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Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found

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CIS 98-1366 Mielżyńska D., Braszczyńska Z., Siwińska E., Smolik E., Bubak A., Sokal J.A.
Exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on biological monitoring results
Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; benzo(a)pyrene; coke ovens; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; job-exposure relation; mutagenicity tests; mutagens; Poland; polycyclic hydrocarbons; smoking; synergism; urinary metabolites.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.9, p.661-666. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 98-646 Buratti M., Pellegrino O., Valla C., Fustinoni S., Colombi A.
Biological monitoring of environmental benzene exposure in traffic wardens
Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione ambientale a benzene in addetti alla vigilanza urbana [in Italian]
Topics: benzene; determination in air; determination in urine; exhaust gases; exposure tests; Italy; road transport; smoking; urinary metabolites.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1997, Vol.88, No.3, p.208-219. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 98-806
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
This report is a translation of a report finalized in German in October 1995. Topics: ethylbenzene; criteria document; ecotoxicology; Germany; irritants; legislation; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; pulmonary oedema; toxic effects; toxicology; translation.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997. xviii, 175p. 482 ref. Price: DEM 97.00.

CIS 98-628 Habert C., Choulika S., Laureillard J., Conso F.
Sculpting and polyester resin: Two case reports
Sculpture et résine polyester: à propos de deux observations [in French]
Topics: air purifying respirators; arts and crafts; case study; cognitive performance; endoscopy; exposure evaluation; France; occupational diseases; plastics; styrene.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1997, Vol.58, No.8, p.660-661.

CIS 98-51 Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(a)pyrène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Topics: antifertility effects; benzo(a)pyrene; carcinogenic effects; comment on standard; data sheet; dermatitis; determination in air; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; genetic effects; handling and storage; health hazards; irritants; labelling; limitation of exposure; personal protective equipment; skin absorption; skin diseases; teratogenic effects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1997. 6p. 35 ref.

CIS 98-40 alpha-Methylstyrene
Alfa-metilestireno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Topics: data sheet; dermatitis; determination in air; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; neurotoxic effects; personal protective equipment; respirators; USA; waste disposal; alpha-methylstyrene.
Noticias de seguridad, June 1997, Vol.59, No.6. 4p. Insert.

CIS 98-239
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Topics: p-xylene; m-xylene; o-xylene; criteria document; ILO; IPCS; irritants; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; permissible levels; poisoning; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO; xylene.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1997. 147p. 475 ref.

CIS 98-205 Maestri L., Ghittori S., Imbriani M.
Determination of specific mercapturic acids as an index of exposure to environmental benzene, toluene, and styrene
Topics: benzene; description of technique; determination in biological matter; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; Italy; mercapturic acid; styrene; toluene; urinary metabolites.
Industrial Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.35, No.4, p.489-501. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 98-247
Health and Safety Executive
Benzene and you
Leaflet on safe working practice with benzene (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: benzene; health hazards; legislation; limitation of exposure; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1997. 6p. 4 ref.

CIS 97-1831 para-tert-Butyltoluene
Para-ter-butiltolueno [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes, skin and upper respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); may have cardiovascular effects (hypotension); may cause skin disorders; may have haematotoxic effects.
Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 1997, Vol.59, No.1. 4p. Insert.

CIS 97-1973 Bogadi-Šare A., et al.
Genotoxic effects in workers exposed to benzene: With special reference to exposure markers and confounding factors
Cytogenetic tests were carried out on the lymphocytes of 49 female shoemakers exposed to benzene and toluene. Levels of benzene and toluene in the workers' blood and levels of phenol in urine were also measured. Chromosome aberration analysis revealed a significant increase in dicentric incidence in the exposed workers with respect to a control group. While significant correlation between cytogenetic test results and exposure biomarkers was not established, correlation between cytogenetic test results and data on confounding factors (age, alcohol consumption) was marked. The influence of confounding factors should be considered when estimating individual genotoxicity risk related to low level benzene exposure.
Industrial Health, July 1997, Vol.35, No.3, p.367-373. 31 ref.

