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Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found

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  • Aromatic hydrocarbons

1973

CIS 74-734 Winek C.L., Collom W.D., Davis E.R.
Accidental solvent fatality.
A case is reported of an accidental death following exposure to a commercial organic solvent used as paint remover and containing benzene, methanol and acetone. The case illustrates the need for strong cautionary warnings on the labels of products of the type involved. More specific directions for adequate exchange of air should be given, and the maximum permissible time of exposure should be indicated.
Clinical Toxicology, Spring 1973, Vol.6, No.1, p.23-27. 6 ref.

CIS 74-492 Gradiski D., Limasset J.C.
Carcinogenic potential of amines of the diphenylmethane family
Potentialité cancérogène des amines de la famille du diphénylméthane. [in French]
The study is in 2 parts: (a) a literature survey of animal experiments with 9 aromatic amines of the diphenylmethane family and their effects on man; (b) examination of the relationship between biological activity and chemical structure of these compounds. The authors are of the opinion that paradiamine derivatives of diphenylmethane should all be considered as having a chemical structure which should arouse suspicion that they may have a carcinogenic potential.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, p.305-314, Note No. 853-72-73. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 74-489 Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to toluene.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of acute and chronic health disorders due to toluene. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (8 hours) should not exceed 100 ppm (375 mg/m3) and the ceiling concentration is fixed at 200 ppm (750 mg/m3). Other requirements relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and keeping of records. The criteria upon which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following headings: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of the standard. Procedures for the sampling and analysis of toluene in air are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HSM 73-11023, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852. Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, 1973. 99 p. Illus. 87 ref. Price: US-$1.25.

CIS 74-484 Klimková-Deutschová E., Jandová D., Salcmanová Z., Schwartzová K., Titman O.
Recent data concerning the neurological picture of occupational styrene exposure
Novější poznatky k neurologickému obrazu pracujících se styrenem [in Czech]
Results of clinical and encephalographic examinations carried out on 105 workers exposed to styrene and 52 controls. Highly significant differences were found in the incidence of pseudoneurotic symptoms, with signs of inhibition manifesting themselves as increasing tiredness and a tendency to drowsiness. However, the number of vegetative disorders and headaches did not increase significantly within 3 years. As regards the EEG, disorders of the basic rhythm, a disturbed encephalogram and an increase in sleep rhythms were recorded.
Československá neurologie a neurochirurgie, Jan. 1973, Vol.36, No.1, p.20-25. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 74-478 Reid W.D., Ilett K.F., Glick J.M., Krishna G.
Metabolism and binding of aromatic hydrocarbons in the lung - Relationship to experimental bronchiolar necrosis.
Experimental bronchiolar necrosis was elicited in mice and rats by a single intraperitoneal dose of bromobenzene or other aromatic hydrocarbons. The lesion was associated with the binding of a bromobenzene metabolite to bronchiolar epithelial cells. This and other findings indicate that drug metabolising enzymes in the lung might be important determinants in the pathogenesis of bromobenzene-induced bronchiolar necrosis. The study provides evidence for the hypothesis that enzymes in the lung play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary lesions related to foreign compounds.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Apr. 1973, Vol.107, No.4, p.539-551. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 74-467 Smolik R., Grzybek-Hryncewicz K., Lange A., Zatoński W.
Serum complement level in workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene.
The serum complement level was determined in 79 persons occupationally exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene. In 62 of them, the complement level was lower than the mean value of the control group. The mean value of the exposed group was also statistically significantly lower than that of the control group. These findings are consistent with previous data suggesting the involvement of immunologic factors in the pathologic mechanism of exposure to benzene and its homologues.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 10 July 1973, Vol.31, No.3, p.243-247.Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 74-457 Imamura T., Ikeda M.
Lower fiducial limit of urinary metabolite level as an index of excessive exposure to industrial chemicals.
A discussion of the utilisation of the lower confidence limit (p=0.10), rather than the mean urinary metabolite level, as an index of excessive exposure to industrial chemicals. Cases of exposure to trichloroethylene, phenol and toluene are used to illustrate this approach.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.289-292. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 74-449 Adamson I.Y.R., Weeks J.L.
The LD50 and chronic toxicity of reactor terphenyls.
Acute ingestion of reactor coolant terphenyls (HB-40) revealed LD50 values of 17,000 mg/kg in the rat and 12,500 mg/kg in the mouse for non-irradiated coolant and 6,000 mg/kg in the mouse or rat for irradiated coolant. Chronic ingestion of the mixtures at high doses caused irreversible nephritis. Hepatic changes were observed only at the ultra-structural level where abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum was seen. It appears that organic terphenyls are toxic when ingested in high doses which could only occur as a result of chronic exposure at a level greatly exceeding that currently observed in the reactor working environment.
Archives of Environmental Health, Aug. 1973, Vol.27, No.2, p.69-73. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 74-432 Prohorova E.K., Gaevaja T.Ja.
Determination of benzo(a)pyrene in wax components used in investment casting
Opredelenie benz-/a/-pirena v komponentah voskovyh sostavov, ispol'zuemyh pri lit'e po vyplavljaemym modeljam [in Russian]
Description of a method, based on fluorescence spectrography, for determining benzo(a)pyrene in paraffin and natural waxes used for making investment casting patterns. Waxes extracted from lignite and peat were found to contain 640 and 340 µ, respectively, of benzo(a)pyrene per kg.
Naučnye raboty institutov ohrany truda VCSPS, 1973, No.83, p.47-52. 13 ref.

