air conditioning; air humidification; allergies; biological hazards; data sheet; infectious diseases; legionellosis; microclimate; Monday fever; Spain; ventilation systems.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. Illus. 9 ref.
98-310.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 96-1102 Collins C.H., Kennedy D.A.
The treatment and disposal of clinical waste
Contents of this handbook: clinical waste as a public health concern; perceived and actual hazards (microbial content of clinical waste, the potential for infection, the problem of sharps, release of dioxins and furans); definitions and classification of clinical waste; segregation, collection, storage and transport; waste minimization; final disposal of clinical waste (incineration, landfill, steam sterilization, novel methods); clinical laboratory waste; supervision, education and training. In appendices: United Kingdom legislation; European Community Directives.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd, P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1993. ix, 114p. Illus. 179 réf. Index. Price: GBP 22.00.
96-1102.pdf [in English]

CIS 96-101 What you should know about infection control
Training booklet on infection control for health care staff in hospitals. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1993. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 96-370 Booth P.
Food preservation - An executive guide
Contents of this guide: the need for food preservation; pathogenic and food spoilage organisms; general principles of microbiological control; methods of food preservation; legislation for food preservation; hygiene in food processing plants; management commitment to food quality and safety.
Technical Publications (Publishing) Ltd., P.O. Box 6, Hitchin SG5 2DB, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, 1993. iii, 42p. 24 ref.
96-0370.pdf [in English]

CIS 95-1890 Fraser V., Spitznagel E., Medoff G., Dunagan W.C.
Results of a rubella screening program for hospital employees - A five-year review (1986-1990)
A US hospital employee health service rubella screening programme was evaluated over a five-year period from 1986-1990. A total of 6,115 new employees were screened for evidence of rubella immunity. Rubella serology was performed on 5,893 (96.4%) of the screened employees, while 222 (3.6%) had documentation of prior rubella vaccination or rubella infection. The absence of immunity was identified in 325 employees or 5.3% of all those screened. Logistical regression analysis demonstrated that five-year birth cohorts correlated significantly with serological status. Employees born in 1960-1964 were least likely to be seronegative, and employees born in 1970 or later were most likely to be seronegative. This study demonstrates a lower seronegativity rate than did previous studies. It identifies groups of employees likely to escape rubella screening and low vaccination rates. The increasing seronegativity among those born after 1964 correlates with increasing rates of rubella in the US.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Nov. 1993, Vol.138, No.9, p.756-764. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 95-896 Jost M., Rüegger M., Reber E., Liechti B., Wolf R.
Occupational disease prevention in pathology and histology laboratories
Verhütung von Berufskrankheiten in pathologisch-anatomischen Instituten und histologischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les instituts d'anatomie pathologique et dans les laboratoires d'histologie [in French]
This brochure reviews the exposure hazards to chemicals used in medical laboratories as well as the risk of infectious diseases transmitted by blood or air. The results of a systematic measurements campaign carried out through Switzerland to evaluate formaldehyde and organic solvent concentrations in the air of such laboratories are given. Technical, organizational and behavioural preventive measures are described.
Schweizerische Unfallverhütungsanstalt, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Dec. 1993. 50p. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 95-343 Abiteboul D., Antona D., Descamps J.M., Bouvet E.
Risk of exposure to blood among nursing personnel: Monitoring and evolution 1990-1992
Risque d'exposition au sang parmi le personnel infirmier - Surveillance et évolution 1990-1992 [in French]
This multicentre study (12 French health care centres), follow-up to a previous study (CIS 92-2055), covers the period from 1 Sep. 1991 to 1 Sep. 1992 to assess the changes in the incidence and the characteristics of blood exposure accidents (BEA). Participating teams were very active in developing preventive strategies suiting their needs. It is then incumbent upon employers to provide workers with the means to protect themselves with improved materials while taking into account other factors such as workload and organization. The resulting cost should be compared with that of serum monitoring, prophylaxis with AZT and with the social costs resulting from occupational HIV seroconversion or chronic hepatitis C. Appendices: list of participating centres in the 1990-92 study; questionnaire on the occurrence of BEA; main items of a survey conducted at the same time on BEA in operating theatres.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1993, No.56, p.363-373. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 94-2114 Yassi A., McGill M., Holton D., Nicolle L.
Morbidity, cost and role of health care worker transmission in an influenza outbreak in a tertiary care hospital
An influenza A outbreak involving 37% of health care workers and 47% of geriatric patients on a ward in a tertiary care hospital was reviewed. The majority of health-care workers became ill prior to detecting the first patient case of influenza, suggesting that nosocomial spread from staff to patients may have occurred. Only 13.7% of the staff and 5.9% of patients had been vaccinated prior to the outbreak. It is suggested that much of the morbidity and costs resulting from this outbreak could have been avoided by increased immunization of staff and patients.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jan.-Feb. 1993, Vol.4, No.1, p.52-56. 19 ref.