CIS 97-1965 Lynge E., et al.
Risk of cancer and exposure to gasoline vapors
Cancer incidence in a cohort of 19,000 service station workers from Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland was investigated. The workers were exposed to gasoline vapours with benzene levels estimated to be 0.5-1mg/m3. During 20 years of follow-up 1,300 incident cancers were observed. In comparison with national incidence rates, the exposed cohort showed no excess risk of leukaemia or acute myeloid leukaemia, a 30% elevated risk of kidney cancer, and a previously unnoticed risk of nasal cancer.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1997, Vol.145, No.5, p.449-458. 75 ref.

CIS 97-1986 Hatjian B., et al.
Risk assessment of occupational exposure to bitumen fumes in the road paving and roofing industries
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen fumes was assessed by ambient and biological monitoring of 16 pavers, 13 roofers and 21 unexposed controls. Exposure of pavers and roofers was low in comparison with other industries where exposure to PAHs occurs, but higher than the control group. Significant correlations were observed between airborne PAH exposure indices and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in the pavers only, and between mean sister chromatid exchange frequency and external PAH exposure expressed as the percentage of exposed subjects in individual groups. Exposure could be further reduced by appropriate control measures.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1997, Vol.13, No.1, p.65-78. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 97-1620 Wu M.T.
Elevated serum liver enzymes in coke oven and by-product workers
Blood levels of two liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), were measured for 213 steel workers employed for at least three months in two coke-operation work areas, and for 131 unexposed controls. Each work area contained a coke oven and a by-product plant. Airborne levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also measured. Workers from Area I (shown to have high PAH levels) had significantly higher AST and ALT levels than the control group. Workers from Area II (lower PAH levels) had slightly, but not significantly, elevated AST and ALT levels. Results indicate that heavy exposure to coke oven emissions has adverse effects on the liver.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.527-533. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 97-1578 Moen B.E., Øvrebø S.
Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during fire fighting by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene
Urine samples were obtained from 9 students and 4 teachers at a firefighter training school before and 6 to 7 hours after extinguishing burning diesel fuel. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for 1-hydroxypyrene. A small but significant increase in 1-hydroxypyrene levels was found after fire fighting. Fire fighting may cause exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are classified as carcinogenic.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.515-519. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 97-885 Wesołowski W., Gromiec J.P.
Occupational exposure in Polish paint and lacquer industry
Forty different organic solvents were identified in the air of five paint and lacquer manufacturing plants in Poland. Ethylbenzene, xylene and C-9 aromatic hydrocarbons were predominant. About 13% of workers were employed under conditions of excessive exposure.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.10, No.1, p.79-88. 9 ref.

CIS 97-876 Feunekes F.D.J.R., Jongeneelen F.J., Laan H.v.d., Schoonhof F.H.G.
Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among trainers in a fire-fighting training facility
The exposure of fire-fighting trainers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by personal air sampling during fire-fighting activities. Uptake of PAH was determined by measuring concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (a metabolite of pyrene) in urine. There was evidence of exposure to and uptake of PAH among the instructors despite the short time of effective exposure and the routine use of respirators and protective clothing. Both tobacco smoking and exposure to smoke from fire appeared to increase 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations. Biological monitoring with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene may be useful in tracing highly exposed persons and in monitoring the effectiveness of control measures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.23-28. 35 ref.


