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Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found

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  • Aromatic hydrocarbons

2001

CIS 01-1468 Kezic S., Monster A.C., van de Gevel I.A., Krüse J., Opdam J.J.G., Verberk M.M.
Dermal absorption of neat liquid solvents on brief exposures in volunteers
1,1,1-trichloroethane (111TRI), trichloroethylene (TRI), tetrachloroethylene (TETRA), toluene (TOL) and m-xylene (XYL) were applied for 3min on the forearm of six volunteers. Permeation rates were calculated from exhaled air concentrations. TRI, TOL, and 111TRI in three subjects reached maximal permeation rates a few minutes after initiation of exposure. Slower permeation was seen in the other three subjects exposed to 111TRI, and in all subjects exposed to TETRA and XYL, with the time of maximal permeation rates of 15-25min. These differences in permeation may partly be explained by the irritation of the skin observed in subjects showing fast permeation kinetics. The flux into the skin averaged over the exposure period was 56, 430, 69, 223 and 46nmol/cm2/min for 111TRI, TRI, TETRA, TOL, and XYL, respectively. Comparing the dermal uptake with the respiratory uptake at the TLV, all solvents showed substantial skin absorption, although at present only TOL has a skin indication in the ACGIH threshold limit value list.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.62, No.1, p.12-18. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 01-846 Heikkilä P.
Respiratory and dermal exposure to creosote
The aim of this thesis was to explore the level of occupational exposure among creosote workers, to assess the significance of skin absorption as route of exposure and of two indicators, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OHN), as biomarkers of exposure to creosote. The study indicates that percutaneous absorption is an absorption route and that 1-OHP and 1-OHN are indicators of respiratory and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Measurements showed that over 95% of the components of airborne impurities to which creosote workers are exposed were vaporous compounds and less than 5% were particulate PAHs.
University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, Finland, 2001. 76p.+60p. (Annex). Illus. Bibl.ref.

2000

CIS 03-669 Moulin J.J., Clavel T., Buclez B., Laffite-Rigaud G.
A mortality study among workers in a French aluminium production plant
Etude de mortalité parmi les salariés d'une usine de production d'aluminium en France [in French]
The aim of this study was to establish the possible existence of a relationship between bronchopulmonary cancer and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aluminium industry. The historical cohort consisted of all 2133 male workers who had been employed for at least a year between 1950 and 1994 in the same plant of a French aluminium producer. Mortality was followed for the period between 1968 and 1994, during which 335 deaths were registered. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using regional mortality rates as external reference. The observed mortality was lower than expected for all causes of death (SMR=0.81) and for lung cancer (SMR=0.63). No lung cancer excess was observed in workshops where PAH exposure was likely to have occurred, and no trend was observed according to duration of exposure and time since first exposure. This low lung cancer mortality may be partly explained by a pronounced healthy worker effect. Translation into French of an article that appeared originally in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.181, p.5-13. 42 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/etude_mortalite_parmi_salaries_usine_production.html [in French]

CIS 03-292 Inoue O., Kanno E., Kakizaki M., Watanabe T., Higashikawa K., Ikeda M.
Urinary phenylmercapturic acid as a marker of occupational exposure to benzene
An automated HPLC method to measure urinary phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) was developed allowing approximately 35 PMA determinations per day. It was applied to analysis of end-of-shift urine samples from 152 workers exposed up to 210ppm benzene, 66 workers exposed to a mixture of benzene (up to 116ppm) and toluene and xylenes (up to 118ppm), and 131 non-exposed controls of both sexes. A linear regression was established between time-weighted average intensity of exposure to benzene and urinary PMA, from which it was derived that urinary PMA level is approximately 6.4mg/L after 8-hour exposure to benzene at 100ppm, and that PMA in urine accounts for approximately 0.1% of benzene absorbed. No effects of sex, age and smoking habits of individuals were detected, and the effect of co-exposure to toluene and xylenes at the levels comparable to that of benzene was essentially nil, which indicates an advantage of PMA as a benzene exposure marker over mono to tri-phenolic metabolites or trans,trans-muconic acid.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.195-204. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 03-293 Wong O., Raabe G.K.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to benzene in a multinational cohort of more then 308,000 petroleum workers, 1937 to 1996
To determine the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in petroleum workers, cohorts of petroleum workers in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Italy, and Finland were identified. The combined multinational cohort consisted of more than 308,000 workers, and the observation period covered an interval of 60 years from 1937 to 1996. A total of 506 NHL deaths were observed, compared with 561.68 expected. Analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were performed by type of facility and industrial process. SMRs were 0.96 for US refinery workers, 1.12 for non-US refinery workers, 0.64 for gasoline distribution workers, and 0.68 for crude oil workers. Results from individual studies, as well as from the pooled analysis, indicated that petroleum workers were not at an increased risk of NHL as a result of their exposure to benzene or benzene-containing petroleum products in their work environment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.42, No.5, p.554-568. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 03-275 Dor F., Haguenoer J.M., Zmirou D., Empereur-Bissonnet P., Jongeneelen F.J., Nedellec V., Person A., Ferguson C.C., Dab W.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure of workers on a contaminated site: Influence of exposure conditions
The aim of the study was to determine the exposure levels of workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on gasworks sites through the measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Start-of-shift and end-of-shift urine samples were collected during five consecutive days, once in November and a second time in June. Four groups of workers were selected according to their activity. Increased exposure was only found among workers involved in the remediation of a site, with levels of 0.16 to 2.31µmol/mol creatinine, while the median level among the nonsmoker referent group was 0.02µmol/mol creatinine. Smokers had greater exposure levels than non-smokers in every group. It is concluded that this method allows the assessment of exposure of persons on contaminated soil on the condition that the exposed subjects be in direct contact with the soil.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.391-397. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1134
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Diphenylamine (No.15); Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (No.21); Naphthalene (No.39); Tetrachloromethane (No.45); Biphenyl (No.50); N,N-Dimethylaniline (No.91); Trichloroethene (No.95); Hexachlorobenzene (No.119); Bisphenol A (no.203)
These short reports concern 9 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. 136p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1131
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Decahydronaphthalene
There is little data on the effects of decahydronaphthalene on humans. Animal studies suggest that the substance is of low oral toxicity, has a corrosive effect on the skin and that its vapours irritate the respiratory organs. Currently, data on teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and impairment of fertility are lacking for a complete assessment of the substance. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is presently conducting a two-year study in the United States on the possible carcinogenic potential of decahydronaphthalene.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. xiv, 59p. 74 ref.

