Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found
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Decree No.95-307 of 1 March 1995 modifying Book IV of the Labour Code [Côte d'Ivoire]
Décret n°95-307 du 1er mars 1995 modifiant le livre IV du Code du travail [Côte d'Ivoire] [in French]
Article D-444b concerns safety and health measures to be taken to protect workers exposed to benzene. Employment is prohibited of young people under 18 years of age, pregnant and nursing mothers and of those already having suffered from benzene poisoning. Topics: benzene; chemical protective clothing; Côte d'Ivoire; expectant mothers; health hazards; irritation; law; medical examinations; nursing mothers; skin absorption; young persons.
Photocopy, 3p. Only in CIS.
Campagna D., Mergler D., Huel G., Bélanger S., Truchon G., Ostiguy C., Drolet D.
Visual dysfunction among styrene-exposed workers
Topics: Canada; colour vision deficiency; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; epidemiologic study; eye irritation; personal sampling; plastics industry; styrene; vision tests; visual function disorders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1995, Vol.21, No.5, p.382-390. Illus. 48 ref.
Inoue O., et al.
A sensitive HPLC method for determination of mandelic acid in urine, and its application to biological monitoring of ethylbenzene-exposed Chinese workers
A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for determination of mandelic acid in urine as a marker of exposure to ethylbenzene at low concentrations. Application of the technique to urine samples from 360 ethylbenzene-exposed workers and 281 unexposed controls showed that the method is highly sensitive and results are reproducible. The detection limit of 0.07mg/L urine is sensitive enough for monitoring of exposures well below one tenth of the occupational exposure limit of 100ppm. Further analysis showed that smoking reduces the excretion of mandelic acid in urine.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July/Sep. 1995, Vol.1, No.3, p.245-251. Illus. 35 ref.
Frentzel-Beyme R., Domizlaff I.
Epidemiologic study on solvent-induced diseases
Studie über die Epidemiologie lösemittelbedingter Erkrankungen [in German]
The present knowledge of the toxic and carcinogenic effects caused by exposure to solvents in the varnish industry from published case studies and epidemiologic studies is reviewed. The following solvents are covered: butyl alcohol, butyl acetate, carbon disulfide, chloromethane, dichloromethane, dimethylformamide, ethyl acetate, glycol ethers, methoxyethanol, cellosolve, hexane, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, 2-hexanone, butanone, styrene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene and xylene.
Umweltbundesamt, Postfach 33 00 22, 14191 Berlin, Germany, 1995. 235p. 436 ref.
Angerer J., Bader M., Einhaus M., Pirich C., Rüdiger H.W., Lehnert G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Development and assessment of methods for the biomonitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons - Final report
Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden des Biologischen Monitorings für BTX-Aromaten - Schlussbericht [in German]
Because of their toxicity, their common use in the industry as well as their presence in motor emissions, aromatic hydrocarbons (BTX: bezene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) are a major health hazard for workers and for the general public. Exposure assessment is mainly done by air sampling and comparison to exposure limits. However, this technique does not reflect accurately individual exposure. Thus, determination of substances or of their metabolites in biological fluids is the most objective assessment method of occupational risk. Main contents of this report: physico-chemical properties, metabolism and chronic toxicity of BTX; biomonitoring methods of exposure to BTX in blood (static/dynamic headspace technique), plasma determination; biomonitoring methods for the assessment of BTX effects (haemoglobin and DNA adducts, DNA single strands breakage with nick-translation, micronuclei); results of a case study in a styrene factory in Germany involving 25 exposed workers and 25 controls. List of abbreviations. Summaries in German and English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. 133p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ong C.N., Kok P.W., Lee B.L., Shi C.Y, Ong H.Y., Chia K.S., Lee C.S., Luo X.W.
Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene
In order to evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene, analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolized benzene in urine, trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene (catechol, hydroquinone and phenol) in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene. Forty non-exposed subjects were also investigated. Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration. The results from the study showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone and atmospheric benzene suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.52, No.8, p.528-533. 26 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for xylene (Update)
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; references; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract; respiratory disorders; lung diseases; gastric disorders; visual function disorders; liver damage; renal damage; neurotoxic effects; heart diseases; teratogenic effects. (Update of CIS 91-1633).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 1995. 270p. Illus. Bibl.
Kolstand H.A., Juel K., Olsen J., Lynge E.