CIS 00-1686 Sernia S.
Evaluation of benzene concentration in exhaled air as a biological indicator in petrol station attendants
Valutazione della concentrazione di benzene nell'area espirata quale indicatore biologico negli addetti al rifornimento di carburante [in Italian]
The purpose of this study was to find out if the determination of benzene concentrations in exhaled air from petrol (gasoline) station attendants is a useful way to monitor exposure to low environmental levels of benzene. In an Italy-wide survey, it was found that a strong correlation indeed exists between exposure levels and exhaled air concentration, particularly when there is a delay between exposure and sampling (correlation r=0.67 with a 2hr delay and r=0.79 with a 14-16hr delay). Determination methods and relevant legal texts are given in the appendix.
Istituto Italiana di Medicina Sociale, Via P.S. Mancini, 28, 00196 Roma, Italy, 1996. 103p. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 99-1313 Code of practice for styrene
Topics: Australia; styrene; determination in air; directive; glass fibre reinforced plastics; health engineering; health hazards; legislation; mechanical ventilation; personal protective equipment; plastics industry; respirators; substitution; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, Dec. 1996. 36p. Illus. Price: AUD 3.00.

CIS 99-878 Van Damme K.
Benzene: Analysis of the use of leukocyte counts to detect effects in exposed workers
Topics: benzene; blood count; exposure tests; haematological changes; leukocytes; medical supervision; pre-employment medical examinations.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.2, No.3, Supplement, p.S6-S9. 17 ref.

CIS 99-217 Laborda Grima R., Velasco Ortega J., Megias del Rosal J.
Increase in the content of aromatic compounds in cutting oils due to presumed contamination by hydraulic fluid
Aumento del contenido de sustancias aromáticas en aceites de corte, por supuesta contaminación con hidraúlico [in Spanish]
Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; carcinogens; cutting fluids; determination of concentration; hydraulic fluids; infrared spectrophotometry; machine tools.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.XLIII, No.170, p.11-19. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 98-742 Chen R., Seaton A.
A meta-analysis of mortality among workers exposed to organic solvents
Topics: benzene; cancer; carcinogens; epidemiologic study; leukaemia; literature survey; liver cancer; mortality; organic solvents; statistical evaluation.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.46, No.5, p.337-344. 90 ref.

CIS 98-236
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Topics: criteria document; ethylbenzene; ILO; IPCS; irritants; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 121.001 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1996. 101p. 257 ref. Price: CHF 30.00 (CHF 21.00 in developing countries).

CIS 97-1951 Weisel C., Yu R., Georgopoulos P.
Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure
The use of biomarkers to assess environmental benzene exposure is reviewed. Methodologies for the determination of benzene in exhaled breath and in blood, and for the determination of urinary metabolites are described, and the interpretation of results is discussed. These techniques may be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure and to determine differences in metabolism. Results suggest that the dose-response curve is non-linear and that care is needed when extrapolating health risk from high exposure levels to lower levels. Time-series measurements of benzene in exhaled breath were used to evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl. 6, p.1141-1146. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 97-1611 Bezabeh S., et al.
Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature
In a review of population-based and hospital-based control studies published through mid-1995, no increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not associated with multiple myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as "engine exhaust" did show a significant association with multiple myeloma.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.6, p.1393-1398. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 97-1610 Linet M. S., et al.
Clinical features of hematopoietic malignancies and related disorders among benzene-exposed workers in China
A follow-up study of 74,828 benzene-exposed workers and a comparison group of 35,805 nonexposed workers from 12 cities in China involved investigation of medical records, laboratory haematology results and histopathology by expert haematopathologists. There was a notable diversity of malignant and nonneoplastic haematopoietic and lymphoproliferative disorders, and documentation of excess myelodysplastic syndromes among benzene workers. It is recommended that future epidemiologic investigations of benzene workers incorporate similarly detailed morphologic evaluation.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.6, p.1353-1364. Illus. 116 ref.