CIS 74-272 Marchand M., Furon D., Cabal C., Saison S.
Drug dependence in industry
Les toxicomanies en milieu industriel. [in French]
Article dealing with the phenomenon of dependency on ethyl ether, trichloroethylene, toluene and motor car petrol in industry. Taking each one of these substances, the authors review briefly the past and present situation as regards dependence in industry, mentioning the aetiological circumstances and indicating the acute effects of ingestion (principally euphoria and sometimes hallucination) and the characteristics of the addiction. The workers' health, impaired by the dependence, is also damaged by specific complications due to poisoning of the system (neurovegetative and psychic disorders). These addictive phenomena should not be overlooked on account of the risk of escalation and serious occupational accidents. The plant physician should have young and immature workers showing a predisposition to this type of addiction transferred away from posts where they would be exposed to these products.
Evolution médicale, 1973, Vol.17, No.2, p.107-113.

CIS 74-146 Szadkowski D., Pett R., Angerer J., Manz A., Lehnert G.
Chronic occupational exposure to solvents - II. Toluene level in blood and excretion rates of metabolites in urine as criteria for the exposure of photogravure printers
Chronische Lösungsmittelbelastung am Arbeitsplatz - II. Schadstoffspiegel im Blut und Metabolitenelimination im Harn in ihrer Bedeutung als Überwachungskriterien bei toluolexponierten Tiefdruckern [in German]
The relationship between toluene blood level and hippuric acid excretion was investigated in 94 photogravure printers with toluene exposure. Toluene in air and blood was determined by gas chromatography (see part I, CIS 2697-1973, Dafb Dafc Qif Qnl), and hippuric acid by spectroscopy. The results show good correlation between toluene concentrations in air and blood, whereas the excretion rates of hippuric acid showed no dependence on the concentrations of toluene in air or in blood. Phenol levels in the urine were closely related to the excretion of hippuric acid. The authors doubt the value of determining phenol excretion in urine for the supervision of workers exposed simultaneously to benzene and toluene.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 31 Aug. 1973, Vol.31, No.4, p.265-276. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 74-144 Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Solvent naphtha and aromatic solvents
Solvants naphta et solvants aromatiques. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 9 avenue Montaigne, 75008 Paris, France. Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, Note No.861-72-72, p.389-393. 13 ref.