CIS 02-1165 Did you know about the health hazards of benzene?
Contents of this information leaflet on the health hazards of benzene: properties; main uses; exposure hazards; acute effects (narcotic effect, drying effect on skin and mucous membranes); chronic effects (anaemia, leukaemia); technical control measures (substitution, engineering controls, personal protection); medical control measures (pre-employment examinations, periodic medical examinations).
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus.

CIS 02-84
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for toluene (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of toluene is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract; neurologic disorders (with possible changes in the brain); neurotoxic (narcosis) and neuropsychic effects; possible liver and kidney damage; increased risk of spontaneous abortion; alterations of the heart rhythm; embryotoxic effects. (Update of CIS 99-235).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 312p. Illus. Approx. 1210 ref.

CIS 02-289 Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A.
HPRT mutation frequencies in benzene-exposed oil refinery workers during an eleven-year-long follow-up study
Mutation and variant frequencies (VF) of the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) loci of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 43 occupationally benzene-exposed, 30-40-year-old workers with increased chromosome aberration frequencies were investigated by autoradiography in an eleven-year-long follow-up study in order to assess the cancer risk. Data were compared to those of 87 age-matched controls. Ambient air benzene concentrations were measured with gas chromatography. Compared to the controls, the values of the labelling indices in PBLs of the exposed donors were decreased indicating a reduced response to lectine stimulation in the genotoxicologically compromised cells. In the years 1992-1993, the mean hprt VFs of the exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the controls, but not in the previous or subsequent years. The distribution of the individual VFs also indicated exposure-related increases in the years 1991-1993. The data indicate that occupational exposure to benzene can increase the cell mutation frequencies.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.288-299. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 02-323 Tulinska J., Dusinska M., Jahnova E., Liskova A., Kuricova M., Vodicka P., Vodickova L., Sulcova M., Fuortes L.
Changes in cellular immunity among workers occupationally exposed to styrene in a plastics lamination plant
Immune and haematological parameters were examined in 29 hand laminators and sprayers exposed to styrene for an average of 14 years and in 19 unexposed controls. The workers were located in a production area with an average area airborne styrene level of 139.5mg/m3. Mean concentration of styrene in the blood of exposed workers was 945.7µg/L and the mean styrene in exhaled air was 38.8µg/L. Parameters of internal and external exposure, immune function assays, immunoglobulins and haematology were evaluated in exposed and non-exposed populations. Styrene concentrations in both blood and exhaled air were associated with decreased percentage of large granular lymphocytes. These results suggest immune alterations of cell-mediated immune response of T-lymphocytes and imbalance in leucocyte subsets in peripheral blood of workers exposed to styrene.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.576-583. 20 ref.

CIS 02-237 Thurston S.W., Ryan L., Christiani D.C., Snow R., Carlson J., You L., Cui S., Ma G., Wang L., Huang Y., Xu X.
Petrochemical exposures and menstrual disturbances
An exploratory, cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to examine the effects of benzene exposure on menstrual problems. The study was based on a survey administered to more than 3,000 women working in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China. An abnormal menstrual cycle length (AMCL), defined as an average menstrual cycle length of greater than 35 days or less than 21 days, was the major factor observed. After 7 years of benzene exposure, the adjusted odds ratio of having AMCL, for each additional 5 years of exposure was 1.71. Feeling stressed at work was also an important predictor. This study suggests a significant association of benzene exposure and perceived stress with menstrual disturbance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.555-564. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 02-169 Alguacil J., Kauppinen T., Porta M., Partanen T., Malats N., Kogevinas M., Benavides F.G., Obiols J., Bernal F., Rifa J., Carrato A.
Risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures in Spain
Cases of pancreatic cancer and controls among hospital patients free of pancreatic cancer were identified during their stay in hospital. Occupational history was obtained by direct interviews with the patients. Occupational exposures to 22 suspected carcinogens associated with pancreatic cancer in previous studies were evaluated. Increased odds ratios (OR) were apparent in all pesticide groups, highest for arsenical pesticides (OR = 3.4) and "other pesticides" (OR = 3.17). ORs were also higher for high-intensity exposure to aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments. ORs above 3 were observed for pesticides, benzo(a)pyrene, lead, volatile sulfur compounds, and sedentary work. Results lend support to the hypothesis of an association between exposure to some pesticides and pancreatic cancer. Suggestive increases in risk from aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments, and benzo(a)pyrene also deserve further study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.391-403. 72 ref.