CIS 97-1592 Dosemeci M., et al.
Indirect validation of benzene exposure assessment by association with benzene poisoning
In an earlier cohort study, historical estimates of benzene exposure between 1949 and 1987 were developed for 74,828 workers employed in 672 factories in 12 cities in China; exposure estimates were made for 18,435 factory/work unit/job title combinations. The highest time-weighted average exposures were observed in the rubber industry (30.7ppm) and for rubber glue applicators (52.6ppm). A strong positive association was observed between benzene poisoning and various measures of benzene exposure, especially recent intensity of exposure. Results provide confidence in the validity of the exposure assessment method used in the cohort study.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.6, p.1343-1347. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 97-1588 Strickland P., Kang D., Sithisarankul P.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine as biomarkers of exposure and effect
The monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in human urine as biomarkers of internal dose is reviewed. Types of PAH metabolites detected are described and the association between metabolite levels and PAH exposure in human studies is discussed. The most widely occurring PAH metabolite is 1-hydroxypyrene-O-glucuronide (1- OHP-gluc). Elevated levels of 1-OHP or 1-OHP-gluc have been demonstrated in smokers, in patients receiving coal tar treatment, in road pavers, in coke oven workers and in subjects ingesting charbroiled meat. Although measurement of these metabolites is useful in assessing recent exposure to PAHs, their value as predictive markers of health outcomes has not been rigorously tested.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Oct. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.5, p.927-932. 52 ref.

CIS 97-1585 Priante E., et al.
Exposure of traffic police to urban air pollutants
Esposizione agli inquinanti dell'aria urbana dei vigili municipali [in Italian]
Exposure to dusts and benzene was investigated in 65 non-smoking traffic policemen in the city of Padua (Italy). The mean personal exposure of the policemen to total dust was 0.44mg/m3. The atmospheric concentration of 1-nitropyrene (the principal component of diesel engine emissions) was 0.28ng/m3. The mean concentration of benzene in the breathing zone was 41µg/m3, a level similar to what the city population at large is exposed to. The mean values of urinary benzene before and after the work shift were similar. Levels of exposure of the traffic policemen to dust and 1-nitropyrene was comparable to other occupational groups with this type of risk. Traffic police exposure to benzene is much lower than that of certain other occupational categories, e.g. those engaged in the distribution of hydrocarbon fuels.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.314-322. 30 ref.

CIS 97-1605 Welp E., et al.
Exposure to styrene and mortality from nervous system diseases and mental disorders
In an international historical cohort study, mortality from nervous system diseases, mental disorders and suicide was examined in relation to styrene exposure. The cohort comprised 35,443 workers employed during 1945-1991 in the reinforced plastics industry in six European countries (Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Exposure indicators were estimated from job histories and environmental and biological monitoring. Mortality from diseases of the central nervous system, especially epilepsy, increased with exposure to styrene. Findings indicate that, in addition to the known acute effects, exposure to styrene may contribute to chronic diseases of the central nervous system.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Oct. 1996, Vol.144, No.7, p.623-633. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 97-1246 Asakawa F., et al.
Method for analyzing urinary organic solvents by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for biological monitoring of exposure to these solvents
Seibutsugaku-teki monitaringu no tame no koso maikuro chushutsu wo mochiiru nyōchu yūkiyōzai no bunseki-hō [in Japanese]
Aromatic organic solvents (toluene, xylene) in urine can be measured by adding 1g sodium chloride to a 5mL sample in a 10mL vial, closing the vial, letting it stand at room temperature for 60min, introducing a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fibre into the headspace, stirring the sample for 5min and transferring the fibre to the injection port of a gas chromatograph. With a capillary column and a flame ionization detector, the detection limit corresponds to a urinary toluene concentration of 1µg/L. A standard curve is linear to 100µg/L. This concentration range is appropriate for biological monitoring of exposure to toluene and xylene. (The Japanese occupational exposure limit for toluene, for example, is 500ppm.)
Journal of Occupational Health, 20 Nov. 1996, Vol.38, No.6, p.258-259. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 97-1245 Pierce C.H., et al.
Interindividual differences in 2H8-toluene toxicokinetics assessed by a semiempirical physiologically based model
Toluene is representative of a series of volatile solvents that are widely used in workplaces. Since much of understanding of relationships between exposure and dose has come from controlled laboratory and uncontrolled occupational exposures with variable levels of background toxicants, this investigation was done in order to study controlled exposures to a stable-isotope-labelled probe. The study built a physiologically based toxicokinetic model suitable for person-specific dosimetry. Twenty-six male volunteer subjects were exposed to a mixture of 50ppm deuterium-labelled toluene (2H8-toluene) and 50ppm normal toluene for 2hr at rest. Several physiological parameters were measured to investigate toluene distribution, metabolism and elimination. The use of subject-specific model parameters greatly improved model fit and demonstrated inter-individual differences in toxicokinetics and provided an improvement over existing approaches.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1996, Vol.139, p.49-61. Illus. 79 ref.