Exposure to styrene and chronic health effects: Mortality and incidence of solid cancers in the Danish reinforced plastics industry
The occurrence of non-malignant diseases and solid cancers in workers exposed to styrene in the Danish reinforced plastics industry was studied. 36620 workers of 386 reinforced plastics companies and 14293 workers not exposed to styrene from similar industries were followed up from 1970 to 1990. The mortality from non-malignant causes and the incidence of solid cancers were compared with the national rates. Poisson models were used for internal comparisons. A total of 3031 deaths and 1134 newly diagnosed cases of solid cancer were reported in the workers in the reinforced plastics industry. In companies where 50% or more of the workers produced reinforced plastics, an increased mortality rate ratio for degenerative disorders of the nervous system and an increased incidence rate ratio for pancreatic cancer was found. For both disease categories increased occurrence was also found among long-term workers, workers of the period with the highest exposure to styrene, and workers with a latent period of more than 10 years after the start of employment. No other non-malignant diseases or solid cancers showed these patterns. The findings have to be interpreted with caution, due to the company based exposure assessment, but the possible association between exposures in the reinforced plastics industry, mainly styrene, and degenerative disorders of the nervous system and pancreatic cancer deserves attention.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.320-327. 33 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS): Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: carcinogenic effects; teratogenic effects; skin diseases; immunotoxic effects. (Update of CIS 91-1624).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 1995. 458p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp69.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for naphthalene: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract; lung diseases; haemolytic anaemia (jaundice, gastrointestinal disorders); embryotoxic effects; cataractogenic effects. (Update of CIS 91-1628).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 1995. 200p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Intaglio printing: Reducing the toluene exposure
Tiefdruck: Toluolbelastung verringern durch neue Konzeptionen [in German]
The exposure limit to toluene established in 1994 in Germany is of 50mL/m3. The measures taken in the printing industry to reduce the exposure to toluene, in particular in intaglio printing shops to comply with the limit are described. These measures include: enclosure of the machines during operation, use of exhaust ventilation during standstill of the machine and automation of cleaning operations of machine parts.
Tag für Tag, Mar.-Apr. 1995, No.2, p.18-21. Illus.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidelines for health surveillance
These guidelines are intended for appointed medical practitioners when planning and implementing a programme of health surveillance within enterprises. Such programmes should be instituted when a workplace assessment of health risks, conducted according to the National Model Regulations for the Control of Workplace Hazardous Substances (NOHSC 1005: (1994), see CIS 95-274), has determined that workplace exposure represents a significant risk to health. Contents of the 18 booklets: 1 - Introduction (basic aspects of health surveillance, extracts from the Model Regulations and the National Code of Practice (NOHSC: 2007 (1994), see CIS 95-274 as well), list of substances subject to control, criteria for determining whether a substance should be scheduled as requiring health surveillance). 2 - sample respiratory questionnaires to be administered to workers. 3-18: Specific substances (for each substance: information on health surveillance at time of employment, during exposure to a process where the substance is present and at termination of employment; data sheet with information on substance in question). The substances are: acrylonitrile, inorganic arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, inorganic cadmium, creosote, isocyanates, inorganic mercury, MOCA, organophosphate pesticides, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, crystalline silica, thallium, vinyl chloride.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995-1996. 18 booklets in a ring binder. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/481CF3F5-8C4B-4BCC-AF65-3FDBA031D43B/0/HealthSurveillance.pdf [in English]
Assessment of benzene exposure among automobile and gardening machine repair workers by the measurement of urinary muconic acid
Evaluation par le dosage de l'acide muconique urinaire de l'imprégnation par le benzène, chez les mécaniciens en réparation automobile et motoculture [in French]
Evaluation of exposure to benzene among car mechanics requires a reliable analytical method in order to define specific criteria for medical supervision. Previous studies took only atmospheric exposure into account. Exposure was evaluated by measuring urinary phenol, a method that was not sensitive enough when atmospheric concentrations were at the ppm level. The measurement of urinary muconic acid, a specific metabolite of benzene, by HPLC chromatography is sensitive enough to reveal low levels of exposure. A study conducted of the exposure of employees over a one-week period showed that there was no overexposure. Only the seasonal activities of servicing and repairing garden machinery would lead to a global exposure greater than 1ppm.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.8, p.620-623. 8 ref.
Nadon L., Siemiatycki J., Dewar R., Krewski D., Gérin M.
