Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found
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Romundstad P., Haldorsen T., Rønneberg A.
Exposure to PAH and fluoride in aluminum reduction plants in Norway: Historical estimation of exposure using process parameters and industrial hygiene measurements
A methodology for the historical estimation of exposure to fluoride and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at two Norwegian aluminium smelters is described. Area concentrations of fluoride and PAH in periods with no measurements were estimated and relationships between measured area concentrations and process parameters were investigated by statistical modelling. Process parameters and the models were then used to estimate area concentrations in periods lacking area measurement data. The relationships between the area measurements and job specific exposure (personal measurements) were investigated by use of a measurement model. Finally, the relationships obtained were used to estimate job specific exposure in different periods. Despite limitations of available measurements in the early production period, the exposure estimates from this study provide a reasonable tool for the estimation of dose-response relations in subsequent epidemiological analyses. Topics: aluminium industry; aromatic hydrocarbons; description of technique; determination in air; exposure evaluation; fluorides; job-exposure relation; mathematical models; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.164-174. 13 ref.
Consonni D., Pesatori A.C., Tironi A., Bernucci I., Zocchetti C., Bertazzi P.A.
Mortality study in an Italian oil refinery: Extension of the follow-up
The mortality of 1,583 workers employed in 1949-1982 in a northern Italy oil refinery plant was investigated to May 1991. Environmental measurements documented potential exposure to benzene. Compared with national and regional mortality rates, elevated mortality from lymphoma and leukaemia was observed. No consistent trends by length of employment or time since first exposure were apparent. Nonetheless, the excess risk was particularly and significantly increased among workers with 15 or more years of employment, and 30 or more years since first employment. The findings of elevated mortality from leukaemia and lymphoma are in agreement with those of other oil refinery studies. Exposure to benzene is a biologically plausible explanation. Topics: benzene; cancer; cohort study; Italy; length of exposure; leukaemia; long-term study; lymphoma; mortality; petroleum products; petroleum refining.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.287-294. 54 ref.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Biological monitoring of benzene at low exposure
It has been suggested to lower TWA of benzene because of its possible leukogenetic effects at low exposure concentrations. This requires the development of new methods of biological monitoring. The purpose of this study was to measure simultaneously several markers of benzene exposure (blood and breath benzene, urinary phenol and muconic acid) in a population of 410 male workers exposed to benzene, to identify confounding factors which may influence the results and to compare the diagnostic power of the biological tests. 95% of the workers were exposed to less than 0.5ppm. Muconic acid showed very few false-positive tests and remained reliable even at around a cut-off level of 0.5ppm benzene and with smokers. The diagnostic power proved to be good when diluted or concentrated urine samples were used. Blood and breath benzene as well as urinary phenol were clearly less suitable biomarkers than muconic acid.
European Commission, Directorate general V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational health and hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1998. 16p. 20 ref.
Carcinogenicity of brown coal tar
Zur Kanzerogenität von Braukohlenschwelteer [in German]
Although the carcinogenicity of brown coal tar has still not been investigated fully, it is possible to estimate it through research into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation during the low-temperature carbonization of brow coal. This article provides data, in particular, on benzo(a)pyrene concentration in workplace air in various parts of brown coal tar production plants.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Apr. 1998, Vol.48, No.4, p.144-149. 27 ref.
Santolaya Martínez C., Guardino Solá X., Rosell Farrás M.G.
Benzene exposure assessment: Environmental and biological control
Evaluación de la exposición a benceno: control ambiental y biológico [in Spanish]
This information note on environmental and biological monitoring for benzene exposure assessment describes various methods for the sampling and analysis of benzene in ambient air, exhaled air and biological fluids (blood and urine). S-phenylmercapturic acid is currently considered as the most appropriate marker for biological monitoring of low exposures to benzene.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 5p. 11 ref.
Dell'Omo M., Muzi G., Marchionna G., Latini L., Carrieri P., Paolemili P., Abbritti G.