CIS 97-754 Trimethyl benzene
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May irritate the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause bronchitis, dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting. Exposed persons may feel nervous, tense, tired and sleepy. May affect blood cells.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1997. 6p.

CIS 97-740 Ethyl benzene
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in and through the skin. May cause mutations and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. May cause neurotoxic effects and damage the liver. It is a flammable liquid.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-577 Rahill A.A., Weiss B., Morrow P.E., Frampton M.W., Cox C., Gibb R., Gelein R., Speers D., Utell M.J.
Human performance during exposure to toluene
Six adults were exposed to either conditioned room air or 100ppm toluene for 6h, including 30min of exercise. Physiological and neuropsychological assessments were carried out. Following exercise, the mean blood and exhaled air toluene levels averaged 1.5µg and 28ppm respectively; lung function was unchanged post-exposure. Both the brief neuropsychological tests and the prolonged multitask performance tests detected an effect of toluene. Differences in performance between air and toluene conditions were greatest after exercise, indicating that physical activity may enhance the response to volatile organic solvents.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1996, Vol.67, No.7, p.640-647. 20 ref.

CIS 97-573 Vrca A., Karačić V., Božičević D., Božikov V., Malinar M.
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in individuals exposed to long-term low concentrations of toluene
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to low concentration of toluene on the central nervous system by using brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). Forty nine printing plant workers occupationally exposed to low concentrations of toluene for an average of 20.3 years and 59 non-exposed controls were examined. The level of exposure to toluene was evaluated by defining the concentration of toluene in peripheral blood and the concentration of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol in urine. In the group of exposed workers, a significant decrease in all wave amplitudes examined, a significant prolongation of P1 wave latency and an increased interval of interpeak latencies (P3-P5) were found. This indicates that the extramedullary and high medullary part of the auditory pathway are biologically most frequently affected by long-term exposure to low concentrations of toluene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.62-66. 23 ref.

CIS 97-489 Yuasa J., Kishi R., Eguchi T., Harabuchi I., Arata Y., Katakura Y., Imai T., Matsumoto H., Yokoyama H., Miyake H.
Study of urinary mandelic acid concentration and peripheral nerve conduction among styrene workers
The relationship between exposure to styrene and nerve conduction velocities was investigated in 32 workers occupationally exposed to styrene. There was a dose-dependent relationship between urinary mandelic acid and ulnar and peroneal motor distal latencies (MDLs). After adjusting confounding factors, urinary mandelic acid had a significant positive relationship with ulnar and peroneal MDL. The study suggests that a low level of styrene, below the 50ppm exposure limit of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), involves the risk of inducing adverse effects on the peripheral nervous system. The study also indicated that motor distal latency is a sensitive parameter of toxic peripheral neuropathy.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.41-47. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1937
Secretaría de Salud
Official Standard. Establishes Maximum Permissible Biological Exposure Limits for organic solvents in occupationally exposed personnel [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana. Que establece los limites biológicos máximos permisibles de disolventes orgánicos en el personal ocupacional expuesto [México] [in Spanish]
Effective date of this standard: 22 Mar. 1997. Contents: aim of the standard; scope (all establishments in Mexico where solvents "of the type benzene, toluene and xylene" are handled); references to relevant standards already in force; definitions; abbreviations and symbols; procedures for the evaluation of health hazards; biological exposure limits (benzene - total phenols in end-of-shift urine: 50mg/g creatinine; toluene - hippuric acid in end-of-shift urine: 2.5g/g creatinine, toluene in end-of-shift venous blood: 1mg/L; xylene - methylhippuric acid in end-of-shift urine: 1.5g/g creatinine); criteria for the monitoring of workers' health. The values in this standard agree with those in the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposures Indices of the ACGIH in the US (latest in CISDOC: CIS 95-1956).
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 23 Sep. 1996, Vol.516, No.15, p.101-106. 16 ref.