Cancer risk due to occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
In a study of 3,730 cancer patients and 533 controls in Montreal, Canada, associations were analyzed between 14 cancer types and exposure to six types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A detailed job history was obtained from each subject along with information on potential confounders. For most types of cancer evaluated, there was no evidence of excess risk due to PAHs at the levels encountered. For a few cancer sites (oesophagus, pancreas and prostate gland), there were suggestions of excess risk. For lung cancer, there appeared to be an increased risk due to PAHs among nonsmokers and light smokers, but not among heavy smokers. Limitations of the study are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.303-324. 52 ref.
Imbriani M., Ghittori S., Pezzagno G., Capodaglio E.
Update on benzene
Collection of 22 papers concerning benzene exposure and monitoring. Among the topics covered: literature survey of recent studies on benzene exposure in various workplaces; factors influencing biological levels of benzene in humans; benzene-induced leukaemia; haematological changes due to benzene exposure; biological monitoring of low levels of benzene exposure; benzene determination in blood by gas chromatographic headspace analysis; biomarkers of benzene exposure in blood and urine; effect of smoking on biological monitoring of benzene exposure; investigation of benzene residues in chemical products.
Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri Edizioni, PI-ME Press, Viale Sardegna 64, Pavia 27100, Italy, May-Aug. 1995. xi, 265p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ljungkvist G.M., Nordlinder R.G.
A field method for sampling benzene in end-exhaled air
A simple and reliable field method is presented for sampling and analysis of benzene in end-exhaled air. The sample is collected directly on an adsorbent tube while the subject exhales through a sampling device consisting of a modified peak expiratory flow meter. The analytes are thermally desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography. When the method was applied to the monitoring of benzene, the separation of benzene from other components of exhaled air was good and the detection limit was low (0.5µg/m3). The combined precision in sampling and analysis was excellent, with a coefficient of variation of 13%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1995, Vol.56, No.7, p.693-697. Illus. 19 ref.
Utterback D.F., Rinsky R.A.
Benzene exposure assessment in rubber hydrochloride workers: A critical evaluation of previous estimates
Many risk assessments for leukaemia associated with benzene exposure have been based on a 1981 mortality study among a cohort of rubber hydrochloride workers. A re-examination of this study in 1992 resulted in retrospective benzene exposure estimates far greater than those previously reported; this suggests that calculated risk estimates for benzene were lower than previously estimated. The 1992 reanalysis is critically examined and it is concluded that the approach falls short of the claim of providing more plausible exposure estimates for the cohort. The original exposure estimates remain the most consistent with all the information available on rubber hydrochloride manufacturing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.661-676. 35 ref.
Buchet J.P., Ferreira M., Burrion J.B., Leroy T., Kirsch-Volders M., Van Hummelen P., Jacques J., Cupers L., Delavignette J.P., Lauwerys R.
Tumor markers in serum, polyamines and modified nucleosides in urine, and cytogenic aberrations in lymphocytes of workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
The concentration of several tumour markers in blood, the excretion of polyamines and modified nucleosides in urine, and the presence of cytogenic aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes (sister-chromatid exchanges, high frequency cells (HFC), and micronuclei) were measured in 149 workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were related to PAH exposure parameters. HFC was the biomarker most consistently associated with the intensity of current exposure to PAHs. Based on the prevalence of abnormal HFC values, it is suggested that the concentration of PAHs in air should be kept below 6.4µg/m3 and the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in postshift urine below 2.7µg/g creatinine. Associations between other biomarkers and exposure parameters were weak.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.523-543. 60 ref.
Karačić V., Skender L., Bosner-Cucančić B., Bogadi-Sare A.
Possible genotoxicity in low level benzene exposure
Structural chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in peripheral blood were studied in female workers in the shoe-making industry in Croatia in 1987 and 1992. Occupational exposure to benzene and toluene were determined. Levels of atmospheric benzene and benzene absorption were higher in 1987 (a period of intensified production) than in 1992 (reduced production), but still lower than permissible levels. There was an increase in dicentric chromosomes in both groups compared to a non-exposed control group; higher SCE frequencies were observed in the 1987 group. Genotoxicity may occur in workers exposed to low levels of benzene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.379-388. 30 ref.
Tremblay C., Armstrong B., Thériault G., Brodeur J.
