Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis by an industrial physician
Pratique de la vaccination contre l'encéphalite japonaise en médecine du travail [in French]
Japanese encephalitis, a disease transmitted by mosquito bite, is endemic in many countries of South-East Asia. The disease may be fatal or have severe neurological after-effects. The vaccine against it has not yet received marketing authorization in France. It is now however possible to obtain temporary authorization from the French Agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. The author, who is an industrial physician practising in France, has thus been able to vaccinate seven workers, who were to work as expatriates in China for a period of several months. The results of an inquiry on the needs of industrial physicians in a French region concerning vaccination against Japanese encephalitis are presented.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.6, p.454-457. 5 ref.
Clark K.L., Wills W., Tedders S.H., Williams D.C.
Ticks removed from dogs and animal care personnel in Orangeburg County, South Carolina
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) were collected from animals and workers at veterinary clinics and animal shelters in Orangeburg County, South Carolina, USA from April to December 1994. A total of 623 ticks were collected; 21 from humans and 602 from dogs and cats. The most common species collected was Dermacentor variabilis, the American dog tick, known to be associated with various diseases including tick-borne rickettsial fever and tick paralysis. The medical and veterinary importance of the most frequently occurring species are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.4, p.45-55. 44 ref.
Manser A.G.R., Keeling A.A.
Practical handbook of processing and recycling municipal waste
This manual describes techniques for the processing and recycling of municipal waste and identifies health and safety hazards. Contents: nature of waste and potential health hazards (Weil's disease); mechanical handling systems (health and safety in relation to the use of cranes, grabs and conveyors); composting systems (hazards of microorganisms, emission of methane, mechanical hazards of heavy plant); biological aspects of compost production and utilization; materials recovery facilities (design of the working environment, operational procedures and equipment); refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processes; combined RDF/compost/recycling plants; markets for recycled products. In appendices: precautions against Weil's disease; national standards legislation.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA, 1996. xiv, 557p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 55.00.
Escande F., Bailly A., Bone S., Lemozy J.
Actinobacillus suis infection after a pig bite
A brief case report is presented of a farmer with a purulent discharge from a knee wound following a pig bite. Bacteriological testing identified the microorganism causing the infection as Actinobacillus suis, a strain rarely isolated from humans. The importance of obtaining swabs to identify the microorganism in severe infections is stressed.
Lancet, 28 Sep. 1996, Vol.348, No.9031, p.888. 5 ref.
Carrillo L., Fleming L.E., Lee D.J.
Bloodborne pathogens risk and precautions among urban fire-rescue workers
In a questionnaire survey of urban paramedics and emergency medical technicians in the state of Florida (US), reported potential exposure to bloodborne pathogens from needles, sharps, cuts and abrasions was common, especially among paramedics. The majority of these workers were aware of the current guidelines on universal precautions, but reported practice was less than optimal. Recommendations include additional training, better access to protective equipment, and improved administrative efforts and regulations to enforce the implementation of universal precautions.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1996, Vol.38, No.9, p.920-924. 27 ref.
Scabies as an occupational disease
Berufskrankheit Scabies [in German]
This survey of epidemiologic and case studies on the infection risk caused by scabies in Germany comes to following conclusion: Nurses in hospitals and nursing homes who come in close contact with elderly scabies patients or with patients with deficient immune system infected with scabies norvegica run a high infection risk. In order to reduce the risk to nursing personnel, each patient with an itch and patients infected with the HIV virus with hyperkeratosis should be examined by a dermatologist for the presence of scabies. Although at present scabies is not compensated as an occupational disease in Germany it should be reported as an occupation-related disease.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, May-June 1996, Vol.44, No.3, p.126-128. Illus. 9 ref.
Neumann H.D., Rosenlehner R., Wichmann H.E.
Health risks of work in pathology laboratories
Gesundheitsrisiken bei Arbeiten in pathologischen Laboratorien [in German]
A questionnaire survey of the personnel in 3 pathology laboratories was conducted to assess the risk of injuries. In addition the infection risk was determined by studying the records of occupational diseases between 1973 and 1977 and the literature published between 1984 and 1990. Cuts by microtome blades were found to occur frequently and a high infection risk for tuberculosis and hepatitis B was found. An exposure evaluation yielded formaldehyde values which were frequently in excess of the exposure limit in force in Germany.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Mar. 1996, Vol.31, No.3, p.107-112. Illus. 37 ref.