CIS 96-1756 Fustinoni S., Buratti M., Giampiccolo R., Pulvirenti S., Colombi A.
Biological monitoring of exposure to solvents: A gas chromatography method for the determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and urine
Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione a solventi: metodo per la determinazione gascromatografica degli idrocarburi aromatici nel sangue e nell'urina [in Italian]
A gas chromatographic procedure was used for the detection of blood and urinary levels of aromatic hydrocarbons (AH) in 151 workers from three industries: the pharmaceutical industry, photogravure printing and office work. A dynamic head-space purge and trap preconcentration and flame ionization detection were utilized. In the first two categories of the occupationally exposed workers, blood AH levels were of 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than in the environmentally exposed subjects of the third category. In this latter group (office workers) there was a significant difference in blood and urine AH levels between nonsmokers and smokers.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1996, Vol.87, No.1, p.63-75. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 96-1408 Pelclová D., Urban P., Preiss J., Lukáš E., Pícková J., Žukov I., Weinstein C., Haas T.
Chronic occupational intoxication with toluene in rotogravure printers
Five rotogravure printers with an average of 18 years exposure to toluene (mean concentration 250ppm) experienced repeated feelings of inebriation during the workshift with pseudohallucinations at increased toluene concentrations. Clinical neurological examination revealed no significant deviations from the norm. Electroneuromyography was negative in all of them. Slight abnormalities were observed in three electroencephalograms and in three visual evoked potentials. Detailed psychological examination revealed neuropsychological impairment in four workers. As a result of the examinations, three workers received occupational disease compensation.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.3-11. 32 ref.

CIS 96-1404 Armstrong T.W., Pearlman E.D., Schnatter A.R., Bowes S.M., Murray N., Nicolich M.J.
Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study
The development and evaluation of a retrospective exposure-estimating model is presented. Recent exposure data were obtained from industrial hygiene records and from published reports for petroleum marketing and distribution operations. To adjust this data to past operations, exposure modifiers were developed to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, environmental conditions, and tasks performed. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the model provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene. This approach is proposed where there are reliable data on current exposure and on historical changes in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1996, Vol.57, No.4, p.333-343. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 96-794 Lafontaine M., Morele Y.
Mineral oils and the DMSO-UV method: Various applications
Huiles minérales et méthodes DMSO-UV - Applications diverses [in French]
The purpose of this paper is to define the field of application of the DMSO-UV method used to assess the potential dermal carcinogenicity of mineral oils, after consideration of the following points: influence of main additives on the UV absorbance index of DMSO extract; relevance of the recommendations of French organizations in charge of occupational risk prevention (CNAM recommendations), with the recommendations of the petroleum industry, based on the IP 346 method; relationship between the UV absorbance index and benzo(a)pyrene concentration; different types of oils and their uses.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.162, Note No.2013-162-96, p.47-53. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 96-793 Jargot D., Oury B.
Approved laboratories and organizations for the assessment of benzene exposure. Results of the approval tests carried out by INRS from 1987 to 1994
Laboratoires et organismes agréés pour l'évaluation de l'exposition au benzène - Bilan et résultats des essais organisés de 1987 à 1994 pour l'obtention de l'agrément [in French]
Contents include: description of testing programmes; reference values; classification of laboratories; procedure for Ministry of Labour approval. Results for the period 1987-1994: assessment of participation, test results.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.162, Note No.2012-162-96, p.41-46. Illus.

