Diseases of the eye and vision damage - 225 entries found
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- Diseases of the eye and vision damage
Foussereau J., Cavelier C.
Irritant dermatitis due to diallyl glycol carbonate monomer
La dermite par irritation au carbonate de diallylglycol monomčre [in French]
Information note for occupational physicians. The allyl monomers widely used in the optical industry are sometimes not tolerated by the skin and eyes; this is especially true of diallyl glycol carbonate (DAGC). The toxicity of DAGC and isopropyl percarbonate (IPP) is reviewed. Clinical aspects indlude the irritant properties of mixtures of DAGC and IPP, the risk of contact with the substances as a function of work assignment (before and after polymerisation), frequency of intolerance in exposed workers, description of lesions. Human tests with IPP, DAGC and impurities found in DAGC, and tolerance in animals are reviewed. Diagnosis, prevention and compensation are also discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1987, No.31, p.223-226.
Mergler D., Blain L.
Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers
Description of the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap colour arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia (colour vision loss), which can be administered rapidly in the field. The panel was evaluated among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant by comparing the results with it and those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of colour vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the 10 highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed 1 false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected 8 complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p<0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.2, p.195-203. Illus. 28 ref.
Méthanol [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Methanol can be absorbed through the skin in toxic or lethal amounts. Ingestion of methanol can produce blindness. Other symptoms resemble those of ethanol intoxication. Highly flammable. Exposure limit: ACGIH (USA, 1986-87), TLV=260mg/m3.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1H6, 1987. 16p. 20 ref.
Pal'cev Ju.P., Syromjatnikov Ju.P., Komarova A.A., Jazburskis B.I., Čekmarev O.M.
Occupational hygiene and health status of medical staff working with lasers and ultrasonic equipment
Gigiena truda i sostojanie zdorov'ja medicinskogo personala, rabotajuščego s lazernoj i ul'trazvukovoj apparaturoj [in Russian]
Forty-seven ophthalmologists and 41 surgeons who use lasers as well as 28 physicians who work with ultrasonic equipment (control group) were subjected to detailed medical examination. The ages of the subjects ranged from 20-50yrs. Physicians exposed systematically to laser radiation showed functional disturbances of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and of the vestibular organs. Ophthalmologists had such specific changes as point opacities of the crystalline lens. Physicians exposed to ultrasound risk having direct contact action of high-frequency ultrasound and manifest disturbances in vegetative regulation of the circulatory system, thermo-regulation of the extremities and changes in the bones of the hands following the pattern of enostosis. Prophylactic measures are proposed: in surgery - use of special instruments with dull and black surfaces to reduce levels of reflected laser radiation and local exhaust in laser "scalpels" to remove the products of pyrolysis of tissues; in ophthalmology use of protective screens, shields and glasses.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1986, No.10, p.27-31.
Castillo González J.
CRT display terminals and visual discomfort
Pantallas de rayos catódicos y molestias oculares/Pantallas de rayos catódicos y molestias oculares [in Spanish]
The first part of this article gives a brief outline of general ergonomic problems associated with work at CRT display terminals (visual fatigue, sitting posture, mental tension due to monotonous tasks). The second part describes an investigation of 100 display terminal operators which was made with the intention of detecting possible visual alterations for this type of work. All of the operators were women, from 25 to 55 years old, and worked 7 hours a day. The visual discomfort was approximately the same for the operators who used glasses as for those who did not (56% for the first group and 50% for the second). The most frequent complaints concerned lighting, followed by uncomfortable reflections from the desks. No visual alterations that could be attributed to display work were found.
Salud y trabajo, Mar.-Apr. 1986, No.54, p.49-54. Illus. 6 ref.
Work on visual display units - Report on a study
El trabajo sobre pantallas de visualización - Informe del programa de investigación/El trabajo sobre pantallas de visualización - Informe del programa de investigación [in Spanish]
Results of a study concerning work with visual display units. Survey of the health hazards: ionising and non-ionising radiation; evaluation of work stations; epidemiological study; medical aspects (visual fatigue, musculoskeletal changes, neuro-psychic problems); medical examinations (aptitude tests, what to do on the appearance of symptoms, ophthalmological tests). In the appendices: questionnaires used in the evaluation of work stations and in the study; visual function disturbances and counter-indications for this kind of work; requirements of VDU work as related to visual function; anatomy of the visual apparatus.