Preventive measures reduce exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a graphite electrode plant
End-of-shift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-hpur), a biological marker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was measured by high performance liquid chromatography in electrode workers in a graphite electrode plant. After implementation of preventive measures, median concentrations 1-hpur were significantly reduced in some groups of workers. In workers at a second baking impregnation unit, in end product finishing and in the power station, 1-hpur concentrations were unchanged. Urinary 1-hp concentrations were still significantly higher in each group of workers than in the control group. Concentrations in the workers varied with the type of job, the highest values being found in workers engaged in the power station, in the two baking impregnation units and in the green electrode unit. Implementing preventive measures significantly reduced exposure to PAHs at a graphite electrode plant. The reduction in median and peak concentrations of 1-hpur, which reflects total exposure to, and internal dose of PAHs, was most evident in workers employed in the units where preventive measures had been taken.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.401-406. Illus. 26 ref.
Wendling J.M., Gonzalez M.
Urinary trans-trans muconic acid: Indicator of the risk of benzene exposure among tank truck drivers
Acide trans-trans muconique urinaire: indicateur d'exposition au risque benzène chez les citernistes [in French]
To evaluate benzene exposure, a study of urinary muconic acid excretion was conducted among 26 exposed road tanker drivers. A study of the activity (work study, questionnaires) identified the methods of operation as well as the incidents that occurred during the workday. During the day of the inquiry, the accidental inhalation and direct (hands) or indirect (soiled clothes) skin contaminations inducing exposure peaks involved 11.5% of the drivers. Urinary muconic acid average was 0.43mg/g creatinine. The level of trans-trans muconic acid excretion was significantly higher in the drivers having reported incidents than in those not reporting incidents. When no incidents occurred, road tanker drivers are moderately exposed to benzene. We propose collective and individual safety measures to reduce the benzene exposure level in this professional group.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1998, Vol.59, No.8, p.543-547. Illus. 13 ref.
Methods to control styrene exposure in the reinforced plastics industry
Styrene exposure and the performance of current ventilation systems were measured in 17 reinforced plastics plants. The characteristics of styrene emission during hand lay-up and the effect of a rolled area on styrene evaporation were also determined. In order to meet the present exposure limit, local ventilation techniques should be used in combination with other control measures. Well-designed zonal ventilation methods produced a favourable airflow pattern for controlling styrene vapours in the lamination area. However, work practices must be synchronized with the airflow pattern before low styrene exposure levels are reached. Styrene control during hand lay-up moulding is also possible with the use of several local exhaust hoods. The use of vapour-suppressed resin reduced the total styrene emission by 30-60%, but the reduction was much lower during active lamination. After rolling, the emission from the vapour-suppressed resin was found to be very low, and, therefore, the emission rate was dependent on the size of the surface area rolled simultaneously. The use of these resins is beneficial, especially when large products are laminated.
Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Vuorimiehentie 5, P.O. Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 1998. 148p. Illus. approx. 200 ref.
http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/publications/1998/P354.pdf [in English]
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Selected non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds
This criteria document covers the following toxicological aspects of 32 of these substances: identity; properties; analytical methods; sources of exposure; environmental behaviour; environmental levels and human exposure; metabolism in humans and animals; effects on animals, plants, microorganisms and humans; risk evaluation; recommendations. Summary in French and in Spanish. The following substances are covered: acenaphthylene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, 11h-benzo(a)fluorene, 11h-benzo(b)fluorene, benzo(c)phenanthrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)fluoranthene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzoperylene, chrysene, coronene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, dibenzo(a,e)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)pyrene, dibenzo(a,i)pyrene, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, 5-methylchrysene, 1-methylphenanthrene, naphthalene, perylene, phenanthrene, pyrene, triphenylene.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. xxii, 883p. Illus. approx. 2000 ref. Price: CHF 174.00 (CHF 121.80 in developing countries).
Decree No.1907 establishing the national legal basis for conventions No.42, 103, 115, 136, 156, 159 and 162 of the International Labour Organization [Chile]
Decreto N° 1907, por el que se promulgan los convenios N°s 42,103, 115, 136, 156, 159 y 162 adoptados por la Conferencia General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo [Chile] [in Spanish]
Ratification of Conventions Nos. 42, 103, 115, 136, 156, 159 and 162 of the International Labour Organization, dealing with: compensation of occupational diseases; maternity protection; protection against ionizing radiation; protection against benzene poisoning; equality of treatment; professional rehabilitation; safety in the use of asbestos.
Diario Oficial de la República de Chile, 3 Mar. 1999, No.36.304, p.9-17.
Romundstad P.R., Rønneberg A., Leira H.L., Bye T.
Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant. Part 1: Estimation of historical exposures. Part 2: Cancer incidence and cause specific mortality
Analysis of industrial hygiene data at a coke plant in Norway showed that the exposures of greatest concern were to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonaceous particulates and carbon monoxide. Exposure to PAHs was highest for those who worked at the top of the ovens before 1976, when exposure control measures were introduced. There was a significant excess of stomach cancer among these workers, and mortality from ischaemic heart disease and sudden death was positively associated with work in areas which entailed peak exposures to carbon monoxide. Topics: airborne dust; aromatic hydrocarbons; cancer; quartz; carbon monoxide; benzene; cohort study; coke ovens; coking plants; coronary diseases; exposure evaluation; gastrointestinal cancer; job-exposure relation; mortality; polycyclic hydrocarbons; sudden death syndrome.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.55, No.9, p.616-621, 622-626. Bibl.ref.
Castel B., Lefèvre C., Lhuillier F., Delcourt J., Sandino J.P.
Testing of benzene passive samplers: An inter-laboratory trial
Détermination du benzène par échantillonnage passif: essais interlaboratoires [in French]
Topics: benzene; description of technique; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; passive dosimeters; statistical evaluation; test laboratories; testing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.171, Note No.2076-171-98, p.139-146. Illus. 19 ref.
Krajewska B., Lutz W., Piłacik B.
Determination of blood serum oncoprotein NEU and antioncoprotein p-53 - Molecular biomarkers in various types of occupational exposure
Blood serum p-53 and NEU proteins were determined in 32 workers exposed to asbestos and in 57 workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The proteins were also determined in 99 patients with overt cancer and in 47 controls. The data show positive values of oncoprotein NEU or antioncoprotein p-53 in 17.3% to 31.8% of workers exposed to asbestos or PAHs. The percentage of positive values for the examined proteins in the patients with overt cancer ranged from 12.5% to 42.5%. It should be noted that positive values of the oncoproteins detected in the biomaterial of the persons exposed do not mean that people will necessarily develop cancer. Nevertheless, elevated values should be regarded as a warning and an implication for undertaking suitable preventive measures. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; asbestos; blood monitoring; cancer; case-control study; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; polycyclic hydrocarbons; serum protein changes.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.11, No.4, p.343-348. Illus. 12 ref.
Lagorio S., Crebelli R., Ricciarello R., Conti L., Iavarone I., Zona A., Ghittori S., Carere A.
Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene
Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analyzing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted per unit of exposure. For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision was calculated. Topics: benzene; trans,trans-muconic acid; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; filling stations; smoking; urinary metabolites.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.48, No.8, p.497-504. Illus. 44 ref.
Rothman N., Bechtold W.E., Yin S.N., Dosemeci M., Li G.L., Wang Y.Z., Griffith W.C., Smith M.T., Hayes R.B.
Urinary excretion of phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, and muconic acid by workers occupationally exposed to benzene
38 subjects were monitored during their full workshift for inhalation exposure to benzene. The benzene urinary metabolites phenol, catechol, hydroquinone and muconic acid were measured. Results, which are consistent with previous animal studies, show that the relative production of benzene metabolites is a function of exposure level. If the toxic benzene metabolites are assumed to be derived from hydroquinone, ring opened products, or both, these results suggest that the risk for adverse health outcomes due to exposure to benzene may have a supralinear relation with external dose, and that linear extrapolation of the toxic effects of benzene in highly exposed workers to lower levels of exposure may underestimate risk. Topics: benzene; phenol; pyrocatechol; hydroquinone; trans,trans-muconic acid; cross-sectional study; determination in urine; exposure tests; urinary excretion; urinary metabolites; urine monitoring.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.55, No.10, p.705-711. Illus. 41 ref.
Topics: anaemia; naphthalene; cataract; combustible substances; data sheet; elimination of spills; explosion hazards; fatigue; fire hazards; first aid; glossary; health hazards; hepatotoxic effects; irritation; limitation of exposure; medical examinations; migraine; nephrotoxic effects; New Jersey; odour threshold; personal protective equipment; skin absorption; skin allergies; storage; teratogenic effects; threshold limit values; USA; vomiting.
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Right to Know Program, PO Box 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1998. 6p.