CIS 02-279 Javelaud B., Vian L., Molé R., Allain P., Allemand B., André B., Barbier F., Churet A.M., Dupuis J.C., Galand M., Millet F., Talmon J., Touron C., Vaissière M., Vechambre D., Vieules M., Viver D.
Exposure to benzene among automobile repair shop mechanics and tank-truck drivers
L'exposition au benzène des mécaniciens et des citernistes [in French]
Unleaded fuel contains benzene, the haematological toxicity of which is well documented. Consequently, it was decided to conduct a study of occupational exposure among automobile repair shop mechanics and tank-truck drivers. A survey was carried out in April 1995 with the purpose of identifying occupational factors which represent sources of exposure to benzene, and to derive corresponding prevention measures. 66 automobile repair shop mechanics, 34 tank-truck drivers and 28 controls answered questionnaires; atmospheric sampling, urinary trans,trans-muconic acid determinations and blood analyses were also carried out. Results show that 6.1% of the mechanics and 33% of the tank-truck drivers are exposed to levels above the 0.3ppm limit proposed by the ACGIH, and that 3% of the mechanics and 12% of the tank-truck drivers are exposed to more than 1ppm.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.125-131. 21 ref.

CIS 02-311 Wendling J.M., Heid L., Gonzalez M., Mirabel D., Wirrmann C., Lenoble H., Zorgnotti M., Barbier M., Machacek A.
Assessment of benzene exposure among car mechanics
Evaluation de l'exposition au benzène chez les mécaniciens automobiles [in French]
The level of exposure to benzene was evaluated among 56 car mechanics. Urinary trans-trans muconic acid analysis was performed before and after the shift among workers who carried out tasks involving exposure to gasoline (changing the fuel filter, and working on the carburettor or tank). Subjects were given a questionnaire related to both medical and work issues. It was found that exposure at the end of the shift (0.35mg/g creatinine) was significantly higher than before the start of work (0.14mg/g creatinine). However, this level is moderate and corresponds to an atmospheric concentration of benzene of 0.5 to 0.6ppm. Changing the filter, the most frequent task, involved the least exposure. However, the average exposure level was found to be significantly higher during winter than in summer. Certain working procedures, such as soaking parts in gasoline, cleaning by blowing through parts, not using the degreasing fountain and onychophagia resulted in higher levels of exposure. The observations confirm literature reports indicating that car mechanics tend to use less and less gasoline to clean parts and wash their hands. The study confirms that car mechanics are exposed to moderate levels of benzene. Measures to further reduce exposure levels are proposed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.162-169. 21 ref.

CIS 01-1689 Chen D., Cho S.I., Chen C., Wang X., Damokosh A.I., Ryan L., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Exposure to benzene, occupational stress and reduced birth weight
The association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated among petrochemical industry workers. 792 pregnant workers were followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed based on job titles and workplace information. Other occupational and environmental exposures and personal information were obtained by interview. Regression models were used to examine the individual and combined associations of occupational and environmental exposures with birth weight. Birth weight was negatively associated with exposure to benzene (-58g) and with work stress (-84g). There was a significant interaction between exposure to benzene and work stress relative to reduced birth weight. Adjusted mean birth weight was 3,445g among those with neither exposure, 3,430g for those with exposure to benzene only, 3,426g for those with work stress only, and 3,262g for those with both exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.57, No.10, p.661-667. 40 ref.

