Diseases of the eye and vision damage - 225 entries found
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- Diseases of the eye and vision damage
Vision screening in industry: Objectives and methods.
There are difficulties in analysing the relationships between visual abilities and job competence. Initially, visual tasks involved in any job should be analysed and the importance of the visual parameters assessed. Vision can be screened by a modified clinical technique or with instrumental screeners. A number of instrumental screeners are described, their practical advantage being that they can be operated by lay technicians. For jobs of high visual demand, the use of a modified clinical technique is advisable.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.123-138. Illus. 18 ref.
The ageing eye.
An account of the common changes in vision with age is presented under the following headings: changes in the refractive system; changes due to eye diseases; changes in visual thresholds for detection, visual acuity and colour vision. It is concluded that persons over 40 need special attention if they are to maintain good visual performance. Changes in the refractive system make reading glasses necessary; intermediate distance or trifocal glasses may be essential for some jobs. Regular changes will be needed because of the possibility of eye disease leading to permanent visual deficits, and regular eye checks are advisable. Lighting needs to be carefully considered for older persons and attention must be paid to possible sources of glare.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.44-50. Illus. 8 ref.
The handicap of abnormal colour vision.
Although total colour blindness (monochromasy) is very rare, about 8 in every 100 male employees and 4 in every 1,000 female employees have abnormal colour vision. This paper describes and classifies the various types of defective colour vision. Operations involving judgment of colour are categorised into 4 classes: those involving comparative judgment of colour; those involving connotative judgment of colour; those involving denotative recognition; and those involving aesthetic judgment. Guidelines for the employment of people with defective colour vision are given for each category.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Comany, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.37-43. 20 ref.
The common visual disorders: Their effect on job performance.
Visual disorders are divided into 2 main groups: ametropias and anomalies of binocular vision. The ametropias or refractive errors are anomalies in the focusing components of the eye and comprise the largest group of common visual disorders. Myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism and presbyopia are in this category. These disorders are discussed in relation to performance; corrective methods are indicated. An account of binocular anomalies is given and the problems and capabilities on the one-eyed person are evaluated. The relationship between visual acuity and illumination is explained with special reference to the ametropic eye; the importance of the use of magnifying aids is stressed.
In: Vision and its protection. Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973, p.23-36. Illus. 18 ref.
Wigglesworth E.C., Cole B.L.
Vision and its protection.
A collection of papers presented to seminars held in Melbourne (1-2 June 1972) and Adelaide (21-22 Aug. 1973) under the joint sponsorship of the Victorian College of Optometry in the University of Melbourne and the Safety Engineering Society of Australia. The publication is intended to serve safety officers and engineers, industrial medical staff, equipment designers and members of management. It provides a systematic account of visual factors in industrial operations and of the means by which vision may be protected. Each paper gives an elementary introduction assuming no specialist knowledge but develops advanced concepts of interest to optometrists and opthalmologists.
Australian Optometrical Publishing Company, 24 Nithsdale Street, Sydney, Australia, 1973. 143p. 119 ref. Price: Aus-$8.00.
Medvedovskaja C.P., Parljuk A.F.
Functional state of the visual analyser of persons exposed to low-frequency vibrations and jolts
O funkcional'nom sostojanii zritel'nogo analizatora u lic, podvergajuščihsja vozdejstviju obščej nizkočastotnoj tolčkoobraznoj vibracii [in Russian]
Results of ophthalmological examinations carried out on 84 crane operators exposed to jolts resulting from the operation of overhead travelling cranes: angiodystonic changes at the retinal vessels and slight reduction of visual field when compared to a control group; light and colour sensitivity thresholds were 50% higher than among the controls. This reflects circulatory disorders of the brain. The authors stress the necessity of carrying out ophthalmological examinations on all workers exposed to vibrations and jolts.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1973, No.11, p.42-46. 10 ref.
Retinal damage from repeated subthreshold exposures using a ruby laser photocoagulator.