Order No.96-364 of 30 April 1996 relating to the protection of pregnant or breast-feeding workers as a consequence of their exposure to chemical, biochemical and physical agents and modifying ... the Labour Code...[France]
Décret n°96-364 du 30 avril 1996 relatif à la protection des travailleuses enceintes ou allaitant contre les risques résultant de leur exposition à des agents chimiques, biologiques et physiques et modifiant ... le code du travail... [France] [in French]
Main contents of this Order: prohibition of work for women who notify their employer that they are pregnant and for those who are breastfeeding (work involving exposure to metallic lead and its compounds and that involving work in pressurized atmospheres >1.2bar). Other special measures aim to prevent infection with rubeola and toxoplasmosis.
Journal officiel de la République française, 1 and 2 May 1996, 128th Year, No.103, p.6613.
Decree No.96-775 of 5 Sep. 1996 concerning anti-tuberculosis BCG vaccination, modifying the Public Health Code; Order of 5 Sep. 1996 concerning anti-tuberculosis BCG vaccination and tuberculosis testing [France]
Décret n°96-775 du 5 sept. 1996 relatif à la vaccination par le vaccin antituberculeux BCG et modifiant le Code de la Santé publique; arrêté du 5 sept. 1996 relatif à la pratique de la vaccination par le vaccin antituberculeux BCG et aux tests tuberculiniques [France] [in French]
Legislative measures concerning anti-tuberculosis BCG vaccination in tuberculosis testing in France, including a list of occupations to which they apply: occupations in the sanitation and social work sectors; work involving laboratory analysis of biological material; work in penitentiaries and health care institutions likely to involve repeated exposure to tuberculotic patients (e.g. work in home-care, shelters for the indigent and the homeless, rehabilitation centres, half-way houses, child protection agencies, etc.).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.68, p.357-358; also in: Journal officiel de la République française, 7 Sep. 1996, p.13376-13377 and p.13385-13386.
ABC of work related disorders: Building related illnesses
Information note on building-related illnesses, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS)., a term used to describe a situation where more than the expected number of people working in a building suffer from various symptoms for no apparent reason. These symptoms are those associated with common illnesses and allergies, usually in a mild form. There is no single known cause of the syndrome, but several risk factors related to work, buildings and the environment have been identified. SBS not only occurs in office buildings, but has been identified in schools, nurseries, libraries and apartment buildings as well. Common indoor air pollutants and their sources are described. In some workplaces airborne allergens may be involved. Two other kinds of bacterial agents involved in SBS are: actinomycetes, to which outbreaks of humidifier fever are attributed, and Legionella implicated in flu-like illnesses (legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever). Some suggestions for prevention are made.
British Medical Journal, Sept. 1996, Vol.313, p.674-677. Illus. 4 ref.
Gallagher J., Quaid B., Cryan B.
Susceptibility to varicella zoster virus infection in health care workers
Analysis of blood samples from 970 health care workers in a hospital in Ireland showed that 928 (95.7%) were immune to the varicella zoster virus (VZV) (chickenpox) and 42 (4.3%) were non-immune. Of the 894 clinical staff tested, 4.5% were non-immune. The advantages and disadvantages of selective staff screening are discussed. It is considered that all health care workers involved in the clinical care of patients should be screened for past VZV infection before taking up duty; those who are susceptible to VZV should be made aware of the risks and health effects associated with the disease.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.46, No.4, p.289-292. 12 ref.
Pagane J., Chanmugam A., Kirsch T., Kelen G.D.
New York City police officers [sic] incidence of transcutaneous exposures
To assess potential exposure to blood borne infection, data on incidents involving needlestick injuries and human bites among New York City police officers were examined; urine toxicology results of arrested individuals were also analyzed. The transcutaneous exposure rate was 38.7 per 10,000 officers. Exposure rates were highest among those between the ages of 20 and 29 years and those with between 4 and 10 years of service. More than 60% of arrested individuals tested positive for potentially injectable drugs. Widespread vaccination and continued education on precautions should be considered for all officers.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.46, No.4, p.285-288. 22 ref.