CIS 01-1466 Qu Q., Melikian A.A., Li G., Shore R., Chen L., Cohen B., Yin S., Kagan M.R., Li H., Meng M., Jin X., Winnik W., Li Y, Mu R., Li K.
Validation of biomarkers in humans exposed to benzene: Urine metabolites
This study was conducted among workers employed in glue- and shoe-making factories exposed to benzene. The metabolites monitored were S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CAT), 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (BT) and phenol. Levels of benzene metabolites (except BT) measured in urine samples collected from exposed workers at the end of the shift were significantly higher than those measured in unexposed subjects. The large increases in urinary metabolites during the shift strongly correlated with benzene exposure. Concentrations of metabolites in urine samples collected from exposed workers before work were also significantly higher than in unexposed subjects. The half-lives of S-PMA, t,t-MA, HQ, CAT and phenol were estimated to be 12.8, 13.7, 12.7, 15.0 and 16.3h, respectively. All metabolites except BT are good markers for benzene exposure at the observed levels; however, S-PMA and t,t-MA are the most sensitive markers for low-level exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.522-531. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1131 Hanke J., Dutkiewicz T., Piotrowski J., Baranowska-Dutkiewicz B., Kończalik J.
The absorption of benzene through human skin; Percutaneous absorption studies after forty years
This article is an English translation of a Polish study of percutaneous absorption published in 1961. Portions of the original Polish-language article have appeared in many publications, and the article is one of the most commonly cited studies of benzene ever conducted. This research, despite its careful design and the precision of its method, could not be conducted today in most countries of the world. The use of human subjects, including the authors, in a study of skin absorption of a known carcinogen would not be allowed. Some might even object to the publication and citation of the study on ethical grounds. But the importance of this seminal study of the percutaneous absorption of benzene, the interest of the further studies it induced, and its influence over the eventual regulation of benzene exposure in the workplace, is undisputed. The article is followed by a review of percutaneous absorption studies during the last 40 years.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.6, No.2, p.104-113. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 01-1159 Burstyn I., Kromhout H., Kauppinen T., Heikkila P., Boffetta P.
Statistical modelling of the determinants of historical exposure to bitumen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving workers
An industrial hygiene database was constructed for exposure assessment in a study of cancer risk among asphalt workers. The aim was to create models of intensity of exposure to bitumen and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among paving workers. Individual exposure measurements from 1,581 pavers were collected in eight countries. Correlation patterns between exposure measures were examined and factors affecting exposure were identified using statistical modelling. Bitumen fume, vapour and PAHs have different determinants of exposure. For paving workers, exposure intensity can be assessed on the basis of time period and production characteristics.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2000, Vol.44, No.1, p.43-56. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 01-827 Pavanello S., Genova A., Foà V., Clonfero E.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by analysis of urinary 1-pyrenol
Valutazione dell'esposizione professionale ad idrocarburi policiclici aromatici mediante l'analisi del livelli urinari de 1-pirenolo [in Italian]
Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was assessed by analysing urinary levels of 1-pyrenol. A total of 231 non-smokers exposed to PAH (in industries and occupations including fuel oil power plants, used oil recovery, rubber production, road surface asphalting operations, aluminium anodizing, chimney-sweeping and coke-oven production) were enrolled, together with 53 non-smoker unexposed controls. In the overall population (controls and exposed), multiple linear regression analysis showed that levels of urinary 1-pyrenol were significantly influenced by occupational exposure to PAH in asphalt workers, anodizing plant workers, chimney-sweeps, and coke-oven workers, but not in power plant workers, workers recovering exhausted oils, or rubber production workers. In chimney sweeps and top side coke-oven workers, respectively 2 and 4 subjects exceeded the precautionary level of 1.4µmoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine; of these, 1 chimney sweep and 3 top side workers exceeded the recommended biological threshold of 2.3µmoles 1-pyrenol/mole of creatinine.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2000, Vol.91, No.3, p.192-205. 40 ref.

CIS 01-816 Moen B.E., Hollund B.E.
Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway
Several official regulations have been adopted in Norway in recent years to reduce the exposure of car painters to organic solvents. This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages. Both stationary and personal monitoring were performed. In addition, the occurrence of acute symptoms in the nervous system, skin and upper airways, the use of personal protective equipment and the workers' satisfaction with the ventilation were determined using the results of a questionnaire study. All air samples showed low levels of exposure, far below the limit values. The highest levels were found for toluene. Most workers reported always using gloves, overalls and respiratory protective equipment during the car painting. The study indicates that the exposure to organic solvents is low and the risk of adverse health effects related to organic solvents is probably also low.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 2000, Vol.44, No.3, p.185-189. 13 ref.

CIS 01-823 Lafontaine M., Payan J.P., Delsaut P., Morele Y.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in an artificial shooting target factory: Assessment of 1-hydroxypyrene urinary excretion as a biological indicator of exposure
Five representative workers and two external observers were monitored by personal air and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (PyOH) sampling for a four-shift working week in an artificial shooting target factory. The targets were made from chalk and petroleum pitch and molded at 190°C. No respiratory protective mask was worn. Atmospheric concentrations of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) ranged from 0.66 to 5.05µg/m3 and 0.037 to 0.270µg/m3 respectively, with a mean pyrene/BaP ratio of approximately 20 and a correlation r = 0.51. Maximum PyOH urinary excretion ranged from 1.84 to 10.9µmol/mol creatinine. The correlation between atmospheric pyrene and urinary PyOH concentrations was poor (r = 0.37). It improved considerably (r = 0.74) if the amount of pyrene inhaled over the shift and the corresponding amount of PyOH excreted were considered. The ratio of urinary excreted PyOH to the pyrene inhaled dose (with assumed retention of 100%), ranged from 0.18 to 0.70 (arithmetic mean =0.34). Although dermal absorption is significant, these results suggests that the respiratory tract is the main absorption route for pyrene.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.89-100. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 01-36 Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Coal tar pitch
Brais de houille [in French]
Acute toxicity: nausea; headache; state of intoxication similar to that under the influence of alcohol; impairment of consciousness; bronchial and skin irritation; blepharoconjunctivitis or keratitis punctata. Chronic toxicity: acneiform dermatitis; hyperkeratosis; occular lesions which may be aggravated by sun or UV rays; diarrhoea; respiratory disorders. Epidemiologic studies show evidence of carcinogenicity: skin cancer, in particular of the face and the scrotum; inhalation gives rise to lung, bladder and kidney cancer and cancer of the upper respiratory system. French exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 (VME).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.179, p.115-119. Illus. 30 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/dossiers/fichtox/ft91.pdf [in French]