CIS 73-1216 Morel C., Cavigneaux A.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité
Diphenyl
Diphényle [in French]
Utilisation, physical and chemical properties, explosion risks, pathology, toxicology, methods of detection and determining level in atmosphere. Reference to the French regulations on occupational safety and health, protection of the public and transport of this substance. Recommendation on technical and medical aspects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1973, No.70, Note No.834-70-73, p.107-109. 15 ref.

1972

CIS 74-1343 Mašek V., Jach Z., Kandus J.
Content of 3,4 benzo(a)pyrene in the working clothes and underwear of workers at a pitch coking plant.
Chromatographic analysis of working clothes and underwear revealed 3,4-benzpyrene in all samples (mean of 547 µg/100g in underwear and 11,550 µg/100g in working clothes). Results are tabulated on the basis of activity and duration of use. Prolonged use of clothing leads to gradual accumulation of the hazardous substance. Consequently, not only must a new laundering procedure be adopted but also there must be more frequent renewal of clothing. A German version of this study was published in Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Heidelberg, Germany (Fed.Rep.), May 1972, Vol.22, No.5, p.138-141.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1972, Vol.14, No.7, p.548-551. 11 ref.

CIS 74-1067 Cigula M., Fugaš M., Valić F.
Determination of 1,12-benzoperylene, 1,2-benzopyrene and carcinogenic 3,4-benzopyrene in air by the ring-oven method
Određivanje 1,12-benzperilena, 1,2-benzpirena i kancerogena 3,4-benzpirena u atmosferi metodom ugrijanog prstena [in Serbocroatian]
Description of a semiquantitative method based on the fact that pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3,4-benzopyrene, 1,2-benzopyrene, benzoperylenes, etc.) as well as their mixtures in smoke samples can be washed into the ring by cyclohexane. The blue-green fluorescent rings obtained are visually compared with the standard quinine-sulfate rings that give the same fluorescence intensity under ultraviolet radiation of 366 nm.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1972, Vol.23, No.3, p.199-207. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 74-446 Methods for the detection of toxic substances in air - Benzene: Toluene and xylene: Styrene.
After briefly discussing the production processes, industrial uses and toxic effects of benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene and appropriate first aid treatment, this booklet describes methods for the detection of benzene in the working environment in the presence of (a) toluene, xylene and styrene; (b) toluene and xylene; and (c) styrene. Details are given of apparatus, reagents, preparation of standard colours, procedure and interferences.
Booklet No.4, Department of Employment, H.M. Factory Inspectorate, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1972. 15 p. Illus. Price: £0.19.

CIS 72-2167 Šabad L.M., Pylev L.N., Nasyrov R.L.
The effect of various physical characteristics of different types of industrial soot on their release of carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene
Rol' nekotoryh fizičeskih svojstv različnyh promyšlennyh vidov saži pri vydelenii iz nih kancerogennogo uglevodoroda benz(a)pirena [in Russian]
Chemical analysis of 11 soots showed they all contained benzo(a)pyrene; benzopyrene concentration in very fine particulate soot was much higher than in coarse particulate soot. Mice were given subcutaneous injections of 2 types of soot (29 and 80nm particles) which had previously absorbed 1mg benzopyrene; carcinogenic activity was much less than that of benzopyrene not adsorbed on soot, that had been administered to controls. Intratracheal administration of pure soot and soot mixed with benzopyrene revealed that fine particulate soot led to longer lung retention of benzopyrene than was the case with coarse soot or pure benzopyrene. Tumour frequency and morphology also depended on the composition of the administered mixture.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1972, Vol.16, No.1, p.9-12. 22 ref.

CIS 72-2460 Jindřichová J.
Exposure testing in periodic medical examination of workers at risk
Expoziční testy a jejich využití při preventivních periodických prohiídkách na rizikových pracovištích [in Czech]
Report on cooperation between industrial and regional medical officers and the Hradec Králové (Czechoslovakia) Occupational Disease Clinic in the determination of phenol in over 14,000 urine samples collected from benzene-exposed workers during 1956-1970. The results provided a basis for clinical decisions, workplace inspections and, in severe cases, recommendations for change of job. This systematic examination procedure resulted in improved working conditions and general health status for the workers in question. The importance of close collaboration between industrial and regional medical officers and the executiion of the necessary corrective measures highlighted by the inspections, is emphasised.
Praktický lékař, 1972, Vol.52, No.3, p.113-117. 8 ref.