Israeli E., Gitelman J., Azor M.
Laboratory workers in Israel as an occupational hazard group
Adherence to biosafety and hygienic precautions in Israeli biological and medical laboratories is in many cases below the accepted international guidelines, and 25% of the laboratory personnel have had no vaccination against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about biohazards, decontamination, hazardous waste disposal, etc. seems to be inadequate.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1996, Vol.1, No.2, p.147-152. 5 ref.
Kordysh E., Goldsmith J.R.
Some communicable diseases and reproductive disorders in selected Negev kibbutzim: Occupational and other environmental factors
Significant positive correlation was found between work with animals and the frequency of spontaneous abortions as well as acute upper respiratory tract infections. Women with field or orchard work history had more frequent ectopic pregnancies; such work increased also the incidence of jaundice.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1996, Vol.1, No.2, p.155-159. 13 ref.
This information note is part of the series ABC of Work Related Disorders. The following conditions are surveyed: anthrax, glanders, ankylostomiasis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis (B and C), HIV infection, diseases spread from farm animals, non-agricultural diseases (due to contaminated oil, ear infections in divers, legionellosis, infections transmitted to health workers, Lyme disease in forestry workers). Because of their increased risk of infection, workers in certain occupations need specific immunizations.
British Medical Journal, 31 Aug. 1996, Vol.313, p.551-554. Illus.
Magni S., Malacarne M., Vismara R.
Biological risk in sewage treatment plants
Il rischio biologico negli impianti di depurazione [in Italian]
Biological risks for waste-water treatment plant workers are discussed, with particular reference to the Italian situation compared with that existing in some other countries (Sweden, Denmark, USA, Canada, Romania). The relevant provisions of Italian decree D.L. 626/94 (see CIS 96-1531) are also commented on. Two levels of evaluation are emphasized: risk of exposure and risk of infection. It is recommended that epidemiological aspects be also analyzed together with systematic monitoring procedures of the main ways of infection: contact, ingestion and inhalation. Studies concerning hepatitis A and microbial contamination by aerosols are also reviewed.
Biologi Italiani, May 1996, Vol.26, No.5, p.46-52. 27 ref.
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
Bloodborne infections - Occupational risks and prevention
Infections transmissibles par le sang - Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
Proceedings of a symposium on the occupational risks of bloodborne infections held in Paris, France, 8-9 June 1995. Papers cover: review of bloodborne occupational infections; risk factors of exposure and consequences in terms of prevention; prevention strategies and procedures associated with patient care, the operating room, dentistry and oral surgery, home care, laboratories and other occupations; evaluation of safety devices; waste and waste disposal; influence of workload (occupational stress, work organization, risk management); disinfection; management of occupational exposure to HIV and hepatitis; legislation and compensation; training programmes; vaccinations; epidemiological aspects.
ISSA Health Services Section, Pappelallee 35-37, 22089 Hamburg, Germany, 1996. 505p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Abiteboul D., Leprince A., Carruel F., Fleury L., Forestie-Auter A.F., Joly N., Neuville K., Patey O.
Blood-borne infections. Occupational risks and prevention
Infections transmissibles par le sang. Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
Report on the 1st colloquium organized by the International Section on the Prevention of Occupational Risks in Health Services of the International Association of Social Security on the prevention of blood-borne infections (Paris, France, 8-9 June 1995). Organized to survey the most recent scientific knowledge obtained from cases, this meeting attracted medical experts from various fields (occupational physicians, OSH and infection specialists, hygienists, nurses, laboratory technicians, etc.), researchers, university professors, manufacturers and equipment designers, health care institution managers, etc. Main topics: epidemiological data: prevalence of major blood-borne infections; HIV occupational contaminations; work-related hepatitis B and C; infections by other pathogens (including non conventional agents and prions); exposure risk factors (surgery, obstetrics, gynaecology; laboratories; odontology, dental medicine; home care services; other exposed occupations (garbage workers, cleaners, workers in city cleaning and hygiene services, sewage workers, workers in funeral homes and penitentiary institutions, etc.)); waste disposal; vaccination; procedure in case of accident and compensation; risk assessment and control.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.66, p.131-147.
Forestié-Auter A.F., Abadia G., Levery G., Besnard C., Dubois F., Thévenas C., Tichet J., Henin D.