CIS 96-403 Regulation No.14 of 20 Dec. 1995 on carcinogens [Brazil]
Portaria n°14, de 20 de dezembro de 1995 - Substâncias cancerígenas [in Portuguese]
This Regulation became effective on the day of its publication in the Diário Oficial of 22 Dec. 1995 (p.21,865 I). It modifies the list of carcinogens contained in Annex 13 of Regulatory Standard No.15 of 8 June 1978 (mod. by Reg. SSST No.3 of 10 Mar. 1994), by prohibiting all exposure to or contact with the following carcinogens: 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-naphthylamine, 4-nitrobiphenyl and benzidine (production of which is also prohibited). New measures concerning benzene are added: all enterprises (except those producing distilled alcohol) that produce, transport, store, use or manipulate benzene or its liquid mixtures (with >1% benzene content) must register themselves with the national safety and health authority (SSST) and must prepare a Programme for the Prevention of Occupational Exposure to Benzene (PPEOB). A new Annex 13-A (Benzene) is added: measures for the protection of workers exposed to benzene; registration procedures for enterprises that produce etc. benzene; preparation and implementation of PPEOBs; exposure limits (1ppm for most enterprises, 2.5ppm for steelworks); what to do in case of accidental exposure.
Revista CIPA, Feb. 1996, Vol.17, No.195, p.106-109.

CIS 96-402 Directives No.1 and No.2 of 20 Dec. 1995 - Determination of benzene concentration in the working environment; Health surveillance of workers for the prevention of occupational exposure to benzene [Brazil]
Instruções Normativas n.°1 e n°2, de 20 de dezembro de 1995 - Avaliação das concentrações de benzeno em ambientes de trabalho; Vigilância da saúde dos trabalhadores na prevenção da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno [in Portuguese]
These Directives became effective on the day they were published in the Diário Oficial of 4 Jan. 1996 (p.127, 130). Their issue was necessitated by the adoption of various Brazilian legal instruments related to benzene and harmful substances, and in particular by the ratification by Brazil of ILO Convention 136 and the approval of ILO Recommendation 144 relating to benzene. Directive No.1 covers: definitions; sampling and measurement methods; reporting of results. In annex: recommended statistical methods. Directive No.2 covers: required constituents of a medical surveillance programme related to benzene exposure; required action in the case of accidental exposure; workers' rights relative to benzene exposure; medical overview of benzene toxicity.
Revista CIPA, Feb. 1996, Vol.17, No.195, p.98-106. 6 ref.