Asociación de Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo de UNESA para la Industria Eléctrica (AMYS), Spain, 1986. 156p. Illus. 79 ref.
Colour vision of workers under non-actinic lighting
Cvetovoe zrenie rabotajuščih pri neaktiničnom osveščenii [in Russian]
Results of surveys carried out in 104 practically healthy women (age 21-53) employed in a photographic paper factory. Working experience under non-actinic lighting ranged from 20 to 35 years (the control group comprised 50 women aged 20-35 years). The workrooms had no natural light. The lighting was in the red range of the visible spectrum (maximum energy at wavelengths of 635±2, 630±2 and 625±2nm); illumination was 4.6Lx and equivalent luminance was 0.65cd/m2. Detailed examination revealed a significant increase of colour distinction thresholds for each of the three basic colours (red, green, blue) in comparison with the control group. In most cases the maximum reduction in sensitivity was seen in the red receptors. The observed changes in colour vision resulted from the action of non-actinic lighting on the cortical part of the visual analyser. Measures aimed at improving the colour discriminating function of the eye and reducing visual fatigue in dark-room workers are proposed.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1986, No.4, p.86-87. 14 ref.
ĹKesson B., Bengtsson M., Florén I.
Visual disturbances after industrial triethylamine exposure
Among 19 workers in a polyurethane foam production plant, visual disturbances ("foggy vision", "blue haze", and sometimes halo phenomena) were reported on a total of 47 occasions by 5 workers over 11 weeks. The symptoms were associated with triethylamine exposure. Time-weighted average levels of 12-13mg/m3 were recorded at work operations associated with symptoms, and 4-5mg/m3 at other tasks. Twice as high peak levels were recorded. A detailed medical examination of the 5 affected workers did not reveal any signs of permanent eye disease.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.57, No.4, p.297-302. 15 ref.
Demure B., Briotet A., Saux M., Giard A.M.
Pathology of office work
Pathologie des emplois de bureau [in French]
Description of health problems and occupational accidents connected with office work. The emphasis is on the consequences of computerisation and other changes in equipment (including their effects on the social relationships in the workplace). The following subjects are discussed: eye problems connected with lighting levels and the use of VDTs, postural problems due to the use of office equipment, stress, problems due to air conditioning (complaints by workers, toxic products, infections by microorganisms), skin complaints due to manual and machine copying methods.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, Pathologie professionnelle, 1986. 4p. 6 ref.
The hazards of colour blindness
This article surveys the safety hazards encurred by workers who are partially or completely colour blind. The main hazards are inability to distinguish safety colour codes and differently coloured electrical wiring. Exposure to some chemical substances used in industry can also affect colour vision. These substances are listed, together with the colour vision change produced. Ways of testing for colour vision defects are discussed.
Safety Practitioner, Feb. 1986, Vol.4, No.2, p.32-35. Illus. 1 ref.
Alieva Z.A., Sultanov M.Ju., Mirzoev T.A.
Reduced acuity of colour perception resulting from exposure to styrene and tetrachloroethylene vapours
Poniženie ostroty cvetooščuščenija, vyzvannoe parami stirola i tetrahloretilena [in Russian]
The acuity of colour perception was assessed in 687 workers at an air-conditioner plant. Workers exposed to styrene during casting of plastic parts, or to tetrachloroethylene during the cleaning of compressor components, had higher thresholds for red and green colour perception than did office workers in the same plant. The solvent concentrations to which the workers were exposed were 2-3 times higher than the USSR MACs. The decrease in colour sensitivity became more marked with increasing length of service. The deficit in colour perception was often accompanied by conjunctivitis and reflex lacrimation. Airborne styrene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations were reduced to permissible levels by improving workplace ventilation.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1985, No.2, p.11-13. Illus. 9 ref.
Ĺkesson B., Florén I., Skerfving S.
Visual disturbances after experimental human exposure to triethylamine
Two volunteers were exposed to various concentrations (0-48mg/m3) of triethylamine, a widely used catalyst for polymerisation reactions and an intermediate product in chemical and pharmaceutical production processes. Exposure times were 4h and 8h. Levels of 18mg/m3 for 8h caused visual disturbances (haze and halos) and corneal oedema, effects that disappeared within hours after cessation of exposure. These visual effects are unpleasant, and can lead to accidents.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.42, No.12, p.848-850. 15 ref.
Savolainen H., Tenhunen R., Härkönen H.