Order No.607 of 5 Aug. 1998 approving a technical standard on occupational poisoning by benzene [Brazil]
Ordem de serviço n°607, de 5 de agosto de 1998 aprova norma técnica sobre intoxicação ocupacional pelo benzeno [in Portuguese]
Topics: benzene; Brazil; chronic poisoning; health hazards; medical examinations; medical supervision; medical treatment; occupational accidents; poisoning; standard; toxic effects; toxicology.
Diário Oficial, 19 Aug. 1998, No.158, p.38-44. 26 ref.
Farant J.P., Gariépy M.
Relationship between benzo[a]pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Söderberg primary aluminum smelter
Air samples were collected at various sites in a primary aluminium smelter over a period of four years. There was an excellent relationship between concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). B[a]P was also a good indicator for individual PAHs in coal tar pitch volatiles. B[a]P relative abundance ratios (PAH/B[a]P), derived on the basis of this relationship, showed remarkable stability as long as electrolytic process conditions were not changed. In the absence of any such changes, these values could allow retrospective estimates to be made of the concentration of any of the 18 PAHs selected or total PAHs based solely on the concentration of B[a]P measured at a given site. When combined with B[a]P relative potency factors, these values yield B[a]P toxic equivalent concentrations for any sites where B[a]P levels are known. This parameter provides a viable alternative to all other means of assessing exposure to a complex mix such as PAHs. Topics: air sampling; aluminium industry; aromatic hydrocarbons; benzo(a)pyrene; determination in air; exposure evaluation; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons; sampling and analysis; smelting plants.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1998, Vol.59, No.11, p.758-765. Illus. 15 ref.
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Styrene - Evaluation of the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity
Summary in Dutch. Topics: carcinogenic effects; styrene; criteria document; mutagenic effects; Netherlands; toxicity evaluation; toxicology.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 1236, 2280 CE Rijswijk, Netherlands, 1998. 39p. 17 ref.
Apostoli P., Alessandro G., Placidi D., Alessio L.
Metabolic interferences in subjects occupationally exposed to binary styrene-acetone mixtures
The excretion of styrene metabolites (mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA)) was investigated in plastic manufacturing workers to verify the possible influence of coexposure to acetone on styrene metabolism. Amounts of MA and PGA did not differ in groups with different levels of acetone exposure, but when the acetone air concentration increased, the degree of correlation between styrene and MA and PGA decreased. Coexposure to acetone levels similar to those described here may hamper the use of urinary metabolites for the assessment of exposure to styrene, especially on an individual basis. Topics: acetone; styrene; phenylglyoxylic acid; mandelic acid; determination in air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure tests; metabolic process; plastics industry; synergism; urinary metabolites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1998, Vol.71, No.7, p.445-452. Illus. 31 ref.
Pierce C.H., Dills R.L., Morgan M.S., Vicini P., Kalman D.A.
Biological monitoring of controlled toluene exposure
To determine the best biological indicator of toluene exposure, blood and alveolar breath concentrations of toluene and excretion rates of urinary metabolites (hippuric acid and cresols) were examined in 33 controlled human inhalation exposures to 50ppm for 2h. o-Cresol was least influenced by background contributions, whereas the p-cresol and hippuric acid rates were obscured by endogenous and dietary sources. Toluene levels in alveolar breath proved to be the most accurate and noninvasive indicator of the absorbed dose. Topics: toluene; hippuric acid; cresols; determination in biological matter; determination in blood; determination in exhaled air; determination in urine; exposure tests; human experiments; mathematical models; subject variability; urinary excretion; urinary metabolites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 1998, Vol.71, No.7, p.433-444. Illus. 75 ref.
Hara K., Itani T.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological monitoring index for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
takanhoukouzokutankasuisorui no seibutsugakuteki monitaringu shihyō toshiteno nyōchū 1-hidorokishipiren [in Japanese]
Summary in English. Literature review which suggests the need to extend the use of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological monitoring index for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to other workplaces than coke ovens. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene may be useful for assessing early effect markers more strictly. Assessment of individual susceptibility could be developed by observation of individual profiles of PAH metabolites in urine. Topics: 1-hydroxypyrene; aromatic hydrocarbons; determination in urine; evaluation of technique; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Jan. 1998, Vol.74, No.1, p.1-16. Illus. 128 ref.
Gérin M., Siemiatycki J., Désy M., Krewski D.