CIS 72-2394 Benzene - Health and safety in the use of benzene, substituted benzenes and their commercial mixtures
Benzol - Higiene y seguridad en el empleo de los benzoles [in Spanish]
Individual sections are devoted to: introduction; benzene; mono- and tri-substituted benzenes (toluene, xylene, trimethylbenzene); industrial uses; determination of benzene in industrial products, the atmosphere and the blood; toxicity; health measures in industrial premises (group protection, personal protection); substitution of benzene by less toxic products.
Plan nacional de higiene y seguridad del trabajo, Gabinete técnico provincial, Valencia, Feb. 1972. 6p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 72-2497 Kandus J., Mašek V., Jach Z.
3,4-Benzopyrene levels in the working clothes and underwear of pitch coking workers
Bestimmungen des Gehaltes von 3,4-Benzpyren in der Arbeitskleidung und der Unterwäsche der Arbeiter einer Pechkokerei [in German]
Chromatographic analysis of working clothes and underwear revealed 3,4-benzopyrene in all samples (mean of 547µg/100g in underwear and 155µg/100g in working clothes). Results are tabulated on the basis of the worker's job and the length of time the clothes were worn. Prolonged use of clothing, even with regular laundering, leads to gradual accumulation of the hazardous substance. The laundering procedure must be modified and there must be more frequent renewal of clothing.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, May 1972, Vol.22, No.5, p.138-141. 11 ref.

CIS 72-2472 Piotrowski J.K.
Certain problems of exposure tests for aromatic compounds
A review of studies of the Lodz Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland). The compounds studied were: benzene; toluene; phenol; aniline; and nitrobenzene. Particular reference is made to absorption routes; excretion kinetics; exposure-test types and accuracy.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1972, Vol.24, No.2-3, p.94-97. 21 ref.

CIS 73-169 Fodor G.C.
Dangerous vapours - The hazards of aromatic hydrocarbons to workers and the general population
Schädliche Dämpfe - Die Gefährdung des Berufs- und Alltagslebens durch aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe [in German]
Benzene, toluene, xylene and styrene are the main aromatic hydrocarbons from the points of view of industrial consumption and industrial health. On the basis of the literature and their own research, the authors examine each of these substances, covering subjects such as: industrial uses, physical and chemical properties, determination in air, absorption routes, metabolism and excretion. Results of animal experiments and human toxicity studies: threshold limit values, acute and chronic poisoning, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Tables recapitulate the results of experimental research and data on human toxicity.
VDI-Verlag GmbH, Postfach 1139, 4 Düsseldorf 1, Fed. Rep. of Germany, 1972. 167p. 646 ref.