CIS 94-2115
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B and the workplace
These two consensus statements provide advice on education and policies regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B in the workplace. The code of practice provides guidelines for health care workers and others at risk of the transmission of these diseases. Contents: definitions; employee consultation; mode of transmission of HIV and hepatitis B; control program for the prevention of transmission; risk identification and assessment; risk control (engineering controls, safe work practices, information and training, personal protective equipment); monitoring and evaluation; provision of first aid; management of employee exposures to blood or body fluids.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Nov. 1993. vii, 65p. 71 ref.

CIS 94-2113 Adler S.P., Manganello A.M.A., Koch W.C., Hempfling S.H., Best A.M.
Risk of human parvovirus B19 infections among school and hospital employees during endemic periods
Risk factors for human parvovirus B19 infections for hospital and school employees were identified during an endemic period. By serological testing, 2,730 employees of 135 schools in three school systems and 751 employees of a hospital were monitored. Of these, 60% were initially seropositive. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, risk factors for seropositivity were contact with children aged five to 18 years at home (odds ratio [OR]=1.2), at work (OR=1.2), and employment in elementary schools in school system 2 (OR=1.4). Over 42 months, one of 198 susceptible hospital employees seroconverted compared to 62 of 927 school employees. Four factors associated with seroconversion were employment at elementary schools in system 2, contact with children aged five to 11 years at home or with children aged five to 18 years at work, and aged under 30 years. Those in daily contact with school-age children had a five-fold increased occupational risk for B19 infection.
Journal of Infectious Diseases, Aug. 1993, Vol.168, No.2, p.361-368. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 94-1770 Frölich J., Zeller I.
Risk of hepatitis A infection among workers of a large sewage plant operating association
Hepatitis-A-Infektionsrisiko bei den Mitarbeitern einer grossen Kläranlagenbetreibergenossenschaft [in German]
Antibodies against hepatitis A infection (anti-HAV) and anti-HAV-IgM were determined in 408 workers exposed to waste water in a sewage treatment plant and in 202 non-exposed workers. None of the workers were anti-HAV-IgM positive. In comparison with the control group, a significantly higher number of sewage plant workers were anti-HAV positive. For exposed workers over 40yrs old an odds ratio of 1.8 was obtained. Hepatitis A immunization is recommended for workers in sewage treatment plants.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Nov. 1993, Vol.28, No.11, p.503-505. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 94-1769 Ohlendorf R.
Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewer maintenance and sewage purification plant workers
Hepatitis-A Infektionsrisiko bei Kanalunterhaltungs- und Kläranlagenarbeitern [in German]
Sanitation workers exposed to sewage were subjected to serological examinations to determine the presence of anti-HAV-IgG. All 15 sewer maintenance workers and all 27 employees of a sewage treatment plant of a German municipality were included. Sewer maintenance workers with more than five years of exposure were found to be HAV-positive while among the group with less than five years seniority, only one was HAV-positive. Of the employees of the sewage treatment plant, all with more than 11 years of exposure were HAV-positive and all those with less than five years seniority were HAV-negative.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1993, Vol.28, No.7, p.305-307. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-1761 Cristofolini A., Bassetti D., Schallenberg G.
Zoonoses transmitted by ticks (tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis): Preliminary results
Le zoonosi trasmesse da zecche nei lavoratori forestali (tick-borne encephalitis e Lyme Borreliosis): Risultati preliminari [in Italian]
To investigate the diffusion of infections transmitted by ticks (Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis) in forest workers, a serological investigation was carried out in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy) on the sera of 465 subjects at potential risk (foresters, hunters, woodcutters, gamekeepers). Antibodies for TBE virus were found in five subjects working in the same area, and antibodies for Borrelia burgdorferi were found in 15 subjects. All three clinical cases of TBE identified reported that they had been bitten by ticks in the same geographical area. The presence of specific antibodies for TBE virus was tested on the sera of animals grazing in several areas: four positive cases were observed in the same area as the human cases reported above.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.394-402. 35 ref.