Associations between several sites of cancer and occupational exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene: Results of a case-control study in Montreal
3,730 cancer patients (15 types of cancers, not including leukaemia) and 533 population controls were interviewed, and their job histories translated into occupational exposures, including benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene. Exposure levels were low for most exposed subjects, and there was a high correlation between exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene. For most sites of cancer there was no evidence of excess risk due to these substances. However, limited evidence of increased risk was found for the following associations: oesophagus-toluene, colon-xylene, rectum-toluene, rectum-xylene and rectum-styrene. These latter observations warrant further investigation. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; benzene; Canada; cancer; styrene; toluene; xylene; case-control study; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; oesophageal carcinoma; rectal cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.34, No.2, p.144-156. 21 ref.
Kaneko T., Wang P.Y., Sato A.
Development of occupational exposure limits in Japan
The development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) in Japan is described using benzene and trichloroethylene as examples. To establish the OEL for benzene, the OEL committee of the Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH) calculated the risk of benzene-induced leukaemia by means of an average relative risk model. It was decided that benzene exposure should be controlled by a reference value corresponding to a lifetime risk (10-3 or 10-4) of leukaemia rather than by a time-weighted average (TWA) concentration. These lifetime risks correspond to an OEL for benzene of 1ppm and 0.1ppm respectively. Concerning trichloroethylene, the OEL committee felt it was not appropriate to assume carcinogenicity, and that the OEL should be established on other, especially neurological, criteria. Based on findings that long-term exposure to trichloroethylene at 50ppm can cause neurotoxic effects, the committee proposed an occupational reference value of 25ppm. General environmental standards should be about 1/1,000 of occupational values. Topics: animal experiments; benzene; carcinogenic effects; trichloroethylene; epidemiological aspects; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; hepatotoxic effects; Japan; leukaemia; limitation of exposure; mutagenic effects; nephrotoxic effects; neurotoxic effects; threshold limit values; toxicity evaluation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.11, No.1, p.81-98. 86 ref.
Aromatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons in air and their urinary metabolites in coke plant workers
Concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, xylenes and 14 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in various parts of a coke plant by personal air sampling; concentrations of o-cresol, 1- and 2-naphthol, methylhippuric acid and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in the post-shift urine of workers. Results showed that these workers were simultaneously exposed to a mixture of aromatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons present in breathing zone air. While exposure levels were low compared to exposure limits, exposure was significantly influenced by job category. Compounds identified in the urine appeared to be the products of the hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbons present in the air as well as unmetabolized hydrocarbons. A correlation was observed between inhaled toluene, naphthalene and xylene and urinary excretion of metabolites. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; p-xylene; m-xylene; toluene; benzene; naphthalene; o-xylene; coking plants; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; gas chromatography; job-exposure relation; mass spectrometry; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.445-454. Illus. 51 ref.
Inoue O., Kanno E., Kudo S., Kakizaki M., Kataoka M., Kawai T., Ukai H., Ikeda M.
High-pressure liquid chromatographic determination of toluene in urine as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene
Topics: toluene; description of technique; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; high-pressure liquid chromatography; organic solvents; urinary excretion.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1998, Vol.71, No.5, p.302-308. Illus. 25 ref.
Yasugi T., Endo G., Monna T., Odachi T., Yamaoka K., Kawai T., Horiguchi S., Ikeda M.
Types of organic solvents used in workplaces and work environment conditions with special references to reproducibility of work environment classification
Topics: toluene; chronic toxicity; classification; determination in air; Japan; job-exposure relation; organic solvents; survey.
Industrial Health, July 1998, Vol.36, No.3, p.223-233. 37 ref.
Xu X., Wiencke J.K., Niu T., Wang M., Watanabe H., Kelsey K.T., Christiani D.C.
Benzene exposure, glutathione S-transferase theta homozygous deletion, and sister chromatid exchanges
Topics: age-linked differences; analysis of chromosome aberrations; benzene; cancer; glutathione transferase; China; chromosome changes; determination in air; individual susceptibility; sex-linked differences; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.33, No.2, p.157-163. 45 ref.
Wang D.H., Ishii K., Seno E., Yane S., Horike T., Yamamoto H., Suganuma N., Arimichi M., Taketa K.