Reticulocyte haem synthesis in occupational exposure to trinitrotoluene
Description of a biochemical test that can be used to determine the effects of absorbed trinitrotoluene (TNT). The test involves a count of reticulocytes and a measurement of δ-aminolaevulinic acid synthase and haem synthase activity in blood samples. Both synthase activities were significantly lower in 9 exposed workers than in 25 controls, but a predictive relationship with eventual cataract formation was not found.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1985, Vol.42, No.5, p.354-355. 5 ref.
Optical neuropathies due to lead poisoning (In connection with a worker exposed to lead for twenty years)
Les neuropathies optiques toxiques au plomb (A propos d'un cas chez un travailleur exposé pendant vingt ans au risque saturnin) [in French]
This medical thesis is a case study of optical nerve damage due to chronic lead poisoning.
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier Richat, Paris, France, 1985. 127p. 75 ref.
Misra U.K., Nag D., Krishna Murti C.R.
A study of cognitive functions in DDT sprayers
Organochlorine pesticides are widely used in India and other developing countries. To study the effects of occupational exposure to DDT, 29 sprayers were subjected to clinical evaluation, the Bhatia battery performance test of intelligence, the Wechsler memory scale and the Bender visuomotor Gestalt test. Blood tests showed that DDT levels in the sprayers were 8.5 times higher than in controls. Intelligence and memory did not differ significantly from control values, but visuomotor function did. Over half of the sprayers with poor visuomotor performance had diffuse electroencephalographic changes. Visuomotor performance scores were correlated with DDT levels. This suggests a role of DDT in the impairment of cognitive functions.
Industrial Health, 1984, Vol.22, No.3, p.199-206. 20 ref.
Kojčeva V., Rizova R., Zlateva V.
Changes in the functional state of the visual analyser in female workers checking ampoules
Promeni văv funkcionalnoto sastojanije na zritelnija analizator pri kontroliorki na ampuli [in Bulgarian]
The state of the visual analyser and its functional changes due to the work performed were studied in 60 female workers engaged in checking the quality of ampoules in a pharmaceutical plant. There was a high percentage of complaints about the visual system as well as high visual strain at the end of the working day, due to the small size of the objects to be checked and the irregular illumination of the visual field, as well as to the high rate of work. Pathological changes were found in the anterior segment and the fundus of the eye in a great number of the workers. It is recommended that workers have thorough eye examinations before employment and at regular intervals thereafter, and that workers be given a 10min break every 2h (away from the workplace if possible).
Problemi na higienata, July 1984, Vol.9, p.9-16. 5 ref.
Dvořák J., Švábová K., Málek B.
Effect of the electric arc on the front of the eye during welding
Vliv elektrického oblouku na přední segment oka při sváření [in Czech]
A group of 58 welders was examined for possible chronic or permanent eye lesions due to the electric arc. No signs of permanent damage to the conjunctiva, cornea or lens caused by ultraviolet radiation were present.
Pracovní lékařství, 1984, Vol.36, No.4, p.137-138. 8 ref.
Smith A.B., Tanaka S., Halperin W., Richards R.D.
Correlates of ocular and somatic symptoms among video display terminal users
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees of a newspaper company to define the type of ocular and somatic complaints reported by video-display terminal (VDT) users and to identify their relationship to VDT use, to determine the association between symptoms and the participants' adequacy of correction of refractive errors for their jobs and to assess the prevalence of eye abnormalities, especially cataracts, and their relation to VDT use. Poor visual clarity of the VDT screen explained the plurality of work-associated symptoms. 1 qualitative and 2 quantitative VDT-use variables suggested that lesser skill or experience were associated with headaches. No associations were found between adequacy of the participants' refractions, including the wearing of glasses with bi- or multifocal lenses, and the reporting of work-associated symptoms, nor between VDT use and the prevalence of eye abnormalities.
Human Factors, Apr. 1984, Vol.26, No.2, p.143-156. 30 ref.
Shahnavaz H., Hedman L.
Visual accommodation changes in VDU-operators related to environmental lighting and screen quality
Study on the possible relations between operator's accommodation changes after 6h work at a display unit and workstation lighting and screen characteristics. For 29 operators, the visual accommodation before and after work, workplace lighting, luminance, contrast and screen qualities were measured during day and night shifts. The state of visual accommodation was determined by laser optometry. The relation between lighting conditions and accommodation changes was low but significant. The influence of screen characteristics was more evident during the night shift.