CIS 00-1558 Mixture of diphenyl ether and diphenyl
Mixtura de éter fenílico y difenilo [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: 7mg/m3 or 1ppm 8h-TWA (OSHA); 1ppm or 0.5ppm as vapour (ACGIH). Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; dermatitis; nausea.
Noticias de seguridad, June 2000, Vol.62, No.6. 4p. Insert.

CIS 00-1415 Agreement and legislation on benzene [Brazil]
Acordo e legislação sobre benzeno [in Portuguese]
This publication includes the texts of new legislation (regulation No.14 and directives 01 and 02 (see CIS 96-402 for the latter two)) on the prevention of occupational exposure to benzene as well as of the collective agreement mentioning the role of the Ministries of Work and Health, FUNDACENTRO, companies and workers in the prevention of occupational exposure to benzene.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2000. iii, 60p. 6 ref.

1999

CIS 02-345 Blome O.
BaP-years
BaP-Jahre [in German]
Lung cancer caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized as an occupational disease in Germany on condition that claimants can demonstrate a cumulative exposure of at least 100µg/m3 x years of benzo[a]pyrene (or benzo[a]pyrene years). This report provides insurance institutions with guidelines on the probable PAH exposure at workplaces for the purpose of establishing the occupational case history. Based on data from recent studies and from literature, tables provide estimated exposure levels by occupation, task and historical period.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 1999. 132p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 01-1751 Letzel S., Schaller K.H., Elliehausen H.J., Gissibl R., Hoffmann G., Schmittner H., Paur R., Angerer J., Lehnert G.
Study on the internal exposure of chimney sweeps to hazardous substances
To evaluate their exposure to hazardous substances, biological monitoring was carried out on chimney sweeps from three different regions of Germany and from Poland. The metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene and several hydroxylated phenanthrenes were determined in urine as indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Urine analysis was carried out to detect aromatic amines. 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations ranged in the total group from below the detection limit (0.1µg/L) to 12.8µg/L. A similar pattern of distribution was found for phenanthrenes. For a few subjects, concentrations of aromatic amines above the valid reference values for occupationally non-exposed persons were observed. Results indicate that chimney sweeps do not belong to the occupational groups highly exposed to PAHs. However, they should wear adequate personal protective equipment.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.59-71. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 01-1747 Khuder S.A., Youngdale M.C., Bisesi M.S., Schaub E.A.
Assessment of complete blood count variations among workers exposed to low levels of benzene
The effect of benzene on white blood cell and red blood cell counts, haemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and platelet count was investigated among 105 workers exposed to low levels of benzene between 1967 and 1994 in a petroleum company. The average level of benzene exposure per year ranged between 0.14ppm and 2.08ppm (8-hour time-weighted average). The mean complete blood count (CBC) demonstrated values within normal ranges. With the exception of white blood cells, all other CBC values were significantly reduced during the follow-up period. Length of employment was significantly related to the changes in MCV and platelet counts. The reductions in MCV were significant only among workers who had been employed for more than 10 years at this particular company. The findings of this study suggest that low levels of benzene may affect CBC values. CBC values may serve as a useful tool for biological monitoring for workers with low-level benzene exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.41, No.9, p.821-826. 23 ref.

CIS 01-1481 Petralia S.A., Vena J.E., Freudenheim J.L., Dosemeci M., Michalek A., Goldberg M.S., Brasure J., Graham S.
Risk of premenopausal breast cancer in association with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene
This study examines the relationship between the risk of premenopausal breast cancer and occupational exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Occupational histories and other information were obtained through interviews with 301 cases and 316 controls, and job-exposure matrices were used to assess exposure to PAHs and benzene. The findings suggest an association between risk and occupational exposure to benzene. Although it is difficult to study the effects of PAHs independently of those of benzene, there is some suggestion of an association between PAH exposure and estrogen receptor-positive tumours.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.215-221. 29 ref.