Estimation of risk of developing bladder cancer among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in the primary aluminum industry
In a study of aluminium production workers in a plant using the Soderberg process, 69 cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed between 1980 and 1988. A previous study had identified 69 cases between 1970 and 1979. Smoking habits were determined and exposure to benzene-soluble matter (BSM) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was assessed. Men who had worked in the Soderberg potrooms were at higher risk of developing the disease, the risk increasing with time spent in these departments. The magnitude of risk was of the same order as in the previous study. A strong association was found between risk and cumulative exposure to BSM or BaP.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.335-348. 20 ref.
Burroughs G.E., Woodfin W.J.
On-site screening for benzene in complex environments
A commercially available gas chromatograph (GC), shown to be capable of resolving benzene from a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, was compared in the field with other portable GCs, sorbent tube samples and detector tubes. During three field tests carried out in marine vessels, the portable GCs had a total analysis time of less than 10 minutes and detected concentrations of benzene below the OSHA permissible exposure limit of 1ppm (in most samples below 0.1ppm). While benzene concentration measurements using detector tubes were less precise, they agreed with other techniques regarding whether the space was within the 1ppm "safe for entry" concentration.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1995, Vol.56, No.9, p.874-882. Illus. 18 ref.
Spectrophotometric method for monitoring concentrations of some aromatic hydrocarbons in the calibration of indicator tubes
Spektrofotometričen metod za kontrol na koncentracijata na njakoi aromatni văglevodorodi pri kalibrovkata na indikatorni trăbički [in Bulgarian]
A modified spectrophotometric method is proposed for determining the concentrations of xylene, toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene and chlorobenzene in air. The method was introduced to verify concentrations of these aromatic hydrocarbons for the calibration of the indicator tubes which are now being produced in Bulgaria. There are possible applications in other areas, but further studies would be needed. The proposed method satisfies accuracy and reproducibility requirements and successfully replaces the gas-chromatographic and IR-spectroscopic methods. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.191-198. Illus. 6 ref.
Panova N., Bonev N.
Study of individual occupational exposures in xylenes manufacture (the "Neftochim" firm, Burgas city)
Izsledvane na personalnata ekspozicija na rabotnici v proizvodstvo "Ksiloli" - NHK Burgas (firma Neftohim) [in Bulgarian]
Individual exposures were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized for workers at different posts in a xylene plant. Breathing-zone air samples from 29 subjects were compared with 17 stationary samples were taken from workplaces at the same facility. A gas chromatographic procedure specially developed for this purpose was used for identification and quantitative analysis of the substances recovered. Exposure values for each job were tabulated. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are the principal pollutants. The most important is benzene, due to its high toxicity and relatively high levels (around and above its official exposure limit). Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.185-191. 6 ref.
Mirkova E., Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Hinkova L., Antov G., Muhtarova M.
Cytogenetic effects (frequency of micronuclei) in peripheral lymphocyte cultures from workers in automobile tyre manufacture
Citogenetični efekti (čestota na mikronukleusi) v limfocitni kulturi ot periferna krăv na rabotnicite ot proizvodstvoto na avtomobilni gumi [in Bulgarian]
Studies at the Preparatory Workshop of a plant for automobile tyres included chemical analyses for levels of identifiable human carcinogens in the working area (benz(a)pyrene, mineral oils, 2-naphthylamine), questionnaire investigations, cytogenetic analysis by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in peripheral lymphocyte cultures from 23 workers in occupational groups at risk and urinanalysis for mercapturic acids. The control group was 13 nonexposed subjects from outside the plant. For levels of benz(a)pyrene and mineral oils exceeding 2.5 to 3.5 times the respective exposure limits, cytogenetic analysis showed a 4-fold increase in indicators of genotoxicity (frequency of micronucleated binucleated lymphocytes, number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes). These results imply an increased risk of cancer in the exposed workers. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.146-162. 13 ref.
Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Hinkova L., Mihajlova A., Antov G., Hristeva V., Halkova Ž., Mirkova E., Mitova Ž., Muhtarova M., Ilieva P., Nikolova L.
Toxico-hygienic problems for workers at the "Dinamik" automobile tyre factory, Sofia
Toksikohigienni problemi pri raboteštite v zavod za avtomobilni gumi "Dinamik" - Sofija [in Bulgarian]
Toxicological and hygienic investigations were carried out on a representative group of 131 workers (50 females and 81 males) in three main workshops - preparation, building and vulcanization - at an automobile tyre plant in Sofia. The majority of the workers were over 40 years old, having a general length of service in excess of 10 years and specialized occupational experience from 10-20 years or more. Chemical hazards were among the most important ones in the occupational environment. Exposure limits were exceeded for 3,4-benzopyrene, mineral oil and the accelerators thiuram and altax in preparation, benzine in building and styrene and hydrocarbons in vulcanization. Clinical laboratory findings revealed changes in haemopoiesis and hepatic functional state, while urinary sulfate and glucuronide levels confirmed the workers' high exposures to sulfur compounds and benzine. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.138-145. Illus.