Ergonomics, Oct. 1984, Vol.27, No.10, p.1071-1082. Bibl.
Hollows F.C., Douglas J.B.
Microwave cataract in radiolinemen and controls
53 radiolinemen (workers who erect and maintain broadcasting towers) and 39 controls, all in Australia, had their eyes examined for the presence of posterior subcapsular lens opacities (PSC). Power density in and around the work area was also measured (it varied from 0.08 to 3956mW/cm2, with a frequency range of 558kHz to 527MHz). 21% of the linemen, and 8% of the controls, had PSC, which is thought to be an early manifestation of cataracts. It is suggested that occupational exposure to microwave radiation might be related to PSC.
Lancet, 18 Aug. 1984, Vol.2, No.8399, p.406-407. 6 ref.
Consequences of presbyopia for visual dynamics and work with visual display units
Folgen der Presbyopie für die Sehdynamik und die Arbeit am Bildschirm [in German]
Description of methods and results of examinations to determine the accommodation period of the eye, and the orientation and diameter of the pupil in 100 persons of different ages. Results are represented graphically for accommodation reaction time, accuracy of dynamic accommodation and maximum rate of accommodation as functions of age. The speed and amplitude of orientation of the eye did not depend on age, whereas a decrease in accommodative ability was seen in subjects ≥40yrs old. Subjects in this age group tend to maintain a fixed posture when working with visual display units, in order to keep their eyes at a constant distance from the screen.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, 1984, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.190-191. Illus. 3 ref.
Kojčeva V., Zlateva V.
Visual fatigue at work associated with intense visual load
Zritelna umora pri trudova dejnost svărzana s uveličeni zritelni natovarvanija [in Bulgarian]
Examination of representative groups of workers with various occupational activities revealed considerable alterations in the visual system within 1 working day, including elevation of the threshold of electric sensitivity of the eye towards the end of the day, reduction of brightness and colour discrimination, recession of the closest point of clear vision and reduction of fusion ability. The adaptation of the visual system to working conditions is best in the age range 25-35. Alterations in visual function are far greater in the age group over 40.
Problemi na higienata, 1983, Vol.8, p.21-27. Illus. 5 ref.
Kurimoto S., Iwasaki T., Nomura T., Noro K., Yamamoto S.
Accommodation in VDT operators and clerical workers
13 bank clerks whose jobs required the use of visual display terminals (VDT work group) and 20 whose jobs required the use of adding machines (clerical work group) underwent examination for accommodative function by an Accommodo polyrecorder. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in mean values of near point and accommodation time. A low correlation (r=0.45, 0.2>p>0.1) existed between individuals' near point distances and their lengths of service at VDT work. Analysis of "Accommodogram" patterns indicated that there were many persons with disorders of accommodative function in the VDT work group; the incidence was higher than in the clerical work group.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.27, No.9, p. 530-532. Illus. 4 ref.
Gombosi K., Medgyaszay A.
Recent data on the cataractogenic effects of trinitrotoluene (TNT)
Újabb adatok a trinitrotoluol (TNT) cataractogen hatásáról [in Hungarian]
46 workers in a factory utilising powdered TNT had health examinations. The average time of exposure to TNT was 20 years. 20 workers had cataracts, mostly at their beginning stage. No significant numbers of liver or haematological changes were found.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1983, Vol.29, No.10-12, p.221-222. 14 ref.
Karai I., Sugimoto K., Goto S.
A fluorescein angiographic study on carbon disulfide retinopathy among workers in viscose rayon factories
Fluorescein fundus angiograms were analysed in 143 workers exposed to CS2 and 40 control subjects. The incidene of retinal abnormalities (saccular microaneurysms, ellipsoidal micro-aneurysms and loop formations of small vessels, and atrophic/degenerative changes in the pigmentary epithelium) was significantly higher in the workers exposed to CS2. The effects were correlated with exposure. Chronic CS2 exposure affects not only the retinal vasculature but also the retina itself.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.53, No.2, p.91-99. Illus. 10 ref.
Chiappino G., Miglior M., Terrana T.