Reduced serum levels of ALT and GGT and high carbohydrate intake among workers exposed to toluene below the threshold limit values
Topics: toluene; enzyme activity; epidemiologic study; hepatic disorders; Japan; liver function tests; nutrition.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1998, Vol.36, No.1, p.14-19. 15 ref.
Javelaud B., Vian L., Molle R., Allain P., Allemand B., André B., Barbier F., Churet A.M., Dupuis J., Galand M., Millet F., Talmon J., Touron C., Vaissière M., Vechambre D., Vieules M., Viver D.
Benzene exposure in car mechanics and road tanker drivers
Topics: benzene; motor fuel; conditions of exposure; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; drivers; exposure evaluation; questionnaire survey; risk factors; tank trucks; urinary metabolites; vehicle repair and servicing.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 1998, Vol.71, No.4, p.277-283. 24 ref.
Zavalic M., Mandic Z., Turk R., Bogadi-Šare A., Plavec D., Gomzi M., Skender L.J.
Assessment of colour vision impairment in male workers exposed to toluene generally above occupational exposure limits
Topics: toluene; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; colour vision; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; lighting and colour; male workers; organic solvents; smoking; vision tests.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.48, No.3, p.175-180. Illus. 37 ref.
Zavalić M., Mandić Z., Turk R., Bogadi-Šare A., Plavec D.
Quantitative assessment of color vision impairment in workers exposed to toluene
Topics: toluene; case-control study; colour vision deficiency; colour vision; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; lighting and colour; neurotoxic effects; organic solvents; vision tests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.33, No.3, p.297-304. Illus. 37 ref.
The development and evaluation of an emission factor for a toluene parts-washing process
Topics: toluene; determination in air; exposure evaluation; mathematical models; metalworking industry; prediction of concentration; ventilation; washing.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1998, Vol.59, No.1, p.14-19. Illus. 18 ref.
Benzène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 90-32. Acute toxicity: neurotoxic effects; skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: neuropsychic disorders; haematological disorders; leukaemia. Exposure limits (France, 1986): TWA = 16mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-020-00-8; T, F, R45, R11, R48/23/24/25, S53, S45, 200-753-7. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 27 ref.
Van Rooij J.G.M.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among workers
This document describes the results of a three-year research project on dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) among occupationally exposed workers. It contains several publications on this topic. The outcome of this research is that the most of the pyrene burden of workers occupationally exposed to PAHs occurs through dermal exposure and not through inhalation. This conclusion seems also valid for benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs with five benzenoid rings or fewer. Summaries in French, German and Italian.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. vii, 185p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Biological indicators of exposure, internal dose, biological effective dose and of early biological effects in coke oven workers exposed to genotoxic compound (PAH)
This study compares a high-risk group of coke-oven workers exposed do PAH with a reference group in order to evaluate the levels of environmental exposure and the biomarkers of internal dose (urinary 1-hydroxyphenol and urinary mutagenicity), of effective dose (DNA and haemoglobin adducts) and of early genomic modifications. Levels of DNA adducts, amino-haemoglobin adducts and sister chromatid exchanges were significantly higher in coke workers and depending on their job, certain categories of workers showed a higher risk. Urinary hypoxypyrene was associated with a high level of DNA adducts; urinary mutagenicity was associated with the amino-fluoranthrene haemoglobin adducts. Smoking was associated with both PAH-DNA and amino-haemoglobin adducts. Summaries in French, German and Italian.
European Commission, Directorate-General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Styrène [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-1818. Acute toxicity: disorders of the central nervous system; irritation of eye and respiratory mucous membrane. Chronic toxicity: depression of the central and peripheral nervous system; digestive disorders; chronic bronchitis and obstructive respiratory impairment; skin diseases (fissural dermatitis); chromosome changes; central nervous system abnormalities in children of exposed mothers. Exposure limits (France, 1985): TWA = 215mg/m3 (50ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-026-00-0; Xn, R10, R20, R36/38, S23, 202-815-5.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM, 2000. 4p. Illus. 14 ref.
Factories (Medical Examinations) (Amendment) Regulations 1997 [Singapore]
Topics: arsenic and compounds; arsenic; asbestos; benzene; bitumen; cadmium; tetrachloroethylene; pitch; lead; manganese; mercury; vinyl chloride; silica; trichloroethylene; compressed air; cotton industry; creosote; dust; exposure; law; lead and compounds; medical examinations; medical supervision; mercury and compounds; mists; noise; organophosphorus compounds; Singapore; smoke.