CIS 73-1190 Mašek V.
New findings on the properties of airborne cokeworks dust - Part IV: Coaltar distillation installations
Neue Erkenntnisse über die Eigenschaften des Flugstaubes aus der Kokerei - Teil IV: Steinkohlenteerdestillationsanlagen [in German]
Brief details are given on the formation of 3,4-benzpyrene during the coking process and on the absorption of this substance into the body. Results of measurements of airborne dust concentrations and of the 3,4-benzpyrene content of this dust at various points in coaltar distillation installations. The 3,4-benzpyrene content is distributed over a wide particle-size range but the largest proportion is to be found on the smallest particles under 5µm in size. Careful maintenance of the distillation equipment and modification of the filling devices are recommended. (For parts I-III of this study, see CIS 72-2131).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Nov. 1972, Vol.22, No.11, p.332-337. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 73-1083 Aksoy M.
Acute leukaemia due to chronic exposure to benzene
Description of 4 cases of acute leukaemia that developed in shoemakers using benzene-containing adhesives. In one of these workers, acute myeloblastic leukaemia occurred 3yrs after recovery from aplastic anaemia due to chronic benzene poisoning. In 2 of them acute myeloblastic leukaemia appeared without any preceding period of aplastic anaemia. In the fourth patient, thrombocythemia developed in the second year after an episode of aplastic anaemia due to chronic benzene poisoning; it lasted some months and was considered to be a preleukaemic stage. At this time the bone marrow did not show any signs of leukaemia, but later acute monocytic leukaemia appeared.
American Journal of Medicine, Feb. 1972, Vol.52, p.160-165. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 73-728
Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la population
Order of 4 May 1972 to prescribe a method of analysing the products referred to in the Decree of 14 June 1969 relating to the implementation of the prohibition of the use of benzene as a solvent
Arrêté du 4 mai 1972 fixant la méthode d'analyse des produits soumis aux dispositions du décret du 14 juin 1969 relatif à l'interdiction du benzène comme dissolvant [in French]
This administrative order under the Decree of 14 June 1969 (see CIS 69-2529) makes the use of gas chromatography for detecting the concentration of benzene in solvents, thinners and other benzene-containing products compulsory. In the case of the latter, the method is to be applied after extraction of the solvents by a suitable process which does not alter the composition of the solvent. Schedule: principle of the method; description (with diagrams) of apparatus; apparatus parameters; analytical procedure.
Journal officiel de la République française, 31 May 1972, Vol.104, No.126, p.5468-5470. Illus.

CIS 73-1441 Gamberale F., Hultengren M.
Toluene exposure - II. Psychophysiological functions
Study of the effect of toluene on psychophysiological functions (reaction time and speed of perception) in 12 healthy men. Each subject was tested several times during exposure to toluene concentrations of 100, 300, 500 and 700ppm in the air inhaled. Control tests were carried out with pure air. In both cases the air (toluene-contaminated or pure) was camouflaged by menthol for psychological reasons. Samples of alveolar air were taken at 2min intervals during the experiments. Reaction time and perceptual speed were impaired during toluene exposure. Exposure to 300ppm resulted in a statistically significant impairment of reaction time; this impairment increased with higher toluene concentrations. A statistically significant impairment of perceptual speed was observed only with a toluene concentration of 700ppm.
Work - Environment - Health, 1972, Vol.9, No.3, p.131-139. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 73-1518 Fannick N., Gonshor L.T., Shockley J.
Exposure to coal tar volatiles at coke ovens
A survey of the exposure of coke oven workers to coal tar pitch volatiles was initiated in Pennsylvania in 1966. This paper presents the findings and conclusions and describes the sampling and analytical procedures used. 319 samples were collected with filters attached to the workers' clothing, and 31 at various fixed locations. The average concentrations were determined for specific jobs and operations; all exceeded the TLV (0.2mg/m3). The presence of 3,4-benzpyrene was demonstrated in 75% of 212 samples. The control measures which are required to correct the situation are briefly reviewed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1972, Vol.33, No.7, p.461-468. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 73-2787
American Industrial Hygiene Association
Styrene monomer
Methods of collection and analysis of air samples (nitration method, gas-liquid chromatography method, and infrared method). Interferences and sensitivity are given for each methods.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1972, Vol.33, No.2, p.122-124. 7 ref.

CIS 73-1156 Vaulpré A.
Gas chromatography of urinary phenols - Its value in the prevention of aromatic hydrocarbon poisoning
Le dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse des phénols urinaires - Son intérêt dans la prévention de l'intoxication par les hydrocarbures benzéniques [in French]
Various exposure and intoxication tests can be used for individual and group supervision of persons exposed to benzene or its higher homologues and the detection of subclinical poisoning. Following a brief description of these tests, all of which are considered inadequate, the author of this thesis reviews the metabolism of benzene, toluene and xylene, and presents the methods of determining urinary phenols with special reference to the colorimetric techniques and concentrating in particular on gas chromatography and its variants. The latter technique was used for 498 examinations, 80 of which related to persons with no exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. The results obtained are presented. Chromatography proved more specific and more accurate and had greater reproducibility than colorimetry.
Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France, 1972. 68p. Illus. 74 ref.