Occupational exposure limits for chemical substances in Israel
The ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle encounters in Israel less opposition than elsewhere; as a result, for some substances the TLV values adopted in Israel are different (usually lower) than the values recommended by ACGIH. Examples of such substances are (in parentheses - the Israeli TLV/TWA): benzene (0.6ppm); styrene (20ppm); 1,1,1-trichloroethane (200ppm); vinyl chloride (1ppm). In addition, there are substances for which there is no ACGIH-recommended value, but there is an Israeli TLV, e.g., kerosene (100mg/m3 TLV/TWA); isoflurane (2ppm, ceiling), and hard metals (0.2mg/m3, TLV/TWA).
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.33-34.
Viau C., Vyskocil A., Bouchard M., Carrier G.
Biological monitoring of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
La surveillance biologique de l'exposition aux hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques [in French]
Estimation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be complicated by the difficulty to evaluate accurately the absorbed dose associated with certain industrial processes. Two approaches of biological monitoring of exposure to PAHs were studied: (1) the measure of adducts formed between an electrophilic metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), the diolepoxide (BaPDE), and haemoglobin or albumin, and (2) the measurement of hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene or BaP in urine. Studies in animals and humans indicate that (1) the measurement of adducts appears adequate for the biological monitoring of exposure to electrophilic compounds when concentrations are sufficiently important and (2) in the case of PAHs, the measurement of hydroxylated metabolites in urine appears to be a useful indicator of exposure to these contaminants.
Travail et santé, June 1995, Vol.11, No.2, p.S7-S11. Illus. 28 ref.
Aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe [in German]
After describing the properties of toluene and xylene and of solvent mixtures containing aromatic hydrocarbons, this booklet deals with: storage and handling; young persons and pregnant women (employment restrictions); pre-employment and periodic medical examinations; first aid.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, Feb. 1995. 20p. Illus.
Quinlan R., Kowalczyk G., Gardiner K., Hale K., Walton S., Calvert I.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene: A biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in coal liquefaction workers
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1995, Vol.45, No.2, p.63-68. Illus. 10 ref. ###
Simonsen L., Midtgård U., Lund S.P., Hass U.
Nordic Council of Ministers
Occupational neurotoxicity: Evaluation of neurotoxicity data for selected chemicals
Previously determined criteria for evaluating published data on the neurotoxicity of chemicals (see CIS 95-000) were applied to the literature on 79 common industrial chemicals. Data were too sparse to permit classification of 28. Of the rest, eight were classified as probably and 16 as possibly neurotoxic, and the following 27 as definitely neurotoxic: acrylamide, acrylonitrile, aluminium, arsenic, sodium azide, borax, boric acid, carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide, potassium cyanide, ethanol, ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene, manganese, mercury, methanol, methyl bromide, methyl butyl ketone (2-hexanone), methyl chloride, methyl methacrylate, n-hexane, nitrous oxide, styrene, thallium, toluene, trichloroethylene, triorthocresyl phosphate.
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 119p. Bibl.ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Processing of measurement data on the environmental occurrence of industrial chemicals
This translation of a document finalized in Feb. 1993 is a survey of environmental agencies and other institutions in Germany which was carried out to investigate measurement data on the environmental occurrence of a priority list of industrial chemicals. Detailed results are presented for benzene, nitrilotriacetic acid and chloroform.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.
Tondel M., Persson B., Carstensen J.
Myelofibrosis and benzene exposure
A case of myelofibrosis in a petrol station attendant is briefly described along with other reports of myelofibrosis after benzene exposure obtained from the Swedish Cancer Environment Register. Findings of an increased risk for myelofibrosis in the transport sector also suggest a causal relationship with benzene.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.45, No.1, p.51-52. 9 ref.
Toxicological profile for toluene: Update
Topics: antifertility effects; cardiovascular disorders; toluene; criteria document; determination in biological matter; embryotoxic effects; exposure evaluation; glossary; health hazards; irritation; legislation; limitation of exposure; literature survey; neuropsychic effects; neurotoxic effects; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, May 1994. xvii, 231p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Cometto-Muñiz J.E., Cain W.S.