Contact lenses and work activity
Lenti a contatto e particolari attivitŕ lavorative [in Italian]
This review discusses: corneal lesions resulting from adhesion of airborne particles to the lens; absorption of irritating vapours by the lens material; local hypoaesthesia due to the lens itself; lesions due to hot, dry environments; formation of gas bubbles between the lens and cornea in sudden decompression; sudden detachment of the lens when forced ventilation helmets are worn; adhesion of the lens to the cornea as a result of exposure to infrared radiation and the electric arc. General prevention measures are proposed and suitable filter screens are recommended for workers exposed to infrared or electric arc radiation. English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1983, Vol.74, No.4, p.257-259. 7 ref.
Adams E.E., Brues A.M., Anast G.A.
Survey of ocular cataracts in radium dial workers
A survey of the medical records of 813 female radium dial painters first exposed to radium before 1930 yielded reports of 119 cataracts in the group whose radium body burden had been measured at least once. Duration of employment and age at employment showed no significant correlation with dose after the subjects were divided into high and low dose groups. Latency (time between first employment and first diagnosis of cataract) showed a significant negative correlation with dose in the 2 groups.
Health Physics, 1983, Vol.44, Supplement No.1, p.73-79. Illus. 34 ref.
Classical and contemporary aspects of glassblowers cataract. Their implications for occupational medicine
Aspects classiques et actuels de la cataracte des verriers. Leur abord en médecine du travail [in French]
A discussion of previous studies, of statistics and of the essential characteristics of the title syndrome, which is caused by short-wavelength infrared radiation emitted by incandescent glass or metal. This study focusses on technical and medical preventive measures, and on problems of compensation, which have recently been solved in France by the publication of Table 71 (thermal cataracts) of the general schedule of occupational diseases. Although this affliction has become rare among glassblowers, there is a threat of its reappearance in connection with such new techniques as the infrared drying of automobile finishes. ISO and AFNOR standards for eye protection against infrared radiation are appended to the thesis.
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisičre Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1983. 118p. 65 ref.
Koitcheva V., Zlateva V.
Changes of occupational origin in the vision of dentists
Altérations professionnelles de la vue chez les dentistes [in French]
A field study of the functional and clinical state of the visual system of dentists showed that significant changes in certain parameters of vision are detectable by the end of a work day. The frequency of cases in which visual acuity is less than 10/10 among subjects more than 40 years old is quite high. The performance of a high-precision task at a short distance is a considerable strain on the visual system and the central nervous system. There is a high risk of infections and wounds of the eyeball in the profession.
Travail humain, 1983, Vol.46, No.1, p.113-119. 8 ref.
Contribution to the study of occupational cataracts
Contribution ŕ l'étude des cataractes professionnelles [in French]
After a review of the anatomy and physiology of the lens of the eye, this MD thesis reviews the literature on the principal types of cataracts which may be caused by or occur in the course of work: traumatic cataracts following a mechanical injury of the eye (puncture wound of the eyeball, contusion), chemical burns of the eye, exposure to ionising radiation, heat or electrical accidents. The possible adverse effects of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the eye are also dealt with. Points discussed for each type: frequency and circumstances of occurrence, clinical aspects and preventive measures. Considering the serious functional consequences of the enumerated injuries, preventive measures appropriate to the risks at hand are very important. These measures are technical (safety glasses, limitation of exposure, careful installation of equipment) and medical (medical supervision and emergency treatment).
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1983. 184p. 140 ref.
Pleven C., Dossier E., Court, Miro L., Philbert M.
Clinical signs of eye injuries caused by lasers in research laboratories
Signes cliniques des accidents oculaires dus aux lasers dans les laboratoires de recherche [in French]
4 serious accidents are described: technical circumstances, analysis of injuries, reduction in visual acuity. The problem of wearing hard contact lenses is examined. Experiments have shown that contact lenses touched by an infrared laser beam melt immediately, thus adding a thermal burn to the damage caused by the conjunctival burn. Technical and medical preventive measures are listed. Spanish translation published in "Notas y documentos sobre prevención de riesgos profesionales", 148, 4° trimestre 1984, p.39-42. English translation available from Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.2, p.119-122.
Influence of VDT work on visual function
Experiments using an infrared optometer showed that VDT work might induce temporary effects in the visual accomodation system. The low frequency component of the small fluctuations of accomodation increased after VDT work. The inhibition of accommodation caused by VDT work was more severe than that caused by conventional hard-copy work, and it was more marked in the case of work with smaller-size characters than in that with large-size characters. The inhibition was more evident in the elderly and middle age groups than in the young age group.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Apr. 1983, Vol.19, No.2, p.87-90. Illus. 13 ref.