I. Hepatitis A and waste water. Vaccination strategy in the workplace. II. Hepatitis and occupational exposure to waste water. Serological prevalence study
I. Hépatite A et eaux usées. Stratégie vaccinale en milieu de travail. II. Hépatite A et exposition professionnelle aux eaux usées. Etude de séroprévalence [in French]
Medical technical data sheet in two parts on the relationship between hepatitis A and waste water in France (vaccination strategies in occupational settings and seropositivity study). Because of the recent availability of a vaccine against hepatitis A, which is both effective and well tolerated, the relevance of vaccination in France and the strategy to be adopted in certain occupations, primarily those with an exposure to waste water, are under review. This prevalence survey supports the proposed vaccination strategy.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.65, p.7-11. 28 ref.
Brew I., Adisesh A.
Post-splenectomy sepsis - The role of occupational health
The risks of serious infection in persons who have had their spleens removed (asplenics) are described along with the prophylaxis available and the role of the occupational health department in protecting asplenic employees. The importance of vaccination is stressed, particularly in employees travelling abroad.
Occupational Medicine, June 1996, Vol.46, No.3, p.231-232. 6 ref.
Pellé-Duporté D., Kouyoumdjian S., Tuchais E., Carbonnelle B., Simon B.
An outbreak of ornithosis in a poultry slaughterhouse
Une épidémie d'ornithose dans un abattoir de volailles [in French]
Ornithosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci. Poultry and other birds are the main carriers of the bacteria, transmitted to the human through the respiratory tract. An outbreak of this disease in a French poultry slaughterhouse in April 1990 is reported. Out of 56 workers, 18 developed symptoms compelling them to stop work (4 were sent to hospital). Symptoms combined acute and feverish pneumopathies with a general deterioration of the state of health. In other cases, the clinical picture was less complete. Diagnosis was founded on serology, no germ was isolated by usual bacteriological techniques. The evolution of the disease, after antibiotic treatment, was good in all the cases. Workers were compensated by the French "Régime général de la Sécurité sociale" (occupational disease No.87).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.51-54. 14 ref.
Gutersohn T., Steffen R., Van Damme P., Holdener F., Beutels P.
Hepatitis A infection in aircrews: Risk of infection and cost-benefit analysis of hepatitis A vaccination
Analysis of Swissair medical files for the period 1987 to 1991 revealed 22 cases of hepatitis A among 3,322 crewmembers; all cases occurred in crewmembers who had spent some time on duty in developing countries. For non-immune crewmembers, the overall annual incidence rate was estimated to be 1.53 per 1000, and 12.2 per 1000 during a stay in a high risk country. Male flight attendants had a higher rate than female flight attendants or pilots. Simplified comparison of cost of infection and cost of vaccination indicated that vaccination may be cost-saving to the airline company for both male flight attendants and pilots.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.67, No.2, p.153-156. 25 ref.
Silva A.A.M., de Brito A.M.
Malaria control by the nursing staff of Petrobrás Amazônia
Combate à malária das equipes de enfermagem da Petrobrás Amazônia [in Portuguese]
This article describes the malaria prevention efforts of the occupational nursing team of a Brazilian petroleum company active in the Amazon basin. Contents: general characteristics of malaria in Brazil; natural transmission of the disease; endemicity, incubation period, transmissibility, susceptibility and resistance; clinical picture; control measures in the oil terminal port (measures connected to the person and to the environment); nursing activities in the oil terminal port; the prevention experience until now.
Revista CIPA, Feb. 1996, Vol.17, No.195, p.76-79. 11 ref.
Refining a risk model for occupational tuberculosis transmission
A probability model is presented to describe the variation with time of levels of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol experienced by health care workers. Based on this model, analytical solutions are presented for an individual worker's cumulative risk of tuberculosis infection, and for the worker population mean cumulative risk of infection, with and without use of respiratory protection. Given exposure estimates and a definition of acceptable risk, the risk equations developed in this analysis may be used to assist in the selection of respiratory protection for health care workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.16-22. Illus. 18 ref.
Gilks C.F., Ojoo S.A., Ojoo J.C., Brindle R.J., Paul J., Batchelor B.I.F., Kimari J.N., Newnham R., Bwayo J., Plummer F.A., Warrell D.A.