Sensory reactions of nasal pungency and odor to volatile organic compounds: The alkylbenzenes
Nasal detection thresholds to alkylbenzenes, chlorobenzene, 1-octene and 1-octyne were measured in subjects clinically diagnosed as lacking a functional sense of smell (anosmics) and in matched normal controls (normosmics). There was a strong linear correlation between pungency thresholds and saturated vapour concentration for all tested compounds. Odour threshold generally failed to show this relationship. Results suggest that nasal pungency from these substances relies heavily on a broadly tuned physicochemical interaction with susceptible mucosal structure. Low levels of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds of low reactivity (as found in many polluted indoor spaces) could add their sensory impact to precipitate noticeable sensory irritation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1994, Vol.55, No.9, p.811-817. 45 ref.
Tardiff R., Sato A., Laparé S., Brodeur J.
Ethanol induced modification of m-xylene toxicokinetics in humans
This study was undertaken to determine whether previous subacute treatment with ethanol could modify the kinetics of m-xylene in humans. A group of six volunteers was exposed twice to either 100 or 400ppm of m-xylene during two hours. Ethanol was given orally in the early evening on each of two consecutive days before exposures (total ethanol intake of 137g). Overall, this study showed that the effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of m-xylene, after ethanol ingestion, depends on the exposure concentration and is not likely to occur as long as the exposure concentrations remain under the current maximum allowable concentration (100ppm) in the workplace.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.51, No.3, p.187-191. Illus. 26 ref.
Data sheet. Cumene may enter the body by inhalation or through the skin. May affect the central nervous system, kidneys and liver. Irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. It is flammable.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994. 6p.
Data sheet. May enter the body by inhalation or through the skin. May cause mutations. If skin contaminated with chrysene is exposed to sunlight, a rash or sunburn effect can occur. Chrysene occurs in coal tar products (coal, tar, pitch, asphalt etc.).
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994. 6p.
Schröter U., Lau S.
Report on the measurement and evaluation of exposure to solvents in Hamburg's paint and varnish industry
Bericht über die Ermittlung und Bewertung von Lösemittelbelastungen in Hamburger Lackfabriken [in German]
In nine small and medium-sized paint and varnish-producing enterprises in Hamburg, Germany, exposure to solvents was determined by taking personal and ambient air samples which were then analyzed by gas chromatography. The measurements, analyses and evaluation of the results were performed in compliance with the regulations for harmful substances in Germany. Employees were found to be exposed mainly to xylene, ethylbenzene and solvent naphtha. Exposure to these substances was high in all workplaces and exposure limits were frequently exceeded. Installed exhaust systems were found to be inefficient and personal protective equipment was either not available or not in use.
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Behörde für Arbeit, Gesundheit und Soziales, Amt für Arbeitsschutz, Adolph-Schönfelder-Strasse 5, 22083 Hamburg, Germany, Oct. 1994. 18p. Illus.
Department of the Environment, Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
This booklet briefly discusses the sources of exposure to benzene, methods of monitoring atmospheric concentrations, and evidence for its harmful effects on health, with particular attention paid to leukaemia. The recommended Air Quality Standard for benzene in the United Kingdom is 5ppb as a running annual average.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 20p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.
Colombi A., Buratti M., Benvenuti F,, Spagnoli G., Salerno A.
Biological indices of exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons
Indici biologici di esposizione ad idrocarburi aromatici [in Italian]
Biological exposure indices of the most widespread organic solvents, namely, toluene, xylene, styrene, benzene and ethylbenzene are provided. For each of these hydrocarbons, professional exposure sources, absorption pathways, metabolism and excretion are shown, besides the most common dose and effect indexes adopted in biological monitoring. Possible criteria of choice of listed indices together with their limitations of use are also presented. For each solvent, chemical/physical characteristics and analytical methods for their determination in biological fluids are fully described and reported.
Prevenzione oggi, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, No.4, p.3-67. Illus. 165 ref.
Ruijten M.W.M.M., Hooisma J., Brons J.T., Habets C.E.P., Emmen H.H., Muijser H.
Neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to xylene and mixed organic solvents in shipyard spray painters
A cross-sectional study was performed in shipyard painters exposed to organic solvents and age-matched referents. The work duties of the painters mainly involved spray painting with solvent-based paints containing > 50% xylene. Results indicate that complaints regarding mood changes, equilibrium and fatigue were more severe in painters than in controls, but were not related to the estimated life-time exposure index. Decreased nerve function was observed in the lower extremities and to some extent in the upper extremities. The refractory period appeared to be a sensitive parameter in motor nerves. Most neurophysiological parameters investigated were significantly related to the exposure index. Behavioural testing revealed impairment of simple visuo-motor performance and complex perceptual coding. A relationship between effects on perceptual coding and the exposure index was also demonstrated.
Neurotoxicology, Fall 1994, Vol.15, No.3, p.613-620. 33 ref.
Clavel J., Mandereau L., Limasset J.C., Hémon D., Cordier S.
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the risk of bladder cancer: A French case-control study
A hospital-based case-control study of 658 male cases of bladder cancer and 658 male controls was carried out in 5 areas of France from 1984 to 1987. For each subject, occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was determined through questionnaires. The overall odds ratio for PAH exposure, adjusted for smoking, coffee drinking and occupational exposure to aromatic amines was estimated at 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.7, p<0.05). A slight but clear dose-response relationship was observed, and the trend remained significant after adjustment for cumulative smoking, with odds ratios of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9-1.7), 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.2) and 1.8 (95% CI: 0.8-3.9) for low, medium and high average exposures respectively compared to subjects unexposed to PAH (p<0.05). Moreover, a stronger association between bladder cancer and PAH exposure was detected in a heavy-smoker group.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1994, Vol.23, No.6, p.1145-1153. 30 ref.
Chia S.E., Jeyaratnam J., Ong C.N., Ng T.P., Lee H.S.
Impairment of color vision among workers exposed to low concentrations of styrene
In a study of 21 male workers exposed to styrene concentrations below 30ppm in a fibre-reinforced plastic boat manufacturing plant, mean end-of-shift urinary mandelic acid and phenylglycoxylic acid were 84mg/g creatinine and 66mg/g creatinine respectively. Tests revealed that the exposed workers had significantly poorer colour discrimination ability than a non-exposed control group. Results of neurobehavioural tests were also poorer for the exposed workers. Low exposure to styrene could affect psychometric performance and may impair colour vision.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1994, Vol.26, No.4, p.481-488. 19 ref.
Petry T., Schmid P., Schlatter C.
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two different silicon carbide plants
A total of 38 personal and stationary samples were taken in the working atmosphere in two silicon carbide plants to determine the concentrations of 20 unsubstituted PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(j+b+k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene and indeno(1.2.3-cd)pyrene, all of which are carcinogenic. In plant A, the total PAH concentrations in the personal samples varied from 0.28 to 2.67µg/m3 with a mean BaP concentration of 0.05µg/m3 for all worksites. In plant B, the total PAH varied from 2.93 to 50.03µg/m3 with a mean BaP concentration of 0.13µg/m3. Compared to the exposure to carcinogenic PAHs in coke and aluminium plants, the concentrations measured in both silicon carbide plants were low.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1994, Vol.38, No.5, p.741-752. Illus. 15 ref.
Lagorio S., Forastiere F., Ivarone I., Rapiti E., Vanacore N., Perucci C.A., Carere A.
Mortality of filling station attendants
The health impact of exposure to gasoline has not been fully elucidated. The article reports on the mortality of a cohort of 2,665 filling station managers from the Latium region (Italy). The follow-up period extended from 1981 through 1992. The mortality experience of the cohort was compared with that of the regional population. The overall analysis for standardized mortality ratios (SMR) showed a significantly decreased mortality from all causes, mainly due to a deficit of cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms. Non-significant increased risks for oesophageal cancer (SMR 241), brain cancer (SMR 195) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR 173) were found for men. Among the attendants of small stations, the SMR values for oesophageal cancer (SMR 351) and brain cancer (SMR 266) showed increased values. Filling station attendants are exposed to gasoline vapours and seem at risk of cancer of various sites. Due to the limitations of this study, however, a precise estimate of the risk for many causes of death was not achievable.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.331-338. 51 ref.