CIS 94-1760 Ferguson I.R.
Rats, fish and Weil's disease
Leptospirosis is a potential hazard to farmers, agricultural workers and those coming into contact with rats or natural inland waters. The discovery and nature of the disease are described along with the means of transmission via infected animals, the effects of the disease in humans and occurrences of the disease in the British Isles since 1922. A table shows occupational/risk groups from 1970-1992 with numbers affected and deaths. Guidance is given on reducing the risk of the disease along with methods of treatment and prevention.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Dec. 1993, Vol.11, no.12, p.12-16. Illus.

CIS 94-1758 Woodruff B.A., Moyer L.A., O'Rourke K.M., Margolis H.S.
Blood exposure and the risk of hepatitis B virus infection in firefighters
This survey assessed personal and occupational risk factors among uniformed fire department employees by a self-administered questionnaire and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status by serological testing. Overall, 46 of 592 employees had past or current HBV infection. Employees reporting blood contact with skin had been infected more often than employees without this exposure. Prevalence of infection did not differ by age, years on the job, or job duties. The adjusted prevalence of HBV infection among male employees was not significantly different from its prevalence in American men.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1048-1054. 13 ref.

CIS 94-1414 Heinsohn P., Jewett D.L.
Exposure to blood-containing aerosols in the operating room - A preliminary study
A personal sampling study was conducted to assess exposure to blood aerosols in the operating room. The breathing zones of primary and assistant surgeons were monitored with a personal cascade impactor. "Hemastix" were used to assess the haemoglobin content of each particle size fraction. The mucous membrane lining of the upper respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages in the gas-exchange region are likely to be exposed to aerosolized blood in the operating room, as particles less than 3.5µm in diameter were found in 66% of the samples, and particles smaller than 0.52µm were found in 38%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.446-453. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 94-1411 Thompson P.J., Cousins D.V., Gow B.L., Collins D.M., Williamson B.H., Dagnia H.T.
Seals, seal trainers, and mycobacterial infection
In 1986, three seals died in an Australian marine park; postmortem tissue culture suggested infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In 1988, a seal trainer employed at the park until 1985 developed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis while working in a zoo 3,000km away. Culture characteristics, biochemical behaviour, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and restriction endonuclease analysis suggested that the strains of M. bovis infecting the seals and trainer were identical but unique and differed from reference strains and local cattle strains of M. bovis. The infection in both the seals and trainer had a destructive but indolent course. This is the first time that M. bovis has been observed in seals and the first time that tuberculosis infection has been documented to be transmitted from seals to humans. Those working with seals and other marine animals should be monitored for infection.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1993, Vol.147, No.1, p.164-167. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 94-1192 Morris R.J.
Bloodborne pathogens in the workplace - Pocket guide
Pocket guide to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace, written for workers. Contents: major types of bloodborne pathogens and their transmission (HIV, hepatitis); exposure control plan (requirements of OSHA's Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens regulation); prevention of exposure (prevention of needlestick injuries, safe transport of biohazardous materials, decontamination of equipment, personal protective equipment, good housekeeping); immunization; emergency and post-exposure procedures; glossary.
Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 63p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders.