Photocopy, 13p. On file at CIS.
Roos F., Renier A., Ettlinger J., Iwatsubo Y., Letourneux M., Haguenoer J.M., Jaurand M.C., Pairon J.C.
Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: An assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis
In a study of 60 coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 40 controls, the high concentrations of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) observed in the coke oven workers reflected recent exposure to PAHs and were in agreement with assessment of exposure by job. No significant difference was found between coke oven workers and controls in the DNA repair levels of rat cells treated with urine samples. However, the rat cell repair capacity decreased with increasing 1OHP concentration in the exposed population. While exposure to PAHs was not associated with a clear cut modification of the urinary excretion of DNA damaging factors in this test, impairment of some repair mechanisms by urinary constituents is suspected. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; coke ovens; determination in urine; DNA; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; job-exposure relation; polycyclic hydrocarbons; urinary metabolites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.854-860. Illus. 42 ref.
Carere A., Crebelli R.
Biomonitoring of human populations exposed to petroleum fuels with special consideration of the role of benzene as a genotoxic component
Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; benzene; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; filling stations; lymphocytes; medical supervision; monitoring for air contamination; mortality; oil shale industry; petroleum refining.
Istituto superiore di sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy, 1998. iv, 102p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Kok P.W., Ong H.Y., Wong M.K., Au W.K., Tan K.T., Phoon W.H., Ong C.N.
Environmental and biological assessment of exposure to benzene among petroleum workers
Occupational exposure to benzene was measured in two gasoline marketing terminals and five major refineries in Singapore. A total of 280 workers were monitored over two years. Results revealed wide variations in exposure, from 0.01 to 13.6ppm for personal time weighted average exposure over the whole workshift. The exposure of truck drivers appeared to be the highest. The average benzene exposure for process operators was relatively low. Lowest benzene exposure was found in the laboratory technicians. As cigarette smoking is known to affect metabolism of benzene, data analyses on the relationships with environmental exposure were conducted only on 190 nonsmokers. The results showed that urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, unmetabolized benzene in urine and benzene in blood were better biomarkers for low level benzene exposure as compared to urinary phenolic metabolites in urine, such as hydroquinone, phenol and catechol. Topics: benzene; trans,trans-muconic acid; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; job-exposure relation; metabolic process; petroleum refining; smoking; urinary metabolites.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 1997, Vol.44, p.425-431. Illus. 13 ref.
Goelen E., Lambrechts M., Geyskens F.
European sampling intercomparisons for aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in workplace air
Thirty-eight laboratories in European Union Member States representing government, manufacturers of personal samplers and industrial and university laboratories participated in a quality assurance scheme which allowed evaluation of errors associated with personal sampling methods. State-of-the-art bias, and within and between laboratory coefficients of variation for pumped and diffusive methods currently applied are discussed. The data enable verification of compliance of the method-laboratory combinations with EN 482 and quantification of errors, particularly in relation to sampling. The merits of the project in terms of improved procedures and results are discussed in detail. Topics: accuracy; aromatic hydrocarbons; chlorinated hydrocarbons; comparative study; determination in air; European Communities; evaluation of technique; occupational health laboratories; personal sampling; quality control; sampling and analysis; sampling methods.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1997, Vol.41, No.5, p.527-554. Illus. 9 ref.
Benzene exposure of filling station attendants - Proposed method for the retrospective determination
Benzolbelastung bei Tankwarten - Vorschlag für die retrospektive Ermittlung [in German]
Topics: benzene; determination in air; exposure evaluation; filling stations; length of exposure; long-term study; mathematical models; vehicle repair and servicing.
Ergo-Med, Nov.-Dec. 1997, Vol.21, No.6, p.200-205. Illus. 37 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for benzene: Update
Update of CIS 96-2218. Topics: antifertility effects; benzene; blood-cell anomalies; bone marrow diseases; carcinogenic effects; chromosome changes; criteria document; exposure evaluation; glossary; health hazards; immunotoxic effects; irritation; leukaemia; limitation of exposure; literature survey; mutagenic effects; neurotoxic effects; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 1997. 423p. Illus. Approx. 1,000 ref.
Normand J.C., Bergeret A., Prost G.