Health control of visual display operations
Observations in an office where visual display terminals are used for airline reservations indicate the importance of both correct posture and suitable equipment design, with special emphasis on the need of appropriate height of desks for the terminal and adjustable chairs. Complaints of visual problems resulted from lack of treatment or correction of devices. When these problems were corrected, complaints of such nature were reduced to the level considered normal in general offices.
Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Apr. 1983, Vol.19, No.2, p.75-80. Illus. 8 ref.
Birngruber R., Gabel V.P., Hillenkamp F.
Experimental studies of laser thermal retinal injury
Damage tests were conducted on rabbit and monkey eyes and threshold values were determined for the retinal hazard range of wave lengths of 400-1,200nm; several types of lasers normally used in medicine, industry and research were tested at different energies and exposure durations. The reproduction of the "worst-case" exposure situation was ensured by the test apparatus, and threshold value determinations were based on the ophthalmoscopic visibility of retinal lesions. The experimental results supported the current laser safety limits (ANSI, ACGIH, IEC) but indicated that more work is required for a better understanding of the implications of delayed effects. Mathematical thermal modelling would allow a better confirmation that the damage is thermal or thermochemical.
Health Physics, May 1983, Vol.44, No.5, p.519-531. Illus. 46 ref.
Colour vision and work
La vision des couleurs et le travail [in French]
Colour-coded signs and signals are common in safety practice and must be interpreted correctly. Attention is drawn to the difficulties which some workers have in identifying colours, a situation which exposes them to serious accidents. Topics: defects of colour vision and their causes, colours which are confused in different types of colour blindness, colour coding, necessity of tests, methods of compensating for colour blindness.
Promosafe, Jan. 1983, Vol.10, No.64, p.16-18. Illus.
Designing against colour blindness
The nature and incidence of colour blindness or defective colour vision are reviewed, and the methods for screening workers for this condition are indicated. Ways of redesigning the colour systems used in industry are considered with particular reference to the colour coding of piping, electronic components and electric wires, cables and fuses.
Engineering, Jan. 1983, Vol.223, No.1, p.38-39. Illus.
Carino M., Assenato G., De Marinis L., Sborgia G.F.
Eye changes in arc welders
Le alterazioni dell'apparato visivo nei saldatori ad arco [in Italian]
120 arc welders, with an average welding experience of 15.8 years, and 120 controls had comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations. The most significant difference was in the prevalence of cortical opacities in the eyes of the welders: 21 (17.5%) had them, against 1 (0.8%) in the control group, significantly different at the p<0.001 level. A questionnaire was used to disclose the working hours, wearing of corrective lenses and other information relating to the arc welders, and its results were further used to analyse the occupational risks to the eye run by welders.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1982, Vol.73, No.6, p.581-585. Illus. 9 ref.
Karai I., Nishikawa N., Horiguchi S.
Optic atrophy with visual field defect in a worker occupationally exposed to lead for 30 years
This case report clarifies the dose-effect relationship between lead (Pb) exposure levels and optic atrophy in a 53-year old male worker employed at a Pb refining factory. Pb exposure was monitored over a 30-year period, and long-term exposure levels were above the recommended threshold limits of 0.15mg/m3. The patient was exposed to high Pb doses in his 20's and 30's. Ocular examination revealed paracentral scotomas in both eyes which did not change in a 3 year period in spite of EDTA therapy.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1982, Vol.19, No.4, p.409-418. Illus. 11 ref.
Seitz B., Seitz G., Denis J., Hamard H., Philbert M., Dughera J.
Result of a study of epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis (with adenovirus) in ophthalmological practice
Résultat d'une enquęte sur les kérato-conjonctivites épidémiques (ŕ adénovirus) en milieu ophtalmologique [in French]
Results of a nationwide survey in France among ophthalmological services where the personnel seems at particularly high risk (230 cases reported, 108 of which were in medical staff, 86 in nursing staff and 36 in various other workers) due to the endemic nature of the disease transmitted by patients with infection occurring via the hands and medical instruments. This disease should be included in the schedule of occupational diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.484-485.
Disease of the crystalline lens in occupational medicine
Maladie du cristallin en médecine du travail [in French]
Review of the pathology of the crystalline lens for the occupational physician. Aetiology: cataract due to toxic or physical agents, electrocution, ionising radiation and trauma. Clinical features of cataracts and therapeutic indications. Survey of anomalies in the position of the crystalline lens (lens dislocation).