Epidemiological studies of styrene-exposed populations
Several cohort studies of occupationally exposed populations have suggested that workers exposed to styrene in the chemical industry have increased mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer. However, this finding has not been consistent and has not been reproduced in studies of reinforced plastics manufacturers, whose exposures to styrene are generally higher. The explanation for the observed associations may therefore be confounding by concomitant exposures to other chemicals such as benzene and butadiene, which are not used in the reinforced plastics industry. Despite their large size, the published studies of mortality and cancer incidence lack the statistical power to rule out an important hazard from long-term exposure to high (>50ppm) airborne concentrations of styrene. However, they indicate that any risk of cancer from lower levels of exposure is likely to be small.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Oct. 1994, Vol.24, Suppl., p.S107-S115. 21 ref.
Rebert C.S., Hall T.A.
The neuroepidemiology of styrene: A critical review of representative literature
Several studies of workers exposed to styrene for up to 30 years have been undertaken in factories worldwide. Epidemiologists have suggested that neurophysical deficits such as slowing of reaction time, loss of colour vision and vestibulo-oculomotor dysfunction are reliably induced by styrene at levels near or below current exposure standards. However, the workers so studied were always described as healthy, and the effects noted were considered to be subclinical. A detailed evaluation of much of the neuroepidemiological literature on styrene, however, indicated that the findings were, almost universally, false positive outcomes due to (1) type I statistical error, (2) the action of another factor, and (3) misinterpretation of data. Despite the study of workers exposed for many years, no indications of persisting nervous system damage were evident from this review. The conclusions of this review are consistent with those based on critical reviews of the solvent literature in general.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Oct. 1994, Vol.24, Suppl., p.S57-S106. 162 ref.
Miller R.R., Newhook R., Poole A.
Styrene production, use, and human exposure
Styrene is an extremely important commodity chemical used extensively in the manufacture of numerous polymers and copolymers, including polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), styrene-butadiene latex, and styrene-butadiene rubber. It is a component of cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust, and it may occur naturally at low levels in various types of foods. The highest potential human exposures to styrene occur in occupational settings, particularly those involving the production of large glass-reinforced polyester products such as boats, which require manual lay-up and spray-up operations. Substantially lower occupational exposures occur in styrene monomer and polymer production facilities. The general public is exposed to very low concentrations of styrene in ambient air, indoor air, food and drinking water.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Oct. 1994, Vol.24, Suppl., p.S1-S10. 48 ref.
Snyder R., Kalf G.F.
A perspective on benzene leukemogenesis
This review focuses on several of the problems facing investigators who study the mechanism of benzene-induced leukaemogenesis. Benzene metabolism is reviewed with the aim of suggesting metabolites that may play a role in the aetiology of the disease. The formation of DNA adducts and their potential significance are analyzed. The clastogenic activity of benzene is discussed both in terms of biomarkers of exposure and as a potential indication of leukaemogenesis. The significance of chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation and chromosomal translocations is discussed. The mutagenic activity of benzene metabolites is reviewed and benzene is placed in perspective as a leukaemogen with other carcinogens. Finally, a pathway from benzene exposure to eventual leukaemia is discussed in terms of biological mechanisms, the role of cytokines and related factors, latency and expression of leukaemia.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, July 1994, Vol.24, No.3, p.177-209. 278 ref.
Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz LAI
Requirements concerning the use of hydrocarbons as solvents in dry-cleaning establishments
Anforderungen beim Einsatz von Kohlenwasserstofflösemitteln (KWL) in Chemischreinigungen [in German]
Chlorofluorohydrocarbons, the use of which has been banned in Germany since 1 January 1995, have been replaced in dry-cleaning establishments by aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with 10-12 carbon atoms. Fire- and explosion-prevention measures to be taken by establishments using these hydrocarbons as solvents are outlined. In addition, limitations on the emission of solvents and the disposal of the waste products such as contaminated filters are addressed. The regulations which dry cleaning plants in Germany must comply with are outlined.
Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co., Berlin, Germany, 1994. 39p. Illus.
Yin S.N., et al.
Cohort study among workers exposed to benzene in China: I. General methods and resources. II. Exposure assessment
The first of these two papers (M. Yin et al) describes the methods and resources used in a 16-year follow-up of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers employed for any length of time during 1972-1987 in 712 factories in 12 cities in China. The strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. The second paper describes a retrospective exposure assessment method used to quantify historical exposure to benzene among workers in 672 factories and 12 cities in China. Estimated exposure levels are presented by industries and occupations. The highest average exposures during 1949-1987 were observed for the rubber and plastics industry and for rubber glue applicators.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.26, No.3, p.383-411. Illus. 58 ref.
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