Invasive pneumococcal disease in a cohort of predominantly HIV-1 infected female sex-workers in Nairobi, Kenya
Follow-up (1989-1992) cohort study of 719 female prostitutes in sub-Saharan Africa, 132 (18.4%) of whom remained HIV negative at the end of the follow-up period. Invasive pneumococcal disease (pneumonia, maxillary sinusitis, fever etc.) was diagnosed in 79 of the women who were seropositive at the end of the follow-up period, as opposed to only one among those who remained seronegative (RR 17.8, 95% CI 2.5-126.5; incidence rate 42.5/1000 person-yrs in seropositive women). It appears that the bacterium Strep pneumoniae causes more disease, at an earlier stage of HIV immunosuppression, than other bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Lancet, 16 Mar. 1996, Vol.347, No.9003, p.718-723. Illus. 31 ref.
The bloodborne pathogens standard: A pragmatic approach
This handbook on the prevention of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens is aimed at all workers with potential exposure, with a particular emphasis on exposure in a health-care environment. It is a practical guide to the implementation of the 1991 US Bloodborne Pathogen Standard (CIS 93-371). Contents: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and its role in the setting of occupational safety and health standards; hepatitis B (biology of the HBV virus, disease outcomes, transmission, epidemiology, vaccination, post-exposure prophylaxis); HIV and AIDS (biology, the HIV antibody test, transmission, occupational case histories, workers with AIDS); the creation of the Standard; detailed explanation of the Standard (exposure control, methods of compliance, HIV and HBV research laboratories and production facilities, HBV vaccination and post-exposure follow-up, hazard communication, record keeping, effective dates); compliance and legal implications; future trends. In annex: full text of the Standard; various recommendations and guidelines for the prevention of bloodborne infections; management of occupational exposure to HIV, including post-exposure use of zidovudine.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10003, USA; Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1996. xiii, 319p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price (in Europe): GBP 34.95.
Health and Safety Commission
The proposed removal of outdated textile and anthrax prevention health and safety legislation
This consultation document invites views on the repeal/revocation of certain textile and anthrax prevention provisions identified during the Health and Safety Commission's review of regulations as being redundant. The legislation concerns artificial humidification, use of kiers and cotton shuttles in the textile industry and the Anthrax Prevention Order 1971. The provisions to be revoked are described along with measures for the maintenance of health and safety standards by the use of more modern legislation. A cost benefit assessment of the proposed revocation is presented.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 38p.
Harber P., Schenker M.B., Balmes J.R.
Occupational and environmental respiratory disease
Contents of this manual: history of occupational and environmental respiratory disease; clinical and epidemiologic methods; exposure assessment methods; general disease categories; agents causing various respiratory diseases (asbestos, man-made fibres and nonasbestos fibrous silicates, nonfibrous inorganic dusts, coal, silica, cotton dust, organic solvents, metals, acute gaseous exposure, ionizing radiation, infectious organisms, diesel exhaust); industries associated with respiratory disease (agriculture, forestry products, mining, foundries and steelmaking, petroleum, electric power generation, welding, electronics and semiconductors, hospitals and laboratories, diving, aerospace); environmental health effects (environmental tobacco smoke, indoor and outdoor air pollution); clinical programmes; regulatory and policy issues; workplace control strategies (respirators, exposure control).
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1996. xviii, 1038p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 110.00.
Breathnach A.S., Turnbull P.C.B., Eykyn S.J., Twort C.H.C.
A labourer with a spot on his chest
A case study is presented of a casual labourer with a chest lesion which was attributed to a sting or bite during recent work in a ventilation shaft. Despite treatment, the lesion progressed and the patient also developed jaundice and renal impairment. The initial diagnosis was a streptococcal infection but blood cultures later yielded an organism identified as Bacillus anthracis. Enquiries revealed that the labourer had recently worked in a leather firm and had removed his shirt while lifting hides. The rarity of anthrax in the United Kingdom and the misleading occupational history resulted in misdiagnosis.
Lancet, 13 Jan. 1996, vol.347, No.8994, p.96. Illus. 1 ref.
Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Bloodborne pathogens: An occupational hazard
Patógenos transmitidos por la sangre: un riesgo laboral [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; community services; data sheet; health care personnel; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; prophylaxis; Spain; vaccination.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 4p. Illus. 14 ref.
A code of practice for the prevention and control of Legionnaires' disease
Topics: air conditioning; Australia; biocides; cooling towers; directive; hot-water heating systems; infection control; legionellosis; preventive maintenance; safety by design; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, July 1995. 37p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: AUD 3.00.
Alonso Espadalé R.M., Martí Solé M.C.
Active immunization: A means of prevention
La inmunización activa: una herramienta de prevención [in Spanish]
Topics: brucellosis; data sheet; echinococcosis; immunization; infection control; legal aspects; leptospirosis; rabies; Spain; tuberculosis; typhus; vaccination.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 4p. 9 ref.
Jost M., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of occupational diseases in the laundries of health care institutions
Berufskrankheitenverhütung in Wäschereien des Gesundheitswesens [in German]
Prévention des maladies professionnelles dans les buanderies des établissements sanitaires [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; harmful substances; health hazards; hospitals; infection control; infectious diseases; laundries; manual lifting; medical supervision; protective clothing; safe layout; vaccination; ventilation; welfare facilities.
SUVA, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1995. 20p. 10 ref.
Fontana L., Rebora M., Lai P., Pezzano D., Poli A.
Reflections on hepatitis B vaccination of health care workers
Considerazioni sulla vaccinazione anti-epatite B nei dipendenti ospedalieri [in Italian]
Topics: health care personnel; infectious hepatitis; Italy; prophylaxis; vaccination.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, July-Sep. 1995, Vol.11, No.3, p.105-111. 38 ref.
Protection of workers from hepatitis B in the workplace
Protection des travailleurs contre l'hépatite B sur les lieux de travail [in French]
Topics: Canada; contagion; data sheet; disinfection of equipment; high-risk groups; infection control; infectious hepatitis; legislation; vaccination.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, 1995. 6p.
Clever L.H., LeGuyader Y.
Infectious risks for health care workers
Infectious risks for health care workers are reviewed. Topics covered: health care and associated workers at risk (including students, volunteers, family members); risk modification measures (training, protective equipment, safe disposal methods, immunization); legal requirements; precautions for specific infectious diseases (hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, rubella, mumps, measles, influenza, varicella, meningococcal disease, scabies, tuberculosis).
Annual Review of Public Health, 1995, Vol.16, p.141-164. 121 ref.
The medical evaluation
Medical conditions related to the indoor environment are reviewed and strategies for their management are described. Topics covered include: doctor-patient relationships; recovery and illness behaviour; risk communication; diagnosis; medical conditions (allergic respiratory disease, skin discomfort, mass psychogenic illness, mucous membrane irritation, central nervous system symptoms, lung cancer, sick building syndrome); characterization of exposure.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.177-194. 109 ref.
Occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus: A comparative risk analysis
Data on the probability of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B and subsequent seroconversion are reviewed. Mortality and morbidity rates associated with both viruses in health care workers are also examined. A model for the analysis of occupational risk for HIV and hepatitis B is presented and shows that quality-adjusted loss in life expectancy is greater after percutaneous exposure to a patient seropositive for hepatitis B than after exposure to a patient with symptomatic HIV infection.
American Journal of Infection Control, Oct. 1995, Vol.23, No.5, p.286-289. 20 ref.
Petrosillo N., et al.
The risks of occupational exposure and infection by human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the dialysis setting
A survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was carried out among 1002 patients in nine dialysis units. A subsequent 1-year surveillance study of percutaneous injuries and skin and mucous membrane contaminations was carried out among 527 health care workers in the same units. The risk of acquiring infection was calculated to be 4000 and 8000 times lower for HIV than for hepatitis B and C, respectively. Compliance with universal precautions and improvements in the design of needles and dialysis equipment are recommended.
American Journal of Infection Control, Oct. 1995, Vol.23, No.5, p.278-285. 43 ref.
Puro V., Petrosillo N., Ippolito G.