Revue de médecine du travail, 1982, Vol.10, No.1, p.27-32. Illus. 4 ref.
A little-known disease - Cataract in workers shaping glass by hand
Une maladie mal connue: la cataracte du verrier ŕ la main [in French]
General considerations on this occupational disease due to exposure to infrared radiation. Reference to a circular (8 Apr. 1981) issued by the French National Health Insurance Fund (Caisse nationale française de l'assurance maladie) concerning collective and individual protection. Principal points covered in a study carried out on the evaluation of hazards associated with exposure to UV, visible and IR radiation, and preventive measures.
Travail et sécurité, June 1982, No.6, p.302-309. Illus.
Applications of vision tests in occupational medicine
Intéręt des "visiotests" en médecine du travail [in French]
MD thesis. Considerations on: anatomy of the eye and physiology of vision; principal eye and vision disorders; study of working conditions of VDU operators; comparison between usual vision tests and recent developments in "visiotests" used in occupational medicine. "Visiotests" enable more accurate analysis of visual functions to be made than current methods. Information on the principle of "visiotests" and how they are conducted; analysis of results of clinical tests carried out over the last 2 years. Emphasis on the role of the company physician/oculist in screening for visual disorders (espacially VDU operators) and future possibililies of "visiotests".
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de Médecine Xavier-Bichat, Paris, France, 1982. 87p. 57 ref.
Misra U.K., Nag D., Misra N.K., Krishna Murti C.R.
Macular degeneration associated with chronic pesticide exposure
64 workers in a malaria control unit sprayed Baytex, Temephos (both organic thiophosphates) and Paris green (copper acetoarsenite) in oil for 5-6h per day without use of protective clothing, face masks or gloves. On examination 14 members of the group, aged 24-42 years with exposure in the range 1-8 years, had macular involvement. Symptoms included visual impairment, dislike of bright light, night blindness, black dots in front of the eyes and blurring of vision. Visual acuity was reduced in 9 subjects. Macular degeneration was characterised by areas of perifoveal depigmentation, dull foveal reflex, and bilaterial lesions. Clinical evaluation did not reveal any known cause for this high-frequency of macular degeneration, and the macular toxicity of the pesticides is suspected as the cause.
Lancet, 30 Jan. 1982, Vol.1, No.8266, p.288. 6 ref.
Mihajluc A.P., Oževskaja I.O.
Effect of inorganic irritants on sensory functions
Vlijanie razdražajuščih neorganičeskih soedinenij na funkcional'noe sostojanie analizatorov [in Russian]
Thresholds of smell (valerian), vision (red light) and taste (quinine) were determined at the beginning and end of a shift in a population of women who work in an industrial zone where the ambient airborne levels of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid are as much as 22-fold higher than maximum allowable concentrations. Half of the women were healthy; the other half suffered from various respiratory disorders. When exposed for 4h to the highest pollution levels, both groups of subjects showed elevated thresholds of sensitivity and prolonged latent periods of response to all 3 stimuli.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1981, No.7, p.11-13. 6 ref.
Hünting W., Läubli T., Grandjean E.
Postural and visual loads at VDT workplaces - I. Constrained postures. II. Lighting conditions and visual impairments
A field study of 162 VDT and 133 control workplaces revealed that constrained postures of VDT workplaces and in full-time typists were sometimes associated with physical impairments in the hands, arms, shoulders and neck. The reported complaints were confirmed by medical findings on muscles, tendons and joints. Conditions leading to an increased incidence of impairment are described and recommendations are made for optimum design of VDT workplaces. Eye impairments were also observed on all workers studied but were more frequent in VDT operators. High luminance contrast between the screen and surrounding space and luminance oscillation of characters on the screen contributed to eye strain.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1981, Vol.24, No.12, p.917-944. Illus. 34 ref.
On occupational fitness and kinetic vision disorders
Examinations of 2029 men by means of a kinetic vision tester were used to establish a relation between kinetic visual acuity (KVA) and static visual acuity (SVA). When KVA was determined for an object moving at 30km/h, the normal difference between KVA and SVA was 0.3 at ≤55 years of age. Case studies showed that complaints of visual difficulties on jobs requiring good KVA, e.g. crane or conveyor operators, were often related to an SVA-KVA difference >0.3. Measurements of KVA can be used to determine the suitability of candidates for jobs involving the handling of moving objects, or driving.