CIS 01-1128 Cherrie J.W., Schneider T.
Validation of a new method for structured subjective assessment of past concentrations
A new method was developed to assess the level of exposure from airborne hazardous substances. The method provides subjective exposure assessments using a structured approach, based on descriptive information about work activities and the work environment. Validation of the method has been carried out for 63 jobs involving five different agents: man-made mineral fibres, asbestos, styrene, toluene and mixed respirable dust. The subjective exposure assessment generally showed a statistically significant correlation with exposure measurements, the main exception to this pattern being the styrene data set. The assessments were also positively biased, with the ratio of the geometric mean estimated level to the measured level typically ranging from 1.3 to 2.2. Possible causes of the bias are discussed along with approaches to minimize its effect.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 1999, Vol.43, No.4, p.235-245. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 01-1122 Hemminki K., Veidebaum T.
Environmental pollution and human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the east Baltic region
Environmental contamination and human exposure due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were surveyed in the east Baltic region. Polluted and heavily industrialized areas are upper Silesia in Poland, northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, and the northeast part of Estonia. In Estonia the pollution is in a defined geographic area, where lung cancer incidence is higher than elsewhere. DNA adduct levels in white blood cells are increased in groups of residents with apparently only environmental exposure. By extrapolation, some 150 annual cancer cases could be predicted due to PAH in Silesia. Air levels of benzo[a]pyrene were increased in northern Bohemia. Further studies are needed to assess health risks of PAH exposures in central and eastern Europe.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.33-39. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 01-489 Alvarez-Leite E.M., Coelho André Amorim L.
Comparing levels of o-cresol and hippuric acid in the urine of workers exposed to toluene
Comparação dos níveis de orto-cresol e ácido hipúrico na urina de trabalhadores expostos ao tolueno [in Portuguese]
Toluene is an aromatic solvent widely used in the manufacturing process of many products such as glue, thinners and paints. Its neurotoxicity is the main risk factor to workers' heath, therefore the use of control and evaluation measures of occupational exposure is essential. Toluene absorbed by workers is oxidized into aromatic compounds, including o-cresol, which has been suggested as a preferred biological indicator for exposure to toluene. The fact that o-cresol is not found in significant amounts in the urine of non-exposed individuals is a great advantage over hippuric acid as an indicator. This study focused on comparing the levels of o-cresol and hippuric acid in urine samples of individuals occupationally exposed to toluene in three industrial activities (shoe manufacturing, metalworking and printing) with those of an unexposed control group. Results indicate that further research is necessary to validate o-cresol as an biomarker for exposure to toluene.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1999, Vol.25, No.95/96, p.45-57. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 01-190
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Biphenyl
This chemical assessment document is based on a literature review of published information on biphenyl. Contents include: physical and chemical properties; analytical methods; human metabolism; animal studies; in vitro studies; effects of exposure on humans; health protection and emergency action; current regulations and guidelines. Biphenyl may present a mutagenic risk and is a potential carcinogen; vapour exposure at high levels results in eye irritation and inflammation of the respiratory tract; long-term exposure causes liver damage. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. iv, 37p. 119 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad06.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-168 Environmental exposure to benzene
This report provides a review of health risks from environmental exposure to benzene. A method is described that allows the estimation of the daily absorbed dose of benzene for a range of individuals representative of different life-styles and occupations. The current understanding of the relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurence of leukaemia is summarized.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 1999. iv, 34p. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 01-185
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Cumene
Cumene may enter the body by inhalation or through the skin. Studies on rodents indicate that cumene irritates the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. It may affect the central nervous system, kidneys and liver. Most marked effects observed in animals after repeated exposure are an increase in the weight of some organs, specially kidney. There is no data to quantify human exposure. Summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. iv, 28p. 130 ref. Price: CHF 13.00 (CHF 9.10 in developing countries).
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad18.pdf [in English]

CIS 01-144 Jang J.Y., Droz P.O., Chung H.K.
Uncertainties in physiologically based pharmacokinetic models caused by several input parameters
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models often use different input parameters, with unknown influence on the results. Differences in the simulation results obtained with various sets of parameters are examined. Chemicals considered were perchloroethylene, toluene and styrene. Metabolic parameters such as Vmax and Km and tissue-gas partition coefficients, especially for the fat compartment, varied considerably between authors. Such differences proved to have a large influence on PB-PK model results. Uncertainties were much more significant in urinary metabolite concentration than in alveolar and blood concentration for chemicals that are poorly metabolized. On the other hand, uncertainties were more significant in alveolar and blood concentrations than in urinary metabolite excretions for chemicals that are well metabolized. Careful attention is necessary in the selection and/or citation of values from published data. The validity of PB-PK models should be simultaneously confirmed with both the blood and/or alveolar concentration and urinary metabolite concentrations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1999, Vol.72, No.4, p.247-254. 73 ref.