CIS 94-1075 Hallauer J., Kane M., McCloy E.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
Eliminating hepatitis B as an occupational hazard
Proceedings of an international conference on hepatitis B as an occupational hazard held in Vienna, Austria, 10-12 March 1993. Papers are presented under the following headings: hepatitis B and occupational risk; prevention of hepatitis B in the workplace (safe work practices, vaccination, education and successful prevention programmes); economic implications of hepatitis B in the workplace; implementation of effective prevention programmes in various countries; current policies and the way forward. Summaries of regional workshops provide information on the current situation in a number of countries.
Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom, 1993. 114p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1076 Monod G.
HIV and occupational medicine
VIH et médecine du travail [in French]
This information note surveys the hazards due to HIV infection in the working environment (hazards specific to certain work situations and to health-care and laboratory environments; HIV risks and first aid). Relevant French legislation is summarized (HIV-infection detected at hiring or occurring in the course of employment). Conditions for compensation.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications - Pathologie professionnelle, 1993, Vol.64, No.101, 5p. 35 ref.

CIS 94-1072 Wood R.C., MacDonald K.L., White K.E., Hedberg C.W., Hanson M., Osterholm M.T.
Risk factors for lack of detectable antibody following hepatitis B vaccination of Minnesota health care workers
A total of 595 health care workers who had received hepatitis B vaccine underwent postvaccination testing for hepatitis B antibodies within 6 months of receiving the third dose of vaccine. Five variables were independently associated with a lack of antibodies: vaccine brand, smoking status, sex, age and body mass index. Results indicate that certain populations of health care workers are at increased risk of not responding to hepatitis B vaccination. Further studies evaluating the immunogenicity of currently available hepatitis B vaccines in persons at high risk for primary vaccine failure are needed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Dec. 1993, Vol.270, No.24, p.2935-2939. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 94-1071 Roome A.J., Walsh S.J., Cartter M.L., Hadler J.L.
Hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in Connecticut public safety personnel
A survey was made of levels of hepatitis B antibody present among public safety personnel who had completed vaccination 1 to 6 months earlier. Of 258 individuals tested, 11.9% were found to have no or inadequate levels of antibody. The frequency of inadequate level of antibody increased significantly with age. Smoking, extreme obesity and increasing time interval since completing the vaccine series were also associated with inadequate levels of antibody. It is concluded that routine immunization of public safety personnel should include selective use of postvaccine testing.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Dec. 1993, Vol.270, No.24, p.2931-2934. 15 ref.

CIS 94-931
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in residential care homes
This booklet provides guidance for owners and managers of residential care homes and for employees and safety representatives on meeting their duties under health and safety legislation. The main risks associated with machinery, equipment, substances and work practices found in such homes are described along with measures to safeguard both workers and residents. Contents: legal duties; health, safety and welfare of residents; management of health and safety; notification of incidents; occupational health and control of harmful substances; water temperatures; manual handling; general working environment; central heating systems; electrical safety; kitchen, laundry and outdoor safety; violence to staff.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 75p. 57 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 94-715 Magnavita N.
Muco-cutaneous candidosis and occupational exposure to enzymes - A case report
Candidosi mucocutanea nella esposizione ad agenti biologici - Un caso clinico [in Italian]
Candida albicans, a common yeast in the environment, has properties allowing it to colonize and invade host tissues, often resisting eradication. Acid proteinase is the virulence factor. Bacterial proteinases are widely used in the detergent industry and the role of occupational exposure to enzymes in the development of muco-cutaneous candidosis warrants investigation. A case of candidosis is reported in a worker employed in a detergent factory in whom there was no evidence of any kind of immuno-suppression. The relationship between occupational exposure and illness is analyzed.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1993, Vol.84, No.3, p.243-248. 25 réf.

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