Journal of the Aichi Medical University Association, July 1981, Vol.9, No.3, p.236-242. 7 ref. Illus.
Bargeron C.B., Farrell R.A., Green W.R., McCally R.L.
Corneal damage from exposure to IR radiation: Rabbit endothelial damage thresholds
Endothelial thresholds were determined in rabbit eyes, using a staining techniques, after exposure to a CO2 infrared laser with beam diameter 2.0mm. Threshold damage was characterised by distorted cells and uneven staining of the cell borders. No damage was detected, compared with controls, at ≤ 90% of the threshold exposure time. Threshold exposure duration was 1.0, 5.2, and 240s respectively at the fixed peak irradiance levels 24.5, 10.0 and 3.6W/cm2. These were ≥ 10 times the accepted threshold duration for epithelial damage. Protection against epithelial damage will also ensure against endothelial damage for CO2 laser systems. The calculated peak endothelial temperature increases at these threshold exposures were similar to those of the epithelium at its damage threshold, and other infrared lasers systems could harm the endothelium at epithelial damage threshold exposure levels.
Health Physics, June 1981, Vol.40, No.6, p.855-862. Illus. 16 ref.
Stuck B.E., Lund D.J., Beatrice E.S.
Ocular effects of holmium (2.06µm) and erbium (1.54µm) laser radiation
The ocular dose-response relation, on the cornea of the eyes of Rhesus monkeys, were determined after exposure to erbium and holmium lasers under various conditions. The effective dose for 0.5 probability of producing a biomicroscopically visible corneal lesion (ED50), determined for single corneal exposures were 9.6, 2.9 and 5.2J/cm2 under conditions of 1.54µm wave length, 930µsec exposure, 1.0mm irradiance diameter; 2.06µm, 100µsec, 1.8mm; and 2.06µm, 42nsec, 0.32mm, respectively. The depth and diameter of corneal lesions were both dose and wavelength dependent. The wavelength dependence of the dose required to produce a lesion is indicative of the relative absorption properties of the cornea. Exposure limits should reflect the relative absorption properties of the ocular media.
Health Physics, June 1981, Vol.40, No.6, p.835-846. Illus. 19 ref.
Taboada J., Mikesell G.W., Reed R.D.
Response of the corneal epithelium to KrF excimer laser pulses
The corneal epithelium of rabbits was examined for evidence of opacity immediately, and 1, 2 and 24h after exposure to 50ns pulses of UV radiation emitted at 248nm by a KrF excimer laser. At 24h the observations were made with and without fluorescein staining. The damage endpoint (ED50) was the 50% probability of detecting an opacity or fluorescein uptake. Damage ED50 levels of 59mJ/cm2 for 2h post-exposure and 3mJ/cm2 for 24h post-exposure were measured. The damage response level was within 20-100% of values reported for long duration UV exposures. The guideline for worker exposure levels may need redefinition to express increased hazards of short pulse radiation.
Health Physics, May 1981, Vol.40, No.5, p.677-683. Illus. 9 ref.
Griess G.A., Blankenstein M.F.
Multiple-pulse laser retinal damage thresholds
The reduction factor (Cp), the amount by which the single-pulse TLV or maximum permissible exposure is reduced to give the multiple-pulse value, is calculated. Cp can be empirically determined by taking the ratio of threshold dosages for 1 pulse in a pulse train and a single exposure of equal duration. Analytical expressions for Cp may be obtained from theoretical thermal damage models based on physical principles. Using both approaches multiple-pulse additivity was accounted for by a thermal damage model. The multiple-pulse Cp was a function of both pulse repetition frequency and total number of pulses (N). The thermal model did not yield a single, simple expression for Cp, but the empirical 1/N1/4 expression was an adequate approximation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1981, Vol.42, No.4, p.287-292. Illus. 12 ref.
Gabel V.P., Birngruber R.
A comparative study of threshold laser lesions in the retinae of human volunteers and rabbits
A series of 61 lesions were produced in 5 human eyes using an argon laser emitting at the two wavelengths 488 and 514nm. 200 laser lesions were produced in 5 eyes of chinchilla rabbits using the same laser coagulator. The ED50 in the human subjects was approximately 44mW and in rabbits 12mW. The power incident on the cornea necessary to obtain threshold coagulation was about 4 times less in rabbits than in humans.
Health Physics, Feb. 1981, Vol.40, No.2, p.238-240. Illus. 9 ref.
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