A ruby laser photocoagulator was used to deliver single and multiple subthreshold exposures to the retinas of monkeys. Single exposure produced no microscopic changes on sacrifice at 1 to 30 days after exposure. Repetitive exposures at the same energy level invariably caused characteristic damage to the outer retinal layers. These cumulative effects are similar to and more widespread than the minimal-damage lesions produced by single suprathreshold exposures. It is concluded that each subthreshold exposure must increase the retinal susceptibility to subsequent exposure. Further experimentation is required to determine the safe interval between subthreshold exposures to avoid cumulative effects.
Aerospace Medicine, Apr. 1973, Vol.44, No.4, p.433-437. Illus. 9 ref.
Ebbers R.W., Dunsky I.L.
Retinal damage thresholds for multiple pulse lasers.
A Q-switched neodymium laser, capable of being repetitively pulsed, was used to determine the retinal damage threshold on 100 rhesus monkey eyes. Irradiations were made with repetitive pulse frequencies, as well as with single pulses. The data obtained show no significant difference between the single pulse ED-50 (median effective dose) and the ED-50 for the maximum energy pulse in any of the train pulses . Thus, a cumulative effect could not be demonstrated under the conditions of this experiment. This study is of a preliminary nature, as the number of experimental variables was limited and only one wavelength (1060 nm) was investigated.
Aerospace Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.44, No.3, p.317-318. 10 ref.
Beatrice E.S., Frisch G.D.
Retinal laser damage thresholds as a function of image diameter.
The eyes of rhesus monkeys were exposed to argon (514.5 nm) and ruby (694.3nm) laser irradiation using various retinal image diameters which were estimated by microphotometric techniques. Extramacular retinal exposure sites were examined by ophthalmoscopic and histopathological techniques. All data were statistically analysed to establish trends, and results compared for the wavelengths employed. Results indicate that retinal damage is primarily dependent on energy distribution as a function of image diameter and exposure duration.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1973, Vol.27, No.5, p.322-326. Illus. 10 ref.
Lovejoy H.B., Berry J., Bell Z.G.
Mercury exposure evaluations and their correlation with urine mercury excretions - 5. Occurrence of mercurialentis among mercury chlor-alkali workers.
Although there are reports that exposure to mercury vapour can produce mercurialentis (an irreversible condition involving impregnation of the lens with mercury) in humans and monkeys, full eye examinations of 68 workers for this condition at 2 chlor-alkali plants using mercury cell processes were all negative. Only one employee at a plant where the urinary mercury level had occasionally reached 1.0 mg/l had other ocular findings suggestive of early clinical mercurialism. Nevertheless, it is recommended that routine periodic ophthalmological examination be performed as part of the medical surveillance programme for workers exposed to mercury.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1973, Vol.15, No.8, p.647-648. 10 ref.
Diseases of the eyes - Physiological and pathological influences of radiations and vibrations on the eye and visual function
Ophtalmopathies - Influences physiologiques et pathologiques des rayonnements et vibrations sur l'oeil et la fonction visuelle. [in French]
Studies briefly the traumatic effects on the eye of the principal radiations and of acoustic vibrations, indicating the most exposed occupations. Electromagnetic waves (short waves and radar), infrared, visible spectrum and ultraviolet radiations, X-rays, lasers and sound vibrations, infrasound and ultrasound are considered in turn. The shorter the wavelength, the more penetrating and harmful the wave action. Thermal waves, electrical waves and sound waves have a more marked effect on the visual function than light and ultraviolet rays, X-rays, etc., which have a greater traumatic effect locally.
Médecine et collectivité, July-Aug. 1973, No.7-8, p.7-14. Illus. 11 ref.
The ocular ultraviolet action spectrum and protection criteria.
Human eyes were exposed to ultraviolet radiant energy over the range 220-310 nm in 10-nm waveband steps, and the action spectra compared with previously established rabbit and primate spectra. The human ultraviolet action spectrum extended from 220-310 nm. Human photokeratitis thresholds were also determined in this range; the 270-nm waveband was found to be the most dangerous in this connection, the corresponding threshold being 4.0 J/cm2. Formulas are presented for the calculation of safety criteria against ultraviolet radiation.