Risk of hepatitis C seroconversion after occupational exposures in health care workers
The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroconversion was studied in health care workers who reported an occupational exposure to blood or other body materials from patients known to be seropositive for HCV. During a two-year period 646 exposure incidents were studied. Four HCV seroconversion were observed after hollow-bore needlestick injuries; no seroconversions occurred after other routes of exposure. Blood-filled needlesticks and patient coinfection with human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) was associated with a higher risk of seroconversion.
American Journal of Infection Control, Oct. 1995, Vol.23, No.5, p.273-277. 24 ref.
del Carmen Martí Solé M., Alonso Espadalé R.M.
Medical waste treatment
Tratamiento de residuos sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note discusses the disposal of the different types of medical waste. The classification, collection, transport, storage and elimination of medical waste are addressed. A list of potential infectious diseases in biomedical waste disposal is included. References to European and Spanish legislation are given.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 5p. 4 ref.
Report to Congress on Workers' Home Contamination Study Conducted Under The Workers' Family Protection Act (29 U.S.C. 671a)
Contents of this report: health effects of workers' home contamination by specific substances; sources of home contamination (workers' clothing, taking items home from work, cottage industries, farms); levels of contamination in homes and cars; preventive measures; decontamination procedures; review of existing Federal and States laws; responses to incidents of home contamination; recommendations for research and education.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1995. xxv, 281 p. Bibl.ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Women at work in Europe - The challenge of today and tomorrow
This report examines statistical data on the numbers of women employed in the European Union, focusing on their occupations, the industries that employ them, and the health hazards to which they are potentially exposed. These include: inflammatory bowel disease; cancer; tuberculosis; zoonoses; hepatitis; human immunodeficiency virus; heat and cold stress; exposure to dust and fibres, lead, and solvents; stress; reproductive outcomes; perinatal mortality; and congenital malformations. Research needs are outlined.
Occupational Health Programme, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 50p. 86 ref.
CRC handbook of laboratory safety
This manual is a comprehensive reference tool covering safety in different kinds of laboratories. Contents: emergencies; laboratory facilities: design and equipment; laboratory operations (including new OSHA laboratory safety standards); nonchemical laboratories: radiation, lasers, microbiological and biomedical laboratories, recombinant DNA laboratories, handling and care of research animals (including 1994 NRC radiation safety standards, guidelines for X-ray use in hospitals, enforcement of the standard for dealing with blood-borne pathogens, EPA action on the release of radioactive materials into the environment, OSHA actions covering hazardous waste operations and emergency response, new CDC guidelines for research with microbiological hazards); personal protective equipment; laboratory checklist.
CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Boulevard, N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA, 4th ed., 1995. xxiii, 783p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 99.50.
Romano C., De Luca G.
Protection of workers exposed to biological agents. Study on the prevention of hepatitis B by means of vaccination in a cohort of such workers. Consideration after a 5-year follow-up
Protezione dei lavoratori dagli agenti biologici. Una esperienza di vaccinoprofilassi contro l'epatite B in una popolazione di professionalmente esposti a rischio. Considerazioni dopo 5 anni di follow-up [in Italian]
The results are reported of a cohort study conducted for 5 years in 82 workers exposed to biological hazards (manipulation of sera in a pharmaceutical plant). The workers were vaccinated at scheduled intervals (three doses) against hepatitis B. The effectiveness of their immunization was repeatedly checked in subsequent years by means of an anti-HBs titre assay. In 96.3% of the subjects the result of the assay was positive (HBsAb >10mUI/mL serum level, i.e. the generally accepted cut-off value for a specific positive response). Only three subjects (3.66%) showed no response. To protect these workers, a further administration of vaccine is proposed by some experts. Booster doses 1-2 months after the third dose of vaccine are suggested for workers with anti-HB titres below 10mUI/mL, in order to prolong their immunity against HBV. Repeated serum controls are recommended for all workers every 4-5 years.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.17-21. 20 ref.
Ficarra M.G., Deli G., Di Liso G., Berloco F., Rizzelli R.