CIS 73-1055 Kemka R.
Determination of dinyl in the atmosphere by gas chromatography
Stanovenie dinylu v ovzduší plynovou chromatografiou [in Czech]
Description of a new method of determining dinyl and its components diphenyl and diphenyl oxide: air is drawn through a frit adsorber containing water, and the adsorber is then washed with acetone. 2,2'-Dipyridyl is used as internal standard and nitrogen as carrier gas. Elution times with a chromatographic column filled with Chromosorb W (mixed with 20% Carbowax 20M), heated to 180°C, were as follows: acetone 0.72-1.28, diphenyl 2.5, diphenyl oxide 2.92, 2'2-dipyridyl 6,23min. An account of how the standard curve is established precedes the description of the method of operation.
Pracovní lékařství, May 1972, Vol.24, No.5, p.172-174. Illus. 2 ref.

1971

CIS 89-1766 Convention 136 and Recommendation 144 concerning protection against hazards of poisoning arising from benzene [ILO]
Convention 136 et Recommandation 144 concernant la protection contre les risques d'intoxication dus au benzène [OIT] [in French]
Convenio 136 y Recomendación 144 relativo a la protección contra los riesgos de intoxicación por el benceno [OIT] [in Spanish]
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1971. 5p + 4p.
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C136 (Convention 136) [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convdf.pl?C136 (Convention 136) [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convds.pl?C136 (Convenio 136) [in Spanish]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?R144 (Recommendation 144) [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convdf.pl?R144 (Recommandation 144) [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convds.pl?R144 (Recomendación 144) [in Spanish]

CIS 72-2318 Bardoděj Z., Bardodějová E., Gut I.
Styrene metabolism in the rat
Metabolismus styrenu u krys [in Czech]
Rats inhaled spectrophotometrically controlled styrene concentrations of 1900, 3100 and 7900mg/m3 for various lengths of time. Polarographic and photometric urine determinations were made on the major styrene metabolites encountered in man (mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acid). The reported mandelic acid: phenylglyoxylic acid ratio in man is 2-8.5:1; in rats the ratio was 1:1.7. The biotransformation mechanism in man and rats is qualitatively the same; metabolisation is quantitatively different.
Československá hygiena, Oct. 1971, Vol.16, No.7-8, p.243-245. 10 ref.

1963

CIS 93-1420 Law No.245 of 5 March 1963 concerning the limitation on the use of benzene and its homologues in work activities [Italy]
L. 5.3.1963, n.245 - Limitazione dell'impiego del benzolo e i suoi omologhi nelle attività lavorative [in Italian]
The use of benzene is prohibited in dry-cleaning, degreasing and polishing operations, in the preparation of impermeable fabrics, in the manufacturing and reparation of shoes, in painting, decorating, varnishing, and paint stripping jobs and as a diluent in inks. The use of solvents containing toluene or xylene is tolerated in the same operations as long as the concentration of these substances does not exceed 5%-45%, depending on the nature of the operation. As impurity, benzene may be tolerated up to 2% by weight in solvents used in operations enumerated above. Appropriate labelling is necessary when these substances are present in industrial solvents. Also reproduced are related Ministry of Labour Circulars No.562 (1.8.1962), No.1026 (5.8.1964) and No.181 (27.4.1972) and two decisions of the Supreme Court.
In: Zucchetti R., Igiene del lavoro e prevenzione delle malattie professionali, Buffetti Editore, Via Sud Africa 29, 00144 Roma, Italy, 1987 (ISBN 88-19-48201-0, price: ITL 60,000), p.341-353. Also in: Gazzetta ufficiale, 21 Mar. 1963, No.77.

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