CIS 00-1066 Luderer U., Morgan M.S., Brodkin C.A., Kalman D.A., Faustman E.M.
Reproductive endocrine effects of acute exposure to toluene in men and women
Women in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and men were given to inhale filtered air with or without 50ppm toluene for 3 hours. In men, mean concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) showed a significant interaction between exposure and sampling period, with a greater LH decline during exposure to toluene than sham exposure. However, there was no concomitant effect on testosterone concentrations. The LH pulse frequency of women in the luteal phase showed a trend towards a significant interaction between exposure and sampling period (p=0.06), with a greater decline in pulse frequency during exposure to toluenethan sham exposure. There were no other significant effects of exposure to toluene. Three-hour exposure to 50ppm toluene did not result in abnormal episodic LH or follicle stimulating hormone secretion profiles. However, subtle effects on LH secretion in men and women in the luteal phase were found.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.657-666. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 00-1073 Plenge-Bönig A., Karmaus W.
Exposure to toluene in the printing industry is associated with subfecundity in women but not in men
In a cross-sectional study, a sample of 150 male and 90 female printing industry workers were interviewed retrospectively on reproductive experience with a modified version of the European study of infertility and subfecundity questionnaire. Male workers who had been exposed to different concentrations of toluene and their partners did not show a reduction in fecundity. In women fecundity was reduced. After considering possible biases, low daily exposure to toluene in women seems to be associated with reduced fecundity. This result is in accordance with other findings for organic solvents and supports both the hypotheses that they could affect hormonal regulation and that organic solvents increase early foetal losses, which in turn contributes to lower frequency of unprotected intercourse.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.443-448. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 00-777 Brandt H.C.A., de Groot P.C.
A laboratory rig for studying aspects of worker exposure to bitumen fumes
Worker exposure to benzene-soluble matter and to the polycyclic aromatic compound (PAH) content of bitumen fume was investigated. A laboratory rig was developed to generate bitumen fumes reproducibly under well-controlled conditions. Laboratory results were related to personal exposure measurements during asphalt paving and roofing. A quantitative relationship for predicting the laboratory fume emission was derived, with the variable part of the equation being termed the fuming index (FI). The FI correlates well with measured personal exposures in asphalt paving and in roofing. The laboratory fumes generated at 160°C are representative for fumes emitted in the temperature range relevant for asphalt paving, those generated at 250°C for roofing. The PAH profiles of the fumes collected as personal samples during asphalt paving and roofing operations were similar to those of the fumes generated in the laboratory from the same bitumen and at the same temperature. This laboratory set-up is an excellent tool for assessing bitumens in terms of fuming tendency and PAH emissions/exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.182-190. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 00-137 Rønneberg A., Haldorsen T., Romundstad P., Andersen A.
Occupational exposure and cancer incidence among workers from an aluminium smelter in western Norway
Associations between specific cancers and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), asbestos, electromagnetic fields and heat were studied in a cohort of Norwegian aluminum smelter workers. A positive association was found between bladder cancer and PAH exposure 30 years or more before observation for the production cohort. Results also suggest an association between PAH and pancreatic cancer, although this is not statistically significant. In the maintenance cohort there was a positive association between employment as an electrician and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer, and a non-significant association between PAH and lung cancer. Short-term workers showed a statistically significant excess of lung cancer. The results support previous findings of an association between exposure to PAH and bladder cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.207-214. 28 ref.

CIS 00-54
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for ethylbenzene: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of respiratory tract and eyes; neurological effects (dizziness, vertigo). (Update of CIS 91-1267).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, July 1999. xix, 238p. Illus. approx. 650 ref.

CIS 99-1948 Verma D.K., des Tombe K.
Measurement of benzene in the workplace and its evolution process - Part I: Overview, history and past methods. Part II: Present methods and future trends
The history of occupational and environmental sampling and analysis of benzene is reviewed from the early 1900s to the present. Part I provides an overview and details of the methods used in the past, a history of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit values for benzene, and a review of portable, grab and integrated sampling methods and various analytical methods. Part II discusses currently accepted methodology and possible future developments regarding benzene measurement in the workplace. Topics: air sampling; benzene; chemical analysis; determination in air; evaluation of technique; future trends; history; personal sampling; sampling and analysis; sampling methods; threshold limit values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.38-56. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1788 Solvent naphtha and aromatic solvents
Solvants naphta et solvants aromatiques [in French]
Replaces CIS 74-144. Uses, physical and chemical properties, pathology and toxicology. Attention is drawn to French legislation relating to occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations are made concerning technical and medical aspects. Topics: abortion; aromatic hydrocarbons; carcinogenic effects; data sheet; delayed effects; determination in air; erythema; eye irritation; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; handling and storage; health hazards; irritants; labelling; legislation; limitation of exposure; lung diseases; neurological effects; neuropsychic effects; organic solvents; personal protective equipment; skin absorption; solvent naphtha; spills; threshold limit values.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1999. 5p. 15 ref.

CIS 99-1786 Solvent naphthas
Essences spéciales [in French]
Replaces CIS 72-2077. Uses, physical and chemical properties, pathology and toxicology. Attention is drawn to French legislation relating to occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations are made concerning technical and medical aspects. Topics: alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic hydrocarbons; aromatic hydrocarbons; central nervous system; data sheet; delayed effects; determination in air; erythema; eye irritation; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; handling and storage; health hazards; irritants; labelling; legislation; limitation of exposure; neurological effects; neuropsychic effects; peripheral neuritis; personal protective equipment; solvents; spills; threshold limit values.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1999. 5p. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1958 Kolstad H.A., Bonde J.P., Spano M., Giwercman A., Zschiesche W., Kaae D., Larsen S.B., Roeleveld N.
Change in semen quality and sperm chromatin structure following occupational styrene exposure
Semen samples were collected from 23 reinforced plastics workers at the time of employment and after six months of styrene exposure and from 21 nonexposed farmers. Intraindividual changes in conventional semen parameters and sperm-DNA denaturation patterns were related to the internal dose of styrene exposure measured by postshift urinary mandelic acid. A significant decline in sperm density was seen during styrene exposure from 63.5 to 46.0 million sperm/ml, whereas no decline was seen in nonexposed subjects. Total sperm count was almost halved from an initial value of 175 million sperm/ejaculate. No relationship was apparent when the sperm parameters were related to internal levels of exposure. A small exposure-response relationship was shown for DNA-denaturation patterns. A declining sperm count following styrene exposure is suggested, although the findings of the internal and external comparisons are inconsistent. This may be due to the high intraindividual variability of semen parameters, the limited study size and a weak internal exposure gradient. Topics: styrene; mandelic acid; case-control study; determination in urine; DNA; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; individual susceptibility; plastics industry; reinforced plastics; spermatogenic disturbances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 1999, Vol.72, No.3, p.135-141. 29 ref.