Health Physics, Dec. 1973, Vol.25, No.6, p.559-566. Illus. 20 ref.
Observations on microwave hazards to USAF personnel.
Literature review of microwave hazards with particular reference to the formation of eye cataract. It is conluded that the U.S. exposure limit of 10 mW/cm2 is safe, although one should consider cataract formation only an ancillary tool for the evaluation of safe exposure limits since, for example, transient changes in testicular function may occur at power levels lower than those which may induce cataract.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1972, Vol.14, No.7, p.544-547. Illus. 17 ref.
Appleton B., McCrossan G.C.
Microwave lens effects in humans.
All personnel presumed on the basis of long-standing occupational circumstances to have been exposed to microwaves at the highest levels encountered in a military operational environment were subjected to biomicroscopic examination of the lens. 135 controls were also examined, the examiners having no knowledge of the exposure history of any person examined. Objective evidence of lens abnormality was recorded and a statistical comparison made between the 2 groups on the basis of this evidence. The comparison showed the 2 groups to be essentially the same and did not support the hypothesis that human cataracts are caused by chronic exposure to microwaves.
Archives of Ophthalmology, Sep. 1972, Vol.88, No.3, p.259-262. 10 ref.
Cataract due to electric shock or arc.
Electric shock can definitely cause cataracts, but only under specific conditions; the latter are described.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 14 Aug. 1972, Vol.221, No.7, p.721. 6 ref.
Warner H.D., Heimstra N.W.
Effects of noise intensity on visual target-detection performance
The effect of 4 levels of continuous white noise (0, 80, 90 and 100dB) on visual target-detection performance was investigated in 20 subjects. Variables associated with the target-detection task were levels of difficulty and location (central or peripheral) of target. Detection times and detection errors were recorded. The results, which are discussed, indicate that noise-intensity and display-difficulty levels are significantly interrelated with regard to detection speed, but not to detection error. Some noise conditions did enhance performance, but only under the most complex task condition.
Human Factors, Apr. 1972, Vol.14, No.2, p.181-185. Illus. 5 ref.
Visual hygiene in the use of microscopes
Nekotorye voprosy gigieny zrenija pri rabote s mikroskopami [in Russian]
A study of microscope work and lighting conditions in high-precision assembly work entailing the use of microscopes. Eye and vision examinations of 593 microscope workers during working hours showed various functional changes (decrease in colour differentiation, stereoscopic acuity, weakened adductors and strengthened abductors) which result in marked visual fatigue. The most pronounced changes were found in hypermetropes and astigmatics; persons working both with the microscope and the naked eye were least affected. The authors recommend: reduction in duration of microscope work; pre-employment and periodic medical examinations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1972, Vol.16, No.2, p.5-9. Illus. 2 ref.
Occupational health aspects of laser beams
Arbeitsmedizinische Aspekte der Laserstrahlung [in German]
A review of the effects of the CO2-laser on the eye and a report on animal experiments. Even the weakest CO2-laser beam is hazardous for the surface of the cornea and the resultant scars and clouding will always impair vision. Particular reference is made to the importance of thorough ophthalmological and general medical pre-employment medical examinations for people to be employed on work with lasers, and the need for documentary evidence of the eye examination findings (retinal-image photograph or diagram).
Homburg-Informationen für den Werksarzt, 1972, Vol.19, No.4, p.98-104. 2 ref.
Stockhausen M., Walther G., Hochgesand P.
Ocular-injury threshold energy for short laser pulses
Zur Frage der Schwellenergie für Augenschädigungen durch kurze Laserimpulse [in German]
Using a thermophysical model, the authors evaluated retinal lesions due to the heat released by laser pulses. A pulse duration of 50ns will have an energy of about 1µJ. This value, calculated theoretically, is in striking agreement with the results of clinical examinations of rabbit-eye fundus (ruby laser, 50ns), which points to the conclusion that the damage is due essentially to a conversion of radiation into thermal energy.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 1 Aug. 1972, Vol.29, No.4, p.340-346. Illus. 4 ref.