Prevention of infection in dentistry and dental staff habits: Results of a field survey
Prevenzione delle infezioni e comportamenti del personale in odontoiatria: risultati di un'indagine sul campo [in Italian]
This study is based on a questionnaire self administered by dental professionals in order to assess their knowledge of the risks of catching an infectious disease and of preventive measures to be adopted in the work place. Only 47% of the interviewed staff claimed to have a good knowledge of AIDS; while 46% considered their knowledge to be barely sufficient. About 1/4 of the subjects thought it was understandable that some health workers could decline to treat HIV-positive patients. Utilization of protective devices (gloves, masks, goggles) was satisfactory. However, a significant number of these workers had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic rules of hygiene were observed by a limited number of nurses (only 7% of them washed their hands after each single treatment). A low percentage of workers used an antibacterial preparation after washing their hands. The importance of adequate health training for all health staff is stressed.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-6. 7 ref.
National Association of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Health Care Personnel - 31st National Workshop
Association nationale de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie du personnel des hôpitaux - XXXIe Journées nationales de formation [in French]
Subjects of reports presented at the 31st National Association of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Health Care Personnel, held at Bordeaux, France, 21-23 Sept. 1994 on specific occupational risks and pathology in health care workers. Topic I - Remaining in good health and prevention of physical and infectious risks (good practices in molecular biology laboratories; prevention among hospital staff who handle cytotoxic injectable drugs; contamination by anaesthetic gases in operating theatres; viral hepatitis in the French National Health Service in 1993). Topic II - Health of the staff and hospital policy management (specific factors influencing hospital staff health: constraints; ethics and health in hospital work; setting up of a "school" for back problems and assessment of results after one year). Topic III - Technical note (spinal pain among hospital staff; prevalence of slipped discs; medico-legal aspects).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.7, p.569-596. Illus.
Social work and health care area
Social- og sundhedsområdet [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish social work and health care sector. The sector is very big with 16% of the active working population. The sector includes: hospitals, home-help services, retirement homes, dental services, veterinary services, pharmacies etc. The main working environment problems are: strain injuries, skin diseases and psychological effects. At retirement homes, accidents are also an important problem. Other problems for all areas are accidents, indoor climate, risk of infection and reproduction risks caused by strain injuries. Retirement homes and hospitals are the most exposed in the sector to strain injuries. Hospitals are the most affected by skin diseases. Retirement homes are the most exposed regarding psychological effects. Nursing, nurse's assistance work and cleaning assistance are the most exposed occupations regarding strain injuries. Workers in several occupations such as nurses, cleaners, home care assistants, house keepers and dental technicians have skin problems. Psychological effects are common among nurses, doctors, teachers and home care assistants.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 99p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Food, beverage and tobacco industry
Nærings- og nydelsesmiddelindustri [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in the Danish food, beverage and tobacco industry. The largest sectors in this industry are bakeries (18%) and butchers dealing with pork (15%). Main problems: strain injuries, accidents, skin diseases, noise and thermal effects. Other problems are allergies and respiratory diseases. This industry has the highest incidence of accidents of any industry in Denmark. Monotonous work is a common problem. Respiratory diseases are especially common among bakers. There are also problems with circulatory diseases and gastric ulcer. Butchers also have problems with stress factors. There are several factors which might cause these problems, such as high working tempo and unsocial working hours. There are also some problems with infection.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 75p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.
Protect yourself against tuberculosis - A respiratory protection guide for health care workers
Training guide on the prevention of tuberculosis among health-care workers (primarily, nurses). Contents: basic information on tuberculosis, a disease that is again spreading in the US; use of respirators as a means of prevention; use and certification of respirators; types of respirators; respirator programmes (training, fitting, maintenance); frequently asked questions and their answers. In appendix: required respirator programme elements (check list).
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Dec. 1995. vi, 25p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Compensable occupational diseases - Aetiology, prevention, therapy: Introduction to their study and treatment
Die entschädigungspflichtigen Berufskrankheiten - Genese, Prävention, Therapie. Einführung für Studium und Praxis [in German]
Manual on occupational diseases, aimed primarily at occupational physicians. Contents: survey of relevant legislation in Germany; lists of occupational diseases and criteria for their diagnosis, diseases caused by chemical agents (metals, asphyxiants, solvents, pesticides etc.); diseases caused by physical agents (musculoskeletal disorders, pressurized atmosphere, noise, radiation); infectious and parasitic diseases; diseases of the respiratory system (inorganic and organic dusts); obstructive disorders; skin diseases; miners' nystagmus.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co.KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 1995. xxiv, 263p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 78.00 (in Switzerland).
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