CIS 96-785 Alert on benzene; The Benzene Agreement
Alerta para o benzeno; Acordo Benzeno [in Portuguese]
The first article discusses the production and uses of benzene in Brazil, as well as its toxicology: paths of entry, absorption, poisoning symptoms, effects on the central nervous system, possible factor in the development of leukaemia, biological monitoring, effects on the environment). Other topics treated: spills; the ILO Benzene Convention and Recommendation (CIS 89-1766); the Brazilian legislative framework; statistical data on workers exposed to benzene in Brazil; utilization, storage and handling of benzene; first aid recommendations. The Benzene Agreement, signed recently by all the major employers' and workers' organizations concerned as well as by relevant government agencies, has the following roles: it assigns responsibilities regarding the prevention of risks due to exposure to benzene; it establishes a National Permanent Commission for Benzene (CNP-Benzeno) for the purpose of discussion, negotiation and implementation of this Agreement; it outlines the involvement of workers in prevention efforts; it provides deadlines for enterprises to comply with the Technical Reference Value (TRV) of 1.0ppm; the Certificate of Controlled Benzene Use; penalties.
Revista CIPA, Feb. 1996, Vol.17, No.195, p.38-56. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 96-782 Bowes S.M.
Volatile hydrocarbon exposure during in situ burning of crude oil at sea
Personal exposure of emergency response workers and other personnel to volatile hydrocarbons and benzene was monitored in a major oil spill combustion trial organized by Environment Canada. Although exposures were generally very low during the burning experiments, in situ burning of unweathered crude oil at an accidental oil spill would probably result in higher exposures if the oil had a higher benzene content than that used in the experiments, if it was less weathered or it had a larger evaporating surface area. The hazards of each oil spill scene need to be evaluated individually.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.62-67. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 96-903
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Supplementary reports II - m-Dichlorobenzene; Bromomethane; 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene; N,N-Diethylaniline; Styrene; Biphenyl; o/m-Chloroaniline; Nitrobenzene
This document comprises translations of supplementary reports, finalized between June 1993 and April 1994, relating to eight substances evaluated in earlier BUA reports. The new data relate mainly to the results of animal studies carried out following recommendations in the original reports. No human effects are reported.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1996. xxiv, 157p. Bibl.ref.


CIS 01-1176 Andersson I.M.
Controlling the occupational exposure of hand lay-up workers to styrene by the choice of ventilation, polyester and work practices
Occupational exposure to styrene is a health risk to workers during the lamination of glass fibre-reinforced products, because approx. 10% of the styrene escapes during the hardening process. The occupational exposure level (OEL) for styrene in Sweden today is 20ppm (10ppm for new and renovated plants). This study looked at three ventilation options designed to reduce the risk: supply-air and air-exhaust ventilation, "air shower" ventilation, and horizontal displacement ventilation, adapted to the size and shape of the products. All three of these ventilation options was successful in reducing exposure to styrene during the hand lamination of products to below 10ppm. This success, however, depended on employees being familiar with the system. An alternative method of exposure reduction was also studied: that of using low styrene emission (LSE), as opposed to standard (STD), polyester. Laboratory tests with LSE polyester showed significant reductions (18ppm as opposed to 29ppm with STD) in mean exposure during lamination on a mould, but no reduction at all during lamination work on a table. In actual workplace tests, no significant reductions in exposure could be found at all when LSE polyester was used. Finally, the article describes a method for reducing styrene exposure based on the identification of work steps resulting in high exposures and on the modelling of the fluid dynamics of the work room.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 40p. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 00-1411 de Carvalho A.B., Arcuri A.S.A., Bedrikow B., da Silva Augusto L.G., Correia Oliveira L.C., Bonciani M., Kato M., Passos Gramacho M.I., Freitas N.B.B., Pires Novaes T.C.
Benzeno [in Portuguese]
This booklet provides the current situation with respect to the prevention of health hazards due to benzene in Brazil. Topics covered: history of social movements in favour of control of exposure to benzene; health effects of benzene (myelotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute toxicity, chronic toxicity); benzene in Brazil (production and consumption, exposed groups, workplace air contamination in the various industries, epidemiology; prevention of hazards and health surveillance, legislation); exposure to benzene and prevention measures (control of air contamination, biological monitoring).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 1995. 86p. Illus. 194 ref.

CIS 99-1771 Decree No.95-307 of 1 March 1995 modifying Book IV of the Labour Code [Côte d'Ivoire]
Décret n°95-307 du 1er mars 1995 modifiant le livre IV du Code du travail [Côte d'Ivoire] [in French]
Article D-444b concerns safety and health measures to be taken to protect workers exposed to benzene. Employment is prohibited of young people under 18 years of age, pregnant and nursing mothers and of those already having suffered from benzene poisoning. Topics: benzene; chemical protective clothing; Côte d'Ivoire; expectant mothers; health hazards; irritation; law; medical examinations; nursing mothers; skin absorption; young persons.
Photocopy, 3p. Only in CIS.

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