Examinations of persons with chronic exposure to certain aliphatic amines and dimethyl-formamide, and the resultant consequences for ophthalmic screening tests
Untersuchungen chronisch Amin- und Dimethyl-Formamid-Exponierter und sich daraus ergebende Konsequenzen für augenärztliche Reihenuntersuchungen [in German]
A report on opthalmological screening tests (questionnaire, vision evaluation, slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, examination of the central and peripheral field of vision) in persons who had had long-term exposure to the following substances: methyl-amine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and dimethylformamide. The examinations revealed no pathological changes in the eye, which could be definitely attributed to the effect of these substances. A report is given on experience with these examinations and improvements are proposed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1972, Vol.18, No.5, p.332-335. Illus. 23 ref.
The cataractogenic activity of chemical agents.
A comprehensive discussion of miscellaneous cataractogenic drugs and chemicals. As this subject has previously been given little attention, few toxicologists are familiar with the normal lens structure, physiology, chemistry and function. These items are reviewed in an introduction to the article. Techniques to predict the cataractogenic effects of chemicals in man are discussed, bearing in mind such complicating factors as: species differences in the response of animals to cataractogenic agents; the high incidence of spontaneous cataracts in some species and strains; some chemicals being cataractogenic only in the presence of sunlight; the possible presence of other causes of cataract.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Sep. 1971, Vol.1, No.1, p.93-118. Illus. 224 ref.
Hassman P., Juran J.
Trinitrotoluol-Star [in German]
A brief literature survey is followed by a report on ophthalmological examinations of 76 explosives-plant workers exposed to pure TNT (average age 42.6 years; average exposure 5.4 years) and 58 workers exposed to mixtures of 19% TNT and 81% ammonium nitrate (average age 40.5 years; average exposure 8 years). Cataract was diagnosed in 31 of the first group (40.8%) and in 19 of the second group (32.8%). Neither the disparity in the number of cataract cases nor the mean age of cataract onset are statistically significant.
Sborník vědeckých práci, 1971, Vol.14, No.2, p.261-274. Illus. 25 ref.
Hager G., Pagel S., Broschmann D.
Heat cataract in locomotive stokers
Feuerstar bei Lokomotivheizern [in German]
Report on a comparative study of infrared exposure among locomotive stokers and glassworkers. Burning coal and molten glass both emit infrared radiation in the 800-1400-nm wavelength range which is harmful to the crystalline lens. Cataract in locomotive stokers may be recognised as an occupational disease providing there is supporting evidence of occupational exposure. Cases of locomotive-stoker cataract following various durations of exposure are presented.
Verkehrsmedizin und ihre Grenzgebiete, Oct. 1971, Vol.18, No.10, p.443-449. Illus. 39 ref.
Laser eye effects: The subvisible retinal lesion
The purpose of these investigations, which were carried out on rabbits, was to study the effects of helium-neon and YAG (yttrium-aluminium-garnet) laser radiation on the retina at levels capable of disturbing retinal function without producing gross pathological manifestations (i.e. lesions which can be observed with the ophthalmoscope). The techniques used include electroencephalography, light microscopy, electron microscopy and autoradiography. The existence of subvisible lesions was established at exposure levels corresponding to 50% of the visible lesion exposure threshold. YAG laser exposure produced unexpected increases in the amplitude and duration of EEG potentials, a result which has not been explained. Subvisible lesions appear to be reversible.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA, 14 July 1971. 82p. Illus. 8 ref.
Histopathology of argon laser-induced retinal lesions
Experiments were conducted on owls and rhesus monkeys to study the biological effects of argon (and also ruby) laser beams on the retinal areas that do not contain large blood vessels. The pigment epithelium was the most sensitive area of the retina exposed to threshold laser energies, followed by the photoreceptor and outer nuclear layers; the inner layers of the retina seemed relatively unaffected by the argon laser at threshold energies.
National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22151, USA. Aug. 1971. Replrt No.2. 7p. 15 ref.
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