CIS 99-1933 Da Silva Augusto L.G., Fontbonne A., Freese De Carvalho E.M., Pires Novaes T.C.
Socio-medical intervention in occupational health: Benzenism in Brazil
The investigation of 2,000 cases of benzene poisoning reported between 1983 and 1995 in Cubatão, an industrial section of São Paulo, Brazil, is described. Investigations were based on the integration of epidemiology and clinical research. Conflicting economic interests were reflected in disputes about medical criteria for evaluation of poisoned workers, proper means of conducting workplace hygiene evaluations, benzene exposure standards, and compensation for chronic bone-marrow damage. Topics: benzene; bone marrow diseases; Brazil; chronic poisoning; coke ovens; haematological changes; medical supervision; neutropenia; threshold limit values.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.20-25. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 99-1612 Wu M.T., Ho C.K., Huang S.L., Yeh Y.F., Liu C.L., Mao I.F., Christiani D.C.
Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers
The modifying effect of CYPlAl MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles was investigated in 88 coke oven workers. The prevalence of an abnormal hepatocellular pattern was more common in the topside oven workers with the homozygous variant than in the sideoven workers with other combined genotypes. The CYPlAl MspI polymorphism may modify the biotransformation of coke oven emissions, which results in hepatocellular damage in coke oven workers. Topics: alkaline phosphatases; aromatic hydrocarbons; coke ovens; enzyme activity determination; enzyme disturbances; epidemiologic study; hepatic disorders; individual susceptibility; liver function tests; transaminases; transpeptidases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.56, No.3, p.159-163. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1589 Fung F., Clark R.F.
Styrene-induced peripheral neuropathy
While styrene can cause intoxication and central nervous system depression when inhaled in high concentrations for extended periods, it has rarely been implicated as a cause of peripheral neuropathy. A case study is presented of a previously healthy 57-year-old man who developed signs and symptoms consistent with a peripheral neuropathy after applying a fiberglass resin to the inside of a septic tank over a 2-day period. Nerve conduction tests verified examination findings. Styrene exposure should be minimized through the use of respirators and protective clothing to prevent this type of toxicity. Topics: styrene; case study; diseases of peripheral nervous system; glass fibre reinforced plastics; nervous function tests; neurotoxic effects; respirators.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.91-97. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 99-1584 Miller M.J., Edwards J.W.
Possible preferential metabolism of xylene isomers following occupational exposure to mixed xylenes
Twelve workers exposed to xylene provided a pre-work and post-work urine sample on a midweek working day. Breathing-zone air samples were also collected. Results suggest that excretion of m-methylhippuric acid in urine is favoured over that of the other isomers following exposure to mixed xylenes. This is independent of airborne xylene isomer composition and suggests that metabolism of m-xylene occurs preferentially to that of the other isomers. Findings also suggest that there is potential for metabolic interactions between xylene isomers and that these may be the basis for xylene toxicity. Topics: p-xylene; m-xylene; xylene; m-methylhippuric acid; o-xylene; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; metabolic process; metabolic studies; methylhippuric acid; respirators; solvents; urinary excretion; urinary metabolites.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.89-97. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 99-1266 Romundstad P., Haldorsen T., Rønneberg A.
Exposure to PAH and fluoride in aluminum reduction plants in Norway: Historical estimation of exposure using process parameters and industrial hygiene measurements
A methodology for the historical estimation of exposure to fluoride and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at two Norwegian aluminium smelters is described. Area concentrations of fluoride and PAH in periods with no measurements were estimated and relationships between measured area concentrations and process parameters were investigated by statistical modelling. Process parameters and the models were then used to estimate area concentrations in periods lacking area measurement data. The relationships between the area measurements and job specific exposure (personal measurements) were investigated by use of a measurement model. Finally, the relationships obtained were used to estimate job specific exposure in different periods. Despite limitations of available measurements in the early production period, the exposure estimates from this study provide a reasonable tool for the estimation of dose-response relations in subsequent epidemiological analyses. Topics: aluminium industry; aromatic hydrocarbons; description of technique; determination in air; exposure evaluation; fluorides; job-exposure relation; mathematical models; personal sampling; polycyclic hydrocarbons.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.164-174. 13 ref.

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