Benzène [in French]
Replaces CIS 85-1320. Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; benzene; carcinogens; encyclopaedia; haemic and lymphatic diseases; labelling; legislation; leukaemogenic effects; medical supervision; metabolic process; poisoning; threshold limit values; toxicology.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1997, No.115, 7p. Illus. 56 ref.
Urinary naphthols as an indicator of exposure to naphthalene
Concentrations of naphthalene and naphthols in breathing-zone air during a workshift and naphthols in urine collected after the workshift were determined for 102 coke plant workers. 1-Naphthol, 2-naphthol and 1,4-naphthoquinone were identified in urine samples. The time-weighted average concentrations of naphthalene and naphthols in breathing-zone air showed that the exposure level was rather low. There was a significant correlation between naphthol concentrations in urine and breathing-zone air concentrations of naphthalene. Findings suggest that the summary concentration of naphthols in urine can be used as a biomarker for naphthalene exposure. Topics: 1,4-naphthoquinone; napthtol; coal tar; 1-naphthol; naphthalene; case-control study; coking plants; detection by flame ionization; determination in air; determination in urine; distillation; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; naphthols; urinary excretion; urinary metabolites.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.6, p.414-420. Illus. 28 ref.
Hotz P., Carbonnelle P., Haufroid V., Tschopp A., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.
Biological monitoring of vehicle mechanics and other workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene
The diagnostic power of blood and breath benzene and of urinary phenol (PH), catechol (CA), hydroquinone (HQ), S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and muconic acid (MA) were compared in 410 male workers exposed to benzene in garages, in two coke plants and in a by-product plant. Benzene exposure was assessed by personal air sampling. In all, 95% of workers were exposed to less than 0.5ppm benzene. Results showed that MA and S-PMA concentrations were fairly good indicators of benzene exposure in the 0.1 to 1ppm range, even in a population comprising both smokers and nonsmokers. PH, HQ, CA and blood and breath benzene were less suitable, if at all, in the same exposure range. Topics: benzene; S-phenylmercapturic acid; coking plants; determination in blood; determination in exhaled air; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; garages; personal sampling; smoking; urinary metabolites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.70, No.1, p.29-40. 44 ref.
Morata T.C., Fiorini A.C., Fischer F.M., Colacioppo S., Wallingford K.M., Krieg E.F., Dunn D.E., Gozzoli L., Padrão M.A., Cesar C.L.G.
Toluene-induced hearing loss among rotogravure printing workers
124 workers exposed to various levels of noise and to an organic solvent mixture of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol underwent pure-tone audiometry and immittance audiometry testing. 49 percent had hearing loss. Of the numerous variables analyzed, age and hippuric acid (the biological marker for toluene in urine) met the significance level criteria for their contribution to the development of hearing loss. The odds ratio estimates for hearing loss were 1.07 times greater for each increment of one year of age and 1.76 times greater for each gram of hippuric acid per gram of creatinine. The findings suggest that exposure to toluene has a toxic effect on the auditory system. Topics: age-linked differences; audiometric tests; toluene; ethyl acetate; ethanol; cross-sectional study; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; hearing loss; length of exposure; noise level; noise; organic solvents; photogravure printing; synergism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1997, Vol.23, No.4, p.289-298. Illus. 44 ref.
Nilsson R., Nordlinder R., Högstedt B., Karlsson A., Järvholm B.
Symptoms, lung and liver function, blood counts, and genotoxic effects in coastal tanker crews
Topics: benzene; cross-sectional study; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; harmful substances; health hazards; irritation; neurological effects; petroleum products; symptoms; tankers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1997, Vol.69, p.392-398. 20 ref.
Savitz D.A., Andrews K.W.
Review of epidemiologic evidence on benzene and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers
Topics: benzene; cancer; epidemiologic study; haemic and lymphatic diseases; leukaemia; literature survey; lymphoma.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1997, Vol.31, No.3, p.287-295. 63 ref.
Mielżyńska D., Braszczyńska Z., Siwińska E., Smolik E., Bubak A., Sokal J.A.
Exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on biological monitoring results
Topics: aromatic hydrocarbons; benzo(a)pyrene; coke ovens; determination in air; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; job-exposure relation; mutagenicity tests; mutagens; Poland; polycyclic hydrocarbons; smoking; synergism; urinary metabolites.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.9, p.661-666. Illus. 20 ref.
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